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Sample records for red angus em

  1. Growth and pubertal development of F1 bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize body growth, testicular development and puberty between 8 and 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu, to MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll, 1...

  2. Growth and Pubertal Development of F1 Bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu Sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize growth, testicular development and puberty between 9 and 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford (H), Angus (A), Norwegian Red (N), Swedish Red and White (S), Friesian (F), and Wagyu (W), to MARC III (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ...

  3. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  4. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  5. Growth and pubertal development of F1 bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Cundiff, L V; Ford, J J

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize body growth, testicular development, and puberty from 8 to 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu breeds to MARC III ((1/4) Hereford, (1/4) Angus, (1/4) Red Poll, and (1/4) Pinzgauer) cows. Traits evaluated were birth weight, weaning weight (at 215 d), yearling weight, ADG from 8 to 14 mo of age, paired testicular volume growth from 8 to 14 mo of age, age at puberty (determined by production of 50 x 10(6) sperm with 10% motility), age at freezable semen (determined by production of 500 x 10(6) sperm with 50% motility), and, at 15 mo of age, paired testicular weight and daily sperm production per testis pair. There was an effect of sire breed (P = 0.03) for age at puberty; animals with Wagyu and Swedish Red and White inheritance reached puberty at a later date (302 and 302 d of age, respectively) compared with Angus-sired bulls (268 d). Age at puberty for Hereford-, Norwegian Red-, and Friesian-sired bulls was 270, 271, and 278 d, respectively. Differences in BW were observed (P = 0.03) at birth; bulls with Hereford and Friesian were heavier at birth (43 and 41 kg, respectively) compared with those with Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, and Wagyu inheritance (39, 38, and 38 kg, respectively). Differences in BW were also observed at 1 yr of age (P = 0.001), where the heaviest animals were those sired by Angus (450 kg), whereas the lightest animals were those sired by Wagyu (403 kg). Bulls with Wagyu inheritance had the lowest (P = 0.04) ADG (1.12 kg/d) compared with bulls with inheritance from Hereford (1.22 kg/d), Angus (1.28 kg/d), Norwegian Red (1.24 kg/d), Swedish Red and White (1.25 kg/d), and Friesian (1.27 kg/d). Differences in scrotal growth rate were not significant (P = 0.99). They ranged from 1.95 in Angus-sired to 1.66 cm3/d in Wagyu-sired bulls. There were no differences (P = 0.80) for age at freezable semen

  6. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    PubMed

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P < .05). Among the Zebu-sired calves, the Red and Gray Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P < .05). The Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P < .05) in marbling score and quality grade although the Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P < .05) than Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601767

  7. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning

  8. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153

  9. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  10. COMPARISONS OF ANGUS-, BRAUNVIEH-, CHIANINA-, HEREFORD-, GELBVIEH-, MAINE ANJOU-, AND RED POLL-SIRED COWS FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from Angus, Hereford and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2 to 8 yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center comprising cow weight (CW, n= 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676) and condition score (CS, n = 15,...

  11. Maternal and reproductive performance of Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x Angus cows in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W; Hammond, A C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the maternal and reproductive performance of F1 cows in the subtropics, 42 Brahman x Angus, 34 Senepol x Angus, and 50 Tuli x Angus cows were bred to Angus bulls to calve first and subsequently bred to Charolais bulls to calve as 3- to 8-yr-olds. Age at first calving did not differ among crossbred cows. Angus-sired calf birth weights were heavier (P < 0.01) from Senepol x Angus than either Brahman x Angus or Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Angus-sired calves were heavier (P < 0.01) from Brahman x Angus (213.5 kg) than either Senepol x Angus (194.9 kg) or Tuli x Angus (191.5 kg) cows. As 3- to 8-yr-old cows, calf birth weights were heavier (P < 0.05) from Senepol x Angus compared with Brahman x Angus but not Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Charolais-sired calves were heaviest (P < 0.05) from Brahman x Angus cows (268.9 kg), lightest from Tuli x Angus cows (233.4 kg), and intermediate from Senepol x Angus cows (245.0 kg). Calf crop born and calf crop weaned were lowest (P < 0.05) for Senepol x Angus cows (76.9 and 70.2%) and did not differ between Brahman x Angus (89.0 and 86.1%) and Tuli x Angus (94.7 and 86.5%) cows. Tuli x Angus cows tended (P < 0.10) to have a lower percentage of unassisted births and lower (P < 0.10) calf survival to weaning than Brahman x Angus cows but not Senepol x Angus cows. As 3- to 8-yr-olds, weaning weight per cow exposed was greatest (P < 0.05) for Brahman x Angus (234.2 kg), least (P < 0.05) for Senepol x Angus (173.0 kg), and intermediate (P < 0.05) for Tuli x Angus (209.1 kg) cows. Also as 3- to 8-yr-olds, efficiency (205-d calf weight per 100 kg of cow exposed) was similar for Brahman x Angus (42.2) and Tuli x Angus cows (40.7), and both were greater (P < 0.01) than for Senepol x Angus cows (33.8). These data indicate that, in the subtropics, maternal and reproductive performance of Tuli x Angus cows, but not Senepol x Angus cows, was comparable to Brahman x Angus cows, except for lower calf survivability

  12. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1885380

  13. Enhanced mitogenesis in stromal vascular cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Wagyu compared with those of Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Fu, X; Liang, X; Zhu, M J; Jiang, Z; Parish, S M; Dodson, M V; Zan, L; Du, M

    2015-03-01

    Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling and lower subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with Angus cattle. However, mechanisms for differences in adipose deposition are unknown. The objective of this paper was to evaluate breed differences in the structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipogenesis, and mitogenesis of stromal vascular (SV) cells between Wagyu and Angus cattle. Subcutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from 5 Wagyu (BW = 302 ± 9 kg) and 5 Angus (BW = 398 ± 12 kg) heifers at 12 mo of age, and samples were divided into 3 pieces for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and harvest of SV cells. Adipogenesis of SV cells was assessed by the expression of adipogenic markers and Oil Red-O staining, while mitogenesis was evaluated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium dromide) test, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB; AKT). Based on histological analysis, Wagyu had larger adipocytes compared with Angus. At the tissue level, protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in Wagyu was much lower compared with that of Angus. Similarly, a lower mRNA expression of PPARG was found in Wagyu SV cells. No significant difference was observed for the zinc finger protein 423 (ZNF423) expression between Wagyu and Angus. As assessed by Oil Red-O staining, Wagyu SV cells possessed a notable trend of lower adipogenic capability. Interestingly, higher mitogenic ability was discovered in Wagyu SV cells, which was associated with an elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. There was no difference in AKT phosphorylation of SV cells between Wagyu and Angus. Moreover, exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) enhanced mitogenesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of SV cells to a greater degree in Angus compared with that in Wagyu. Expression of transforming growth factor β 3 (TGFB3) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in Wagyu SV

  14. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Soft-red and Hard-red Winter Wheat Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but little research has evaluated the effect of wheat type on bloat. Forty-eight Angus heifers (238 ± 12 kg BW) and 8 Gelbvieh by Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 ± 49 kg BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of either hard-red or soft...

  15. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Hard Red and Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but little research has evaluated the effects of wheat type on bloat. Forty-eight Angus stocker calves (238 ± 12 kg BW) and 8 Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 ± 49 kg BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of either hard red (HR) or sof...

  16. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Soft-Red and Hard-Red Winter Wheat Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh ' Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (1,135 ± 108 lb BW) and 48 Angus heifers (525 ± 26 lb BW) grazed 2.5-acre pastures of either hard-red or soft-re...

  17. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  18. 101. DETAIL OF ESTERLINE ANGUS CHART RECORDERS ON NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. DETAIL OF ESTERLINE ANGUS CHART RECORDERS ON NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  20. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  1. Muscle Transcriptomic Analyses in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness contributes significantly to variation of beef palatability and is largely influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. To identify candidate genes and pathways related to beef tenderness, we analyzed the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus cattle with divergent degree...

  2. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  3. Physiological adaptations in adipose tissue of Brahman vs Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Hansard, H S; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Wu, G; Smith, S B

    1998-03-01

    Nonpregnant yearling Brahman (n = 12) and Angus (n = 12) heifers were equally allocated to two dietary treatments in a replicated study to examine responses in lipid metabolism to nutritional treatments consisting of a moderate energy diet (2.0 Mcal ME/kg) fed at maintenance and a 2.5 x maintenance high-energy diet (2.4 Mcal ME/kg) fed for 30 d. In vitro lipogenesis and the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were determined in perianal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at the start and end of the trial. At the start of the trial, breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis and LPL activity. Brahman had greater (P < .05) HSL activity than Angus at the start of the trial and tended (P < .07) to have greater HSL activity at the end. Diet did not influence (P > .10) HSL activity. Heifers on the high-energy, higher-intake diet had greater lipogenesis (P < .001) and LPL activity (P < .01) than those on the moderate-energy diet. Inclusion of body condition score (BCS) nested within breed as a covariate explained breed differences for lipogenesis (P < .05). Thus, by including the covariate, the two breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis at the end of the trial. When adjusted for BCS nested within breed, Brahman had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than Angus. PMID:9535333

  4. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P < 0·05) seam fat as a percentage of carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P < 0·05) kidney, pelvic and heart fat at two of the five feeding periods than Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes. PMID:22055933

  5. Comparisons among Tuli-, Brahman-, and Angus-sired heifers: intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior.

    PubMed

    Forbes, T D; Rouquette, F M; Holloway, J W

    1998-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Tuli crossbred cattle, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior were estimated in two Texas environments. In humid east Texas, Tuli x Brahman heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Angus x Brahman heifers. Fecal output, forage intake, compartmental mass, and compartmental residence time did not differ among breeds. Angus and Brahman heifers had different (P < . 02) gastrointestinal residence times (51.1+/-1.56 vs 43.1+/-1.56 h, respectively), but values for the purebreds did not differ from those for Tuli x Brahman or Angus x Brahman heifers. Angus heifers had shorter (P < .05) 24-h grazing times (398+/-15.4 min/d) and fewer (P < .05) grazing periods (7+/-.4) than Tuli x Brahman (552+/-16.8 min/d and 10+/-.4), Angus x Brahman (507+/-18.4 min/d and 9+/-.5), and Brahman (560-/+ 16.8 min/d and 9+/-.4, respectively) heifers. In semiarid southwest Texas, Tuli x Angus heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Brahman x Angus heifers. Fecal output and forage intake were similar in Tuli x Angus and Brahman x Angus heifers (14.2+/-.69 and 14.9+/-.91 g fecal DM/ [d.kg BW] and 24.5+/-1.33 and 25.6+/-1.75 g/d of forage DMI, respectively) but higher (P < .05) than those of purebred Brahman heifers (12.2+/-.64 and 20.3+/-1.23 g/[d.kg BW] of fecal DM and forage DMI, respectively). Grazing times did not differ among breeds. We conclude that Tuli-sired heifers are likely to be as productive as Brahman crossbred heifers in Texas, based on the similarities in intake, digesta dynamics, and grazing behavior. PMID:9464902

  6. EM Propagation in Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Analysis of RED Experiment Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, T.; Friehe, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    The pattern of propagation for EM signals over the ocean is a combined result of the atmospheric refraction and scattering from the rough ocean surface. Here we study experimentally the structure of the atmospheric refractive index and the ocean surface statistics, pertinent to scattering. We are also interested in fluctuations of the refractive index induced by the ocean surface waves, which along with the turbulence contribute to the random refraction. However, these fluctuations exhibit behavior different from turbulence (e.g. their structure function does not follow the 2/3 scaling valid for the turbulent fluctuations) and require to be studied separately. We analyze data of atmospheric turbulence, humidity, temperature, and sea surface temperature and waves from the Rough Evaporation Duct experiment, conducted in part from the instrument platform FLIP in the open ocean north of Oahu, Hawaii.

  7. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  8. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  9. Evaluating Timing of Weaning Stress on Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 362 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 211) and fall (n = 151) of ...

  10. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas J; Rood, Kerry A; Kelly, E Jane; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-07-01

    In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies result in retention of keratinized cells (orthokeratosis). The present report reminds diagnosticians to consider vitamin A deficiency in cases of orthokeratotic dermatopathy in cattle. PMID:22585959

  11. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  12. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Scheeder, M R L; Kreuzer, M; Dufey, P-A

    2003-04-01

    Meat quality and marbling properties of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers (4×16) were compared at an average intramuscular fat content (IMF) of 3.25% in the M. longissimus dorsi. The steers were fattened on a forage-based diet until the desired, ultrasonically estimated IMF content was reached which resulted in considerably different growth and carcass characteristics. The Angus group showed a growth rate similar to Simmental and Charolais while Limousin grew slower, became oldest and provided the heaviest carcasses and best conformation. Angus carcasses showed the lowest weight but the highest fatness score. Marbling was equal for all breeds. Angus and Charolais provided pale meat with low haem iron content. Angus and Limousin beef was more tender on sensory assessment than Simmental beef, corresponding to differences found in shear force (non-significant) and myofibrillar fragmentation index measured at 48 h post mortem. Flavour was similar among breed groups while juiciness was highest for Limousin and lowest for Angus. The juicier beef simultaneously showed the highest drip but the lowest cooking losses. In conclusion, clear differences in meat quality were observed between breeds despite similar IMF contents. PMID:22062519

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  14. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness. PMID:19465490

  15. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (P<0.0001), lower marbling (P<0.0001), smaller ribeye area (P<0.0001), and less fat over the ribeye (P<0.0001) than Angus carcasses. Brahman beef was less tender (P<0.0001), had more connective tissue (P<0.0001), and it was less juicy (P<0.001) than Angus beef. Heterosis increased hot carcass weight (P<0.0001), dressing percent (P<0.017), ribeye area (P<0.0001), fat over the ribeye (P<0.0001), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (P<0.01) in Angus-Brahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis. PMID:21703774

  16. Immunocastration improves carcass traits and beef color attributes in Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus crossbred animals finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Giulianna Z; Faria, Marcelo H; Roça, Roberto O; Santos, Carolina T; Suman, Surendranath P; Faitarone, Ana B G; Delbem, Nara L C; Girao, Lucio V C; Homem, Juliana M; Barbosa, Erika K; Su, Leticia S; Resende, Flavio D; Siqueira, Gustavo R; Moreira, Aline D; Savian, Taciana V

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of immunocastration on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus male animals finished in feedlot. Surgically castrated, immunocastrated, and intact animals were finished in feedlot for 90 days. The animals were harvested, and carcass traits were evaluated. Carcasses were chilled, and one 2.5-cm steak was fabricated from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The steaks were individually vacuum packaged and frozen at -18 °C. Frozen steaks were thawed, and pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, and shear force were determined. Immunocastrated animals demonstrated greater (P<0.05) hot dressing percentage and cold dressing percentage than their surgically castrated counterparts. Furthermore, steaks from immunocastrated and surgically castrated animals exhibited greater redness (P<0.05) and lower darkness (P<0.05) than steaks from intact animals, indicating possible advantage in retailing. The results suggested that immunocastration may be utilized to improve carcass traits and beef color in feedlot-finished Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus males. PMID:24211546

  17. Linkage disequilibrium in Angus, Charolais, and Crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Li, Changxi; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Plastow, Graham; Moore, Stephen; Miller, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the persistence of its phase across populations are important for genomic selection as well as fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, knowledge of LD in beef cattle, as well as the persistence of LD phase between crossbreds (C) and purebreds, is limited. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of LD in Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and C beef cattle based on 31,073, 32,088, and 33,286 SNP in each population, respectively. Amount of LD decreased rapidly from 0.29 to 0.23 to 0.19 in AN, 0.22 to 0.16 to 0.12 in CH, 0.21 to 0.15 to 0.11 in C, when the distance range between markers changed from 0–30 kb to 30–70 kb and then to 70–100 kb, respectively. Breeds and chromosomes had significant effects (P < 0.001) on LD decay. There was significant interaction between breeds and chromosomes (P < 0.001). Correlations of LD phase were high between C and AN (0.84), C and CH (0.81), as well as between AN and CH (0.77) for distances less than or equal to 70 kb. These dropped when the distance increased. Estimated effective population sizes for AN and CH were 207 and 285, respectively, for 10 generations ago. Given a useful LD of at least 0.3 between pairs of SNPs, the LD phase between any pair of the three breed groups was highly persistent. The current SNP density would allow the capture of approximately 49% of useful LD between SNP and marker QTL in AN, and 38% in CH. A higher density SNP panel or redesign of the current panel is needed to achieve more of useful LD for the purpose of genomic selection beef cattle. PMID:22912646

  18. Differences in heat tolerance between preimplantation embryos from Brahman, Romosinuano, and Angus breeds.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cerón, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to 41 degrees C reduces development of embryos of heat-sensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus) more than for embryos of the heat-tolerant Brahman breed. Here it was tested whether embryonic resistance to heat shock occurs for a thermotolerant breed of different genetic origin than the Brahman. In particular, the thermal sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos of the Romosinuano, a Bos taurus, Criollo-derived breed, was compared to that for in vitro produced Brahman and Angus embryos. At d 4 after insemination, embryos > or = 8 cells were randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 h) treatments. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage on d 8 after insemination. At 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant differences in development between breeds. Among embryos exposed to 41 degrees C, however, development was lower for Angus embryos than for Brahman and Romosinuano embryos. Furthermore, an Angus vs. (Brahman + Romosinuano) x temperature interaction occurred because heat shock reduced development more in Angus (30.3 +/- 4.6% at 38.5 degrees C vs. 4.9 +/- 4.6% at 41 degrees C) than in Brahman (25.1 +/- 4.6% vs. 13.6 +/- 4.6%) and Romosinuano (28.3 +/- 4.1% vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1%). Results demonstrate that embryos from Brahman and Romosinuano breeds are more resistant to elevated temperature than embryos from Angus. Thus, the process of adaptation of Brahman and Romosinuano breeds to hot environments resulted in both cases in selection of genes controlling thermotolerance at the cellular level. PMID:14765810

  19. [Familial occurrence of a congenital defect of the keratinisation of the skin in German Angus calves].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kuiper, H; Wöhlke, A; Wohlsein, P; Gerhauser, I; Marxfeld, H; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Congenital dysfunction of the keratinisation of the epithelium was diagnosed in two female German Angus calves born on the same farm. The relationship coefficient between the two affected Angus calves was 34.38%. The clinical findings were similar to ichthyosis congenita as the alterations of the skin were present at birth and the levels of zinc in the blood were not decreased. However, parakeratosis could not be completely excluded as skin alterations were partly parakeratotic. On account of the close relationship between the two affected calves a genetic cause is likely for the present cases. PMID:17252933

  20. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3 untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cat...

  1. Effect of shade on summer body temperature and respiration rate of Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effect of shade during summer in Florida on rectal temperature and respiration rate, a total of 24 heifers (8 Angus, 8 Brahman, and 8 Romosinuano) were utilized. Heifers were allotted by breed to one of two treatment groups, shade or no shade. Heifers were acclimated to treatments f...

  2. Estimates of (co) variance components using random regression models for gastrointestinal helminthoid data in Angus cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 6,375 FEC measures were determined for 409 animals between 1992 and 2003 from Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Wye Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (co)variance components. The Random ...

  3. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  4. Angus and Romosinuano steers exhibit differential acute phase responses following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to elucidate the acute phase response in cattle while evaluating potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds [Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)] in response to an endotoxin challenge. The Romosinuano is a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed developed i...

  5. Genetic analyses of beef traits of crossbred and purebred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects for beef traits of steers produced by purebred and crossbred matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus. Steers (n = 469) were spring-born from 2002 to 2004 and weaned at an average of 7 mo of age. They were transported to Oklahoma and...

  6. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  7. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  8. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  9. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  10. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  11. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  12. Enhancement of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis in skeletal muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M S; Paulino, P V R; Das, A K; Wei, S; Serão, N V L; Fu, X; Harris, S M; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2013-06-01

    Intramuscular fat and collagen content are major factors affecting beef quality, but mechanisms regulating intramuscular adipose and connective tissue deposition are far from clear. Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling. The objective of this study was to evaluate intramuscular fat (IMF) and collagen deposition in the muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle. Animals were managed under the same condition and slaughtered at an averaging 585 ± 12.1 kg of BW. Samples of sternomandibularis muscle were collected from Wagyu (n = 3) and Angus (n = 3) for molecular and histological investigations of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis. With exception of C/EBPβ (P = 0.2864), the expression of the adipogenic markers C/EBPα (P = 0.008), PPARγ (P = 0.028), and zip finger protein 423 (Zfp423; P = 0.047) in Wagyu were greater than in Angus muscle, which was consistent with greater IMF deposition in Wagyu (P < 0.05). In addition, more adipocytes and preadipocytes were detected intramuscularly in Wagyu cattle. Similarly, fibrogenesis was also enhanced in Wagyu, with a greater expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (P = 0.028), FGF receptor 1 (P = 0.030), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (P = 0.028), collagen I (P = 0.012), and collagen III (P = 0.025). Similarly, Wagyu muscle had greater collagen content (P = 0.002) and decreased collagen solubility (P = 0.005). In addition, muscle fiber diameter was larger (P < 0.0001) in Wagyu than in Angus cattle. These results clearly show that both IMF and collagen contents are enhanced in Wagyu cattle and more adipogenic cells are detected in Wagyu muscle, indicating intramuscular adipogenesis is enhanced in Wagyu compared with Angus muscle. PMID:23508025

  13. Ontogenic development of brown adipose tissue in Angus and Brahman fetal calves.

    PubMed

    Landis, M D; Carstens, G E; McPhail, E G; Randel, R D; Green, K K; Slay, L; Smith, S B

    2002-03-01

    Brahman calves experience greater neonatal mortality than Angus calves if cold-stressed. To establish a developmental basis for this, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Overall fetal BW tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for Angus than for Brahman fetuses. There was no difference between breed types in total brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass or grams of BAT/kg BW. Brown adipocyte density decreased 56%, whereas lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types. Glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate declined by 85% during the last trimester but still contributed 98% to total lipid synthesis at birth. The fetal age x breed interaction was significant for lipogenesis from glucose (P = 0.05) and palmitate (P = 0.005); rates were higher at 96 d before birth in Brahman BAT but declined to similar rates by birth. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA tripled during gestation in both breed types (P = 0.002), whereas mitochondrial cross-sectional area did not change (P = 0.14) during gestation. Neither the breed nor the age x breed effect was significant (P > or = 0.24) for UCP1 mRNA concentration or mitochondrial cross-sectional area. In both breed types, a marked decrease in BAT UCP1 mRNA between 24 and 14 d prepartum was associated with a similar reduction in lipogenesis from palmitate and a noticeable change in BAT mitochondrial morphology, as the mitochondria became more elongated and the cristae became more elaborate. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA initially was elevated in Angus tailhead s.c. adipose tissue, but was barely detectable by birth, and tended to be greater overall (P = 0.09) in Angus than in Brahman BAT. If uncoupling protein activity in s.c. adipose tissue persists after birth, then s.c. adipose tissue may contribute more to thermogenesis in Angus newborn calves than in Brahman calves. In contrast, we did not observe

  14. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Taiane S.; Sanglard, Letícia M. P.; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L.; Rennó, Luciana N.; Serão, Nick V. L.; Silva, Fabyano F.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Ladeira, Márcio M.; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP–1, CPT–2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis. PMID:26436893

  15. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P < .001) for B x A calves than for S x A or T x A calves. Greater differences were detected between sexes for B x A than for S x A and T x A (for all traits sire breed x calf sex, P < .05). Sire breed affected (P < .01) the percentage of unassisted calvings (B x A, 87%; S x A, 98%; and T x A, 100%) and tended (P < .10) to affect the percentage of calves that survived until weaning (B x A, 90%; S x A, 94%; and T x A, 98%). Sire breed of calf did not affect (P > .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage. PMID:10834561

  16. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  17. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in. PMID:3732867

  18. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  19. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr. PMID:27065252

  20. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-08-01

    Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus. PMID:12211382

  1. Preweaning growth of F1 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds x Angus and reproductive performance of their Angus dams in arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the preweaning performance of F1 Brahman (Bos indicus)-, Senepol (Bos taurus)-, and Tuli (Sanga)-Angus calves under semiarid south Texas conditions and to evaluate the reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Four hundred eighty-nine records collected over 4 yr were analyzed. The statistical model for performance traits included the effects of breed of sire, year, sex, age of dam, and breed of sire x year. Year effects were important (P < 0.05) for performance traits but could be explained, at least partially, by differences between years in rainfall patterns. Brahman F1 calves were 13% less (P < 0.05) vigorous at birth, 4.7 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at birth, 13.5 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at weaning, 0.25 units lower (P < 0.05) in body condition score (BCS) at weaning, and 1.75 units greater (P < 0.05) in frame score (scores of 1 to 9) at weaning than Tuli and Senepol F1 calves. Senepol F1 calves were intermediate (P < 0.05) between the Brahman and Tuli F1 calves for birth and weaning weight but had 11% more (P < 0.05) vigor at birth than the other two crossbreds. Tuli and Senepol F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in BCS and frame size at weaning. Males were 3.3 kg heavier (P = 0.12) at birth than females, especially for the F1 Brahman males that were 4.5 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than their counterparts. Brahman F1 weaned 19.9 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than the average of the other two F1 in the year of the greatest rainfall (1994), whereas the average advantage in other years was 11.4 kg. This difference gave rise to a breed of sire x year interaction (P < 0.003). Brahman F1 were heavier at every measurement and appeared to be later-maturing and more able to excel under good forage conditions than the other two F1 breed types; Senepol and Tuli F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in these respects but appeared to be more competitive in relative growth rate to the Brahman F1 calves in years of greater nutritional stress. Angus females were

  2. Comparison of Florida-born, embryo-derived Angus calves sourced from Kansas and Florida herds on measures of performance, disposition, and body temperature from birth to weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida's beef industry ranks first in the US for the number of ranches exceeding 500 cows. Angus bulls are commonly imported into Florida from northern states to supply the demand for herd sires. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of two Angus genotypes derived from froz...

  3. Use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in GeneSTAR markers for intramuscular fat deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in terms of the presence or absence of GeneSTAR markers for intramuscular fat deposition. Twenty-three pure-bred Angus heifers (223 ± 44 kg) were sorted into two treatment groups based ...

  4. Ovarian and endocrine characteristics during an estrous cycle in Angus, Brahman, and Senepol cows in a subtropical environment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, P; Spicer, L J; Chase, C C; Payton, M E; Hamilton, T D; Stewart, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Wettemann, R P

    2000-05-01

    To determine breed differences in ovarian function and endocrine secretion, daily rectal ultrasonography was conducted on multiparous lactating Angus (temperate Bos taurus; n = 12), Brahman (tropical Bos indicus; n = 12), and Senepol (tropical Bos taurus; n = 12) cows during an estrous cycle in summer. Blood was collected daily to quantify plasma concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, estradiol, GH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), insulin, glucose, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Numbers of small (2 to 5 mm), medium (6 to 8 mm), and large follicles (> or = 9 mm) were greater (P < .05) in Brahman than in Angus and(or) Senepol cows. Length of the estrous cycle (SEM = .6 d) was similar (P > .10) among Senepol (20.4 d), Angus (19.5 d), and Brahman (19.7 d) cows. Senepol cows had greater (P < .05) diameters of the corpus luteum (CL) and a delayed regression of the CL as compared with Angus cows. The secondary surge of FSH (between d 1 and 2; d 0 = estrus) was greater in Angus than Brahman or Senepol cows (breed x day, P < .05). Between d 2 and 14 of the estrous cycle, concentrations of progesterone, LH, IGF-II, and binding activities of IGFBP-3, IGFBP-2, and the 27- to 29-kDa IGFBP in plasma did not differ (P > .10) among breeds. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, insulin, and PUN were greater (P < .001) and binding activities of the 22-kDa and 20-kDa IGFBP tended (P < .10) to be greater in plasma of Brahman than in Angus or Senepol cows. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P < .05) in Senepol than in Brahman or Angus cows. In conclusion, Brahman (Bos indicus) and Senepol cows (tropical Bos taurus) had greater numbers of follicles in all size categories and greater diameter of CL than Angus (temperate Bos taurus) cows. These ovarian differences may be due to changes in the pattern of secretion of FSH, insulin, IGF-I, and GH but not LH, IGF-II, or IGFBP-2 or -3. PMID:10834585

  5. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (p<0.05) greater FEC than Brangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  6. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus

  7. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) and taller (P < 0.05) than S x A and T x A bulls at the start and end of the study. However, breed type did not influence (P > 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P < 0.05) than that of B x A or S x A bulls at the start of the study, but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P < 0.05), heavier (P < 0.05), and taller (P < 0.05) and had larger (P < 0.05) SC than S x A and T x A bulls. Tuli x Angus bulls were younger (P < 0.05) than S x A bulls at PU and PP but had similar SC. Libido scores tended (P < 0.10) to be lower for B x A than for S x A and T x A bulls. Breed type affected (P < 0.05) carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, greatest (P < 0.05) dressing percentage, larger (P < 0.05) longissimus muscle area than

  8. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  9. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  10. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  11. Evaluation of physiological differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate differences in thermoregulatory ability of two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine Romosinuano steers (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW; RO) were housed in the Brody Environmental Center at the University of Missouri. S...

  12. Genomic and functional characteristics of copy number variations in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  13. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed. PMID:9222851

  14. Genetic effects for reproductive performance of straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano and Angus cows in a temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to: 1) estimate heterosis and breed direct effects for cow reproduction traits of Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in a temperate climate, and 2) assess the effects of the type of forage grazed (bermudagrass, endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue) durin...

  15. Angus sattle at high altitude: Genetic relationships and initial genome-wide association analyses of pulmonary arterial pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records from yearling Angus (n = 10,647) cattle from elevation 2,340 m were used in genetic analysis of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Bulls were developed within a grain-supplemented performance test, whereas heifers and steers were grazed. The BovineSNP50 Beadchip was used to genotype a subset...

  16. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a lar...

  17. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  18. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Schenkel, F; Vinsky, M; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    In beef cattle, phenotypic data that are difficult and/or costly to measure, such as feed efficiency, and DNA marker genotypes are usually available on a small number of animals of different breeds or populations. To achieve a maximal accuracy of genomic prediction using the phenotype and genotype data, strategies for forming a training population to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV) of the selection candidates need to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of predicting GEBV for residual feed intake (RFI) based on 522 Angus and 395 Charolais steers genotyped on SNP with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Beadchip for 3 training population forming strategies: within breed, across breed, and by pooling data from the 2 breeds (i.e., combined). Two other scenarios with the training and validation data split by birth year and by sire family within a breed were also investigated to assess the impact of genetic relationships on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Three statistical methods including the best linear unbiased prediction with the relationship matrix defined based on the pedigree (PBLUP), based on the SNP genotypes (GBLUP), and a Bayesian method (BayesB) were used to predict the GEBV. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEBV prediction was the highest when the prediction was within breed and when the validation population had greater genetic relationships with the training population, with a maximum of 0.58 for Angus and 0.64 for Charolais. The within-breed prediction accuracies dropped to 0.29 and 0.38, respectively, when the validation populations had a minimal pedigree link with the training population. When the training population of a different breed was used to predict the GEBV of the validation population, that is, across-breed genomic prediction, the accuracies were further reduced to 0.10 to 0.22, depending on the prediction method used. Pooling data from the 2 breeds to form the training population resulted in accuracies increased

  19. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  20. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  1. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  2. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  3. Association between GNRHR, LHR and IGF1 polymorphisms and timing of puberty in male Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bovines, there are significant differences within and among beef breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Although the timing of puberty is likely to be a multigenic trait, previous studies indicate that there may also be single genes that exert major effects on the timing of puberty within the general population. Despite its economic importance, there are not many SNPs or genetic markers associated with the age of puberty in male cattle. In the present work, we selected three candidate genes, GNRHR, LHR and IGF1, and associated their polymorphisms with the age of puberty in Angus male cattle. Results After weaning, 276 Angus males were measured every month for weight (W), scrotal circumference (SC), sperm concentration (C) and percentage of motility (M). A total of 4 SNPs, two within GNRHR, one in LHR and one in IGF1 were genotyped using the pyrosequencing technique. IGF1-SnaBI SNP was significant associated (P < 0.01) with age at SC 28 cm, but it were not associated with age at M 10% and C 50 million. Genotype CC exhibited an average age at SC 28 cm of 7 and 11 days higher than CT (p = 0.037) and TT (p = 0.012), respectively. This SNP explained 1.5% of the genetic variance of age of puberty at SC28. LHR-I499L, GNRHR-SNP5 and GNRHR-SNP6 were not associated with any of the measurements. However, GNRHR haplotypes showed a suggestive association with age at SC 28 cm. Conclusions The findings presented here could support the hypothesis that IGF1 is a regulator of the arrival to puberty in male calves and is involved in the events that precede and initiate puberty in bull calves. Given that most studies in cattle, as well as in other mammals, were done in female, the present results are the first evidence of markers associated with age at puberty in male cattle. PMID:22480211

  4. Pregnancy rate and first-service conception rate in Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Totir, L R; Kachman, S D; Fernando, R L; Wilson, D E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the genetic control of conception rate, or pregnancy percentage in Angus beef heifers. Producers from 6 herds in 5 states provided 3,144 heifer records that included breeding dates, breeding contemporary groups, service sires, and pregnancy check information. Two hundred fourteen sires of the heifers were represented; with 104 sires having less than 5 progeny, and 14 sires having greater than 50 progeny. These data were combined with performance and pedigree information, including actual and adjusted birth weights, weaning weights, and yearling weights, from the American Angus Association database. Heifer pregnancy rate varied from 75 to 95% between herds, and from 65 to 100% between sires, with an overall pregnancy rate of 93%, measured as the percentage of heifers pregnant at pregnancy check after the breeding season. Pregnancy was analyzed as a threshold trait with an underlying continuous distribution. A generalized linear animal model, using a relationship matrix, was fitted. This model included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of dam, and first AI service sire, and the covariates of heifer age at the beginning of breeding, adjusted birth weight, adjusted weaning weight, and adjusted yearling weight. The relationship matrix included 4 generations of pedigree. The heritability of pregnancy and first-service conception rates on the underlying scale was 0.13 +/- 0.07 and 0.03 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimated breeding values for pregnancy rate on the observed scale ranged from -0.02 to 0.05 for sires of heifers. Including growth traits with pregnancy rate as 2-trait analyses did not change the heritability of pregnancy rate. As expected for a reproductive trait, the heritability of pregnancy rate was low. Because of its low heritability, genetic improvement in fertility by selection on heifer pregnancy rate would be expected to be slow. PMID:16864860

  5. A Deletion Mutation in Bovine SLC4A2 is Associated with Osteopetrosis in Red Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteopetrosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by the formation of overly dense bones in affected humans and animals, resulting from a deficiency in the number and/or function of bone-resorbing osteoclast cells. In cattle, osteopetrosis can either be induced during gestation by viral infection ...

  6. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  7. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) were observed in Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( < 0.01) were observed in bulls fed the WSC diet than in those fed the GC diet. In addition, bulls fed the WSC diet had greater G:F ( < 0.01). The WSC diet led to greater variation in DMI compared with the GC diet ( < 0.01). Omasum and large intestine percentage was affected by diets only in the Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI. PMID:27285921

  8. Quantitative genomics of 30 complex phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F₁ progeny.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J; O'Fallon, James V; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T; Reeves, Jerry J; Busboom, Jan R; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F(1) progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  9. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system. PMID:26440328

  10. Expression of genes related to the regulation of muscle protein turnover in Angus and Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Busato, K C; Gomes, R A; Ladeira, M M; Duarte, M S; Freitas, N C; Rodrigues, A C; Chalfun-Junior, A; Paiva, L V; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the expression of genes related to the regulation of muscle protein turnover in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus and Nellore bulls and to estimate the within-breed correlations of gene expression and performance traits. Thirteen genes related to the IGF-1 and myostatin pathways were studied. Thirteen animals, with an initial average BW of 381.2 ± 11.8 kg, from each breed were used in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design (2 breeds and 2 feeding levels). The diet consisted of corn silage and a corn-soybean meal concentrate in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 30:70. Cattle were fed ad libitum (with 9 animals from each breed) or feed restricted (a 55% restriction of total DMI of ad libitum-fed animals, calculated as percentage of metabolic BW, with 4 animals of each breed). The experimental period lasted for 82 d and it was preceded by a 28-d adaptation period. The performance traits evaluated were slaughter body weight, total ADG (from d 1 to 82 of the trial), initial ADG (from d 1 to 41 of the trial), final ADG (from d 42 to 82 of the trial), total DMI (from d 1 to 82 of the trial), initial DMI (from d 1 to 41 of the trial), final DMI (from d 42 to 82 of the trial), HCW, LD weight (LDW), and rib eye area (REA). After slaughter, samples were taken from the LD muscle between the 12th and 13th ribs for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. There was no difference ( > 0.05) in the expression of any of the genes studied between ad libitum-fed Angus and ad libitum-fed Nellore, whereas feed restriction increased the expression of (; < 0.001), (; = 0.05), and (; = 0.04) and decreased the expression of ( < 0.01). The REA was negatively correlated to (; = 0.01), (; = 0.02), and ( = 0.05). The HCW was negatively correlated to ( = 0.01) and ( = 0.01) and tended to be negatively correlated to ( = 0.07), whereas the LDW tended to be negatively correlated to ( = 0.08). The genes , , and seem to be important

  11. Quantitative Genomics of 30 Complex Phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F1 Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J.; O'Fallon, James V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F1 progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  12. Correlations for genetic expression for growth of calves of Hereford and Angus dams using a multivariate animal model.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Dominguez, R; Van Vleck, L D; Boldman, K G; Cundiff, L V

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the correlation between the expression of genes from sires in purebred and crossbred progeny (rPC) and in Hereford and Angus F1 calves (rHA). Performance traits were weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d. Progeny from Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Angus bulls mated to Hereford or Angus cows were used to estimate rPC. Progeny from Charolais, Shorthorn, Simmental, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Tarentaise, and Salers bulls mated to Hereford or Angus cows were used to estimate rHA. Performances in purebreds (P) and crosses (C) or in Hereford (H) and Angus (A) F1 calves were treated as separate traits. A multivariate animal model with birth year-cow age-sex subclasses, random correlated direct and maternal additive genetic effects, and maternal permanent environmental effects was used. Separate analyses were done by breed of sire. A derivative-free algorithm was used to obtain REML estimates of (co)variance components. Weighted averages across breeds of estimates of heritability for P, C, H, and A were, respectively, .61, .51, .47, and .40 for birth weight, .41, .46, .37, and .34 for weaning weight, and .50, .49, .42, and .46 for yearling weight. Estimates of rPC ranged from .88 to .97, .55 to .94, and .68 to .86 for weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d, respectively. Estimates of rHA ranged from .43 to .99, .56 to .95, and .50 to .98 for weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d, respectively. Weighted averages of estimates of rPC and rHA across sire breeds were, respectively, .93 and .85 for birth weight, .77 and .73 for weaning weight, and .76 and .86 for yearling weight. These results indicate that ranking of sires producing purebreds or crosses, or crossbred calves from different breeds of dams, is approximately the same for birth and yearling weights, but some reranking might occur for weaning weight. PMID:8407645

  13. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    PubMed

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  14. Proteomic and peptidomic differences and similarities between four muscle types from New Zealand raised Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Clerens, Stefan; Thomas, Ancy; Gathercole, Jessica; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Yu, Tzer-Yang; Grosvenor, Anita J; Haines, Stephen R; Dobbie, Peter; Taukiri, Kevin; Rosenvold, Katja; Dyer, Jolon M; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2016-11-01

    Four muscles from New Zealand-raised Angus steers were evaluated (musculus semitendinosus, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, m. psoas major and m. infraspinatus) to test their differences and common features in protein and peptide abundances. The ultimate goal of such a comparison is to match muscle types to products with targeted properties. Protein profiling based on two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the overall profiles were similar, but, between muscle types, significant (p<0.05) intensity differences were observed in twenty four protein spots. Profiling of endogenous peptides allowed characterisation of 346 peptides. Quantitative analysis showed a clear distinction between the muscle types. Forty-four peptides were identified that showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) and substantial (>2-fold change) difference between at least two muscle types. These analyses demonstrate substantial similarities between these four muscle types, but also clear distinctions in their profiles; specifically a 25% difference between at least two muscles at the peptidomic level, and a 14% difference at the proteomic level. PMID:27262484

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcriptome Dynamics During Growth in Angus Cattle Longissimus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Graugnard, Daniel E.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Berger, Larry L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome dynamics in the longissimus muscle (LM) of young Angus cattle were evaluated at 0, 60, 120, and 220 days from early-weaning. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using the dynamic impact approach (DIA) by means of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) databases. Between 0 to 120 days (growing phase) most of the highly-impacted pathways (eg, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, drug metabolism, cytochrome P450 and Retinol metabolism) were inhibited. The phase between 120 to 220 days (finishing phase) was characterized by the most striking differences with 3,784 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analysis of those DEGs revealed that the most impacted KEGG canonical pathway was glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, which was inhibited. Furthermore, inhibition of calpastatin and activation of tyrosine aminotransferase ubiquitination at 220 days promotes proteasomal degradation, while the concurrent activation of ribosomal proteins promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, the balance of these processes likely results in a steady-state of protein turnover during the finishing phase. Results underscore the importance of transcriptome dynamics in LM during growth. PMID:23943656

  16. Success at first insemination in Australian Angus cattle: analysis of uncertain binary responses.

    PubMed

    Spangler, M L; Sapp, R L; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2006-01-01

    Field data from Australian Angus herds were used to investigate 2 methods of analyzing uncertain binary responses for success or failure at first insemination. A linear mixed model that included herd, year, and month of mating as fixed effects; unrelated service sire, additive animal, and residual as random effects; and linear and quadratic effects of age at mating as covariates was used to analyze binary data. An average gestation length (GL) derived from artificial insemination data was used to assign an insemination date to females mated to natural service sires. Females that deviated from this average GL led to uncertain binary responses. Two analyses were carried out: 1) a threshold model fitted to uncertain binary data, ignoring uncertainty (M1); and 2) a threshold model fitted to uncertain binary data, accounting for uncertainty via fuzzy logic classification (M2). There was practically no difference between point estimates obtained from M1 and M2 for service sire and herd variance; however, when uncertain binary data were analyzed ignoring uncertainty (M1), additive variance and heritability estimates were greater than with M2. Pearson correlations indicated that no major reranking would be expected for service sire effects and animal breeding values using M1 and M2. Given the results of the current study, a threshold model contemplating uncertainty is suggested for noisy binary data to avoid bias when estimating genetic parameters. PMID:16361487

  17. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  18. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  19. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  20. Heat tolerance in Tuli-, Senepol-, and Brahman-sired F1 Angus heifers in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Olson, T A; Randel, R D

    1998-06-01

    We investigated heat tolerance and growth rate in two trials under ambient conditions in central Florida. Trial 1 (1994) involved 38 Brahman (B), 21 Senepol (S), 19 B x Angus (A), 20 S x A, and 20 Tuli (T) x A heifers. Trial 2 (1995) involved 13 A, 35 B, 30 S, 23 B x A, 17 S x A, and 28 T x A heifers. Measurements were made on three consecutive weeks during the hotter and cooler seasons of each year and included rectal temperature (RT, degrees C), respiration rate (RR, bpm), temperament score (TS; 1 = very docile, 5 = very aggressive), blood packed-cell volume (PCV), and plasma cortisol concentration (CORT). Data for RT were transformed (log10 [RT - 37]) before analysis. On the hottest date in Trial 1, log10 RT was not different between B (.39 +/- .011) and B x A (.37 +/- .016) or between T x A (.35 +/- .015) and B x A, but log10 RT was lower (P < .05) in S x A (.30 +/- .015) than in either S (.35 +/- .015) or T x A. On all dates in Trial 1, RR was lower (P < .05 to .001) and PCV was higher (P < .05 to .001) in B than in B x A. There were few differences in TS except on two dates when B scored higher (P < .01 to .001) than B x A, and these differences were associated with higher (P < .05) CORT in B than in B x A. Using initial BW as a covariate, adjusted ADG (kg) of T x A (.52 +/- .023) was not different from adjusted ADG of B x A (.57 +/- .024) or S x A (.54 +/- .023). On the hottest date in Trial 2, log10 RT and RR were higher (P < .001) in A (.59 +/- .017, 74 +/- 2.7) than in B (.47 +/- .010, 39 +/- 1.6), S (.42 +/- .011, 50 +/- 1.8), and crossbred heifers (.47 +/- .011, 60 +/- 1.8; .43 +/- .014, 55 +/- 2.4; and .50 +/- .012, 48 +/- 2.0 for T x A, S x A and B x A, respectively), and RR was higher (P < .001) in B x A than in B. On the coolest date in Trial 2, RR was slightly lower in B (32 +/- .5) than in A(34 +/- .7, P < .01) and B x A (36 +/- .6, P < .001) and was associated with higher PCV in B than in A. On both dates, TS and CORT were higher (P < .01) in B

  1. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain) recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix. PMID:20403185

  2. Lipogenic activity of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues from steers produced by different generations of angus sires.

    PubMed

    May, S G; Burney, N S; Wilson, J J; Savell, J W; Herring, A D; Lunt, D K; Baker, J F; Sanders, J O; Smith, S B

    1995-05-01

    Simmental and Hereford cows (n = 74) were inseminated with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1960s or with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1980s. The F1 calves provided the foundation for two investigations, one addressing growth and carcass characteristics, and another measuring the impact of sire generation on lipid metabolism and adiposity. Calves sired by the 1980s-type bulls had greater (P < .05) birth, weaning, and final live weights and carcass weights. They also had larger (P < .05) hip heights and hip widths at weaning and larger (P < .05) hip heights and lower (P < .05) body condition scores at slaughter. There were no differences (P > .05) in any measure of fatness between groups (adjusted fat thickness, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or marbling scores), but yield grade was higher numerically (P < .1) for the 1980s steers. The second aspect of this research addressed the influence of different generations of Angus sires on specific carcass traits and adipose tissue metabolism. A subset of six steers for each generation type (from Simmental cows) were selected and samples were collected at slaughter for measurements in vitro. For both generation types, intramuscular (i.m.) adipocytes had lesser (P < .05) cell volumes than subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue. Correspondingly. i.m. adipose tissue exhibited lower (P < .05) rates of 14C-labeled acetate incorporation into lipids as measured immediately after slaughter. Intramuscular and s.c. adipocytes from 1980s-type steers were smaller (P < .05) than those from the 1960s-types steers, with correspondingly more cells per gram of tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665362

  3. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency

  4. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing carcass, post-natal growth and reproductive traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McClure, M C; Morsci, N S; Schnabel, R D; Kim, J W; Yao, P; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Gregg, S J; Chapple, R H; Northcutt, S L; Taylor, J F

    2010-12-01

    To gain insight into the number of loci of large effect that underlie variation in cattle, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 14 economically important traits was performed in two commercial Angus populations using 390 microsatellites, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one duplication loci. The first population comprised 1769 registered Angus bulls born between 1955 and 2003, with Expected Progeny Differences computed by the American Angus Association. The second comprised 38 half-sib families containing 1622 steers with six post-natal growth and carcass phenotypes. Linkage analysis was performed by half-sib least squares regression with gridqtl or Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of complex pedigrees with loki. Of the 673 detected QTL, only 118 have previously been reported, reflecting both the conservative approach to QTL reporting in the literature, and the more liberal approach taken in this study. From 33 to 71% of the genetic variance and 35 to 56% of the phenotypic variance in each trait was explained by the detected QTL. To analyse the effects of 11 SNPs and one duplication locus within candidate genes on each trait, a single marker analysis was performed by fitting an additive allele substitution model in both mapping populations. There were 53 associations detected between the SNP/duplication loci and traits with -log(10) P(nominal) ≥ 4.0, where each association explained 0.92% to 4.4% of the genetic variance and 0.01% to 1.86% of the phenotypic variance. Of these associations, only six SNP/duplication loci were located within 8 cM of a QTL peak for the trait, with two being located at the QTL peak: SST_DG156121:c.362A>G for ribeye muscle area and TG_X05380:c.422C>T for calving ease. Strong associations between several SNP/duplication loci and trait variation were obtained in the absence of any detected linked QTL. However, we reject the causality of several commercialized DNA tests, including an association between TG

  5. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. PMID:26948295

  6. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P < 0.05); those for Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P < 0.001). Estimates of Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05); however, Angus direct effects were beneficial for both traits (0.1 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). The effect of heterosis was to reduce calving interval by -49.2 ± 9.9 and -37.2 ± 9.7 d for Romosinuano-Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P < 0.001). Romosinuano and F1 cows sired by Romosinuano and out of Angus dams had the most occurrences of difficult births as a proportion of cows that calved (0.028 and 0.025, P = 0.04). Angus-sired crossbred cows and Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P < 0.04). There were more Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P < 0.02) than cows in the

  7. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers. PMID:26942915

  8. Genetic evaluation of aspects of temperament in Nellore-Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate heritability of each of 5 subjectively measured aspects of temperament of cattle and the genetic correlations of pairs of those traits. From 2003 to 2013, Nellore-Angus F2 and F3 calves (n = 1,816) were evaluated for aspects of temperament at an average 259 d of age, which was approximately 2 mo after weaning. Calves were separated from a group and subjectively scored from 1 (calm, good temperament) to 9 (wild, poor temperament) for aggressiveness (willingness to hit an evaluator), nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness (willingness to separate from the group), and a distinct overall score by 4 evaluators. Data were analyzed using threshold and linear models with additive genetic random effects. Two-trait animal models (nonthreshold) included the additive genetic covariance for pairs of traits and were used to estimate additive genetic correlations. Contemporary groups (n = 104) represented calves penned together for evaluation on given evaluation days. Heifers had greater (worse) means for all traits than steers (P < 0.05). The regression of score on age in days was included in final models for flightiness (P = 0.05; -0.006 ± 0.003) and gregariousness (P = 0.025; -0.007 ± 0.003). Estimates of heritability were large (0.51, 0.4, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.47 for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament, respectively; SE = 0.07 for each). The ability to use this methodology to distinctly separate different aspects of calf temperament appeared to be limited, as estimates of additive genetic correlations were near unity for all pairs of traits; estimates of phenotypic correlation ranged from 0.88 ± 0.01 to 0.99 ± 0.002 for pairs of traits. Distinct subsequent analyses indicated a significant negative relationship of 4 of the various temperament scores with weight at weaning (regression coefficients ranged from -0.008 ± 0.002 for nervousness, flightiness, and gregariousness to -0.003 ± 0

  9. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for methane emission and postweaning traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, K A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R F

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants contribute 80% of the global livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through the production of methane, a byproduct of enteric microbial fermentation primarily in the rumen. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data on 1,046 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance estimates for methane emissions and production traits and to examine the interrelationships among these traits. The cattle were fed a roughage diet at 1.2 times their estimated maintenance energy requirements and measured for methane production rate (MPR) in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Traits studied included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means of 6.1 kg/d (SD 1.3), 132 g/d (SD 25), and 22.0 g/kg (SD 2.3) DMI, respectively. Four forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMP), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth and body composition traits evaluated were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), final weight (FWT), and ultrasound measures of eye muscle area, rump fat depth, rib fat depth, and intramuscular fat. Heritability estimates were moderate for MPR (0.27 [SE 0.07]), MY (0.22 [SE 0.06]), and the RMP traits (0.19 [SE 0.06] for each), indicating that genetic improvement to reduce methane emissions is possible. The RMP traits and MY were strongly genetically correlated with each other (0.99 ± 0.01). The genetic correlation of MPR with MY as well as with the RMP traits was moderate (0.32 to 0.63). The genetic correlation between MPR and the growth traits (except BWT) was strong (0.79 to 0.86). These results indicate that

  10. BREED COMPARISONS OF ANGUS, BRAHMAN, HEREFORD, PINZGAUER, SAHIWAL AND TARENTAISE FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from topcross cows (N = 468) from 6 breeds of sire and two breeds of dam (Angus and Hereford) of Cycle III of the Germplasm Evaluation Program (GPE) at the US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) comprising cow weight (CW, n = 9,012), height (CH, n = 9,010) and condition score (CS, n = 8,991) r...

  11. Estimation of genetic marker effects for CAPN1, CAST, and GHR on carcass quality traits in Angus cattle selected to increase minor marker frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions cannot be accurately estimated when minor marker allele frequencies (MAF) are low. To increase the accuracy of estimation for three marker systems in commercial use, an Angus population at USMARC was subjected to marker assisted-selection for multiple years t...

  12. Evaluation of Physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  13. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  14. Use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in GeneSTAR markers for Intramuscular fat deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intramuscular fat can serve as an energy reserve for cattle during an immune challenge, thus cattle with a genotypic variation in DNA markers (DNAm) for IMF may have an altered response to an immune challenge. In a previous study with Angus heifers with or without DNAm for IMF which were challenged ...

  15. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  16. Evaluation of the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genetic marker variation for intramuscular fat deposition following a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effect of genetic selection for markers related to marbling deposition in Angus heifers on the immune response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fall-born heifers (n = 19; ~7 months of age, 274 +/- 24 kg) with genetic variation for marbling were utilized inclu...

  17. Effect of breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition, temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams are factors that may have an effect on growth and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, 1/2 A ½ B, and 1/4 A 3/4 B)...

  18. Relationship between carcass traits and phenotypic residual feed intake, breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of factors that permit animals to grow quickly and efficiently, and have desirable carcass characteristics remains a primary goal in beef production. The objective was to evaluate the relationship between 7 carcass traits and breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, ...

  19. GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION FOR MATURE SIZE AND RATE OF MATURING FOR ANGUS, BRAHMAN, AND RECIPROCAL-CROSS COWS ON ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED FESCUE OR BERMUDAGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature weight (A) and rate of maturing (k) were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows grazing bermudagrass (BG) or endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximatel...

  20. Genetic analyses involving microsatellite ETH10 genotypes on bovine chromosome 5 and performance trait measures in Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle.

    PubMed

    DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-07-01

    ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (P<0.05) birth weight, yet cattle with the large/large genotype had approximately 5.1% greater (P<0.05) percentage of fat within LM and more LM per BW than cattle with small/large or small/small genotypes. Genotype-to-phenotype relationships were not detected in multibreed analyses. The ETH10 locus appears to be associated with growth and carcass traits in Angus and Brangus cattle

  1. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P < .001) than that of Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P < .05) in log10 rectal temperature on the hottest summer date. On both the hottest and coolest dates in Trial 1, Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P < .001) than in Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P < .05). Considering rank order among breeds, Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different

  2. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance-tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Hallford, D M; Keisler, D H; Obeidat, B S; Morrison, C D; Hernandez, J A; Bryant, W D; Flores, R; Lopez, R; Narro, L

    2002-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that regulate growth and reproduction are important for improving selection strategies in cattle. In this study, Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls (n = 7 per breed) of similar age were selected from a group of 65 weanlings. Bulls were evaluated after weaning (i.e., approximately 6 mo of age) for 112 d for serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose, growth, and reproductive traits. Performance data and blood sera were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Sera were also collected in periods from d 50 to 59 (56D) and 103 to 112 (112D). Angus bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) throughout the study than Brahman bulls and were heavier than Brangus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112. Initial and final BW for Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls were 292.7, 260.6, and 230.4 and 468.3, 435.6, and 350.7 +/- 12 kg, respectively. Conversely, Brahman bulls had greater hip height (P < 0.05) than Brangus, and Brangus were taller (P < 0.05) than Angus. Angus bulls had the greatest (P < 0.05) scrotal circumference (SC) and Brahman bulls the least. Mean SC across days was 31.5, 29.7, and 25.0 +/- 0.6 cm for the three respective breeds. Serum testosterone was greater (P < 0.01) in Angus and Brangus bulls (10.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) than in Brahman bulls (4.0 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) throughout the study. After d 112, 100, 86, and 57% of the Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls passed a breeding soundness exam (P = 0.51). Serum concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were greater (P < or = 0.06) in Angus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112 than in Brangus and Brahman bulls. Serum concentrations of GH (P < 0.08) and glucose (P < 0.03) were greater in Brangus bulls than in Angus or Brahman bulls throughout the study. Prediction analyses suggested that serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict (P < or = 0.08) BW and SC (R2 > 0.82) in the 56D and 112D periods among these breeds. Leptin was also useful in predicting (P < or = 0.09) serum concentrations of GH and testosterone in

  3. Genetic x environment interactions on blood constituents of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and calves grazing common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Cole, N A; Brown, M A; Phillips, W A

    2001-05-01

    Over a 2-yr period, effects of genotype and forage on blood metabolites, enzymes, and minerals were determined in Angus, Brahman, Angus x Brahman (sire x dam), and Brahman x Angus cows, and 129 calves from these cows sired by Hereford bulls. Cows and calves continuously grazed either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue pastures throughout the year. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture in April, August, October (weaning), and November (after 30 d in a feedlot) of each year. Plasma urea N concentrations of cows and calves were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and FFA concentrations of cows were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). In calves, antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were not affected by forage but were affected by breed. Serum inorganic P concentrations of calves and cows were affected by forage (P < 0.05). Serum P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity of calves were affected by breed (P < 0.05). Calves grazing bermudagrass had higher (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of Fe and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). There was evidence of maternal heterosis for concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, Ca, Mg, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin, Fe, and TIBC. There was evidence of grandmaternal effects for plasma concentrations of urea N, cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that calves and cows grazing tall fescue are generally on a lower plane of nutrition than those grazing bermudagrass and that Brahman x Angus and Angus x Brahman crossbred cows and their calves seen to be more tolerant of the negative effects of tall fescue than the average of their purebred contemporaries. PMID:11374533

  4. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  5. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. PMID:26771144

  6. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    PubMed Central

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  7. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  8. Breed comparisons of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Simmental, and South Devon for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score of cows.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851), height (CH, n = 14,553), and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in four seasons per year were evaluated for 881 cows ranging from 2 to 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were straightbred Herefords and Angus and topcrosses from mating of Hereford, Angus, South Devon, Jersey, Simmental, Limousin, and Charolais sires to Hereford and Angus dams. The model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, with year of birth, pregnancy-lactation (PL) code, and breed group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. Model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Data were analyzed by REML. Differences due to breeds of sire were significant for all traits. Differences were generally maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Rankings were in the following order: Jersey (lightest and shortest), Hereford-Angus (and reciprocal), Limousin, South Devon, Simmental, and Charolais (heaviest and tallest). The only exception was that Limousin-sired cows were heavier than South Devon-sired cows after 5 yr of age. Cows sired by breeds of British origin tended to be lighter than breeds of continental European origin. Adjustment for condition score changed estimates of breed differences. Rankings of breed groups, however, were generally the same for actual weight and weight adjusted for condition score. Results indicated that the part of the differences in weight due to differences in condition were of small magnitude. Differences tended to increase when adjusted for condition score, especially in contrasts of continental vs British breeds. Differences among breed groups for height followed differences for weight closely. PMID:12542152

  9. Lipid characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis of Angus and Wagyu steers fed to US and Japanese endpoints.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Choi, C B; Chae, S H; Rhoades, R D; Adams, T H; Booren, B; Smith, S B

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and cholesterol of adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis would not differ between Angus and American Wagyu steers when fed to a typical US live weight, but would diverge when fed to a Japanese live weight. To test this, 8 steers of each breed type were assigned to a high-energy, corn-based diet, and another 8 steers of each breed type were fed coastal bermuda grass hay diet, supplemented with the corn-based diet to achieve a daily gain of 0.9kg/d. Targeted final body weights were 525kg for steers fed for 8 or 12mo the corn- or hay-based diets, respectively, and were 650kg for steers fed for 16 or 20mo the corn- or hay-based diets. Digesta concentrations of stearic (18:0) and trans-vaccenic acid decreased, whereas linoleic acid (18:2n-6) increased between the US and Japanese endpoints (all P⩽0.03). α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) increased in digesta only in the hay-fed steers during this time. Plasma concentrations of palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and the 16:1:18:0 ratio, were higher in Angus steers than in Wagyu steers. Also, the plasma 16:1:18:0 ratio was decreased by hay feeding in Angus steers, but increased in Wagyu steers, when fed to the Japanese endpoint. Concentrations of oleic (18:1n-9), linoleic, α-linolenic, and 18:2trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid all were higher in Wagyu than in Angus subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, whereas myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid were higher in Angus s.c. adipose tissue (P⩽0.05). All MUFA increased, and saturated fatty acids decreased, between the US and Japanese endpoints. Slip points of lipids in s.c. adipose tissue were over 10°C lower (P=0.01) in Japanese-endpoint steers than in US endpoint steers, consistent with the overall increase in MUFA with time on feed. The concentration of cholesterol in the M. longissimus thoracis increased with time, which may have been related to the increase in oleic acid

  10. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) in Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy

  11. Effect of biotin supplementation on meat quality of F1 Wagyu/Black Angus feedlot steers of known genotype.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R J; Doyle, J C; Elliott, R; Norton, B W; Loxton, I

    2007-10-01

    Biotin (D-biotin) was supplemented to F1 Wagyu/Black Angus steers fed a wheat-based ration to evaluate the effect on meat quality. One hundred and eight steers of known Wagyu sire lines were assigned to three biotin treatments (0, 10 and 20mg/head/day) with each treatment replicated four times using an unfasted liveweight of 410.5kg (±24.42 SD). Biotin supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on beef marbling standard at either the 5/6th or 10/11th rib quartering site, 10/11th rib intra-muscular fat percentage, intra-muscular fat fatty acid composition or adipose melting points. Wagyu genotype had an effect (P<0.05) on beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage at the 10/11th rib, inter-muscular and intra-muscular melting point and fatty acid composition of intra-muscular fat. A significant (P<0.001) but poor correlation existed between beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.198). Total conjugated linoleic acid had a highly significantly (P<0.0001) positive correlation to intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.446). PMID:22061595

  12. Calf production by Angus-Hereford and Brahman-Hereford cows on two native rangeland forage systems.

    PubMed

    Sims, P L; Bailey, D W

    1995-10-01

    Calf birth weights, weaning weights, and preweaning gain of Simmental-sired calves from Angus-Hereford (AH) and Brahman-Hereford (BH) F1 cows grazing native rangeland (NR) or native rangeland-complementary forage (NRCF) systems in the southern Great Plains mixed prairie were evaluated. Calves from AH dams were heavier (P < .001) at birth than calves from BH dams in both forage systems (40 and 37 kg, respectively). However, birth weights of calves from BH dams were 2 kg heavier (P < .001) in the NRCF fall-calving system. Calves in the NRCF system were 122 d older and heavier (P < .001) than the NR calves at weaning (343 and 256 kg, respectively). During the preweaning period, the NR calves gained faster (P < .001) than the NRCF calves. When calves from both systems were evaluated at 200 d of age, NR calves were heavier (P < .001) than NRCF calves. Calves from BH cows were 8 to 16 kg heavier (P < .001) that calves from AH cows at 200 d of age and at weaning. The increased age at weaning associated with the NRCF did not reduce reproductive efficiency. The NRCF system requires less land than a traditional NR system to support a cow-calf pair and seems to be more economically efficient. PMID:8617659

  13. Comparison of breeding value prediction for two traits in a Nellore-Angus crossbred population using different Bayesian modeling methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Hulsman Hanna, Lauren L.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Sanders, James O.; Riley, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2) evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to embryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387). After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB (π̃ = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively) and BayesC (π = 0 and π̃), where π̃ is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV) from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using π̃) had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP (ρ̂gĝ = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively), but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, β̂y,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively). Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers. PMID:25505837

  14. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    PubMed Central

    Riley, David G.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Riggs, Penny K.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Sanders, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses. PMID:25249774

  15. Multiple-breed reaction norm animal model accounting for robustness and heteroskedastic in a Nelore-Angus crossed population.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M M; Santana, M L; Cardoso, F F

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to genetically characterize post-weaning weight gain (PWG), over a 345-day period after weaning, of Brangus-Ibagé (Nelore×Angus) cattle. Records (n=4016) were from the foundation herd of the Embrapa South Livestock Center. A Bayesian approach was used to assess genotype by environment (G×E) interaction and to identify a suitable model for the estimation of genetic parameters and use in genetic evaluation. A robust and heteroscedastic reaction norm multiple-breed animal model was proposed. The model accounted for heterogeneity of residual variance associated with effects of breed, heterozygosity, sex and contemporary group; and was robust with respect to outliers. Additive genetic effects were modeled for the intercept and slope of a reaction norm to changes in the environmental gradient. Inference was based on Monte Carlo Markov Chain of 110 000 cycles, after 10 000 cycles of burn-in. Bayesian model choice criteria indicated the proposed model was superior to simpler sub-models that did not account for G×E interaction, multiple-breed structure, robustness and heteroscedasticity. We conclude that, for the Brangus-Ibagé population, these factors should be jointly accounted for in genetic evaluation of PWG. Heritability estimates increased proportionally with improvement in the environmental conditions gradient. Therefore, an increased proportion of differences in performance among animals were explained by genetic factors rather than environmental factors as rearing conditions improved. As a consequence response to selection may be increased in favorable environments. PMID:26754914

  16. Genome-Wide Scan of Gastrointestinal Nematode Resistance in Closed Angus Population Selected for Minimized Influence of MHC

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3) with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC). DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection. PMID:25803687

  17. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  18. Genome-wide association and prediction of direct genomic breeding values for composition of fatty acids in Angus beef cattlea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As consumers continue to request food products that have health advantages, it will be important for the livestock industry to supply a product that meet these demands. One such nutrient is fatty acids, which have been implicated as playing a role in cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the extent to which molecular markers could account for variation in fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and identify genomic regions that harbor genetic variation. Results Subsets of markers on the Illumina 54K bovine SNPchip were able to account for up to 57% of the variance observed in fatty acid composition. In addition, these markers could be used to calculate a direct genomic breeding values (DGV) for a given fatty acids with an accuracy (measured as simple correlations between DGV and phenotype) ranging from -0.06 to 0.57. Furthermore, 57 1-Mb regions were identified that were associated with at least one fatty acid with a posterior probability of inclusion greater than 0.90. 1-Mb regions on BTA19, BTA26 and BTA29, which harbored fatty acid synthase, Sterol-CoA desaturase and thyroid hormone responsive candidate genes, respectively, explained a high percentage of genetic variance in more than one fatty acid. It was also observed that the correlation between DGV for different fatty acids at a given 1-Mb window ranged from almost 1 to -1. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to identify the causal variants harbored within the identified 1-Mb windows. For the first time, Angus breeders have a tool whereby they could select for altered fatty acid composition. Furthermore, these reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fatty acid metabolism and deposition. PMID:24156620

  19. Mean pulmonary arterial pressures in Angus steers increase from cow-calf to feedlot-finishing phases.

    PubMed

    Neary, J M; Garry, F B; Holt, T N; Thomas, M G; Enns, R M

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension due to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling is the predominant cause of right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) in cattle. Historically, heart failure was problematic only at altitudes over 2,134 m. However, anecdotal reports suggest that the incidence of heart failure is increasing in feedlot cattle at moderate altitude (800 to 1,600 m), with late-fed, or fat, cattle at greatest risk. The goal of this study was to evaluate pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) in a cohort of male Angus calves from suckling to finishing to better understand why heart failure is particularly problematic in fat cattle. It was hypothesized that mean PAP would increase through the feeding period and that the calves with the greatest pressures at high altitude would have the greatest pressures as fat cattle. A total of 362 PAP measurements were obtained from 153 calves. Calves were tested at altitudes of 2,170 (4 and 6 mo old), 1,560 (13 mo old), and 1,300 m (13 and 18 mo old). Mean PAP were greater in 18-mo-old steers than any other age group (mean = 50.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 48.2 to 52.4; < 0.05). Calves that had the greatest mean pressure at 6 mo of age tended to have the greatest mean pressures at 18 mo of age ( = 0.45, < 0.001). The increase in mean PAP with increasing age and adiposity likely predisposed the steers to an increased risk of CHF during the finishing phase. PMID:26440165

  20. A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koltes, James E.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Totir, Liviu R.; Fernando, Rohan L.; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore, COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression was increased in dwarf cattle compared with unaffected cattle. These experiments indicate that the R678X mutation is functional, resulting in a loss of PRKG2 regulation of COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression. Therefore, we present PRKG2 R678X as a causative mutation for dwarfism cattle. PMID:19887637

  1. Influence of breed and diet on growth, nutrient digestibility, body composition and plasma hormones of Brangus and Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Beaver, E E; Williams, J E; Miller, S J; Hancock, D L; Hannah, S M; O'Connor, D L

    1989-09-01

    Two split-plot designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of breed (Angus, A, or Brangus, B) and diet (fescue hay, FH; corn silage, CS; or concentrate) on composition and rate of growth, diet digestibility and plasma hormones of steers. In Exp. 1, 10 steers (five of each breed) were fed a CS-based diet followed by a FH-based diet for two consecutive 60-d periods. Both breeds had lower (P less than .01) DM intake and digestibility when fed FH than when fed CS diets. The B steers had higher (P less than .01) plasma insulin concentrations than A steers when fed the CS diet. In Exp. 2, during two consecutive years, 10 steers previously fed CS- and FH-based diets were finished with a corn silage-whole shelled corn-based diet. During yr 1, A steers had higher (P less than .01) DM intake and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations (P less than .05) than B steers did. Although final weights were similar (P greater than .10), A steers had heavier (P less than .05) carcass weights than B steers did. During yr 2, A steers had higher (P less than .07) DM and starch digestibilities and higher (P less than .01) plasma T4 concentrations than B steers did. The greater (P less than .01) energetic efficiency of A steers was attributed to the greater rates of fat deposition during yr 2. Regardless of type of diet fed, A steers were more efficient at depositing energy. Higher circulating T4 concentrations of A than B steers may explain some of the physiological differences between these breeds. PMID:2689419

  2. Deriving Gene Networks from SNP Associated with Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Fractions from Ribeyes of Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Justin W.; Reecy, James M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Duan, Qing; Beitz, Don C.; Koltes, James E.; Saatchi, Mahdi; Koesterke, Lars; Mateescu, Raluca G.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction. Posterior means of the effects were estimated for each of the 54 k SNP and for the collective effects of all the SNP in every 1-Mb genomic window in terms of the proportion of genetic variance explained by the window. Windows that explained the largest proportions of genetic variance for individual lipids were found in the triacylglycerol fraction. There was almost no overlap in the genomic regions explaining variance between the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions. Partial correlations were used to identify correlated regions of the genome for the set of largest 1 Mb windows that explained up to 35% genetic variation in either fatty acid fraction. SNP were allocated to windows based on the bovine UMD3.1 assembly. Gene network clusters were generated utilizing a partial correlation and information theory algorithm. Results were used in conjunction with network scoring and visualization software to analyze correlated SNP across 39 fatty acid phenotypes to identify SNP of significance. Significant pathways implicated in fatty acid metabolism through GO term enrichment analysis included homeostasis of number of cells, homeostatic process, coenzyme/cofactor activity, and immunoglobulin. These results suggest different metabolic pathways regulate the development of different types of lipids found in

  3. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

  4. Additive and heterosis effects on preweaning traits, maternal ability and reproduction from crossing of the Angus and brown Swiss breeds in Florida.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; van Dijk, A; Koger, M; Hargrove, D D; Franke, D E

    1985-11-01

    Angus (A), Brown Swiss (S) and A X S reciprocal F1 (AS) dams were mated to A, S and AS (also reciprocal F1) sires resulting in nine breed groups of progeny with varying proportions of Angus and Brown Swiss breeding. Breed group of dam and of sire significantly influenced birth weight, preweaning daily gain, weaning weight, 205-d weight, condition score and frame size. The means for birth weight and weaning weight were 33 and 213 kg, respectively. Brown Swiss bulls sired calves with the heaviest birth and weaning weights. Calves produced by S dams likewise were heavier at birth and weaning. Pregnancy rates were influenced significantly by year, age and breed of dam and averaged 79, 95 and 92% for S, AS and A cows, respectively. Survival rate averaged 97% and was not influenced significantly by any of the effects examined. Because survival rates were similar for all breed groups, the results for weaning rate paralleled those for pregnancy rate. Genetic influences on preweaning growth traits and survival rate were partitioned into additive breed differences (B) and heterosis (H) effects for direct (d) and maternal (m) components. Pregnancy and weaning rates were examined using similar analyses except that genotype of service sire of dam replaced that of the offspring for the direct additive breed and direct heterosis components. The Bd values indicated that the Angus breed was inferior (P less than .01) to the Brown Swiss breed for all preweaning growth traits except for condition score, in which the Angus breed surpassed (P less than .01) the Brown Swiss. The Bm values also showed an advantage for the Brown Swiss breed for all preweaning growth traits. The additive maternal effect (the genotype of the females exposed), Bm, was important for pregnancy rate and weaning rate (P less than .001 and P less than .05) but not for survival rate (P greater than .10). The direct additive breed effect was not important for any reproductive trait. Direct heterosis did not affect

  5. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  6. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  7. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePlus

    ... dignity and resilience Geneva, 14 September 2016 – The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies... ... News Contact us Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ( ...

  8. Relationship between Liver Mitochondrial Respiration and Proton Leak in Low and High RFI Steers from Two Lineages of RFI Angus Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Acetoze, G.; Weber, K. L.; Ramsey, J. J.; Rossow, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton leak kinetics in progeny from two lineages of Angus bulls with high and low residual feed intake (RFI). Two Angus bulls were selected based on results from a genetic test for RFI and were used as sires. Eight offspring at 10-11 months of age from each sire were housed in individual pens for 70–105 days following a diet adaptation period of 14 days. Progeny of the low RFI sire had 0.57 kg/d (P = 0.05) lower average RFI than progeny of the high RFI sire. There was no difference in dry matter intake between low and high RFI steers, but low RFI steers gained more body weight (P = 0.02) and tended to have higher average daily gains (P = 0.07). State 3 and State 4 respiration, RCR, and proton leak did not differ between high and low RFI steers (P = 0.96, P = 0.81, P = 0.93, and P = 0.88, resp.). Therefore, the increase in bodyweight gain which distinguished the low RFI steers from the high RFI steers may be associated with other metabolic mechanisms that are not associated with liver mitochondrial respiration and proton leak kinetics. PMID:27347504

  9. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  10. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  11. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  12. An evaluation of circulating bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 maternal antibody level and response to vaccination in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Downey, E D; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against viruses has been shown to help prevent bovine respiratory disease in cattle. However, both passively acquired maternal antibody concentration and calf age have been shown to impact the ability of the immune system of a calf to respond to vaccination. The objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate environmental and management factors that affect 1) passively acquired bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 antibody level, 2) decay rate of passively acquired BVDV type 2 antibody level, and 3) responses to BVDV type 2 vaccinations. A 2-shot modified live vaccine was administered to 1,004 Angus calves that were weaned at either the initial vaccination (n = 508) or the booster vaccination (n = 496). Calves weaned at the initial vaccination averaged 139 d whereas calves weaned at booster vaccination averaged 128 d of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 antibodies were measured in 3 approximately 21-d intervals, serially collected serum samples to quantify antibody levels at initiation and end of vaccination protocol in addition to responses to initial, booster, and overall vaccination protocol. Amount of passively transferred antibody in the calf increased as dam age increased from 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05) with no differences after dams reached 6 yr (P > 0.05). Calf age nested within birth year-season and dam age affected both initial and final antibody level, initial response, booster response, and overall antibody response to vaccination. The level of circulating, passively acquired maternal antibodies present at the time of vaccination had a significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on antibody responses to vaccination (initial response, booster response, and overall response). Calves that were weaned at the time of initial vaccination had significantly (P < 0.05) greater final antibody level, initial response, and overall response to vaccination than animals weaned at booster vaccination. In order for a calf to mount an overall antibody

  13. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  14. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 ...

  15. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  16. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  17. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ≥ 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an

  18. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus, is a constant. ...

  19. Evaluation of implant strategies in Angus-sired steers with high or low genetic potential for marbling and gain.

    PubMed

    Black, D N; Neville, B W; Crosswhite, M R; Dahlen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Sixty-nine Angus-sired steer calves (332.3 kg initial BW) were used to determine the effects of single or double implant strategies on steers of high or low genetic potential (GP) determined by the GeneMax (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) genetic profiling test. Steers were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with factors of 1) composite GP score (high, mean GP score of 86.5 [HI]; low, mean GP score of 25.3[LO]) and 2) implant strategy (single, steers implanted on d 70 [1X], or double, steers implanted d 0 and 70 [2X]). All steers were given the same implant (Revalor-S; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ), with the 2X group implanted on d 0 and 70 and the 1X group implanted only on d 70. A diet containing 1.38 Mcal NEg/kg DM was fed ad libitum, once daily. Ultrasound was used to measure body composition characteristics on d 0 and 70. Steers were harvested after 140 d on feed. At both the d-0 and d-70 ultrasound, HI steers had greater ( < 0.001) percent intramuscular fat (IMF) than LO steers, but no differences ( ≥ 0.24) were observed in LM area (LMA), rib fat thickness (RF), or rump fat thickness (RMFT). Steers in the 2X group had larger ( = 0.02) LMA and less ( = 0.03) IMF on d 70 than 1X steers and no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in RF or RMFT were observed. From d 0 to 70, HI steers had ADG, DMI, and G:F ( ≥ 0.60) similar to LO steers; however, 2X steers had greater ( < 0.001) ADG and were more ( < 0.001) feed efficient compared with 1X steers during the same interval. Over the entire 140-d feeding period, there were no differences ( ≥ 0.6) in BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F between GP groups; however, 2X steers had greater ( = 0.03) ADG compared with 1X steers and still had similar ( ≥ 0.12) DMI and G:F. Upon slaughter, marbling score tended to be impacted by a GP × implant interaction (499.9 ± 18.5, 545.6 ± 18.5, 487.1 ± 18.5, and 469.8 ± 18.5 for HI and 2X, HI and 1X, LO and 2X, and LO and 1X, respectively; = 0.06). No differences ( ≥ 0.7) were observed

  20. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  1. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  2. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  3. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  4. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P < .05) for birth weight, weaning weight, and gestation length. Birth weights of BB males (32.8 +/- .8 kg) were significantly heavier than for AB and TB males (30.1 +/- .9 and 28.6 +/- .7 kg, respectively) and BB females (29.4 +/- .7 kg). As a main effect, sire breed of calf affected (P < .05) calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and PPI. Calf ADG and weaning weights were greater for AB (.90 +/- .01 kg/d; 220.9 +/- 3.5 kg) than for TB (.81 +/- .01 kg/d; 200.4 +/- 3.0 kg) and BB calves (.78 +/- .01 kg/d; 198.8 +/- 3.5 kg). Gestation lengths differed (P < .01) among all calf genotypes (284, 288, and 294 +/- 1 d for AB, TB, and BB, respectively). Postpartum intervals were shorter (P < .05) for cows nursing BB calves (83 +/- 4 d) than for cows nursing AB (95 +/- 5 d) and TB calves (97 +/- 4 d). Tuli-sired F1 calves were inferior to Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  5. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  6. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma and follicular insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, follicular oestradiol and progesterone, and follicular growth in superovulated Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Vernon, R K; Hammond, A C; Rae, D O

    1994-11-01

    Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 14) cows were used to evaluate the effects of insulin administered concomitantly with FSH in a superovulation regimen. Cows were allotted to four pen replicates by treatment and breed, and received FSH (i.m.) twice a day for 5 consecutive days (first day of injections = day 0 of study) plus concomitant administration of either saline (control) or long-acting bovine insulin (0.25 iu kg-1 body mass; s.c.). Blood samples were collected at intervals of 6 h during the injection period and analysed for plasma insulin, glucose, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding protein (IGFBP) activity. Cows were ovariectomized on day 5. The number and diameter of follicles were recorded. Follicular fluid was aspirated for determination of IGF-I, IGFBP activity, oestradiol and progesterone. Mean plasma concentration of glucose was lower in insulin-treated than in control cows averaged over days 1-5 (56 +/- 3 versus 82 +/- 3 mg dl-1; P < 0.01). Plasma concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP activity were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatment, but were higher in Brahman than in Angus cows (IGF-I: 41 +/- 6 versus 19 +/- 6 ng ml-1, P < 0.05; IGFBP activity: 17.5 +/- 0.4 versus 15.8 +/- 0.04% (10 microliters)-1; P < 0.03). Insulin treatment did not affect the number of small (1.0-3.9 mm), medium (4.0-7.9 mm) or large (> or = 8.0 mm) follicles. Brahman cows had a greater (P < 0.01) number of medium and total follicles (19.4 +/- 2.5 and 60.5 +/- 5.5, respectively) than did Angus cows (7.5 +/- 2.6 and 30.5 +/- 5.6, respectively). Diameter of large follicles was greater in insulin-treated than in control cows (11.4 +/- 0.2 versus 10.6 +/- 0.1 mm; P < 0.05). Follicular fluid IGF-I concentration in large follicles was higher in insulin-treated Brahman cows (60 +/- 2 ng ml-1) than in control Brahman cows (37 +/- 2 ng ml-1), but was lower in insulin-treated Angus cows (31 +/- 3 ng ml-1) than in control Angus cows (38 +/- 2 ng ml-1; treatment x breed

  7. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  8. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  10. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in milk yield and quality in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2001-07-01

    Milk yield and quality were observed on 93 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows over 3 yr to evaluate the interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis with forage environment. Forage environments were common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), and a rotational system (ROT) of both forages, in which each forage (BG or E+) was grazed during its appropriate season, usually June through October for BG and November through May for E+. Milk yield was estimated each of 6 mo (April through September) via milking machine and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. Heterosis for milk yield was similar among forages, averaging 2.4 kg (P < 0.01). Expressed as percentages of purebred means, heterosis for milk yield was largest on E+ (52.8%), intermediate on ROT (39.3%), and smallest on BG (23.7%). Direct breed effects for milk yield favored Brahman, and they were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (2.5 kg) and ROT (2.8 kg) than for BG (1.3 kg). Direct breed effects for milk fat favored Brahman and were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (1.0%) and ROT (1.0%) than for BG (0.6%). Purebred cows exceeded crossbreds in milk protein by 0.1% on ROT (P < 0.10). Crossbred cows had lower somatic cell counts than purebreds on BG (P < 0.05), E+ (P < 0.01), or ROT (P > 0.30). Heterosis for somatic cell counts as percentages of purebred means was similar for BG (-68.3%) and E+ (-68.9%) and less favorable for ROT (-31.6%). Maternal breed effects for somatic cell count favored Angus on ROT (P < 0.10) with a similar nonsignificant trend on BG and E+. Direct breed effects for somatic cell count favored Brahman on ROT (P < 0.10) with similar nonsignificant trends on BG and E+. These results suggested that a rotation of cows from E+ to BG in the summer can partially alleviate negative effects of E+ on milk yield. Conclusions also indicated an

  12. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  13. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  14. Lustre on Red Sky.

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, Stephen Todd; Mervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    The goals of Lustre on Red Sky are: (1) provide home/projects/scratch Lustre file systems; (2) adhere to the Sun HPC stack; (3) implement software RAID on Sun provided JBODs; and (4) design for easy administration. Conclusions are: (1) software RAID includes additional risks and administration vs. hardware RAID solutions; (2) limited testing of hardware in these configurations make it ill-suited for rapid deployment in a production environment; and (3) Lustre has been a shining star on this machine, Red Sky users are pleased with its performance.

  15. Effect of exogenous estradiol on plasma concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, and metabolites in ovariectomized Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Carroll, J A; Hammond, A C; Welsh, T H

    1997-11-01

    To determine the effect of breed and estradiol-17 beta on selected hormones and metabolites, ovariectomized (> or = 3 mo) Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 12) cows were paired by age and body weight and randomly assigned as either nonimplanted controls (CON) or implanted with estradiol (E2) for 45 d. After Day 7 and through Day 42, plasma concentration of somatotropin was greater for E2 than CON cows (treatment x day, P < 0.05). During an intensive blood sampling on Day 36, E2 cows tended (P < 0.10) to have greater somatotropin pulse amplitudes than CON cows, but other parameters of somatotropin release were not affected (P > 0.10) by E2 treatment. The effect of breed was apparent on Day 36 as Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) somatotropin pulse amplitude, basal secretion, and mean concentration than Angus cows. Overall, plasma concentration of IGF-I was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (158.3 vs. 104.2 ng/ml) and was greater for Brahman than Angus cows (164.1 vs. 98.4 ng/ml). However, there was a trend (P < 0.10) for a treatment x breed x day interaction for IGF-I (i.e., the magnitude of increase in IGF-I concentration was greater in E2-Angus than E2-Brahman cows). After Day 7 and through Day 42, total plasma IGF binding protein (IGFBP) activity was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows. Ligand blotting revealed at least five forms of IGFBP activity, and E2 cows had greater (P < 0.05) binding activity of IGFBP-3 and the 30- and 32-kDa IGFBP than CON cows. Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) IGFBP-3 and the 32-kDa IGFBP than Angus cows. After Day 14 and through Day 42, concentration of urea nitrogen (PUN) was greater (P < 0.001) for CON than E2 cows (treatment x day, P < 0.001). Brahman had greater (P < 0.01) PUN than Angus cows (16.6 vs. 14.2 mg/dl). Plasma concentration of glucose was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (78.9 vs. 76.4 mg/dl) but was not affected (P > 0.10) by breed. In summary, these data suggest that some, but not all, of the

  16. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  17. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  18. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  19. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  20. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  1. 'Saanich' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

  2. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  3. The use of blood lactate concentration as an indicator of temperament and its impact on growth rate and tenderness of steaks from Simmental × Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kohlbeck, K S; Meyers, M C; Perz, K A; Davis, K C; Thomson, J M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of blood lactate concentration as an objective measure of beef cattle temperament and determine if the temperament of steers affected growth rate and tenderness of beef steaks. Angus×Simmental steers (n=154) were evaluated for blood lactate (BL), exit velocity (EV) and chute score (CS), and humanely harvested. Carcass characteristics were assessed and loin samples were obtained for tenderness evaluation. All measures of the temperament were significantly correlated to each other (r=0.14-0.47; P≤0.04). Steaks from steers in the medium BL classification were significantly more tender than steaks from steers from the high BL classification. The steers with faster EV tended to result in steaks with higher shear force values (P=0.07). The steers classified as fast growing resulted in steaks with lower shear force values (P=0.02) compared to steaks from steers classified as slow growing. Results suggest that the temperament contributes to variations in growth rate, blood lactate, and tenderness. PMID:25625941

  4. Selection for increased muscling in Angus cattle did not increase the glycolytic potential or negatively impact pH decline, retail colour stability or mineral content.

    PubMed

    McGilchrist, P; Greenwood, P L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the impact of selection for greater muscling in Angus cattle on myofibre characteristics, muscle enzymatics, retail colour stability, pH decline and mineral content of the semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST) and longissimus thoracis (LT). Muscle from 10 low muscled (low) and 11 high muscled (high) steers were analysed. The high steers had myofibres 22% and 24% larger in cross-sectional area in the SM and ST (P<0.05), and 8.6% less type IIX myofibres in the LT than the low steers (P<0.05). The highs had 4.9% lower lactate dehydrogenase activity, 10.2% and 12.3% higher citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity than lows (P<0.05). The highs had 27% more iron in the LT (P<0.05). The results indicate that the oxidative capacity of muscle can be maintained in more muscular cattle with no detrimental effects to mineral content, pH decline or retail colour stability. Myofibre hypertrophy is one mechanism leading to greater muscle mass of these high muscled cattle. PMID:26720886

  5. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P < .01) for BO and T when fed ad libitum. Rates of protein or water gains did not differ among sire breeds (P > .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance. PMID:9498376

  6. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados

  7. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  8. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  9. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  10. Red giants seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  11. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados

  12. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  13. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  14. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  15. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  16. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  17. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  18. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  19. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  20. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  1. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  2. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  3. Red microchip VECSEL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Jennifer E.; Morton, Lynne G.; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D.; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  4. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array. PMID:19498743

  5. Ambiguous red shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Białynicki-Birula.

  6. Early weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance of angus x simmental heifers and the relationship of 12th rib fat and marbling score to feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wertz, E; Berge, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S

    2001-07-01

    Early-weaned Angus x Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effects of postweaning nutritional management on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition to the feed efficiency among heifers fed for a high-quality market. Sixteen heifers were weaned at 73+/-5.5 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 18 mo before entering the feedlot (early-weaned-P). Eighty heifers from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 71+/-5.5 d of age and allowed either ad libitum access to a 25% concentrate diet (early-weaned-25C) or limit-fed a 90% concentrate diet (early-weaned-90C) to achieve a similar ADG. Following a 119-d growing period, 16 early-weaned-90C and 16 early-weaned-25C calves were paired based on BW and growth rate and individually fed during the finishing period along with the early-weaned-P heifers. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat were recorded at approximately 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Feed efficiency was regressed against s.c. and i.m. fat, and i.m. fat was regressed on s.c. fat. Despite a similar ADG, early-weaned-90C calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.05) in the feedlot than early-weaned-25C calves. Heifers finished as yearlings tended (P < or = 0.10) to gain faster but gained less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than early-weaned-90C heifers finished as calves. The rate of s.c. and i.m. fat deposition was similar between early-weaned-90C and early-weaned-25C heifer calves. The calves were grouped together for comparison to yearlings. Feed efficiency decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.01) as s.c. fat cover increased. The rate at which feed efficiency decreased relative to increasing s.c. fat cover was similar regardless of age at feedlot entry. However, heifers finished as calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than yearlings at any given fat thickness. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as i.m. fat increased

  7. Effect of dietary energy source on in vitro substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity of muscle and adipose tissues of Angus and Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R D; Sawyer, J E; Chung, K Y; Schell, M L; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    2007-07-01

    Angus (n = 8; 210 kg of BW) and 7/8 Wagyu (n = 8; 174 kg of BW) steers were used to evaluate the effects of dietary energy source on muscle and adipose tissue metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Steers were assigned to either a grain-based (corn) or hay-based (hay) diet and fed to similar final BW. At slaughter, LM and s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue samples were collected. Portions of the LM and adipose tissues were placed immediately in liquid N for later measurement of glycolytic intermediates. Fresh LM and s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were incubated with [U-(14)C]glucose to assess glucose metabolism in vitro. All in vitro measures were in the presence of 0 or 500 ng/mL of insulin. Also, s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were incubated with [1-(14)C]acetate to quantify lipid synthesis in vitro. Glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate concentrations were 12.6- and 2.4-fold greater in muscle than in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues, respectively. Diet did not affect acetate incorporation into fatty acids (P = 0.86). Insulin did not increase conversion of glucose to CO(2), lactate, or total lipid in steers fed hay but caused an increase (per cell) of 97 to 110% in glucose conversion to CO(2), 46 to 54% in glucose conversion to lactate, and 65 to 160% in glucose conversion to total lipid content in adipose tissue from steers fed corn. On a per-cell basis, s.c. adipose tissue had 37% greater glucose oxidation than i.m. adipose (P = 0.04) and 290% greater acetate incorporation into fatty acids than i.m. adipose (P = 0.04). Insulin addition to s.c. adipose tissue from corn-fed steers failed to stimulate glucose incorporation into fatty acids, but exposing i.m. adipose tissue from corn-fed steers to insulin resulted in a 165% increase in glucose incorporation into fatty acids. These results suggest that feeding hay limited both glucose supply and tissue capacity to increase glucose utilization in response to insulin without altering acetate conversion to fatty acids

  8. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < .0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < .0001) while on test BW gain was not different between the 2 groups (P < 0.73). There were no differences detected in marbling score (P < 0.93), BF (P < 0.61), REA (P < 0.15), yield grade (P < 0.85) or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating that there was no relationship between RFI and meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to

  9. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for

  10. High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J C; Huang, J; Rentfrow, G

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned ( = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. The effect of production stage or tissue type on carcass and protein abundance was assessed by 1-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS, and Fisher's protected LSD procedure was used to separate data means. Neither GLAST1 nor EAAT4 mRNA or protein was detected. EAAC1, GLT-1, and GS mRNA were identified in all tissues, but GLT-1 and GS protein were not detected in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, and GS protein was not detected in longissimus dorsi. The EAAC1 content of subcutaneous ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.02) adipose was 2 times greater in B and F than W steers, whereas GS was 5 times greater ( < 0.07) in B than F steers (B = W > F). For longissimus dorsi, EAAC1 ( < 0.01) and GLT-1 ( < 0.04) content decreased with development (S > W > B = F, S = W > B = F, respectively). Within F steers, EAAC1 and GLT-1 mRNA was expressed by subcutaneous, kidney, omental, mesenchymal, and intramuscular adipose tissues, whereas GS mRNA was expressed by all except for intramuscular. Only EAAC1 protein was detected in any adipose tissue, with EAAC1 content being 104% and 112% greater ( < 0.01) in intramuscular than in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, respectively, and not

  11. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huffman, R D; Williams, S E; Hargrove, D D; Johnson, D D; Marshall, T T

    1990-08-01

    Steers (n = 165) of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding were used to study effects of breed group (A, 3/4A:1/4B, 1/2A:1/2B, 1/4A:3/4B), age-season of feeding (calves fed during the cool season vs yearlings fed during the warm season) and slaughter end point (less than .90, 1.0 to 1.15, 1.27 to 1.40, greater than or equal to 1.5 cm of adjusted fat over the ribeye) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had heavier (P less than .05) initial and final feedlot weights than the A and 1/4B steers and higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than the A steers did. Breed types did not differ for feed efficiency. Yearling steers fed in the warm season had higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than calves fed in the cool season, but ADG calculated on an empty-rumen basis did not differ between the two age-seasons of feeding. Calves fed in the cool season were more efficient (P less than .05) than yearlings fed in the warm season when efficiency was expressed on an empty-rumen basis; however, on a live weight basis there was no difference in feed efficiency. No breed group by age-season of feeding interactions on performance were detected. Slaughter end point did not significantly affect feed efficiency on an empty-rumen basis. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had smaller ribeye areas (REA) per 100 kg hot carcass and lower marbling scores than the 1/4B and A steers. Yearlings fed in the warm season produced heavier carcasses (P less than .05) than calves fed in the cool season. As s.c. fat thickness at slaughter increased, hot carcass weight and numerical yield grade increased, whereas REA per 100 kg of hot carcass decreased. Marbling also increased as fatness increased up to about 1.5 cm subcutaneous fat. PMID:2401646

  12. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    PubMed

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P < 0.01) than the A-sired calves. During the feedlot phase, the A-sired calves gained more BW (P < 0.05) than the BB-sired calves. The BB-sired calves had heavier (P < 0.01) carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P < 0.01) fat, carcasses from BB-sired calves had greater yield (P < 0.01) compared with carcasses from A-sired calves. Carcasses from A-sired calves had a greater (P < 0.01) marbling score and greater (P < 0.01) USDA quality grade than carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P < 0.01) compared with steaks from the BB-sired calves. Steer calves were heavier (P < 0.01) at birth and weaning, and had more total BW gain in the feedlot, which resulted in a heavier final BW and HCW compared with the heifers. Steer carcasses also had greater marbling scores and quality grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability

  13. Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection levels estimated by qPCR in Angus cattle from an endemic area of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N; Santana, C H; Ibelli, A M G; Néo, T A; Bilhassi, T B; Rabelo, M D; Machado, R Z; Brito, L G; Oliveira, M C S

    2016-07-01

    The levels of infection by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative PCR technique (qPCR). Fifty-one contemporaneous Angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. The number of standard female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA. The blood samples were submitted to DNA extraction and used to quantify the number of copies (NC) of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina by qPCR. The data on tick count and number of DNA copies were transformed for normalization and analyzed by a mixed model method. A multivariate model with repeated measures of the same animal, including the effects of collection, parasite species and their interaction, was used. The repeatability values were obtained from the matrix of (co)variances and were expressed for each species. The correlations between the counts of different species on the same animal, in the same collection or different collections, were also estimated. The results showed the qPCR could distinguish the two between infection by the two Babesia species. Infection levels by B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 100% and 98% of the animals, respectively. Significant differences were found (P<0.05) between the NC of the two Babesia species, B. bovis 1.49±0.07 vs. B. bigemina 0.82±0.06. Low repeatabilities were found for the counts of R. microplus and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.02, respectively. The correlations between R. microplus count and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina were both very near zero. However, an association was observed between the NC of the two species, with a correlation coefficient of 0.30 for measures from the same collection. The absence of associations between the quantity of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina and the tick counts suggests that the variation of parasitemia by the hemoparasites did

  14. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < 0.0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < 0.0001) while on-test gain was not different (P < 0.95). Marbling score was greater in LRFI than HRFI steers (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in REA (P < 0.53), BF (P < 0.65), yield grade (P < 0.24), or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating there was no consistent relationship between RFI and indices of meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0

  15. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  16. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  17. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  18. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  19. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  20. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  1. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  2. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  3. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  4. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell ...

  5. The effects of breed and level of nutrition on whole-body and muscle protein metabolism in pure-bred Aberdeen angus and Charolais beef steers.

    PubMed

    Lobley, G E; Sinclair, K D; Grant, C M; Miller, L; Mantle, D; Calder, A G; Warkup, C C; Maltin, C A

    2000-09-01

    Eighteen pure-bred steers (live weight 350 kg) from each of two breeds, Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Charolais (CH), were split into three equal groups (six animals each) and offered three planes of nutrition during a 20-week period. The same ration formulation was offered to all animals with amounts adjusted at 3-week intervals to give predicted average weight gains of either 1.0 kg/d (M/M group) or 1.4 kg/d (H/H group). The remaining group (M/H) were offered the same amount of ration as the M/M group until 10 weeks before slaughter when the ration was increased to H. Data on animal performance, carcass characteristics and fibre-type composition in skeletal muscle are presented elsewhere (Maltin et al. 2000; Sinclair et al. 2000). On three occasions (17, 10 and 2 weeks before slaughter) the animals were transferred to metabolism stalls for 1 week, during which total urine collection for quantification of Ntau-methylhistidine (Ntau-MeH) elimination was performed for 4 d. On the last day, animals were infused for 11 h with [2H5]phenylalanine with frequent blood sampling (to allow determination of whole-body phenylalanine flux) followed by biopsies from m. longissimus lumborum and m. vastus lateralis to determine the fractional synthesis rate of mixed muscle protein. For both breeds, the absolute amount of Ntau-MeH eliminated increased with animal age or weight (P < 0.001) and was significantly greater for CH steers, at all intake comparisons, than for AA (P < 0.001). Estimates of fractional muscle breakdown rate (FBR; calculated from Ntau-MeH elimination and based on skeletal muscle as a fixed fraction of live weight) showed an age (or weight) decline for M/M and H/H groups of both breeds (P < 0.001). FBR was greater for the H/H group (P = 0.044). The M/H group also showed a lower FBR for the first two measurement periods (both at M intake) but increased when intake was raised to H. When allowance was made for differences in lean content (calculated from fat scores and

  6. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a

  12. SENTINEL-2A red-edge spectral indices suitability for discriminating burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Fernández-Manso, Oscar; Quintano, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fires are a problematic and recurrent issue in Mediterranean ecosystems. Accurate discrimination between burn severity levels is essential for the rehabilitation planning of burned areas. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) record data in three red-edge wavelengths, spectral domain especially useful on agriculture and vegetation applications. Our objective is to find out whether Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge wavelengths are suitable for burn severity discrimination. As study area, we used the 2015 Sierra Gata wildfire (Spain) that burned approximately 80 km2. A Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS)-grading map with four burn severity levels was considered as reference truth. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadde pseudo-R2 statistics obtained by Multinomial Logistic Regression showed the superiority of red-edge spectral indices (particularly, Modified Simple Ratio Red-edge, Chlorophyll Index Red-edge, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Red-edge) over conventional spectral indices. Fisher's Least Significant Difference test confirmed that Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge spectral indices are adequate to discriminate four burn severity levels.

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. RED: a red-cell antibody identification expert module.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Svirbely, J R; Evans, C A; Strohm, P; Josephson, J R; Tanner, M

    1985-06-01

    We describe a software module in an expert system RED, which interprets data related to red cell antibody identification. There are three portions to this module: the problem-solving component, which incorporates the knowledge required for antibody identification as a hierarchy of programs. The programs in the hierarchy organize within themselves small pieces of knowledge represented in the form of production rules, which are capable of making judgments concerning a specific hypothesis; an intelligent data base for storage of patient data, red cell attributes, and test results; the "overview critic" portion, which combines the atomic hypotheses judged favorably by the antibody programs into a unified judgment concerning the case. Overview makes the decision to terminate processing with a conclusion about which antibodies are actually present and what specific further tests need to be performed to resolve any remaining ambiguities. PMID:3840517

  15. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  16. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

  17. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  18. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  20. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  1. Betelgeuse and the Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is one of the most magnificent stars in the sky, and one of the nearest red supergiants. Astronomers gathered in Paris in the Autumn of 2012 to decide what we know about its structure, behaviour, and past and future evolution, and how to place this in the general context of the class of red supergiants. Here I reflect on the discussions and propose a synthesis of the presented evidence. I believe that, in those four days, we have achieved to solve a few riddles.

  2. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  3. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  4. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  5. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  6. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  7. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

  8. A direct and simultaneous detection of zinc protoporphyrin IX, free protoporphyrin IX, and fluorescent heme degradation product in red blood cell hemolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence emission of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, em. approximately 626 nm), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP, em. approximately 594 nm) and fluorescent heme degradation product (FHDP, em. approximately 466 nm) are identified and simultaneously detected in mouse and human red cell hemolysates, when excited at 365 nm. A novel method is established for comparing relative FHDP, PPIX and ZPP levels in hemolysates without performing red cell porphyrin extractions. The ZPP fluorescence directly measured in hemolysates (F(365/594)) correlates with the ZPP fluorescence obtained from acetone/water extraction (R(2) = 0.9515, P < 0.0001). The relative total porphyrin (ZPP and PPIX) fluorescence obtained from direct hemolysate fluorescence measurements also correlates with red blood cell total porphyrins determined by ethyl acetate extraction (Piomelli extraction, R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.0001). These fluorescent species serves as biomarkers for alterations in Hb synthesis and Hb stability. PMID:16484045

  9. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  10. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  11. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  12. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  13. Red cell distribution width and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gulcan Kurt, Yasemin; Cayci, Tuncer; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Agilli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Red cell distribution width is a measure of deviation of the volume of red blood cells. It is a marker of anisocytosis and often used to evaluate the possible causes of anemia. Elevated red cell distribution width levels are also associated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation is accompanied with steatosis. For assuming red cell distribution width as a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, intervening factors such as levels of inflammatory markers should also be evaluated. PMID:25473202

  14. Red Sprites as the source of ELF emission from lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, J.

    2013-12-01

    Jagdish Rai Invertis University, NH-24, Bareilly, India and Manoj K. Paras Department of Applied Sciences, DIT University, Dehradun, India. ABSTRACT Rai (1974) discussed the possibility of upper atmospheric lightning discharges. These discharges were observed experimentally by sertman et al (1995), Lyons (1996), Stenback- Nielsen and Mc Harg (2008) and many others. Cummer et al (1998) and Cummer (2003) observed that the radiation from red sprites lie in the ELF range. From the knowledge of velocity and current expressions obtained by Paras and Rai (2011) for red sprites, authors obtained the frequency spectrum of emitted radiation. The radiation lies mainly in ELF range and peaks around 40Hz. A comparative study of radio emissions from red sprite and return stroke- lateral corona current system shows that the power radiated from the former is higher than the later. When subjected to the propagation in earth -ionosphere waveguide, authors find that the Schumann resonances are caused by red sprites and not by return strokes. References:- 1. Cummer, S.A., U.S. Inan, T.F. Bell and C.P. Barrington-Leigh, 1998, ELF radiation produced by electrical currents in sprites, Geophys. Res. Letters 25, 8. 2. Cummer, S.A. 2003, Current moment in sprite producing lightning , J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 65, 499-908. 3. Lyons W.A., 1996 Sprite observations above the U.S. high plains in relation to their parent thunderstorm systems, J. Geophys. Res. D101, 29641. 4. Paros M.K. and J. Rai, 2011 Electric and magnetic fields from return stroke- lateral corona system and red sprites J. Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 3. 5. Rai J., 1974 some studies on lighting, Ph.D. Thesis Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. 6. Sentman D.D., E.M. Wescott, D.L. Osborne, D.L. Hampton and M.J. Heazener, 1995, Preliminary results from the sprites 94 Campaign, Red Sprites, Geophy. Res. Letters, 22, 1205. 7. Stenback- Nielson H.C. and Mc Harg M.G., 2008, High time resolution sprite imaging

  15. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  4. Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  9. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  13. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  14. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  15. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury. PMID:27251171

  16. Crystallographic study of red fluorescent protein eqFP578 and its far-red variant Katushka reveals opposite pH-induced isomerization of chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Shemiakina, Irina I.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Artemyev, Igor; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2012-08-10

    The wild type red fluorescent protein eqFP578 (from sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor, {lambda}{sub ex} = 552 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 578 nm) and its bright far-red fluorescent variant Katushka ({lambda}{sub ex} = 588 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 635 nm) are characterized by the pronounced pH dependence of their fluorescence. The crystal structures of eqFP578f (eqFP578 with two point mutations improving the protein folding) and Katushka have been determined at the resolution ranging from 1.15 to 1.85 {angstrom} at two pH values, corresponding to low and high level of fluorescence. The observed extinguishing of fluorescence upon reducing pH in eqFP578f and Katushka has been shown to be accompanied by the opposite trans-cis and cis-trans chromophore isomerization, respectively. Asn143, Ser158, His197 and Ser143, Leu174, and Arg197 have been shown to stabilize the respective trans and cis fluorescent states of the chromophores in eqFP578f and Katushka at higher pH. The cis state has been suggested as being primarily responsible for the observed far-red shift of the emission maximum of Katushka relative to that of eqFP578f.

  17. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed. PMID:25300050

  18. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  19. What is red cell deformability?

    PubMed

    Schmid-Schönbein, H; Gaehtgens, P

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic flow visualization of the process of red cell adaptation to flow shows that red cell deformation in flow is the consequence of a continuous viscous rather than an elastic deformation. This fluid drop-like adaptation primarily depends on: (a) the fluidity of the cytoplasm and (b) the favourable surface-area-to-volume ratio, with an excess of surface area allowing strong deformations without an increase in surface area (a real strain). (c) In contrast to previous notions, the modulus of shear elasticity of the membrane is probably less significant. After many attempts to differentiate the contribution of bending and shear stiffness to the elastic recovery of the normal biconcave cell shape have not produced equivocal results, we have changed the elastic shear modulus experimentally by cross-linking the spectrin using the membrane-permeant, bifunctional SH-reagent DIAMIDE, which allows to increase the elastic shear modulus in a dose-dependent manner. Despite a 25-fold decrease in compliance the DIAMIDE-treated cells have normal shape and show remarkably small changes in the rheological behaviour when tested in vitro and in vivo. PMID:6948373

  20. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  1. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  2. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  3. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral.

    PubMed

    Gross, L A; Baird, G S; Hoffman, R C; Baldridge, K K; Tsien, R Y

    2000-10-24

    DsRed, a brilliantly red fluorescent protein, was recently cloned from Discosoma coral by homology to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea. A core question in the biochemistry of DsRed is the mechanism by which the GFP-like 475-nm excitation and 500-nm emission maxima of immature DsRed are red-shifted to the 558-nm excitation and 583-nm emission maxima of mature DsRed. After digestion of mature DsRed with lysyl endopeptidase, high-resolution mass spectra of the purified chromophore-bearing peptide reveal that some of the molecules have lost 2 Da relative to the peptide analogously prepared from a mutant, K83R, that stays green. Tandem mass spectrometry indicates that the bond between the alpha-carbon and nitrogen of Gln-66 has been dehydrogenated in DsRed, extending the GFP chromophore by forming C==N==C==O at the 2-position of the imidazolidinone. This acylimine substituent quantitatively accounts for the red shift according to quantum mechanical calculations. Reversible hydration of the C==N bond in the acylimine would explain why denaturation shifts mature DsRed back to a GFP-like absorbance. The C==N bond hydrolyses upon boiling, explaining why DsRed shows two fragment bands on SDS/PAGE. This assay suggests that conversion from green to red chromophores remains incomplete even after prolonged aging. PMID:11050230

  4. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Larry A.; Baird, Geoffrey S.; Hoffman, Ross C.; Baldridge, Kim K.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2000-01-01

    DsRed, a brilliantly red fluorescent protein, was recently cloned from Discosoma coral by homology to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea. A core question in the biochemistry of DsRed is the mechanism by which the GFP-like 475-nm excitation and 500-nm emission maxima of immature DsRed are red-shifted to the 558-nm excitation and 583-nm emission maxima of mature DsRed. After digestion of mature DsRed with lysyl endopeptidase, high-resolution mass spectra of the purified chromophore-bearing peptide reveal that some of the molecules have lost 2 Da relative to the peptide analogously prepared from a mutant, K83R, that stays green. Tandem mass spectrometry indicates that the bond between the alpha-carbon and nitrogen of Gln-66 has been dehydrogenated in DsRed, extending the GFP chromophore by forming —C⩵N—C⩵O at the 2-position of the imidazolidinone. This acylimine substituent quantitatively accounts for the red shift according to quantum mechanical calculations. Reversible hydration of the C⩵N bond in the acylimine would explain why denaturation shifts mature DsRed back to a GFP-like absorbance. The C⩵N bond hydrolyses upon boiling, explaining why DsRed shows two fragment bands on SDS/PAGE. This assay suggests that conversion from green to red chromophores remains incomplete even after prolonged aging. PMID:11050230

  5. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a) Location. The following area is...

  6. Chemical toxicity of red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, S

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals may result in alterations of red cell function. In certain cases, the toxic effect requires a genetic predisposition and thus affects only a restricted number of individuals; in other instances, the toxic effect is exerted on the hematopoietic system of every person. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is probably the most widespread genetic disorder. It is observed at highest frequency in populations from subtropical countries as a result of its selective advantage vis à vis falciparum malaria. The gene controlling this enzyme is located on the X-chromosome; thus, the defect is sex-linked. Individuals with a genetic defect of this enzyme are extremely susceptible to hemolysis, when exposed to oxidant drugs (such as certain antimalarials and sulfonamides) because of the inability of their red cells to regenerate NADPH. Lead poisoning result in profound effects on the process of heme synthesis. Among the steps most sensitive to lead toxicity are the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the intramitochondrial step that leads to the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. By these mechanisms, in severe lead intoxication there is an accumulation of large amounts of delta-aminolevulinic acid (a compound with inherent neurotoxicity), and there are abnormalities of mitochondrial function in all cells of the body. Individuals living in an industrialized society are unavoidably exposed to some environmental lead. Recent evidence indicates that, even at levels of exposure which do not increase the blood lead level above values presently considered normal, abnormalities of heme synthesis are clearly detectable. PMID:7016524

  7. Red blood cell membrane defects.

    PubMed

    Iolascon, Achille; Perrotta, Silverio; Stewart, Gordon W

    2003-03-01

    We present an overview of the currently known molecular basis of red cell membrane disorders. A detailed discussion of the structure of the red cell membrane and the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of its disorders is reported. Generally speaking, hereditary spherocytosis (HS) results from a loss of erythrocyte surface area. The mutations of most cases of HS are located in the following genes: ANK1, SPTB, SLC4A1, EPB42 and SPTA1, which encode for ankyrin, spectrin beta-chain, the anion exchanger 1 (band 3), protein 4.2 and spectrin alpha-chain, respectively. Hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) reflects a diminished elasticity of the skeleton. Its aggravated form, hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), implies that the skeleton undergoes further destabilization. The mutations responsible for HE and HPP, lie in the SPTA1 and SPTB gene, and in the EPB41 gene encoding protein 4.1. Allele alpha LELY is a common polymorphic allele, which plays the role of an aggravating factor when it occurs in trans of an elliptocytogenic allele of the SPTA1 gene. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis derives from a change in band 3. The genetic disorders of membrane permeability to monovalent cations required a positional cloning approach. In this respect, channelopathies represent a new frontier in the field. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) was shown to belong to a pleiotropic syndrome: DHS + fetal edema + pseudohyperkalemia, which maps 16q23-24. Splenectomy is strictly contraindicated in DHS and another disease of the same class, overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, because it increases the risk of thromboembolic accidents. PMID:14692233

  8. Rate of Maturing and Proportion of Mature Body Weight at Puberty of Crossbred Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows born (1999 – 2000) resulting from AI breeding Hereford (n = 58), Angus (n = 61), Red Angus (n = 70), Simmental (n = 74), Limousin (n = 80), Charolais (n = 74), or Gelbvieh (n = 78) bulls to Angus (A; n = 69), Hereford (H; n = 173), or MARC III composite (M; n = 253) cows were weighed 6 times as...

  9. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  10. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  11. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  12. Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

  13. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  14. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  15. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    PubMed

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. PMID:27488652

  16. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  17. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  18. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland... across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed...

  19. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  1. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  2. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  4. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  5. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  6. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  7. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  8. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  9. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  10. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  11. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  12. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  16. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  17. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  18. The Art of Red Tide Science

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  19. Red wine as a cause of migraine.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J T; Gibb, C; Glover, V; Sandler, M; Davies, P T; Rose, F C

    1988-03-12

    Patients with migraine who believed that red wine but not alcohol in general had a headache-provoking effect on them were challenged either with red wine or with a vodka and diluent mixture of equivalent alcohol content, both consumed cold out of dark bottles to disguise colour and flavour. The red wine, which had a negligible tyramine content, provoked a typical migraine attack in 9 of 11 such patients, whereas none of the 8 challenged with vodka had an attack. Neither red wine nor vodka provoked such episodes in other migrainous subjects or controls. These findings show that red wine contains a migraine-provoking agent that is neither alcohol nor tyramine. PMID:2894493

  20. Investigate the properties of red QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, An-Li; Hwang, Chrong-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    QSOs are one type of AGNs. The spectral energy distribution of luminous QSOs usually peak at near-UV wavebands and have blue colors. However, recent observations discovered a population of red QSOs. The nature of these red QSOs are still not clear. The redness is obscured either by dusty torus or by dust associated with nuclear star formation. A better wavelength to study the obscuration of QSOs is from IR to radio, which can avoid the dust extinction at optical.We have selected a group of QSOs from the SDSS Quasar Catalog, the VLA FIRST Radio Survey Catalog, and the WISE All Sky Survey Data. We defined the color base on the flux ratio between two bands of continuum emission which avoid strong emission lines. We compare the difference between red QSOs and typical QSOs, and discuss the properties of the red color.

  1. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  2. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  3. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  4. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  5. Congo red uptake by motile Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Statner, B; George, W L

    1987-05-01

    Virulence of several species of enteropathogenic bacteria has been correlated with the ability of isolates to take up the dye Congo red. To determine whether Congo red uptake might be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species, we examined 50 strains of diverse clinical origin on a medium containing 50 micrograms of Congo red per ml. All of the strains took up the dye to various degrees. For most strains, uptake was greatest at 37 degrees C and least at 22 degrees C. Production of acetyl methyl carbinol (Voges-Proskauer test) or lysine decarboxylase has been reported by some investigators to be a virulence marker for Aeromonas species. Congo red uptake did not correlate with either acetyl methyl carbinol or lysine decarboxylase production in our study. These data suggest that Congo red uptake may not be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species. PMID:3584422

  6. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  7. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  8. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  9. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  10. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  11. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  12. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  13. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  14. The gill microbiota of invasive and indigenous Spondylus oysters from the Mediterranean Sea and northern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roterman, Yahala Rina; Benayahu, Yehuda; Reshef, Lea; Gophna, Uri

    2015-12-01

    The gill tissue of bivalve mollusks hosts rich symbiotic microbial communities that may contribute to the animal's metabolism. Spondylus spinosus is an invasive oyster that has become highly abundant along the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) coastline, but is scarce in the northern Red Sea (NRS), its indigenous region. The composition and seasonal dynamics of the gill microbial communities of S. spinosus were examined in both regions, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Additionally, two Red Sea Spondylus species, S. avramsingeri and S. pickeringae, were investigated using the same approach. Significant differences were found between microbial communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the three NRS species. Bacteria from the family Hahellaceae dominated the communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the NRS S. avramsingeri, oysters that are dominant in their habitat, yet were rare in the NRS S. spinosus and S. pickeringae, which are only seldom encountered. Bacterial communities of EMS S. spinosus were more similar to those of NRS S. spinosus than to those of other NRS Spondylus species, indicating that either part of the microbiota had co-invaded with their host into the Mediterranean Sea, or that there are species-specific selective constraints on microbial composition. PMID:26111733

  15. The second-order gravitational red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, J.

    1973-01-01

    The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, J. William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  17. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Plez, Bertrand; Trager, Scott; Lancon, Ariane; Bergemann, Maria; Evans, Chris; Chiavassa, Andrea

    2013-04-10

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  18. Relationship of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, photoperiod, wind speed and solar radiation with serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration in Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sarko, T A; Bishop, M D; Davis, M E

    1994-07-01

    Eight paternal half-sib Angus calves born in late April and early May, 1988 were used to investigate the potential relationship of serum IGF-I concentration with photoperiod and various weather variables including minimum, maximum and average air temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and solar radiation. To determine IGF-I concentration, blood samples were obtained at birth and then weekly until the calves reached 1 mo of age and bi-weekly thereafter. Blood sampling continued until the calves reached puberty as determined by progesterone and testosterone assays. Photoperiod and each weather variable were averaged over the 3 d prior to and including the day of blood sampling (4-d average). Data were divided into two periods: (1) birth through the end of the postweaning period and (2) postweaning period only. Serum IGF-I concentrations were analyzed using a model which included the fixed effects of sex and sample number, the random effect of calf nested within sex and the fixed interaction of sex x sample number, in addition to covariates for weight, photoperiod and weather variables. From birth through the end of the postweaning test, none of the weather variables or photoperiod had significant effects on serum IGF-I concentrations when each was fitted separately. For the postweaning period only, cubic regression coefficients for minimum and average temperatures were .0962 +/- .0325 ng/ml/degrees C3 and .0976 +/- .0272 ng/ml/degrees C3, respectively (P < .01). The quadratic regression coefficient for relative humidity during the postweaning period was -.2991 +/- .1142 ng/ml/%2 (P < .05). The quartic regression coefficient for wind speed during the postweaning period was -36.435 +/- 13.00 ng/ml/(km/hr)4 (P < .01). Maximum temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and photoperiod did not have significant effects on postweaning serum IGF-I concentrations. Based on these data, we conclude that temperature, humidity and wind speed were contributing

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers: population genetic analyses and association of genotypes with reproductive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Vanleeuwen, D M; DeAtley, K L; Islas-Trejo, A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-04-01

    The growth endocrine axis influences reproduction. The objectives of this study were to evaluate population genetic characteristics of SNP genotypes within genes of the GH-IGF axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers (n = 650) and to test the association of these genotypes with measures of reproduction. These objectives were achieved using 73 SNP within 7 genes on chromosome 5 and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) and GH-receptor genes, which map to chromosomes 16 and 20, respectively. The SNP were elucidated by resequencing conserved regions of each gene by using DNA from familial-unrelated cattle of a multibreed discovery population. A multiplex SNP assay yielded 59 biallelic SNP useful for evaluating genetic identity and distance. Specifically, the divergence of straightbred Brahman cattle was approximately 15.5% from 5 Bos taurus-influenced breed groups. In the straightbred groups used as a validation population, only 3 SNP had minor allele frequencies >10%. These SNP were in the genes PAPP-A2 (ss115492449-A/C and ss115492450-G/T within intron 10) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 2 (STAT2; ss252841035-A/G within the 5' untranslated region), and they met the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.31). The other 56 SNP were useful for assigning each animal into ancestral clusters (n = 3 proportions) to account for population stratification in genotype to phenotype association analyses. The 2 SNP in the PAPP-A2 gene influenced (P < 0.05) traits indicative of first-calf heifer rebreeding (i.e., calving interval, days to calving, and pregnancy rate). A STAT2 SNP genotype (i.e., GG) × primary ancestral cluster interaction (P < 0.05) suggested heifers primarily of B. taurus ancestry had a reduction of approximately 16.4 ± 0.1% in calving interval and days to calving relative to heifers clustering primarily as Bos indicus ancestry. Even though additional research is needed to

  20. Viscoelastic transient of confined red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, η(mem)(2D) ∼ 10(-7) N ⋅ s ⋅ m(-1). By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of η(mem)(2D), and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  1. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  2. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  3. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  4. Red blood cells, sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. These abnormally shaped cells may become entangled and ...

  5. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  6. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think of a rosy complexion as ... more troubling—a long-lasting skin disorder called rosacea. Rosacea (pronounced ro-ZAY-she-ah) may start ...

  7. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  8. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  9. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  10. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  11. Ultra-Long Crystalline Red Phosphorus Nanowires from Amorphous Red Phosphorus Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua B; Hagaman, Daniel; DiGuiseppi, David; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2016-09-19

    Heating red phosphorus in sealed ampoules in the presence of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst mixture has provided bulk black phosphorus at much lower pressures than those required for allotropic conversion by anvil cells. Herein we report the growth of ultra-long 1D red phosphorus nanowires (>1 mm) selectively onto a wafer substrate from red phosphorus powder and a thin film of red phosphorus in the present of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction characterization suggested the formation of crystalline red phosphorus nanowires. FET devices constructed with the red phosphorus nanowires displayed a typical I-V curve similar to that of black phosphorus and a similar mobility reaching 300 cm(2)  V(-1)  s with an Ion /Ioff ratio approaching 10(2) . A significant response to infrared light was observed from the FET device. PMID:27553637

  12. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice. PMID:26364875

  13. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  14. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  15. Termosyphon cryogenic system for RED-100 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnovtsev, V.; Tolstukhin, I.; Shakirov, A.; Shafigullin, R.

    2016-02-01

    A cryogenic system based on a two-phase closed tubular thermosyphon with 12 mm diameter copper tube is developed. It was used for thermal stabilization of the liquid xenon emission detector RED-100. The nitrogen refrigerant cooled down with a free-boiling liquid nitrogen bath has been used. It was shown that the system supports the RED100 operation at temperature 166 K with accuracy ±1K.

  16. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  17. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  18. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

  19. Interpretation of the Jupiter Red Spot, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    With the aid of 8900 micron CH4 filter photographs it is shown that the Red Spot is normally the highest cloud feature in the Jovian atmosphere, located squarely on the South Tropical Zone at 22 deg. S. The Red Spot is a rising column, obviously having its own energy source; it spreads outward at the top level, in anticyclonic rotation. It is concluded that the large and persistent Jovian cloud masses, of which the Red Spot is the largest, are major organized storm arrays embedded in a near stagnant atmosphere, each probably possessing numerous short-lived rising hot columns driven by released latent heat; and covered by a horizontally-expanding gigantic cirrus cloud system, in anti-cyclonic rotation. The meteorological theory of Organized Cumulus Convection is applied to the Red Spot and the White Ovals. Evidence exists that the array of hot towers under the Red Spot is eccentric. The 90-day and the occassional 5-8 year fluctuations in the motion of the Red Spot may be due to processes analogous to those found in the Earth's Tropical Convergence. The 90-day oscillation has been observed for 8 years.

  20. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  1. Bioterrorism awareness for EMS.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    It is important to understand that the issues surrounding bioterrorism and all weapons of mass destruction are complex. In an effort to enhance response to such events, EMS should handle all incidents from the perspective of an all-hazards approach. Prevention, preparation, response and recovery are essential to the safe mitigation of all incidents. Organizations must be prepared. Plan now for a safer tomorrow. Your personnel and communities depend on you. PMID:15131906

  2. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  4. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  5. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  6. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  7. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  8. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  16. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  3. Spectral Tuning of Deep Red Cone Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    Amora, Tabitha L.; Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Galan, Jhenny F.; Birge, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11-cis-retinal) or A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6-s-trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6-s-cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6-s-trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by ~1500 cm−1 (~50 nm) and A2 pigments by ~2700 cm−1 (~100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6-s-trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6-s-trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites. PMID:18370404

  4. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  5. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinge, Dennis C.; Davis, Michael E.; Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  6. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  7. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  8. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  9. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Rick, Ingolf P; Mehlis, Marion; Bakker, Theo C M

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals. PMID:21984930

  10. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication. PMID:24588355

  11. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  12. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-01

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. PMID:26333055

  13. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  14. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced. PMID:26323985

  15. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE ‘Red Eye’ Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate

  16. [Pseudo-scabies transmitted by red fox].

    PubMed

    Birk, R W; Tebbe, B; Schein, E; Zouboulis, C C; Orfanos, C E

    1999-02-01

    Pseudoscabies, i.e. infestation of human skin with animal mites may occasionally occur and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pruritic and papular skin disease. We report here on a 52-year-old woman with pseudoscabies or canine scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), transmitted by indirect contact with a red fox in the urban area of Berlin. Red foxes may live in unhabited areas of metropolitan large cities, i.e. in garages, car wrecks and cellars. Full remission of the prolonged and pruritic rush was seen after topical administration of lindane together with systemic corticosteroids. PMID:10097956

  17. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of these background data, metabolic studies were performed on humans involved in space flight. These studies included the Skylab experiences. The primary purpose of the investigations was to study red cells for: (1) evidences of lipid peroxidation, or (2) changes at various points in the glycolytic pathway. The Skylab missions were an opportunity to study blood samples before, during, and after flight and to compare results with simultaneous controls. No direct evidence that lipid peroxidation had occurred in the red blood cells was apparent in the studies.

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  19. Influence of Whole-Body Electrostimulation on Human Red Blood Cell Deformability.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Andre; Kleinöder, Heinz; Plück, Denise; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-09-01

    Red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS)-dependent NO production is essential for the maintenance of RBC deformability, which is known to improve oxygen supply to the working tissue. Electrostimulation of the whole body (WB-EMS) has been shown to improve maximal strength, springiness, and jumping power of trained and untrained athletes. To examine whether these 2 parameters are associated, this study, for the first time, aimed to investigate the effects of an 18-week dynamic WB-EMS program on RBC deformability in addition to maximal strength performance (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in elite soccer players. Fifteen test persons were assigned in either WB-EMS group (EG, n = 10) or training group (TG, n = 5). Next to their weekly training sessions, EG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps under the influence of WB-EMS twice per week between weeks 1 and 14 and once per week between weeks 14 and 18. Training group only performed 3 × 10 squat jumps. Performance was assessed by a maximal strength test on the leg press machine (1RM). Subjects were tested at baseline and after weeks 7, 14, and 18 with blood sampling before (Pre), 15-30 minutes after (Post), and 24 hours after (24-hour Post) the training. The results showed that maximal strength was significantly improved in EG (p < 0.01). Maximum RBC deformability (EImax) increased on EMS stimulus in EG while it remained unaffected in the TG. Acute increase in EImax at baseline was explained by an increase in RBC-NOS activation while chronic increase of deformability must be caused by different, yet unknown, mechanisms. EImax decreased between weeks 14 and 18 suggesting that 1 WB-EMS session per week is not sufficient to alter deformability (EImax). In contrast, the deformability at low shear stress (EI 3 Pa), comparable with conditions found in the microcirculation, significantly increased in EG until week 14, whereas in TG deformability only, increased until week 7 due to increasing training volume after the winter break

  20. Certification procedures for sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80).

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Fagan, C; Kiernan, J A; Wickersham, T W

    2011-06-01

    Sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80) is a polyazo dye used principally in staining methods for collagen and amyloid. For certification by the Biological Stain Commission, a sample of the dye must exhibit an absorption spectrum of characteristic shape with a maximum at 528-529 nm, a small shoulder near 500 nm and narrow peaks at 372, 281-282 and 230-235 nm. Spot tests (color changes with addition of concentrated H(2)SO(4) or HCl and subsequent dilution or neutralization) also are applied. The dye must perform satisfactorily in the picro-sirius red method for collagen by providing red staining of all types of collagen with yellow and green birefringence of fibers. Llewellyn's alkaline sirius red method applied to tissue known to contain amyloid must show red coloration of the products with green birefringence. Dye content, which does not influence significantly the staining properties of sirius red F3B, is not assayed. PMID:21417582

  1. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  2. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  3. Phosphine on Jupiter and implications for the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Lewis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the chemistry and photochemistry of the recently discovered phosphine in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggests that the red colorations on this planet result from photochemical production of red phosphorus particles. Chemical-dynamical models of this red phosphorus haze imply that the intensity of the red coloration is a strong function of the strength of vertical turbulent mixing in the atmosphere. If the Jovian Great Red Spot is a region of considerable dynamical activity our model provides a self-consistent explanation for the redness of this region in comparison to the rest of the planet.

  4. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  5. Walking in Balance on the Red Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thin Elk, Gene

    1993-01-01

    Native American who entered treatment for alcohol abuse and found that conventional cures did not address cultural clash of being Indian in Eurocentric society describes alcohol prevention and treatment program rooted in traditional Indian values and ceremonies. Describes "The Red Road," holistic approach which uses culture as therapy and…

  6. Clandestine Companions of Nearby Red Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Koerner, D. W.; Jao, W. C.; Subasavage, J. P.; Ianna, P. A.; RECONS

    2006-12-01

    During the RECONS parallax program at the CTIO 0.9m, we have accumulated more than six years of astrometric data on red dwarfs in the southern sky. Eighty red dwarfs within 10 pc, including more than two dozen new discoveries by our team, are being followed to reveal the telltale perturbations caused by unseen companions. The advent of modern CCD technology yields substantial improvement in the detection of low mass companions over the classic studies done using photographic plates. The current ASPENS (Astrometric Search for Planets Encircling Nearby Stars) program is capable of finding hidden companions with masses as low as 10 Jupiters. Here we report the first results of the ASPENS effort, including a few intriguing systems with orbital periods of several years. Nearby red dwarfs are prime candidates for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) because the astrometric perturbations are largest for planets orbiting nearby stars of low mass. In addition, new multiple red dwarf systems can be targeted for mass determinations, thereby providing points on a comprehensive mass-luminosity relation for the most populous members of the Galaxy. These long-term observations began in 1999 as an NOAO Surveys program, and are continuing via the SMARTS Consortium. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation (AST 98-20711 and 05-07711), NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, Georgia State University, and Northern Arizona University.

  7. Traffic Lights: Red Light Spells Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2001-01-01

    A "traffic light" model provides youth groups with a means to evaluate the risk level of specific behaviors and agree upon the management of such behaviors. Designed for outdoor pursuits, the model may be used in other environments. Suggestions for ways to discuss red-light, yellow-light, and green-light behaviors are included. (SV)

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... item in Red Cross disaster relief. It will urge disaster victims displaced from their homes to...

  9. Jupiter's Convection and Its Red Spot.

    PubMed

    Smoluchowski, R

    1970-06-12

    Physical properties of the liquid hydrogen-helium layer of Jupiter are calculated and used in evaluating convection and in interpreting the approximately constant rate of longitudinal motion of the Red Spot on the basis of the Hide-Streett model. PMID:17731041

  10. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  11. Using a Red Team to devise countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swedenburg, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a defense system to operate effectively when deployed in battle is dependent on designs able to deal with countermeasures against the defense. The formation of a technical Red Team to stress the preliminary designs of the defensive system with technologically feasible and effective potential countermeasures provides a means to identify such potential countermeasures. This paper describes the experience of the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Theater Missile Defense Red Team since the Gulf War in 1991, the Red-Blue Exchange process, and the value it has provided to the designers of the U.S. Theater Missile Defense systems for developing robust systems. A wide-range of technologically feasible countermeasures has been devised, analyzed, tested for feasibility, and provided to the system developers for mitigation design. The process for independently analyzing possible susceptibilities of preliminary designs and exploiting the susceptibilities to identify possible countermeasures is explained. Designing and characterizing the Red Team's countermeasures, determining their feasibility, and analyzing their potential effectiveness against the defense are explained. A technique for the Blue Team's designers to deal with a wide range of potential countermeasures is explained.

  12. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J.; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E. S.; Mücher, Herman J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record). PMID:22308348

  13. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  14. The Story of Red River Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfsrud, Erling Nicolai

    This resource book provides the teacher with a summary narrative of the history and the development of the Red River Basin, a lakebed plain that extends from the Canadian border into Minnesota and North Dakota. There are many historical topics covered: the geology, cultures of the Sioux and Chippewa, fur trading, exploration, settlement of the…

  15. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  16. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespecímenes de calidad son un recurso de investigación oncológica. Uno de los programas de bioespecímenes que han operado por más tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos básicos e investigación inicial de transferencia.

  17. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  18. Registration of 'Advance' Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent on satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also help to maxi...

  19. A universal fingerprinting set for red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus, which also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. Major world production occurs in Europe, South and North America including central highlands of Mexico, California (U...

  20. A universal fingerprinting set for red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus. This subgenus also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Ore.), is responsible for preserving a Rubus col...

  1. Film Guide for "The Red Kite".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, A. O.

    1969-01-01

    Aspects to consider in studying the film "The Red Kite" are (1) a synopsis of the story, which concerns a young father's musings about life and death; (2) the film's structure, which focuses on the father's encounters in a store, on a bus, in his home, at a party, and finally on a hill while flying the kite; (3) possible themes, such as "human…

  2. Registration of 'Red River Runner' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Red River Runner' (tested as TX 994313) is a high oleic runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar cooperatively developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Texas AgriLife Research and Extension, and Oklahoma Agricultura...

  3. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  4. New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    The Old Red Sandstone is amongst the most distinctive and well-known stratigraphic units in the British Isles. It is mainly of Devonian age; in fact, its lower boundary was used to define the base of the Devonian until relatively recently and it was called "Old" back in the nineteenth century to distinguish it from a superficially similar succession of Triassic age named the New Red Sandstone. The Old Red Sandstone has long been known to be a non-marine syntectonic to post-tectonic deposit associated with the Caledonian Orogeny One of the most famous outcrops of the red sandstone is at Siccar Point in northeast England at one of several outcrops named "Hutton's unconformity" where it lies, with marked angularity on Silurian lithic sandstones and shales. It was at these outcrops, toward the end of the eigthteenth century that James Hutton first came to understand the meaning of angular unconformities as structures representing vast amounts of missing time during which major upheavals of the Earth's crust occurred.

  5. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  6. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  7. Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  8. The "red flags" rule in health care.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Susan E

    2009-07-01

    Important questions for hospitals to ask regarding the Federal Trade Commission's identity theft "red flags" rule include: What is the compliance deadline? Who must comply? What is required for compliance? What about HIPAA? What are the consequences of failure to comply? PMID:19588815

  9. Phonon dispersion in red mercuric iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, H.; Chang, Y. ); James, R.B. )

    1994-02-15

    We present theoretical studies of phonon modes of undoped HgI[sub 2] in its red tetragonal form. A rigid-ion model including the Coulomb interaction is used which gives the best fit to the neutron scattering, infrared reflectivity, and Raman scattering data. The calculated sound velocities are also in accord with experiment.

  10. Registration of 'Badillo' Light Red Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Badillo’, Reg. No. CV-294, PI658490, a multiple disease resistant light red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar adapted to the humid tropics, was developed and released in 2009 cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Depart...

  11. In Brief: Red tide Web site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established the NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center to help people understand the significant red tides that are predicted to form there later this spring. The site (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/redtide) will provide a summary of the current red tide situation and its potential harmful impacts on humans and animals and will serve as a central repository of information. The site also will have direct links to news releases, changes to relevant federal fishing regulations, links to closures of shellfish waters, and links to state agency Web sites with localized information. In addition, the site will have information about NOAA's scientific response effort as well as information from several other sources including NOAA's major response partner, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). On 24 April, WHOI scientists, using forecast models developed with NOAA funding support, predicted ``that excess winter precipitation has set the stage for a harmful algal bloom similar to the historic red tide of 2005.'' That bloom shut down shellfish beds from the Bay of Fundy to Martha's Vineyard for several months.

  12. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  13. The Little Red Spot: Closest View Yet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a mosaic of three New Horizons images of Jupiter's Little Red Spot, taken with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) camera at 17:41 Universal Time on February 26 from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.1 million miles). The image scale is 17 kilometers (11 miles) per pixel, and the area covered measures 33,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) from top to bottom, two and one-half times the diameter of Earth.

    The Little Red Spot, a smaller cousin of the famous Great Red Spot, formed in the past decade from the merger of three smaller Jovian storms, and is now the second-largest storm on Jupiter. About a year ago its color, formerly white, changed to a reddish shade similar to the Great Red Spot, perhaps because it is now powerful enough to dredge up reddish material from deeper inside Jupiter. These are the most detailed images ever taken of the Little Red Spot since its formation, and will be combined with even sharper images taken by New Horizons 10 hours later to map circulation patterns around and within the storm.

    LORRI took the images as the Sun was about to set on the Little Red Spot. The LORRI camera was designed to look at Pluto, where sunlight is much fainter than it is at Jupiter, so the images would have been overexposed if LORRI had looked at the storm when it was illuminated by the noonday Sun. The dim evening illumination helped the LORRI camera obtain well-exposed images. The New Horizons team used predictions made by amateur astronomers in 2006, based on their observations of the motion of the Little Red Spot with backyard telescopes, to help them accurately point LORRI at the storm.

    These are among a handful of Jupiter system images already returned by New Horizons during its close approach to Jupiter. Most of the data being gathered by the spacecraft are stored onboard and will be downlinked to Earth during March and April 2007.

  14. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.

    The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology

  15. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  16. Extreme Red Quasars in SDSS-BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia; Paris, Isabelle; Herbst, Hanna; Villforth, Carolin; Alexandroff, Rachael; Ross, Nicholas; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Red quasars are believed to mark a critical transition stage of massive galaxy evolution when a blowout of gas and dust truncates the initial starburst and provides our first visible views of a luminous central AGN. Red quasars could therefore have unusual properties associated with a young evolution stage, such as higher accretion rates, higher rates of mergers and interactions, and more common or more powerful outflows capable of driving a galaxy-wide blowout (e.g., compared to normal blue quasars in presumably more evolved galaxy hosts). The recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III has discovered many more faint quasars with higher redshifts and redder colors than any previous large survey. We combine BOSS spectra with SDSS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry of nearly 100,000 quasars to identify and characterize the red quasar population at redshifts >2. We find a number of strong trends with the amount of reddening/obscuration. For example, red quasars are 5 to 8 times more likely to have broad absorption lines and other "intrinsic" absorption lines that identify quasar-driven outflows. Perhaps most interesting is that extreme red quasars (ERQs), selected via rest-frame UV to near-IR colors similar to Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), have uniquely exotic emission line properties that include extreme velocity shifts between lines and the broadest and most blueshifted [OIII] lines yet discovered (with FWHMs reaching >3000 km/s). We will discuss the implications of these results for models of the structure and evolution of quasars and their host galaxy environments.

  17. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. ASCI Red for dummies : a recipe book for easy use of the ASCI Red platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Quinlan, Gerald F.; Miller, Joel D.; Sault, Allen G.; McAllister, Paula L.

    2003-11-01

    It has been recognized that documentation for new customers of ASCI Red, aka janus or the Intel Teraflops at Sandia National Laboratories, has been sadly lacking. This document has been prepared by a team of subject matter experts to fill that void and to provide a starting point for providing a similar document for ASCI Red Storm in the future. This document is intended for SNL users who need to jumpstart their use of Janus and Janus-s.

  19. Trial protocol for a randomised controlled trial of red cell washing for the attenuation of transfusion-associated organ injury in cardiac surgery: the REDWASH trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G J; Verheyden, V; Wozniak, M; Sullo, N; Dott, W; Bhudia, S; Bittar, N; Morris, T; Ring, A; Tebbatt, A; Kumar, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been suggested that removal of proinflammatory substances that accumulate in stored donor red cells by mechanical cell washing may attenuate inflammation and organ injury in transfused cardiac surgery patients. This trial will test the hypotheses that the severity of the postoperative inflammatory response will be less and postoperative recovery faster if patients undergoing cardiac surgery receive washed red cells compared with standard care (unwashed red cells). Methods and analysis Adult (≥16 years) cardiac surgery patients identified at being at increased risk for receiving large volume red cell transfusions at 1 of 3 UK cardiac centres will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either red cell washing or standard care. The primary outcome is serum interleukin-8 measured at 5 postsurgery time points up to 96 h. Secondary outcomes will include measures of inflammation, organ injury and volumes of blood transfused and cost-effectiveness. Allocation concealment, internet-based randomisation stratified by operation type and recruiting centre, and blinding of outcome assessors will reduce the risk of bias. The trial will test the superiority of red cell washing versus standard care. A sample size of 170 patients was chosen in order to detect a small-to-moderate target difference, with 80% power and 5% significance (2-tailed). Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol was approved by a UK ethics committee (reference 12/EM/0475). The trial findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and meetings. Trial registration number ISRCTN 27076315. PMID:26977309

  20. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  1. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    PubMed Central

    Bitsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp) in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine) and 0.23% (red grape juice) of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity. PMID:15577192

  2. Understanding the Red Sea nutrient cycle - a first look into nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Roslinda; Arrieta, Jesus; Alam, Intikhab; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea is an elongated and semi-enclosed system bordered by Africa and Saudi Arabia. Positioned in an arid, tropical zone, the system receives high solar irradiance and heat flux, extensive evaporation, low rainfall and therefore high salinity. These harsh environmental conditions has set the Red Sea to be one of the fastest warming and saltiest ecosystem in the world. Although nutrients are known to be at very low concentrations, the ultimately limiting nutrient in the system is still undefined. Therefore, like most other oligotrophic systems, we regard the Red Sea as being nitrogen-limited and we foresee nitrogen fixation as the most probable bottleneck in the Red Sea nitrogen budget. On the basis of metagenomes from pelagic microbial communities along the Red Sea, we looked into the distribution of nitrogenase, an enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation, in this system and provide a first insight into the microbial community that is involved in the process. The implications of this study will not only help improve our understanding of the Red Sea nutrient regime, but may also hint on future ocean responses to rising climates.

  3. Red Rain Cells Recovered from Interior of the Polonnaruwa Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-03-01

    Red rain cells were discovered in extracts from the Polonnaruwa (Aralaganwila) meteorite that fell nearly ten days before a red rain event in the same location in Sri Lanka. A causal connection is speculated.

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158493.html Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors Critters strongly prefer those bedroom hues to ... the little blood suckers strongly preferred red and black and avoided green and yellow. Does that mean ...

  6. J. Saunders Redding: A Case Study of the Black Intellectual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mootry, Maria K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the debate between Jay Saunders Redding and Imamu Amiri Baraka regarding the role of Black Studies in American Studies. Intersperses excerpts from and analysis of Redding's work with an interview conducted with him in 1980. (GC)

  7. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  8. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories II: Red Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Bór, J.; Setvák, M.

    2016-03-01

    A rare atmospheric phenomenon, known as red sprites, was observed and captured on camera from the La Silla Observatory. This event signalled the first time that these extremely short-lived flashes of red light, originating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, were photographed from a major astronomical observatory. Further images of red sprites from the La Silla Paranal Observatory sites are presented and the nature of red sprites is discussed.

  9. Determination of Fc function with frozen red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V; Bertolini, J; Lyons, K

    2006-09-01

    The Fc function of immunoglobulins is commonly determined by an assay based on monitoring immunoglobulin induced, complement mediated red cell lysis. This assay requires a continuous source of fresh red cells. We have shown that the assay can be successfully performed with frozen red cells. The possibility of access to a stored standard stock of red cells will improve the convenience of performing the assay and could contribute to improved assay reproducibility. PMID:16500112

  10. Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F. C.; Graves, G. J. M.; Laughlin, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper celebrates the contributions of Peter Bodenheimer to our understanding of stellar evolution by focusing on the long term development of red dwarf stars. We show that these diminutive stellar objects remain convective over most of their lives, they continue to burn hydrogen for trillions of years, and they do not experience red giant phases in their old age. Instead, red dwarfs turn into blue dwarfs and finally white dwarfs. This work shows (in part) why larger stars do become red giants.

  11. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  20. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  1. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  2. 22 CFR 71.8 - Assistance to American Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... American Red Cross. Officers and employees of the Foreign Service may cooperate fully with the American Red Cross within their respective districts and subject to the limitations prescribed in § 102.806 (22 CFR... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to American Red Cross. 71.8...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  7. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  9. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identify human blood-group antibodies. (b) Source. Reagent Red Blood Cells shall be prepared from human... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells §...

  10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 29 CFR 1620.26 - Red circle rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red circle rates. 1620.26 Section 1620.26 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.26 Red circle rates. (a) The term “red circle” rate is used to describe certain unusual, higher than...

  12. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  13. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  14. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  15. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  16. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  2. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone... from entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line...

  3. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  4. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  5. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  6. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent...

  7. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  8. African dust forms red soils in Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-11-01

    In Bermuda, red, iron-rich, clayey soils, called terra rossa, are storehouses of information not only on past local processes that crafted the topography of the island but also on atmospheric circulation patterns that drove global climate during the Quaternary period (roughly 2.5 million years ago). The origin of the terra rossa, however, has remained a mystery for more than a century. On one hand, dissolution features in the carbonate rocks suggest that local material, for example volcanic rocks, could be the source of these red beds. On the other hand, Bermuda is also uniquely located to receive airborne dust from western Africa as well as from loess deposits of the Mississippi valley of the central United States—both of which could also be potential sources of the terra rossa soils in Bermuda.

  9. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  10. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  11. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. PMID:26776057

  13. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  14. On the interior properties of red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    The interior evolution of red giants is focused on, the major emphasis being on the evolution of stars during the double shell-burning stage. The evolutionary course during the first and second ascent up the red giant branch of the H-R diagram are discussed for stars that vary with respect to certain critical masses, and the thermal pulse phase is also treated. Core, envelope, and surface phenomena are explained along with the process of development into white dwarfs or supernovas. The interplay of internal forces caused by various fuel-burning processes, electron-degeneracy pressure, and gravity are detailed, and phenomena such as core dredge-up, relaxed oscillations, and AGB stars are explained. Numbers are given for the properties of H-burning and convective shells, and detailed comparisons with observations are made.

  15. The red edge of plant leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horler, D. N. H.; Dockray, M.; Barber, J.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed study of the red edge spectral feature of green vegetation based on laboratory reflectance spectrophotometry is presented. A parameter lambda is defined as the wavelength is defined as the wavelength of maximum slope and found to be dependent on chlorophyll concentration. Species, development stage, leaf layering, and leaf water content of vegetation also influences lambda. The maximum slope parameter is found to be independent of simulated ground area coverage. The results are interpreted in terms of Beer's Law and Kubelka-Munk theory. The chlorophyll concentration dependence of lambda seems to be explained in terms of a pure absorption effect, and it is suggested that the existence of two lambda components arises from leaf scattering properties. The results indicate that red edge measurements will be valuable for assessment of vegetative chlorophyll status and leaf area index independently of ground cover variations, and will be particularly suitable for early stress detection.

  16. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. PMID:24246651

  17. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  18. Origin of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Luchkov, B.

    1981-09-01

    The Great Red Spot, a giant vortex in the Jovian atmosphere, may owe its origin to the structure of Jupiter's magnetic field and radiation belt. Several Spot parameters resemble those of the Brazil anomaly, a negative anomaly in the terrestrial field. It is shown qualitatively that the Spot has developed at the site of a negative anomaly in the Jovian field and is continually supplied by precipitation of energetic radiation-belt particles into the planet's atmosphere.

  19. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  20. Multigrid with red black SOR revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yavneh, I.

    1994-12-31

    Optimal relaxation parameters are obtained for red-black point Gauss-Seidel relaxation in multigrid solvers of a family of elliptic equations. The resulting relaxation schemes are found to retain high efficiency over an appreciable range of coefficients of the elliptic operator, yielding simple, inexpensive and fully parallelizable smoothers in many situations where more complicated and less cost-effective block-relaxation and/or partial coarsening are commonly used.