Science.gov

Sample records for red angus em

  1. Growth and pubertal development of F1 bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize body growth, testicular development and puberty between 8 and 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu, to MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll, 1...

  2. Growth and Pubertal Development of F1 Bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu Sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize growth, testicular development and puberty between 9 and 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford (H), Angus (A), Norwegian Red (N), Swedish Red and White (S), Friesian (F), and Wagyu (W), to MARC III (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ...

  3. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  4. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  5. Growth and pubertal development of F1 bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Cundiff, L V; Ford, J J

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize body growth, testicular development, and puberty from 8 to 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu breeds to MARC III ((1/4) Hereford, (1/4) Angus, (1/4) Red Poll, and (1/4) Pinzgauer) cows. Traits evaluated were birth weight, weaning weight (at 215 d), yearling weight, ADG from 8 to 14 mo of age, paired testicular volume growth from 8 to 14 mo of age, age at puberty (determined by production of 50 x 10(6) sperm with 10% motility), age at freezable semen (determined by production of 500 x 10(6) sperm with 50% motility), and, at 15 mo of age, paired testicular weight and daily sperm production per testis pair. There was an effect of sire breed (P = 0.03) for age at puberty; animals with Wagyu and Swedish Red and White inheritance reached puberty at a later date (302 and 302 d of age, respectively) compared with Angus-sired bulls (268 d). Age at puberty for Hereford-, Norwegian Red-, and Friesian-sired bulls was 270, 271, and 278 d, respectively. Differences in BW were observed (P = 0.03) at birth; bulls with Hereford and Friesian were heavier at birth (43 and 41 kg, respectively) compared with those with Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, and Wagyu inheritance (39, 38, and 38 kg, respectively). Differences in BW were also observed at 1 yr of age (P = 0.001), where the heaviest animals were those sired by Angus (450 kg), whereas the lightest animals were those sired by Wagyu (403 kg). Bulls with Wagyu inheritance had the lowest (P = 0.04) ADG (1.12 kg/d) compared with bulls with inheritance from Hereford (1.22 kg/d), Angus (1.28 kg/d), Norwegian Red (1.24 kg/d), Swedish Red and White (1.25 kg/d), and Friesian (1.27 kg/d). Differences in scrotal growth rate were not significant (P = 0.99). They ranged from 1.95 in Angus-sired to 1.66 cm3/d in Wagyu-sired bulls. There were no differences (P = 0.80) for age at freezable semen

  6. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    PubMed

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P < .05). Among the Zebu-sired calves, the Red and Gray Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P < .05). The Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P < .05) in marbling score and quality grade although the Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P < .05) than Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601767

  7. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning

  8. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153

  9. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  10. COMPARISONS OF ANGUS-, BRAUNVIEH-, CHIANINA-, HEREFORD-, GELBVIEH-, MAINE ANJOU-, AND RED POLL-SIRED COWS FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from Angus, Hereford and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2 to 8 yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center comprising cow weight (CW, n= 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676) and condition score (CS, n = 15,...

  11. Maternal and reproductive performance of Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x Angus cows in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W; Hammond, A C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the maternal and reproductive performance of F1 cows in the subtropics, 42 Brahman x Angus, 34 Senepol x Angus, and 50 Tuli x Angus cows were bred to Angus bulls to calve first and subsequently bred to Charolais bulls to calve as 3- to 8-yr-olds. Age at first calving did not differ among crossbred cows. Angus-sired calf birth weights were heavier (P < 0.01) from Senepol x Angus than either Brahman x Angus or Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Angus-sired calves were heavier (P < 0.01) from Brahman x Angus (213.5 kg) than either Senepol x Angus (194.9 kg) or Tuli x Angus (191.5 kg) cows. As 3- to 8-yr-old cows, calf birth weights were heavier (P < 0.05) from Senepol x Angus compared with Brahman x Angus but not Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Charolais-sired calves were heaviest (P < 0.05) from Brahman x Angus cows (268.9 kg), lightest from Tuli x Angus cows (233.4 kg), and intermediate from Senepol x Angus cows (245.0 kg). Calf crop born and calf crop weaned were lowest (P < 0.05) for Senepol x Angus cows (76.9 and 70.2%) and did not differ between Brahman x Angus (89.0 and 86.1%) and Tuli x Angus (94.7 and 86.5%) cows. Tuli x Angus cows tended (P < 0.10) to have a lower percentage of unassisted births and lower (P < 0.10) calf survival to weaning than Brahman x Angus cows but not Senepol x Angus cows. As 3- to 8-yr-olds, weaning weight per cow exposed was greatest (P < 0.05) for Brahman x Angus (234.2 kg), least (P < 0.05) for Senepol x Angus (173.0 kg), and intermediate (P < 0.05) for Tuli x Angus (209.1 kg) cows. Also as 3- to 8-yr-olds, efficiency (205-d calf weight per 100 kg of cow exposed) was similar for Brahman x Angus (42.2) and Tuli x Angus cows (40.7), and both were greater (P < 0.01) than for Senepol x Angus cows (33.8). These data indicate that, in the subtropics, maternal and reproductive performance of Tuli x Angus cows, but not Senepol x Angus cows, was comparable to Brahman x Angus cows, except for lower calf survivability

  12. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1885380

  13. Enhanced mitogenesis in stromal vascular cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Wagyu compared with those of Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Fu, X; Liang, X; Zhu, M J; Jiang, Z; Parish, S M; Dodson, M V; Zan, L; Du, M

    2015-03-01

    Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling and lower subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with Angus cattle. However, mechanisms for differences in adipose deposition are unknown. The objective of this paper was to evaluate breed differences in the structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipogenesis, and mitogenesis of stromal vascular (SV) cells between Wagyu and Angus cattle. Subcutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from 5 Wagyu (BW = 302 ± 9 kg) and 5 Angus (BW = 398 ± 12 kg) heifers at 12 mo of age, and samples were divided into 3 pieces for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and harvest of SV cells. Adipogenesis of SV cells was assessed by the expression of adipogenic markers and Oil Red-O staining, while mitogenesis was evaluated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium dromide) test, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB; AKT). Based on histological analysis, Wagyu had larger adipocytes compared with Angus. At the tissue level, protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in Wagyu was much lower compared with that of Angus. Similarly, a lower mRNA expression of PPARG was found in Wagyu SV cells. No significant difference was observed for the zinc finger protein 423 (ZNF423) expression between Wagyu and Angus. As assessed by Oil Red-O staining, Wagyu SV cells possessed a notable trend of lower adipogenic capability. Interestingly, higher mitogenic ability was discovered in Wagyu SV cells, which was associated with an elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. There was no difference in AKT phosphorylation of SV cells between Wagyu and Angus. Moreover, exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) enhanced mitogenesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of SV cells to a greater degree in Angus compared with that in Wagyu. Expression of transforming growth factor β 3 (TGFB3) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in Wagyu SV

  14. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Soft-red and Hard-red Winter Wheat Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but little research has evaluated the effect of wheat type on bloat. Forty-eight Angus heifers (238 ± 12 kg BW) and 8 Gelbvieh by Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 ± 49 kg BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of either hard-red or soft...

  15. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Hard Red and Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but little research has evaluated the effects of wheat type on bloat. Forty-eight Angus stocker calves (238 ± 12 kg BW) and 8 Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 ± 49 kg BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of either hard red (HR) or sof...

  16. Comparison of Bloat Potential Between Soft-Red and Hard-Red Winter Wheat Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh ' Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (1,135 ± 108 lb BW) and 48 Angus heifers (525 ± 26 lb BW) grazed 2.5-acre pastures of either hard-red or soft-re...

  17. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  18. 101. DETAIL OF ESTERLINE ANGUS CHART RECORDERS ON NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. DETAIL OF ESTERLINE ANGUS CHART RECORDERS ON NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  20. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  1. Muscle Transcriptomic Analyses in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness contributes significantly to variation of beef palatability and is largely influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. To identify candidate genes and pathways related to beef tenderness, we analyzed the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus cattle with divergent degree...

  2. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  3. Physiological adaptations in adipose tissue of Brahman vs Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Hansard, H S; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Wu, G; Smith, S B

    1998-03-01

    Nonpregnant yearling Brahman (n = 12) and Angus (n = 12) heifers were equally allocated to two dietary treatments in a replicated study to examine responses in lipid metabolism to nutritional treatments consisting of a moderate energy diet (2.0 Mcal ME/kg) fed at maintenance and a 2.5 x maintenance high-energy diet (2.4 Mcal ME/kg) fed for 30 d. In vitro lipogenesis and the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were determined in perianal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at the start and end of the trial. At the start of the trial, breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis and LPL activity. Brahman had greater (P < .05) HSL activity than Angus at the start of the trial and tended (P < .07) to have greater HSL activity at the end. Diet did not influence (P > .10) HSL activity. Heifers on the high-energy, higher-intake diet had greater lipogenesis (P < .001) and LPL activity (P < .01) than those on the moderate-energy diet. Inclusion of body condition score (BCS) nested within breed as a covariate explained breed differences for lipogenesis (P < .05). Thus, by including the covariate, the two breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis at the end of the trial. When adjusted for BCS nested within breed, Brahman had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than Angus. PMID:9535333

  4. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P < 0·05) seam fat as a percentage of carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P < 0·05) kidney, pelvic and heart fat at two of the five feeding periods than Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes. PMID:22055933

  5. Comparisons among Tuli-, Brahman-, and Angus-sired heifers: intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior.

    PubMed

    Forbes, T D; Rouquette, F M; Holloway, J W

    1998-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Tuli crossbred cattle, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior were estimated in two Texas environments. In humid east Texas, Tuli x Brahman heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Angus x Brahman heifers. Fecal output, forage intake, compartmental mass, and compartmental residence time did not differ among breeds. Angus and Brahman heifers had different (P < . 02) gastrointestinal residence times (51.1+/-1.56 vs 43.1+/-1.56 h, respectively), but values for the purebreds did not differ from those for Tuli x Brahman or Angus x Brahman heifers. Angus heifers had shorter (P < .05) 24-h grazing times (398+/-15.4 min/d) and fewer (P < .05) grazing periods (7+/-.4) than Tuli x Brahman (552+/-16.8 min/d and 10+/-.4), Angus x Brahman (507+/-18.4 min/d and 9+/-.5), and Brahman (560-/+ 16.8 min/d and 9+/-.4, respectively) heifers. In semiarid southwest Texas, Tuli x Angus heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Brahman x Angus heifers. Fecal output and forage intake were similar in Tuli x Angus and Brahman x Angus heifers (14.2+/-.69 and 14.9+/-.91 g fecal DM/ [d.kg BW] and 24.5+/-1.33 and 25.6+/-1.75 g/d of forage DMI, respectively) but higher (P < .05) than those of purebred Brahman heifers (12.2+/-.64 and 20.3+/-1.23 g/[d.kg BW] of fecal DM and forage DMI, respectively). Grazing times did not differ among breeds. We conclude that Tuli-sired heifers are likely to be as productive as Brahman crossbred heifers in Texas, based on the similarities in intake, digesta dynamics, and grazing behavior. PMID:9464902

  6. EM Propagation in Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Analysis of RED Experiment Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, T.; Friehe, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    The pattern of propagation for EM signals over the ocean is a combined result of the atmospheric refraction and scattering from the rough ocean surface. Here we study experimentally the structure of the atmospheric refractive index and the ocean surface statistics, pertinent to scattering. We are also interested in fluctuations of the refractive index induced by the ocean surface waves, which along with the turbulence contribute to the random refraction. However, these fluctuations exhibit behavior different from turbulence (e.g. their structure function does not follow the 2/3 scaling valid for the turbulent fluctuations) and require to be studied separately. We analyze data of atmospheric turbulence, humidity, temperature, and sea surface temperature and waves from the Rough Evaporation Duct experiment, conducted in part from the instrument platform FLIP in the open ocean north of Oahu, Hawaii.

  7. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  8. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  9. Evaluating Timing of Weaning Stress on Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 362 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 211) and fall (n = 151) of ...

  10. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas J; Rood, Kerry A; Kelly, E Jane; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-07-01

    In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies result in retention of keratinized cells (orthokeratosis). The present report reminds diagnosticians to consider vitamin A deficiency in cases of orthokeratotic dermatopathy in cattle. PMID:22585959

  11. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  12. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Scheeder, M R L; Kreuzer, M; Dufey, P-A

    2003-04-01

    Meat quality and marbling properties of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers (4×16) were compared at an average intramuscular fat content (IMF) of 3.25% in the M. longissimus dorsi. The steers were fattened on a forage-based diet until the desired, ultrasonically estimated IMF content was reached which resulted in considerably different growth and carcass characteristics. The Angus group showed a growth rate similar to Simmental and Charolais while Limousin grew slower, became oldest and provided the heaviest carcasses and best conformation. Angus carcasses showed the lowest weight but the highest fatness score. Marbling was equal for all breeds. Angus and Charolais provided pale meat with low haem iron content. Angus and Limousin beef was more tender on sensory assessment than Simmental beef, corresponding to differences found in shear force (non-significant) and myofibrillar fragmentation index measured at 48 h post mortem. Flavour was similar among breed groups while juiciness was highest for Limousin and lowest for Angus. The juicier beef simultaneously showed the highest drip but the lowest cooking losses. In conclusion, clear differences in meat quality were observed between breeds despite similar IMF contents. PMID:22062519

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  14. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness. PMID:19465490

  15. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (P<0.0001), lower marbling (P<0.0001), smaller ribeye area (P<0.0001), and less fat over the ribeye (P<0.0001) than Angus carcasses. Brahman beef was less tender (P<0.0001), had more connective tissue (P<0.0001), and it was less juicy (P<0.001) than Angus beef. Heterosis increased hot carcass weight (P<0.0001), dressing percent (P<0.017), ribeye area (P<0.0001), fat over the ribeye (P<0.0001), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (P<0.01) in Angus-Brahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis. PMID:21703774

  16. Immunocastration improves carcass traits and beef color attributes in Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus crossbred animals finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Giulianna Z; Faria, Marcelo H; Roça, Roberto O; Santos, Carolina T; Suman, Surendranath P; Faitarone, Ana B G; Delbem, Nara L C; Girao, Lucio V C; Homem, Juliana M; Barbosa, Erika K; Su, Leticia S; Resende, Flavio D; Siqueira, Gustavo R; Moreira, Aline D; Savian, Taciana V

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of immunocastration on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus male animals finished in feedlot. Surgically castrated, immunocastrated, and intact animals were finished in feedlot for 90 days. The animals were harvested, and carcass traits were evaluated. Carcasses were chilled, and one 2.5-cm steak was fabricated from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The steaks were individually vacuum packaged and frozen at -18 °C. Frozen steaks were thawed, and pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, and shear force were determined. Immunocastrated animals demonstrated greater (P<0.05) hot dressing percentage and cold dressing percentage than their surgically castrated counterparts. Furthermore, steaks from immunocastrated and surgically castrated animals exhibited greater redness (P<0.05) and lower darkness (P<0.05) than steaks from intact animals, indicating possible advantage in retailing. The results suggested that immunocastration may be utilized to improve carcass traits and beef color in feedlot-finished Nellore and Nellore×Aberdeen Angus males. PMID:24211546

  17. Linkage disequilibrium in Angus, Charolais, and Crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Li, Changxi; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Plastow, Graham; Moore, Stephen; Miller, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the persistence of its phase across populations are important for genomic selection as well as fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, knowledge of LD in beef cattle, as well as the persistence of LD phase between crossbreds (C) and purebreds, is limited. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of LD in Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and C beef cattle based on 31,073, 32,088, and 33,286 SNP in each population, respectively. Amount of LD decreased rapidly from 0.29 to 0.23 to 0.19 in AN, 0.22 to 0.16 to 0.12 in CH, 0.21 to 0.15 to 0.11 in C, when the distance range between markers changed from 0–30 kb to 30–70 kb and then to 70–100 kb, respectively. Breeds and chromosomes had significant effects (P < 0.001) on LD decay. There was significant interaction between breeds and chromosomes (P < 0.001). Correlations of LD phase were high between C and AN (0.84), C and CH (0.81), as well as between AN and CH (0.77) for distances less than or equal to 70 kb. These dropped when the distance increased. Estimated effective population sizes for AN and CH were 207 and 285, respectively, for 10 generations ago. Given a useful LD of at least 0.3 between pairs of SNPs, the LD phase between any pair of the three breed groups was highly persistent. The current SNP density would allow the capture of approximately 49% of useful LD between SNP and marker QTL in AN, and 38% in CH. A higher density SNP panel or redesign of the current panel is needed to achieve more of useful LD for the purpose of genomic selection beef cattle. PMID:22912646

  18. Differences in heat tolerance between preimplantation embryos from Brahman, Romosinuano, and Angus breeds.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cerón, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to 41 degrees C reduces development of embryos of heat-sensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus) more than for embryos of the heat-tolerant Brahman breed. Here it was tested whether embryonic resistance to heat shock occurs for a thermotolerant breed of different genetic origin than the Brahman. In particular, the thermal sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos of the Romosinuano, a Bos taurus, Criollo-derived breed, was compared to that for in vitro produced Brahman and Angus embryos. At d 4 after insemination, embryos > or = 8 cells were randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 h) treatments. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage on d 8 after insemination. At 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant differences in development between breeds. Among embryos exposed to 41 degrees C, however, development was lower for Angus embryos than for Brahman and Romosinuano embryos. Furthermore, an Angus vs. (Brahman + Romosinuano) x temperature interaction occurred because heat shock reduced development more in Angus (30.3 +/- 4.6% at 38.5 degrees C vs. 4.9 +/- 4.6% at 41 degrees C) than in Brahman (25.1 +/- 4.6% vs. 13.6 +/- 4.6%) and Romosinuano (28.3 +/- 4.1% vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1%). Results demonstrate that embryos from Brahman and Romosinuano breeds are more resistant to elevated temperature than embryos from Angus. Thus, the process of adaptation of Brahman and Romosinuano breeds to hot environments resulted in both cases in selection of genes controlling thermotolerance at the cellular level. PMID:14765810

  19. [Familial occurrence of a congenital defect of the keratinisation of the skin in German Angus calves].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kuiper, H; Wöhlke, A; Wohlsein, P; Gerhauser, I; Marxfeld, H; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Congenital dysfunction of the keratinisation of the epithelium was diagnosed in two female German Angus calves born on the same farm. The relationship coefficient between the two affected Angus calves was 34.38%. The clinical findings were similar to ichthyosis congenita as the alterations of the skin were present at birth and the levels of zinc in the blood were not decreased. However, parakeratosis could not be completely excluded as skin alterations were partly parakeratotic. On account of the close relationship between the two affected calves a genetic cause is likely for the present cases. PMID:17252933

  20. Effect of shade on summer body temperature and respiration rate of Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effect of shade during summer in Florida on rectal temperature and respiration rate, a total of 24 heifers (8 Angus, 8 Brahman, and 8 Romosinuano) were utilized. Heifers were allotted by breed to one of two treatment groups, shade or no shade. Heifers were acclimated to treatments f...

  1. Estimates of (co) variance components using random regression models for gastrointestinal helminthoid data in Angus cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 6,375 FEC measures were determined for 409 animals between 1992 and 2003 from Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Wye Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (co)variance components. The Random ...

  2. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  3. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3 untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cat...

  4. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  5. Angus and Romosinuano steers exhibit differential acute phase responses following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to elucidate the acute phase response in cattle while evaluating potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds [Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)] in response to an endotoxin challenge. The Romosinuano is a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed developed i...

  6. Genetic analyses of beef traits of crossbred and purebred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects for beef traits of steers produced by purebred and crossbred matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus. Steers (n = 469) were spring-born from 2002 to 2004 and weaned at an average of 7 mo of age. They were transported to Oklahoma and...

  7. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  8. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  9. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  10. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  11. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  12. Enhancement of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis in skeletal muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M S; Paulino, P V R; Das, A K; Wei, S; Serão, N V L; Fu, X; Harris, S M; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2013-06-01

    Intramuscular fat and collagen content are major factors affecting beef quality, but mechanisms regulating intramuscular adipose and connective tissue deposition are far from clear. Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling. The objective of this study was to evaluate intramuscular fat (IMF) and collagen deposition in the muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle. Animals were managed under the same condition and slaughtered at an averaging 585 ± 12.1 kg of BW. Samples of sternomandibularis muscle were collected from Wagyu (n = 3) and Angus (n = 3) for molecular and histological investigations of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis. With exception of C/EBPβ (P = 0.2864), the expression of the adipogenic markers C/EBPα (P = 0.008), PPARγ (P = 0.028), and zip finger protein 423 (Zfp423; P = 0.047) in Wagyu were greater than in Angus muscle, which was consistent with greater IMF deposition in Wagyu (P < 0.05). In addition, more adipocytes and preadipocytes were detected intramuscularly in Wagyu cattle. Similarly, fibrogenesis was also enhanced in Wagyu, with a greater expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (P = 0.028), FGF receptor 1 (P = 0.030), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (P = 0.028), collagen I (P = 0.012), and collagen III (P = 0.025). Similarly, Wagyu muscle had greater collagen content (P = 0.002) and decreased collagen solubility (P = 0.005). In addition, muscle fiber diameter was larger (P < 0.0001) in Wagyu than in Angus cattle. These results clearly show that both IMF and collagen contents are enhanced in Wagyu cattle and more adipogenic cells are detected in Wagyu muscle, indicating intramuscular adipogenesis is enhanced in Wagyu compared with Angus muscle. PMID:23508025

  13. Ontogenic development of brown adipose tissue in Angus and Brahman fetal calves.

    PubMed

    Landis, M D; Carstens, G E; McPhail, E G; Randel, R D; Green, K K; Slay, L; Smith, S B

    2002-03-01

    Brahman calves experience greater neonatal mortality than Angus calves if cold-stressed. To establish a developmental basis for this, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Overall fetal BW tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for Angus than for Brahman fetuses. There was no difference between breed types in total brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass or grams of BAT/kg BW. Brown adipocyte density decreased 56%, whereas lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types. Glycerolipid synthesis from palmitate declined by 85% during the last trimester but still contributed 98% to total lipid synthesis at birth. The fetal age x breed interaction was significant for lipogenesis from glucose (P = 0.05) and palmitate (P = 0.005); rates were higher at 96 d before birth in Brahman BAT but declined to similar rates by birth. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA tripled during gestation in both breed types (P = 0.002), whereas mitochondrial cross-sectional area did not change (P = 0.14) during gestation. Neither the breed nor the age x breed effect was significant (P > or = 0.24) for UCP1 mRNA concentration or mitochondrial cross-sectional area. In both breed types, a marked decrease in BAT UCP1 mRNA between 24 and 14 d prepartum was associated with a similar reduction in lipogenesis from palmitate and a noticeable change in BAT mitochondrial morphology, as the mitochondria became more elongated and the cristae became more elaborate. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA initially was elevated in Angus tailhead s.c. adipose tissue, but was barely detectable by birth, and tended to be greater overall (P = 0.09) in Angus than in Brahman BAT. If uncoupling protein activity in s.c. adipose tissue persists after birth, then s.c. adipose tissue may contribute more to thermogenesis in Angus newborn calves than in Brahman calves. In contrast, we did not observe

  14. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Taiane S.; Sanglard, Letícia M. P.; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L.; Rennó, Luciana N.; Serão, Nick V. L.; Silva, Fabyano F.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Ladeira, Márcio M.; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP–1, CPT–2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis. PMID:26436893

  15. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P < .001) for B x A calves than for S x A or T x A calves. Greater differences were detected between sexes for B x A than for S x A and T x A (for all traits sire breed x calf sex, P < .05). Sire breed affected (P < .01) the percentage of unassisted calvings (B x A, 87%; S x A, 98%; and T x A, 100%) and tended (P < .10) to affect the percentage of calves that survived until weaning (B x A, 90%; S x A, 94%; and T x A, 98%). Sire breed of calf did not affect (P > .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage. PMID:10834561

  16. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  17. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in. PMID:3732867

  18. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr. PMID:27065252

  19. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  20. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-08-01

    Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus. PMID:12211382

  1. Preweaning growth of F1 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds x Angus and reproductive performance of their Angus dams in arid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the preweaning performance of F1 Brahman (Bos indicus)-, Senepol (Bos taurus)-, and Tuli (Sanga)-Angus calves under semiarid south Texas conditions and to evaluate the reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Four hundred eighty-nine records collected over 4 yr were analyzed. The statistical model for performance traits included the effects of breed of sire, year, sex, age of dam, and breed of sire x year. Year effects were important (P < 0.05) for performance traits but could be explained, at least partially, by differences between years in rainfall patterns. Brahman F1 calves were 13% less (P < 0.05) vigorous at birth, 4.7 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at birth, 13.5 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at weaning, 0.25 units lower (P < 0.05) in body condition score (BCS) at weaning, and 1.75 units greater (P < 0.05) in frame score (scores of 1 to 9) at weaning than Tuli and Senepol F1 calves. Senepol F1 calves were intermediate (P < 0.05) between the Brahman and Tuli F1 calves for birth and weaning weight but had 11% more (P < 0.05) vigor at birth than the other two crossbreds. Tuli and Senepol F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in BCS and frame size at weaning. Males were 3.3 kg heavier (P = 0.12) at birth than females, especially for the F1 Brahman males that were 4.5 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than their counterparts. Brahman F1 weaned 19.9 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than the average of the other two F1 in the year of the greatest rainfall (1994), whereas the average advantage in other years was 11.4 kg. This difference gave rise to a breed of sire x year interaction (P < 0.003). Brahman F1 were heavier at every measurement and appeared to be later-maturing and more able to excel under good forage conditions than the other two F1 breed types; Senepol and Tuli F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in these respects but appeared to be more competitive in relative growth rate to the Brahman F1 calves in years of greater nutritional stress. Angus females were

  2. Use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in GeneSTAR markers for intramuscular fat deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in terms of the presence or absence of GeneSTAR markers for intramuscular fat deposition. Twenty-three pure-bred Angus heifers (223 ± 44 kg) were sorted into two treatment groups based ...

  3. Comparison of Florida-born, embryo-derived Angus calves sourced from Kansas and Florida herds on measures of performance, disposition, and body temperature from birth to weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida's beef industry ranks first in the US for the number of ranches exceeding 500 cows. Angus bulls are commonly imported into Florida from northern states to supply the demand for herd sires. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of two Angus genotypes derived from froz...

  4. Ovarian and endocrine characteristics during an estrous cycle in Angus, Brahman, and Senepol cows in a subtropical environment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, P; Spicer, L J; Chase, C C; Payton, M E; Hamilton, T D; Stewart, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Wettemann, R P

    2000-05-01

    To determine breed differences in ovarian function and endocrine secretion, daily rectal ultrasonography was conducted on multiparous lactating Angus (temperate Bos taurus; n = 12), Brahman (tropical Bos indicus; n = 12), and Senepol (tropical Bos taurus; n = 12) cows during an estrous cycle in summer. Blood was collected daily to quantify plasma concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, estradiol, GH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), insulin, glucose, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Numbers of small (2 to 5 mm), medium (6 to 8 mm), and large follicles (> or = 9 mm) were greater (P < .05) in Brahman than in Angus and(or) Senepol cows. Length of the estrous cycle (SEM = .6 d) was similar (P > .10) among Senepol (20.4 d), Angus (19.5 d), and Brahman (19.7 d) cows. Senepol cows had greater (P < .05) diameters of the corpus luteum (CL) and a delayed regression of the CL as compared with Angus cows. The secondary surge of FSH (between d 1 and 2; d 0 = estrus) was greater in Angus than Brahman or Senepol cows (breed x day, P < .05). Between d 2 and 14 of the estrous cycle, concentrations of progesterone, LH, IGF-II, and binding activities of IGFBP-3, IGFBP-2, and the 27- to 29-kDa IGFBP in plasma did not differ (P > .10) among breeds. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, insulin, and PUN were greater (P < .001) and binding activities of the 22-kDa and 20-kDa IGFBP tended (P < .10) to be greater in plasma of Brahman than in Angus or Senepol cows. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P < .05) in Senepol than in Brahman or Angus cows. In conclusion, Brahman (Bos indicus) and Senepol cows (tropical Bos taurus) had greater numbers of follicles in all size categories and greater diameter of CL than Angus (temperate Bos taurus) cows. These ovarian differences may be due to changes in the pattern of secretion of FSH, insulin, IGF-I, and GH but not LH, IGF-II, or IGFBP-2 or -3. PMID:10834585

  5. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (p<0.05) greater FEC than Brangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  6. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus

  7. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) and taller (P < 0.05) than S x A and T x A bulls at the start and end of the study. However, breed type did not influence (P > 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P < 0.05) than that of B x A or S x A bulls at the start of the study, but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P < 0.05), heavier (P < 0.05), and taller (P < 0.05) and had larger (P < 0.05) SC than S x A and T x A bulls. Tuli x Angus bulls were younger (P < 0.05) than S x A bulls at PU and PP but had similar SC. Libido scores tended (P < 0.10) to be lower for B x A than for S x A and T x A bulls. Breed type affected (P < 0.05) carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, greatest (P < 0.05) dressing percentage, larger (P < 0.05) longissimus muscle area than

  8. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  9. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  10. Evaluation of physiological differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate differences in thermoregulatory ability of two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine Romosinuano steers (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW; RO) were housed in the Brody Environmental Center at the University of Missouri. S...

  11. Genomic and functional characteristics of copy number variations in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to intestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a large sca...

  12. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  13. Angus sattle at high altitude: Genetic relationships and initial genome-wide association analyses of pulmonary arterial pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records from yearling Angus (n = 10,647) cattle from elevation 2,340 m were used in genetic analysis of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Bulls were developed within a grain-supplemented performance test, whereas heifers and steers were grazed. The BovineSNP50 Beadchip was used to genotype a subset...

  14. Genomic regions showing copy number variations associate with resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. We previously reported an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in Angus cattle selected for resistance or susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes. In this study, we performed a lar...

  15. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed. PMID:9222851

  16. Genetic effects for reproductive performance of straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano and Angus cows in a temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to: 1) estimate heterosis and breed direct effects for cow reproduction traits of Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in a temperate climate, and 2) assess the effects of the type of forage grazed (bermudagrass, endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue) durin...

  17. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  18. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Schenkel, F; Vinsky, M; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    In beef cattle, phenotypic data that are difficult and/or costly to measure, such as feed efficiency, and DNA marker genotypes are usually available on a small number of animals of different breeds or populations. To achieve a maximal accuracy of genomic prediction using the phenotype and genotype data, strategies for forming a training population to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV) of the selection candidates need to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of predicting GEBV for residual feed intake (RFI) based on 522 Angus and 395 Charolais steers genotyped on SNP with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Beadchip for 3 training population forming strategies: within breed, across breed, and by pooling data from the 2 breeds (i.e., combined). Two other scenarios with the training and validation data split by birth year and by sire family within a breed were also investigated to assess the impact of genetic relationships on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Three statistical methods including the best linear unbiased prediction with the relationship matrix defined based on the pedigree (PBLUP), based on the SNP genotypes (GBLUP), and a Bayesian method (BayesB) were used to predict the GEBV. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEBV prediction was the highest when the prediction was within breed and when the validation population had greater genetic relationships with the training population, with a maximum of 0.58 for Angus and 0.64 for Charolais. The within-breed prediction accuracies dropped to 0.29 and 0.38, respectively, when the validation populations had a minimal pedigree link with the training population. When the training population of a different breed was used to predict the GEBV of the validation population, that is, across-breed genomic prediction, the accuracies were further reduced to 0.10 to 0.22, depending on the prediction method used. Pooling data from the 2 breeds to form the training population resulted in accuracies increased

  19. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  20. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  1. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  2. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  3. Association between GNRHR, LHR and IGF1 polymorphisms and timing of puberty in male Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bovines, there are significant differences within and among beef breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Although the timing of puberty is likely to be a multigenic trait, previous studies indicate that there may also be single genes that exert major effects on the timing of puberty within the general population. Despite its economic importance, there are not many SNPs or genetic markers associated with the age of puberty in male cattle. In the present work, we selected three candidate genes, GNRHR, LHR and IGF1, and associated their polymorphisms with the age of puberty in Angus male cattle. Results After weaning, 276 Angus males were measured every month for weight (W), scrotal circumference (SC), sperm concentration (C) and percentage of motility (M). A total of 4 SNPs, two within GNRHR, one in LHR and one in IGF1 were genotyped using the pyrosequencing technique. IGF1-SnaBI SNP was significant associated (P < 0.01) with age at SC 28 cm, but it were not associated with age at M 10% and C 50 million. Genotype CC exhibited an average age at SC 28 cm of 7 and 11 days higher than CT (p = 0.037) and TT (p = 0.012), respectively. This SNP explained 1.5% of the genetic variance of age of puberty at SC28. LHR-I499L, GNRHR-SNP5 and GNRHR-SNP6 were not associated with any of the measurements. However, GNRHR haplotypes showed a suggestive association with age at SC 28 cm. Conclusions The findings presented here could support the hypothesis that IGF1 is a regulator of the arrival to puberty in male calves and is involved in the events that precede and initiate puberty in bull calves. Given that most studies in cattle, as well as in other mammals, were done in female, the present results are the first evidence of markers associated with age at puberty in male cattle. PMID:22480211

  4. Pregnancy rate and first-service conception rate in Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Totir, L R; Kachman, S D; Fernando, R L; Wilson, D E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the genetic control of conception rate, or pregnancy percentage in Angus beef heifers. Producers from 6 herds in 5 states provided 3,144 heifer records that included breeding dates, breeding contemporary groups, service sires, and pregnancy check information. Two hundred fourteen sires of the heifers were represented; with 104 sires having less than 5 progeny, and 14 sires having greater than 50 progeny. These data were combined with performance and pedigree information, including actual and adjusted birth weights, weaning weights, and yearling weights, from the American Angus Association database. Heifer pregnancy rate varied from 75 to 95% between herds, and from 65 to 100% between sires, with an overall pregnancy rate of 93%, measured as the percentage of heifers pregnant at pregnancy check after the breeding season. Pregnancy was analyzed as a threshold trait with an underlying continuous distribution. A generalized linear animal model, using a relationship matrix, was fitted. This model included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of dam, and first AI service sire, and the covariates of heifer age at the beginning of breeding, adjusted birth weight, adjusted weaning weight, and adjusted yearling weight. The relationship matrix included 4 generations of pedigree. The heritability of pregnancy and first-service conception rates on the underlying scale was 0.13 +/- 0.07 and 0.03 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimated breeding values for pregnancy rate on the observed scale ranged from -0.02 to 0.05 for sires of heifers. Including growth traits with pregnancy rate as 2-trait analyses did not change the heritability of pregnancy rate. As expected for a reproductive trait, the heritability of pregnancy rate was low. Because of its low heritability, genetic improvement in fertility by selection on heifer pregnancy rate would be expected to be slow. PMID:16864860

  5. A Deletion Mutation in Bovine SLC4A2 is Associated with Osteopetrosis in Red Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteopetrosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by the formation of overly dense bones in affected humans and animals, resulting from a deficiency in the number and/or function of bone-resorbing osteoclast cells. In cattle, osteopetrosis can either be induced during gestation by viral infection ...

  6. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  7. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( < 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) were observed in Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( < 0.01) were observed in bulls fed the WSC diet than in those fed the GC diet. In addition, bulls fed the WSC diet had greater G:F ( < 0.01). The WSC diet led to greater variation in DMI compared with the GC diet ( < 0.01). Omasum and large intestine percentage was affected by diets only in the Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI. PMID:27285921

  8. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system. PMID:26440328

  9. Expression of genes related to the regulation of muscle protein turnover in Angus and Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Busato, K C; Gomes, R A; Ladeira, M M; Duarte, M S; Freitas, N C; Rodrigues, A C; Chalfun-Junior, A; Paiva, L V; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the expression of genes related to the regulation of muscle protein turnover in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus and Nellore bulls and to estimate the within-breed correlations of gene expression and performance traits. Thirteen genes related to the IGF-1 and myostatin pathways were studied. Thirteen animals, with an initial average BW of 381.2 ± 11.8 kg, from each breed were used in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design (2 breeds and 2 feeding levels). The diet consisted of corn silage and a corn-soybean meal concentrate in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 30:70. Cattle were fed ad libitum (with 9 animals from each breed) or feed restricted (a 55% restriction of total DMI of ad libitum-fed animals, calculated as percentage of metabolic BW, with 4 animals of each breed). The experimental period lasted for 82 d and it was preceded by a 28-d adaptation period. The performance traits evaluated were slaughter body weight, total ADG (from d 1 to 82 of the trial), initial ADG (from d 1 to 41 of the trial), final ADG (from d 42 to 82 of the trial), total DMI (from d 1 to 82 of the trial), initial DMI (from d 1 to 41 of the trial), final DMI (from d 42 to 82 of the trial), HCW, LD weight (LDW), and rib eye area (REA). After slaughter, samples were taken from the LD muscle between the 12th and 13th ribs for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. There was no difference ( > 0.05) in the expression of any of the genes studied between ad libitum-fed Angus and ad libitum-fed Nellore, whereas feed restriction increased the expression of (; < 0.001), (; = 0.05), and (; = 0.04) and decreased the expression of ( < 0.01). The REA was negatively correlated to (; = 0.01), (; = 0.02), and ( = 0.05). The HCW was negatively correlated to ( = 0.01) and ( = 0.01) and tended to be negatively correlated to ( = 0.07), whereas the LDW tended to be negatively correlated to ( = 0.08). The genes , , and seem to be important

  10. Quantitative genomics of 30 complex phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F₁ progeny.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J; O'Fallon, James V; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T; Reeves, Jerry J; Busboom, Jan R; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F(1) progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  11. Quantitative Genomics of 30 Complex Phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F1 Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J.; O'Fallon, James V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F1 progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  12. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    PubMed

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  13. Correlations for genetic expression for growth of calves of Hereford and Angus dams using a multivariate animal model.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Dominguez, R; Van Vleck, L D; Boldman, K G; Cundiff, L V

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the correlation between the expression of genes from sires in purebred and crossbred progeny (rPC) and in Hereford and Angus F1 calves (rHA). Performance traits were weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d. Progeny from Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Angus bulls mated to Hereford or Angus cows were used to estimate rPC. Progeny from Charolais, Shorthorn, Simmental, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Tarentaise, and Salers bulls mated to Hereford or Angus cows were used to estimate rHA. Performances in purebreds (P) and crosses (C) or in Hereford (H) and Angus (A) F1 calves were treated as separate traits. A multivariate animal model with birth year-cow age-sex subclasses, random correlated direct and maternal additive genetic effects, and maternal permanent environmental effects was used. Separate analyses were done by breed of sire. A derivative-free algorithm was used to obtain REML estimates of (co)variance components. Weighted averages across breeds of estimates of heritability for P, C, H, and A were, respectively, .61, .51, .47, and .40 for birth weight, .41, .46, .37, and .34 for weaning weight, and .50, .49, .42, and .46 for yearling weight. Estimates of rPC ranged from .88 to .97, .55 to .94, and .68 to .86 for weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d, respectively. Estimates of rHA ranged from .43 to .99, .56 to .95, and .50 to .98 for weights at birth, 200 d, and 365 d, respectively. Weighted averages of estimates of rPC and rHA across sire breeds were, respectively, .93 and .85 for birth weight, .77 and .73 for weaning weight, and .76 and .86 for yearling weight. These results indicate that ranking of sires producing purebreds or crosses, or crossbred calves from different breeds of dams, is approximately the same for birth and yearling weights, but some reranking might occur for weaning weight. PMID:8407645

  14. Success at first insemination in Australian Angus cattle: analysis of uncertain binary responses.

    PubMed

    Spangler, M L; Sapp, R L; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2006-01-01

    Field data from Australian Angus herds were used to investigate 2 methods of analyzing uncertain binary responses for success or failure at first insemination. A linear mixed model that included herd, year, and month of mating as fixed effects; unrelated service sire, additive animal, and residual as random effects; and linear and quadratic effects of age at mating as covariates was used to analyze binary data. An average gestation length (GL) derived from artificial insemination data was used to assign an insemination date to females mated to natural service sires. Females that deviated from this average GL led to uncertain binary responses. Two analyses were carried out: 1) a threshold model fitted to uncertain binary data, ignoring uncertainty (M1); and 2) a threshold model fitted to uncertain binary data, accounting for uncertainty via fuzzy logic classification (M2). There was practically no difference between point estimates obtained from M1 and M2 for service sire and herd variance; however, when uncertain binary data were analyzed ignoring uncertainty (M1), additive variance and heritability estimates were greater than with M2. Pearson correlations indicated that no major reranking would be expected for service sire effects and animal breeding values using M1 and M2. Given the results of the current study, a threshold model contemplating uncertainty is suggested for noisy binary data to avoid bias when estimating genetic parameters. PMID:16361487

  15. Proteomic and peptidomic differences and similarities between four muscle types from New Zealand raised Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Clerens, Stefan; Thomas, Ancy; Gathercole, Jessica; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Yu, Tzer-Yang; Grosvenor, Anita J; Haines, Stephen R; Dobbie, Peter; Taukiri, Kevin; Rosenvold, Katja; Dyer, Jolon M; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2016-11-01

    Four muscles from New Zealand-raised Angus steers were evaluated (musculus semitendinosus, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, m. psoas major and m. infraspinatus) to test their differences and common features in protein and peptide abundances. The ultimate goal of such a comparison is to match muscle types to products with targeted properties. Protein profiling based on two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the overall profiles were similar, but, between muscle types, significant (p<0.05) intensity differences were observed in twenty four protein spots. Profiling of endogenous peptides allowed characterisation of 346 peptides. Quantitative analysis showed a clear distinction between the muscle types. Forty-four peptides were identified that showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) and substantial (>2-fold change) difference between at least two muscle types. These analyses demonstrate substantial similarities between these four muscle types, but also clear distinctions in their profiles; specifically a 25% difference between at least two muscles at the peptidomic level, and a 14% difference at the proteomic level. PMID:27262484

  16. Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcriptome Dynamics During Growth in Angus Cattle Longissimus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Graugnard, Daniel E.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Berger, Larry L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome dynamics in the longissimus muscle (LM) of young Angus cattle were evaluated at 0, 60, 120, and 220 days from early-weaning. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using the dynamic impact approach (DIA) by means of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) databases. Between 0 to 120 days (growing phase) most of the highly-impacted pathways (eg, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, drug metabolism, cytochrome P450 and Retinol metabolism) were inhibited. The phase between 120 to 220 days (finishing phase) was characterized by the most striking differences with 3,784 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analysis of those DEGs revealed that the most impacted KEGG canonical pathway was glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, which was inhibited. Furthermore, inhibition of calpastatin and activation of tyrosine aminotransferase ubiquitination at 220 days promotes proteasomal degradation, while the concurrent activation of ribosomal proteins promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, the balance of these processes likely results in a steady-state of protein turnover during the finishing phase. Results underscore the importance of transcriptome dynamics in LM during growth. PMID:23943656

  17. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  18. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  19. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  20. Heat tolerance in Tuli-, Senepol-, and Brahman-sired F1 Angus heifers in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Olson, T A; Randel, R D

    1998-06-01

    We investigated heat tolerance and growth rate in two trials under ambient conditions in central Florida. Trial 1 (1994) involved 38 Brahman (B), 21 Senepol (S), 19 B x Angus (A), 20 S x A, and 20 Tuli (T) x A heifers. Trial 2 (1995) involved 13 A, 35 B, 30 S, 23 B x A, 17 S x A, and 28 T x A heifers. Measurements were made on three consecutive weeks during the hotter and cooler seasons of each year and included rectal temperature (RT, degrees C), respiration rate (RR, bpm), temperament score (TS; 1 = very docile, 5 = very aggressive), blood packed-cell volume (PCV), and plasma cortisol concentration (CORT). Data for RT were transformed (log10 [RT - 37]) before analysis. On the hottest date in Trial 1, log10 RT was not different between B (.39 +/- .011) and B x A (.37 +/- .016) or between T x A (.35 +/- .015) and B x A, but log10 RT was lower (P < .05) in S x A (.30 +/- .015) than in either S (.35 +/- .015) or T x A. On all dates in Trial 1, RR was lower (P < .05 to .001) and PCV was higher (P < .05 to .001) in B than in B x A. There were few differences in TS except on two dates when B scored higher (P < .01 to .001) than B x A, and these differences were associated with higher (P < .05) CORT in B than in B x A. Using initial BW as a covariate, adjusted ADG (kg) of T x A (.52 +/- .023) was not different from adjusted ADG of B x A (.57 +/- .024) or S x A (.54 +/- .023). On the hottest date in Trial 2, log10 RT and RR were higher (P < .001) in A (.59 +/- .017, 74 +/- 2.7) than in B (.47 +/- .010, 39 +/- 1.6), S (.42 +/- .011, 50 +/- 1.8), and crossbred heifers (.47 +/- .011, 60 +/- 1.8; .43 +/- .014, 55 +/- 2.4; and .50 +/- .012, 48 +/- 2.0 for T x A, S x A and B x A, respectively), and RR was higher (P < .001) in B x A than in B. On the coolest date in Trial 2, RR was slightly lower in B (32 +/- .5) than in A(34 +/- .7, P < .01) and B x A (36 +/- .6, P < .001) and was associated with higher PCV in B than in A. On both dates, TS and CORT were higher (P < .01) in B

  1. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain) recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix. PMID:20403185

  2. Lipogenic activity of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues from steers produced by different generations of angus sires.

    PubMed

    May, S G; Burney, N S; Wilson, J J; Savell, J W; Herring, A D; Lunt, D K; Baker, J F; Sanders, J O; Smith, S B

    1995-05-01

    Simmental and Hereford cows (n = 74) were inseminated with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1960s or with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1980s. The F1 calves provided the foundation for two investigations, one addressing growth and carcass characteristics, and another measuring the impact of sire generation on lipid metabolism and adiposity. Calves sired by the 1980s-type bulls had greater (P < .05) birth, weaning, and final live weights and carcass weights. They also had larger (P < .05) hip heights and hip widths at weaning and larger (P < .05) hip heights and lower (P < .05) body condition scores at slaughter. There were no differences (P > .05) in any measure of fatness between groups (adjusted fat thickness, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or marbling scores), but yield grade was higher numerically (P < .1) for the 1980s steers. The second aspect of this research addressed the influence of different generations of Angus sires on specific carcass traits and adipose tissue metabolism. A subset of six steers for each generation type (from Simmental cows) were selected and samples were collected at slaughter for measurements in vitro. For both generation types, intramuscular (i.m.) adipocytes had lesser (P < .05) cell volumes than subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue. Correspondingly. i.m. adipose tissue exhibited lower (P < .05) rates of 14C-labeled acetate incorporation into lipids as measured immediately after slaughter. Intramuscular and s.c. adipocytes from 1980s-type steers were smaller (P < .05) than those from the 1960s-types steers, with correspondingly more cells per gram of tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665362

  3. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency

  4. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing carcass, post-natal growth and reproductive traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McClure, M C; Morsci, N S; Schnabel, R D; Kim, J W; Yao, P; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Gregg, S J; Chapple, R H; Northcutt, S L; Taylor, J F

    2010-12-01

    To gain insight into the number of loci of large effect that underlie variation in cattle, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 14 economically important traits was performed in two commercial Angus populations using 390 microsatellites, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one duplication loci. The first population comprised 1769 registered Angus bulls born between 1955 and 2003, with Expected Progeny Differences computed by the American Angus Association. The second comprised 38 half-sib families containing 1622 steers with six post-natal growth and carcass phenotypes. Linkage analysis was performed by half-sib least squares regression with gridqtl or Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of complex pedigrees with loki. Of the 673 detected QTL, only 118 have previously been reported, reflecting both the conservative approach to QTL reporting in the literature, and the more liberal approach taken in this study. From 33 to 71% of the genetic variance and 35 to 56% of the phenotypic variance in each trait was explained by the detected QTL. To analyse the effects of 11 SNPs and one duplication locus within candidate genes on each trait, a single marker analysis was performed by fitting an additive allele substitution model in both mapping populations. There were 53 associations detected between the SNP/duplication loci and traits with -log(10) P(nominal) ≥ 4.0, where each association explained 0.92% to 4.4% of the genetic variance and 0.01% to 1.86% of the phenotypic variance. Of these associations, only six SNP/duplication loci were located within 8 cM of a QTL peak for the trait, with two being located at the QTL peak: SST_DG156121:c.362A>G for ribeye muscle area and TG_X05380:c.422C>T for calving ease. Strong associations between several SNP/duplication loci and trait variation were obtained in the absence of any detected linked QTL. However, we reject the causality of several commercialized DNA tests, including an association between TG

  5. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. PMID:26948295

  6. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P < 0.05); those for Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P < 0.001). Estimates of Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05); however, Angus direct effects were beneficial for both traits (0.1 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). The effect of heterosis was to reduce calving interval by -49.2 ± 9.9 and -37.2 ± 9.7 d for Romosinuano-Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P < 0.001). Romosinuano and F1 cows sired by Romosinuano and out of Angus dams had the most occurrences of difficult births as a proportion of cows that calved (0.028 and 0.025, P = 0.04). Angus-sired crossbred cows and Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P < 0.04). There were more Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P < 0.02) than cows in the

  7. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers. PMID:26942915

  8. Genetic evaluation of aspects of temperament in Nellore-Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate heritability of each of 5 subjectively measured aspects of temperament of cattle and the genetic correlations of pairs of those traits. From 2003 to 2013, Nellore-Angus F2 and F3 calves (n = 1,816) were evaluated for aspects of temperament at an average 259 d of age, which was approximately 2 mo after weaning. Calves were separated from a group and subjectively scored from 1 (calm, good temperament) to 9 (wild, poor temperament) for aggressiveness (willingness to hit an evaluator), nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness (willingness to separate from the group), and a distinct overall score by 4 evaluators. Data were analyzed using threshold and linear models with additive genetic random effects. Two-trait animal models (nonthreshold) included the additive genetic covariance for pairs of traits and were used to estimate additive genetic correlations. Contemporary groups (n = 104) represented calves penned together for evaluation on given evaluation days. Heifers had greater (worse) means for all traits than steers (P < 0.05). The regression of score on age in days was included in final models for flightiness (P = 0.05; -0.006 ± 0.003) and gregariousness (P = 0.025; -0.007 ± 0.003). Estimates of heritability were large (0.51, 0.4, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.47 for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament, respectively; SE = 0.07 for each). The ability to use this methodology to distinctly separate different aspects of calf temperament appeared to be limited, as estimates of additive genetic correlations were near unity for all pairs of traits; estimates of phenotypic correlation ranged from 0.88 ± 0.01 to 0.99 ± 0.002 for pairs of traits. Distinct subsequent analyses indicated a significant negative relationship of 4 of the various temperament scores with weight at weaning (regression coefficients ranged from -0.008 ± 0.002 for nervousness, flightiness, and gregariousness to -0.003 ± 0

  9. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for methane emission and postweaning traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, K A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R F

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants contribute 80% of the global livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through the production of methane, a byproduct of enteric microbial fermentation primarily in the rumen. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data on 1,046 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance estimates for methane emissions and production traits and to examine the interrelationships among these traits. The cattle were fed a roughage diet at 1.2 times their estimated maintenance energy requirements and measured for methane production rate (MPR) in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Traits studied included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means of 6.1 kg/d (SD 1.3), 132 g/d (SD 25), and 22.0 g/kg (SD 2.3) DMI, respectively. Four forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMP), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth and body composition traits evaluated were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), final weight (FWT), and ultrasound measures of eye muscle area, rump fat depth, rib fat depth, and intramuscular fat. Heritability estimates were moderate for MPR (0.27 [SE 0.07]), MY (0.22 [SE 0.06]), and the RMP traits (0.19 [SE 0.06] for each), indicating that genetic improvement to reduce methane emissions is possible. The RMP traits and MY were strongly genetically correlated with each other (0.99 ± 0.01). The genetic correlation of MPR with MY as well as with the RMP traits was moderate (0.32 to 0.63). The genetic correlation between MPR and the growth traits (except BWT) was strong (0.79 to 0.86). These results indicate that

  10. Use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to evaluate the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genotypic differences in GeneSTAR markers for Intramuscular fat deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intramuscular fat can serve as an energy reserve for cattle during an immune challenge, thus cattle with a genotypic variation in DNA markers (DNAm) for IMF may have an altered response to an immune challenge. In a previous study with Angus heifers with or without DNAm for IMF which were challenged ...

  11. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  12. Evaluation of the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genetic marker variation for intramuscular fat deposition following a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effect of genetic selection for markers related to marbling deposition in Angus heifers on the immune response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fall-born heifers (n = 19; ~7 months of age, 274 +/- 24 kg) with genetic variation for marbling were utilized inclu...

  13. BREED COMPARISONS OF ANGUS, BRAHMAN, HEREFORD, PINZGAUER, SAHIWAL AND TARENTAISE FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from topcross cows (N = 468) from 6 breeds of sire and two breeds of dam (Angus and Hereford) of Cycle III of the Germplasm Evaluation Program (GPE) at the US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) comprising cow weight (CW, n = 9,012), height (CH, n = 9,010) and condition score (CS, n = 8,991) r...

  14. Estimation of genetic marker effects for CAPN1, CAST, and GHR on carcass quality traits in Angus cattle selected to increase minor marker frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions cannot be accurately estimated when minor marker allele frequencies (MAF) are low. To increase the accuracy of estimation for three marker systems in commercial use, an Angus population at USMARC was subjected to marker assisted-selection for multiple years t...

  15. Evaluation of Physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  16. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  17. Effect of breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition, temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams are factors that may have an effect on growth and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, 1/2 A ½ B, and 1/4 A 3/4 B)...

  18. Relationship between carcass traits and phenotypic residual feed intake, breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of factors that permit animals to grow quickly and efficiently, and have desirable carcass characteristics remains a primary goal in beef production. The objective was to evaluate the relationship between 7 carcass traits and breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, ...

  19. GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION FOR MATURE SIZE AND RATE OF MATURING FOR ANGUS, BRAHMAN, AND RECIPROCAL-CROSS COWS ON ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED FESCUE OR BERMUDAGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature weight (A) and rate of maturing (k) were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows grazing bermudagrass (BG) or endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximatel...

  20. Genetic analyses involving microsatellite ETH10 genotypes on bovine chromosome 5 and performance trait measures in Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle.

    PubMed

    DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-07-01

    ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (P<0.05) birth weight, yet cattle with the large/large genotype had approximately 5.1% greater (P<0.05) percentage of fat within LM and more LM per BW than cattle with small/large or small/small genotypes. Genotype-to-phenotype relationships were not detected in multibreed analyses. The ETH10 locus appears to be associated with growth and carcass traits in Angus and Brangus cattle

  1. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P < .001) than that of Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P < .05) in log10 rectal temperature on the hottest summer date. On both the hottest and coolest dates in Trial 1, Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P < .001) than in Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P < .05). Considering rank order among breeds, Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different

  2. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance-tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Hallford, D M; Keisler, D H; Obeidat, B S; Morrison, C D; Hernandez, J A; Bryant, W D; Flores, R; Lopez, R; Narro, L

    2002-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that regulate growth and reproduction are important for improving selection strategies in cattle. In this study, Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls (n = 7 per breed) of similar age were selected from a group of 65 weanlings. Bulls were evaluated after weaning (i.e., approximately 6 mo of age) for 112 d for serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose, growth, and reproductive traits. Performance data and blood sera were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Sera were also collected in periods from d 50 to 59 (56D) and 103 to 112 (112D). Angus bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) throughout the study than Brahman bulls and were heavier than Brangus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112. Initial and final BW for Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls were 292.7, 260.6, and 230.4 and 468.3, 435.6, and 350.7 +/- 12 kg, respectively. Conversely, Brahman bulls had greater hip height (P < 0.05) than Brangus, and Brangus were taller (P < 0.05) than Angus. Angus bulls had the greatest (P < 0.05) scrotal circumference (SC) and Brahman bulls the least. Mean SC across days was 31.5, 29.7, and 25.0 +/- 0.6 cm for the three respective breeds. Serum testosterone was greater (P < 0.01) in Angus and Brangus bulls (10.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) than in Brahman bulls (4.0 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) throughout the study. After d 112, 100, 86, and 57% of the Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls passed a breeding soundness exam (P = 0.51). Serum concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were greater (P < or = 0.06) in Angus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112 than in Brangus and Brahman bulls. Serum concentrations of GH (P < 0.08) and glucose (P < 0.03) were greater in Brangus bulls than in Angus or Brahman bulls throughout the study. Prediction analyses suggested that serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict (P < or = 0.08) BW and SC (R2 > 0.82) in the 56D and 112D periods among these breeds. Leptin was also useful in predicting (P < or = 0.09) serum concentrations of GH and testosterone in

  3. Genetic x environment interactions on blood constituents of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and calves grazing common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Cole, N A; Brown, M A; Phillips, W A

    2001-05-01

    Over a 2-yr period, effects of genotype and forage on blood metabolites, enzymes, and minerals were determined in Angus, Brahman, Angus x Brahman (sire x dam), and Brahman x Angus cows, and 129 calves from these cows sired by Hereford bulls. Cows and calves continuously grazed either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue pastures throughout the year. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture in April, August, October (weaning), and November (after 30 d in a feedlot) of each year. Plasma urea N concentrations of cows and calves were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and FFA concentrations of cows were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). In calves, antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were not affected by forage but were affected by breed. Serum inorganic P concentrations of calves and cows were affected by forage (P < 0.05). Serum P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity of calves were affected by breed (P < 0.05). Calves grazing bermudagrass had higher (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of Fe and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). There was evidence of maternal heterosis for concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, Ca, Mg, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin, Fe, and TIBC. There was evidence of grandmaternal effects for plasma concentrations of urea N, cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that calves and cows grazing tall fescue are generally on a lower plane of nutrition than those grazing bermudagrass and that Brahman x Angus and Angus x Brahman crossbred cows and their calves seen to be more tolerant of the negative effects of tall fescue than the average of their purebred contemporaries. PMID:11374533

  4. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  5. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. PMID:26771144

  6. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    PubMed Central

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  7. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  8. Breed comparisons of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Simmental, and South Devon for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score of cows.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851), height (CH, n = 14,553), and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in four seasons per year were evaluated for 881 cows ranging from 2 to 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were straightbred Herefords and Angus and topcrosses from mating of Hereford, Angus, South Devon, Jersey, Simmental, Limousin, and Charolais sires to Hereford and Angus dams. The model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, with year of birth, pregnancy-lactation (PL) code, and breed group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. Model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Data were analyzed by REML. Differences due to breeds of sire were significant for all traits. Differences were generally maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Rankings were in the following order: Jersey (lightest and shortest), Hereford-Angus (and reciprocal), Limousin, South Devon, Simmental, and Charolais (heaviest and tallest). The only exception was that Limousin-sired cows were heavier than South Devon-sired cows after 5 yr of age. Cows sired by breeds of British origin tended to be lighter than breeds of continental European origin. Adjustment for condition score changed estimates of breed differences. Rankings of breed groups, however, were generally the same for actual weight and weight adjusted for condition score. Results indicated that the part of the differences in weight due to differences in condition were of small magnitude. Differences tended to increase when adjusted for condition score, especially in contrasts of continental vs British breeds. Differences among breed groups for height followed differences for weight closely. PMID:12542152

  9. Lipid characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis of Angus and Wagyu steers fed to US and Japanese endpoints.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Choi, C B; Chae, S H; Rhoades, R D; Adams, T H; Booren, B; Smith, S B

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and cholesterol of adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis would not differ between Angus and American Wagyu steers when fed to a typical US live weight, but would diverge when fed to a Japanese live weight. To test this, 8 steers of each breed type were assigned to a high-energy, corn-based diet, and another 8 steers of each breed type were fed coastal bermuda grass hay diet, supplemented with the corn-based diet to achieve a daily gain of 0.9kg/d. Targeted final body weights were 525kg for steers fed for 8 or 12mo the corn- or hay-based diets, respectively, and were 650kg for steers fed for 16 or 20mo the corn- or hay-based diets. Digesta concentrations of stearic (18:0) and trans-vaccenic acid decreased, whereas linoleic acid (18:2n-6) increased between the US and Japanese endpoints (all P⩽0.03). α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) increased in digesta only in the hay-fed steers during this time. Plasma concentrations of palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and the 16:1:18:0 ratio, were higher in Angus steers than in Wagyu steers. Also, the plasma 16:1:18:0 ratio was decreased by hay feeding in Angus steers, but increased in Wagyu steers, when fed to the Japanese endpoint. Concentrations of oleic (18:1n-9), linoleic, α-linolenic, and 18:2trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid all were higher in Wagyu than in Angus subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, whereas myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid were higher in Angus s.c. adipose tissue (P⩽0.05). All MUFA increased, and saturated fatty acids decreased, between the US and Japanese endpoints. Slip points of lipids in s.c. adipose tissue were over 10°C lower (P=0.01) in Japanese-endpoint steers than in US endpoint steers, consistent with the overall increase in MUFA with time on feed. The concentration of cholesterol in the M. longissimus thoracis increased with time, which may have been related to the increase in oleic acid

  10. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) in Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy

  11. Calf production by Angus-Hereford and Brahman-Hereford cows on two native rangeland forage systems.

    PubMed

    Sims, P L; Bailey, D W

    1995-10-01

    Calf birth weights, weaning weights, and preweaning gain of Simmental-sired calves from Angus-Hereford (AH) and Brahman-Hereford (BH) F1 cows grazing native rangeland (NR) or native rangeland-complementary forage (NRCF) systems in the southern Great Plains mixed prairie were evaluated. Calves from AH dams were heavier (P < .001) at birth than calves from BH dams in both forage systems (40 and 37 kg, respectively). However, birth weights of calves from BH dams were 2 kg heavier (P < .001) in the NRCF fall-calving system. Calves in the NRCF system were 122 d older and heavier (P < .001) than the NR calves at weaning (343 and 256 kg, respectively). During the preweaning period, the NR calves gained faster (P < .001) than the NRCF calves. When calves from both systems were evaluated at 200 d of age, NR calves were heavier (P < .001) than NRCF calves. Calves from BH cows were 8 to 16 kg heavier (P < .001) that calves from AH cows at 200 d of age and at weaning. The increased age at weaning associated with the NRCF did not reduce reproductive efficiency. The NRCF system requires less land than a traditional NR system to support a cow-calf pair and seems to be more economically efficient. PMID:8617659

  12. Comparison of breeding value prediction for two traits in a Nellore-Angus crossbred population using different Bayesian modeling methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Hulsman Hanna, Lauren L.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Sanders, James O.; Riley, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2) evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to embryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387). After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB (π̃ = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively) and BayesC (π = 0 and π̃), where π̃ is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV) from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using π̃) had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP (ρ̂gĝ = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively), but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, β̂y,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively). Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers. PMID:25505837

  13. Effect of biotin supplementation on meat quality of F1 Wagyu/Black Angus feedlot steers of known genotype.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R J; Doyle, J C; Elliott, R; Norton, B W; Loxton, I

    2007-10-01

    Biotin (D-biotin) was supplemented to F1 Wagyu/Black Angus steers fed a wheat-based ration to evaluate the effect on meat quality. One hundred and eight steers of known Wagyu sire lines were assigned to three biotin treatments (0, 10 and 20mg/head/day) with each treatment replicated four times using an unfasted liveweight of 410.5kg (±24.42 SD). Biotin supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on beef marbling standard at either the 5/6th or 10/11th rib quartering site, 10/11th rib intra-muscular fat percentage, intra-muscular fat fatty acid composition or adipose melting points. Wagyu genotype had an effect (P<0.05) on beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage at the 10/11th rib, inter-muscular and intra-muscular melting point and fatty acid composition of intra-muscular fat. A significant (P<0.001) but poor correlation existed between beef marbling standard and intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.198). Total conjugated linoleic acid had a highly significantly (P<0.0001) positive correlation to intra-muscular fat percentage (R(2)=0.446). PMID:22061595

  14. Genome-Wide Scan of Gastrointestinal Nematode Resistance in Closed Angus Population Selected for Minimized Influence of MHC

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI) nematode fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3) with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC). DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection. PMID:25803687

  15. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    PubMed Central

    Riley, David G.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Riggs, Penny K.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Sanders, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses. PMID:25249774

  16. Multiple-breed reaction norm animal model accounting for robustness and heteroskedastic in a Nelore-Angus crossed population.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M M; Santana, M L; Cardoso, F F

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to genetically characterize post-weaning weight gain (PWG), over a 345-day period after weaning, of Brangus-Ibagé (Nelore×Angus) cattle. Records (n=4016) were from the foundation herd of the Embrapa South Livestock Center. A Bayesian approach was used to assess genotype by environment (G×E) interaction and to identify a suitable model for the estimation of genetic parameters and use in genetic evaluation. A robust and heteroscedastic reaction norm multiple-breed animal model was proposed. The model accounted for heterogeneity of residual variance associated with effects of breed, heterozygosity, sex and contemporary group; and was robust with respect to outliers. Additive genetic effects were modeled for the intercept and slope of a reaction norm to changes in the environmental gradient. Inference was based on Monte Carlo Markov Chain of 110 000 cycles, after 10 000 cycles of burn-in. Bayesian model choice criteria indicated the proposed model was superior to simpler sub-models that did not account for G×E interaction, multiple-breed structure, robustness and heteroscedasticity. We conclude that, for the Brangus-Ibagé population, these factors should be jointly accounted for in genetic evaluation of PWG. Heritability estimates increased proportionally with improvement in the environmental conditions gradient. Therefore, an increased proportion of differences in performance among animals were explained by genetic factors rather than environmental factors as rearing conditions improved. As a consequence response to selection may be increased in favorable environments. PMID:26754914

  17. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  18. Mean pulmonary arterial pressures in Angus steers increase from cow-calf to feedlot-finishing phases.

    PubMed

    Neary, J M; Garry, F B; Holt, T N; Thomas, M G; Enns, R M

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension due to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling is the predominant cause of right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) in cattle. Historically, heart failure was problematic only at altitudes over 2,134 m. However, anecdotal reports suggest that the incidence of heart failure is increasing in feedlot cattle at moderate altitude (800 to 1,600 m), with late-fed, or fat, cattle at greatest risk. The goal of this study was to evaluate pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) in a cohort of male Angus calves from suckling to finishing to better understand why heart failure is particularly problematic in fat cattle. It was hypothesized that mean PAP would increase through the feeding period and that the calves with the greatest pressures at high altitude would have the greatest pressures as fat cattle. A total of 362 PAP measurements were obtained from 153 calves. Calves were tested at altitudes of 2,170 (4 and 6 mo old), 1,560 (13 mo old), and 1,300 m (13 and 18 mo old). Mean PAP were greater in 18-mo-old steers than any other age group (mean = 50.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 48.2 to 52.4; < 0.05). Calves that had the greatest mean pressure at 6 mo of age tended to have the greatest mean pressures at 18 mo of age ( = 0.45, < 0.001). The increase in mean PAP with increasing age and adiposity likely predisposed the steers to an increased risk of CHF during the finishing phase. PMID:26440165

  19. A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koltes, James E.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Totir, Liviu R.; Fernando, Rohan L.; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore, COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression was increased in dwarf cattle compared with unaffected cattle. These experiments indicate that the R678X mutation is functional, resulting in a loss of PRKG2 regulation of COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression. Therefore, we present PRKG2 R678X as a causative mutation for dwarfism cattle. PMID:19887637

  20. Genome-wide association and prediction of direct genomic breeding values for composition of fatty acids in Angus beef cattlea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As consumers continue to request food products that have health advantages, it will be important for the livestock industry to supply a product that meet these demands. One such nutrient is fatty acids, which have been implicated as playing a role in cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the extent to which molecular markers could account for variation in fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and identify genomic regions that harbor genetic variation. Results Subsets of markers on the Illumina 54K bovine SNPchip were able to account for up to 57% of the variance observed in fatty acid composition. In addition, these markers could be used to calculate a direct genomic breeding values (DGV) for a given fatty acids with an accuracy (measured as simple correlations between DGV and phenotype) ranging from -0.06 to 0.57. Furthermore, 57 1-Mb regions were identified that were associated with at least one fatty acid with a posterior probability of inclusion greater than 0.90. 1-Mb regions on BTA19, BTA26 and BTA29, which harbored fatty acid synthase, Sterol-CoA desaturase and thyroid hormone responsive candidate genes, respectively, explained a high percentage of genetic variance in more than one fatty acid. It was also observed that the correlation between DGV for different fatty acids at a given 1-Mb window ranged from almost 1 to -1. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to identify the causal variants harbored within the identified 1-Mb windows. For the first time, Angus breeders have a tool whereby they could select for altered fatty acid composition. Furthermore, these reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fatty acid metabolism and deposition. PMID:24156620

  1. Deriving Gene Networks from SNP Associated with Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Fractions from Ribeyes of Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Justin W.; Reecy, James M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Duan, Qing; Beitz, Don C.; Koltes, James E.; Saatchi, Mahdi; Koesterke, Lars; Mateescu, Raluca G.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction. Posterior means of the effects were estimated for each of the 54 k SNP and for the collective effects of all the SNP in every 1-Mb genomic window in terms of the proportion of genetic variance explained by the window. Windows that explained the largest proportions of genetic variance for individual lipids were found in the triacylglycerol fraction. There was almost no overlap in the genomic regions explaining variance between the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions. Partial correlations were used to identify correlated regions of the genome for the set of largest 1 Mb windows that explained up to 35% genetic variation in either fatty acid fraction. SNP were allocated to windows based on the bovine UMD3.1 assembly. Gene network clusters were generated utilizing a partial correlation and information theory algorithm. Results were used in conjunction with network scoring and visualization software to analyze correlated SNP across 39 fatty acid phenotypes to identify SNP of significance. Significant pathways implicated in fatty acid metabolism through GO term enrichment analysis included homeostasis of number of cells, homeostatic process, coenzyme/cofactor activity, and immunoglobulin. These results suggest different metabolic pathways regulate the development of different types of lipids found in

  2. Influence of breed and diet on growth, nutrient digestibility, body composition and plasma hormones of Brangus and Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Beaver, E E; Williams, J E; Miller, S J; Hancock, D L; Hannah, S M; O'Connor, D L

    1989-09-01

    Two split-plot designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of breed (Angus, A, or Brangus, B) and diet (fescue hay, FH; corn silage, CS; or concentrate) on composition and rate of growth, diet digestibility and plasma hormones of steers. In Exp. 1, 10 steers (five of each breed) were fed a CS-based diet followed by a FH-based diet for two consecutive 60-d periods. Both breeds had lower (P less than .01) DM intake and digestibility when fed FH than when fed CS diets. The B steers had higher (P less than .01) plasma insulin concentrations than A steers when fed the CS diet. In Exp. 2, during two consecutive years, 10 steers previously fed CS- and FH-based diets were finished with a corn silage-whole shelled corn-based diet. During yr 1, A steers had higher (P less than .01) DM intake and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations (P less than .05) than B steers did. Although final weights were similar (P greater than .10), A steers had heavier (P less than .05) carcass weights than B steers did. During yr 2, A steers had higher (P less than .07) DM and starch digestibilities and higher (P less than .01) plasma T4 concentrations than B steers did. The greater (P less than .01) energetic efficiency of A steers was attributed to the greater rates of fat deposition during yr 2. Regardless of type of diet fed, A steers were more efficient at depositing energy. Higher circulating T4 concentrations of A than B steers may explain some of the physiological differences between these breeds. PMID:2689419

  3. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

  4. Additive and heterosis effects on preweaning traits, maternal ability and reproduction from crossing of the Angus and brown Swiss breeds in Florida.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; van Dijk, A; Koger, M; Hargrove, D D; Franke, D E

    1985-11-01

    Angus (A), Brown Swiss (S) and A X S reciprocal F1 (AS) dams were mated to A, S and AS (also reciprocal F1) sires resulting in nine breed groups of progeny with varying proportions of Angus and Brown Swiss breeding. Breed group of dam and of sire significantly influenced birth weight, preweaning daily gain, weaning weight, 205-d weight, condition score and frame size. The means for birth weight and weaning weight were 33 and 213 kg, respectively. Brown Swiss bulls sired calves with the heaviest birth and weaning weights. Calves produced by S dams likewise were heavier at birth and weaning. Pregnancy rates were influenced significantly by year, age and breed of dam and averaged 79, 95 and 92% for S, AS and A cows, respectively. Survival rate averaged 97% and was not influenced significantly by any of the effects examined. Because survival rates were similar for all breed groups, the results for weaning rate paralleled those for pregnancy rate. Genetic influences on preweaning growth traits and survival rate were partitioned into additive breed differences (B) and heterosis (H) effects for direct (d) and maternal (m) components. Pregnancy and weaning rates were examined using similar analyses except that genotype of service sire of dam replaced that of the offspring for the direct additive breed and direct heterosis components. The Bd values indicated that the Angus breed was inferior (P less than .01) to the Brown Swiss breed for all preweaning growth traits except for condition score, in which the Angus breed surpassed (P less than .01) the Brown Swiss. The Bm values also showed an advantage for the Brown Swiss breed for all preweaning growth traits. The additive maternal effect (the genotype of the females exposed), Bm, was important for pregnancy rate and weaning rate (P less than .001 and P less than .05) but not for survival rate (P greater than .10). The direct additive breed effect was not important for any reproductive trait. Direct heterosis did not affect

  5. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  6. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  7. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePlus

    ... dignity and resilience Geneva, 14 September 2016 – The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies... ... News Contact us Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ( ...

  8. Relationship between Liver Mitochondrial Respiration and Proton Leak in Low and High RFI Steers from Two Lineages of RFI Angus Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Acetoze, G.; Weber, K. L.; Ramsey, J. J.; Rossow, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton leak kinetics in progeny from two lineages of Angus bulls with high and low residual feed intake (RFI). Two Angus bulls were selected based on results from a genetic test for RFI and were used as sires. Eight offspring at 10-11 months of age from each sire were housed in individual pens for 70–105 days following a diet adaptation period of 14 days. Progeny of the low RFI sire had 0.57 kg/d (P = 0.05) lower average RFI than progeny of the high RFI sire. There was no difference in dry matter intake between low and high RFI steers, but low RFI steers gained more body weight (P = 0.02) and tended to have higher average daily gains (P = 0.07). State 3 and State 4 respiration, RCR, and proton leak did not differ between high and low RFI steers (P = 0.96, P = 0.81, P = 0.93, and P = 0.88, resp.). Therefore, the increase in bodyweight gain which distinguished the low RFI steers from the high RFI steers may be associated with other metabolic mechanisms that are not associated with liver mitochondrial respiration and proton leak kinetics. PMID:27347504

  9. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  10. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  11. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  12. An evaluation of circulating bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 maternal antibody level and response to vaccination in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Downey, E D; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against viruses has been shown to help prevent bovine respiratory disease in cattle. However, both passively acquired maternal antibody concentration and calf age have been shown to impact the ability of the immune system of a calf to respond to vaccination. The objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate environmental and management factors that affect 1) passively acquired bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 antibody level, 2) decay rate of passively acquired BVDV type 2 antibody level, and 3) responses to BVDV type 2 vaccinations. A 2-shot modified live vaccine was administered to 1,004 Angus calves that were weaned at either the initial vaccination (n = 508) or the booster vaccination (n = 496). Calves weaned at the initial vaccination averaged 139 d whereas calves weaned at booster vaccination averaged 128 d of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 antibodies were measured in 3 approximately 21-d intervals, serially collected serum samples to quantify antibody levels at initiation and end of vaccination protocol in addition to responses to initial, booster, and overall vaccination protocol. Amount of passively transferred antibody in the calf increased as dam age increased from 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05) with no differences after dams reached 6 yr (P > 0.05). Calf age nested within birth year-season and dam age affected both initial and final antibody level, initial response, booster response, and overall antibody response to vaccination. The level of circulating, passively acquired maternal antibodies present at the time of vaccination had a significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on antibody responses to vaccination (initial response, booster response, and overall response). Calves that were weaned at the time of initial vaccination had significantly (P < 0.05) greater final antibody level, initial response, and overall response to vaccination than animals weaned at booster vaccination. In order for a calf to mount an overall antibody

  13. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  14. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  15. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 ...

  16. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  17. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ≥ 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an

  18. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus, is a constant. ...

  19. Evaluation of implant strategies in Angus-sired steers with high or low genetic potential for marbling and gain.

    PubMed

    Black, D N; Neville, B W; Crosswhite, M R; Dahlen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Sixty-nine Angus-sired steer calves (332.3 kg initial BW) were used to determine the effects of single or double implant strategies on steers of high or low genetic potential (GP) determined by the GeneMax (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) genetic profiling test. Steers were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with factors of 1) composite GP score (high, mean GP score of 86.5 [HI]; low, mean GP score of 25.3[LO]) and 2) implant strategy (single, steers implanted on d 70 [1X], or double, steers implanted d 0 and 70 [2X]). All steers were given the same implant (Revalor-S; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ), with the 2X group implanted on d 0 and 70 and the 1X group implanted only on d 70. A diet containing 1.38 Mcal NEg/kg DM was fed ad libitum, once daily. Ultrasound was used to measure body composition characteristics on d 0 and 70. Steers were harvested after 140 d on feed. At both the d-0 and d-70 ultrasound, HI steers had greater ( < 0.001) percent intramuscular fat (IMF) than LO steers, but no differences ( ≥ 0.24) were observed in LM area (LMA), rib fat thickness (RF), or rump fat thickness (RMFT). Steers in the 2X group had larger ( = 0.02) LMA and less ( = 0.03) IMF on d 70 than 1X steers and no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in RF or RMFT were observed. From d 0 to 70, HI steers had ADG, DMI, and G:F ( ≥ 0.60) similar to LO steers; however, 2X steers had greater ( < 0.001) ADG and were more ( < 0.001) feed efficient compared with 1X steers during the same interval. Over the entire 140-d feeding period, there were no differences ( ≥ 0.6) in BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F between GP groups; however, 2X steers had greater ( = 0.03) ADG compared with 1X steers and still had similar ( ≥ 0.12) DMI and G:F. Upon slaughter, marbling score tended to be impacted by a GP × implant interaction (499.9 ± 18.5, 545.6 ± 18.5, 487.1 ± 18.5, and 469.8 ± 18.5 for HI and 2X, HI and 1X, LO and 2X, and LO and 1X, respectively; = 0.06). No differences ( ≥ 0.7) were observed

  20. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  1. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  2. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  3. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  4. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P < .05) for birth weight, weaning weight, and gestation length. Birth weights of BB males (32.8 +/- .8 kg) were significantly heavier than for AB and TB males (30.1 +/- .9 and 28.6 +/- .7 kg, respectively) and BB females (29.4 +/- .7 kg). As a main effect, sire breed of calf affected (P < .05) calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and PPI. Calf ADG and weaning weights were greater for AB (.90 +/- .01 kg/d; 220.9 +/- 3.5 kg) than for TB (.81 +/- .01 kg/d; 200.4 +/- 3.0 kg) and BB calves (.78 +/- .01 kg/d; 198.8 +/- 3.5 kg). Gestation lengths differed (P < .01) among all calf genotypes (284, 288, and 294 +/- 1 d for AB, TB, and BB, respectively). Postpartum intervals were shorter (P < .05) for cows nursing BB calves (83 +/- 4 d) than for cows nursing AB (95 +/- 5 d) and TB calves (97 +/- 4 d). Tuli-sired F1 calves were inferior to Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  5. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  6. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma and follicular insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, follicular oestradiol and progesterone, and follicular growth in superovulated Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Vernon, R K; Hammond, A C; Rae, D O

    1994-11-01

    Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 14) cows were used to evaluate the effects of insulin administered concomitantly with FSH in a superovulation regimen. Cows were allotted to four pen replicates by treatment and breed, and received FSH (i.m.) twice a day for 5 consecutive days (first day of injections = day 0 of study) plus concomitant administration of either saline (control) or long-acting bovine insulin (0.25 iu kg-1 body mass; s.c.). Blood samples were collected at intervals of 6 h during the injection period and analysed for plasma insulin, glucose, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding protein (IGFBP) activity. Cows were ovariectomized on day 5. The number and diameter of follicles were recorded. Follicular fluid was aspirated for determination of IGF-I, IGFBP activity, oestradiol and progesterone. Mean plasma concentration of glucose was lower in insulin-treated than in control cows averaged over days 1-5 (56 +/- 3 versus 82 +/- 3 mg dl-1; P < 0.01). Plasma concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP activity were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatment, but were higher in Brahman than in Angus cows (IGF-I: 41 +/- 6 versus 19 +/- 6 ng ml-1, P < 0.05; IGFBP activity: 17.5 +/- 0.4 versus 15.8 +/- 0.04% (10 microliters)-1; P < 0.03). Insulin treatment did not affect the number of small (1.0-3.9 mm), medium (4.0-7.9 mm) or large (> or = 8.0 mm) follicles. Brahman cows had a greater (P < 0.01) number of medium and total follicles (19.4 +/- 2.5 and 60.5 +/- 5.5, respectively) than did Angus cows (7.5 +/- 2.6 and 30.5 +/- 5.6, respectively). Diameter of large follicles was greater in insulin-treated than in control cows (11.4 +/- 0.2 versus 10.6 +/- 0.1 mm; P < 0.05). Follicular fluid IGF-I concentration in large follicles was higher in insulin-treated Brahman cows (60 +/- 2 ng ml-1) than in control Brahman cows (37 +/- 2 ng ml-1), but was lower in insulin-treated Angus cows (31 +/- 3 ng ml-1) than in control Angus cows (38 +/- 2 ng ml-1; treatment x breed

  7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  9. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  10. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in milk yield and quality in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2001-07-01

    Milk yield and quality were observed on 93 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows over 3 yr to evaluate the interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis with forage environment. Forage environments were common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), and a rotational system (ROT) of both forages, in which each forage (BG or E+) was grazed during its appropriate season, usually June through October for BG and November through May for E+. Milk yield was estimated each of 6 mo (April through September) via milking machine and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. Heterosis for milk yield was similar among forages, averaging 2.4 kg (P < 0.01). Expressed as percentages of purebred means, heterosis for milk yield was largest on E+ (52.8%), intermediate on ROT (39.3%), and smallest on BG (23.7%). Direct breed effects for milk yield favored Brahman, and they were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (2.5 kg) and ROT (2.8 kg) than for BG (1.3 kg). Direct breed effects for milk fat favored Brahman and were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (1.0%) and ROT (1.0%) than for BG (0.6%). Purebred cows exceeded crossbreds in milk protein by 0.1% on ROT (P < 0.10). Crossbred cows had lower somatic cell counts than purebreds on BG (P < 0.05), E+ (P < 0.01), or ROT (P > 0.30). Heterosis for somatic cell counts as percentages of purebred means was similar for BG (-68.3%) and E+ (-68.9%) and less favorable for ROT (-31.6%). Maternal breed effects for somatic cell count favored Angus on ROT (P < 0.10) with a similar nonsignificant trend on BG and E+. Direct breed effects for somatic cell count favored Brahman on ROT (P < 0.10) with similar nonsignificant trends on BG and E+. These results suggested that a rotation of cows from E+ to BG in the summer can partially alleviate negative effects of E+ on milk yield. Conclusions also indicated an

  12. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  13. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  14. Lustre on Red Sky.

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, Stephen Todd; Mervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    The goals of Lustre on Red Sky are: (1) provide home/projects/scratch Lustre file systems; (2) adhere to the Sun HPC stack; (3) implement software RAID on Sun provided JBODs; and (4) design for easy administration. Conclusions are: (1) software RAID includes additional risks and administration vs. hardware RAID solutions; (2) limited testing of hardware in these configurations make it ill-suited for rapid deployment in a production environment; and (3) Lustre has been a shining star on this machine, Red Sky users are pleased with its performance.

  15. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  16. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  17. 'Saanich' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

  18. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  19. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  20. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  1. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  2. Effect of exogenous estradiol on plasma concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein activity, and metabolites in ovariectomized Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R B; Chase, C C; Spicer, L J; Carroll, J A; Hammond, A C; Welsh, T H

    1997-11-01

    To determine the effect of breed and estradiol-17 beta on selected hormones and metabolites, ovariectomized (> or = 3 mo) Angus (n = 14) and Brahman (n = 12) cows were paired by age and body weight and randomly assigned as either nonimplanted controls (CON) or implanted with estradiol (E2) for 45 d. After Day 7 and through Day 42, plasma concentration of somatotropin was greater for E2 than CON cows (treatment x day, P < 0.05). During an intensive blood sampling on Day 36, E2 cows tended (P < 0.10) to have greater somatotropin pulse amplitudes than CON cows, but other parameters of somatotropin release were not affected (P > 0.10) by E2 treatment. The effect of breed was apparent on Day 36 as Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) somatotropin pulse amplitude, basal secretion, and mean concentration than Angus cows. Overall, plasma concentration of IGF-I was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (158.3 vs. 104.2 ng/ml) and was greater for Brahman than Angus cows (164.1 vs. 98.4 ng/ml). However, there was a trend (P < 0.10) for a treatment x breed x day interaction for IGF-I (i.e., the magnitude of increase in IGF-I concentration was greater in E2-Angus than E2-Brahman cows). After Day 7 and through Day 42, total plasma IGF binding protein (IGFBP) activity was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows. Ligand blotting revealed at least five forms of IGFBP activity, and E2 cows had greater (P < 0.05) binding activity of IGFBP-3 and the 30- and 32-kDa IGFBP than CON cows. Brahman cows had greater (P < 0.05) IGFBP-3 and the 32-kDa IGFBP than Angus cows. After Day 14 and through Day 42, concentration of urea nitrogen (PUN) was greater (P < 0.001) for CON than E2 cows (treatment x day, P < 0.001). Brahman had greater (P < 0.01) PUN than Angus cows (16.6 vs. 14.2 mg/dl). Plasma concentration of glucose was greater (P < 0.01) for E2 than CON cows (78.9 vs. 76.4 mg/dl) but was not affected (P > 0.10) by breed. In summary, these data suggest that some, but not all, of the

  3. Selection for increased muscling in Angus cattle did not increase the glycolytic potential or negatively impact pH decline, retail colour stability or mineral content.

    PubMed

    McGilchrist, P; Greenwood, P L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the impact of selection for greater muscling in Angus cattle on myofibre characteristics, muscle enzymatics, retail colour stability, pH decline and mineral content of the semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST) and longissimus thoracis (LT). Muscle from 10 low muscled (low) and 11 high muscled (high) steers were analysed. The high steers had myofibres 22% and 24% larger in cross-sectional area in the SM and ST (P<0.05), and 8.6% less type IIX myofibres in the LT than the low steers (P<0.05). The highs had 4.9% lower lactate dehydrogenase activity, 10.2% and 12.3% higher citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity than lows (P<0.05). The highs had 27% more iron in the LT (P<0.05). The results indicate that the oxidative capacity of muscle can be maintained in more muscular cattle with no detrimental effects to mineral content, pH decline or retail colour stability. Myofibre hypertrophy is one mechanism leading to greater muscle mass of these high muscled cattle. PMID:26720886

  4. The use of blood lactate concentration as an indicator of temperament and its impact on growth rate and tenderness of steaks from Simmental × Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kohlbeck, K S; Meyers, M C; Perz, K A; Davis, K C; Thomson, J M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of blood lactate concentration as an objective measure of beef cattle temperament and determine if the temperament of steers affected growth rate and tenderness of beef steaks. Angus×Simmental steers (n=154) were evaluated for blood lactate (BL), exit velocity (EV) and chute score (CS), and humanely harvested. Carcass characteristics were assessed and loin samples were obtained for tenderness evaluation. All measures of the temperament were significantly correlated to each other (r=0.14-0.47; P≤0.04). Steaks from steers in the medium BL classification were significantly more tender than steaks from steers from the high BL classification. The steers with faster EV tended to result in steaks with higher shear force values (P=0.07). The steers classified as fast growing resulted in steaks with lower shear force values (P=0.02) compared to steaks from steers classified as slow growing. Results suggest that the temperament contributes to variations in growth rate, blood lactate, and tenderness. PMID:25625941

  5. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P < .01) for BO and T when fed ad libitum. Rates of protein or water gains did not differ among sire breeds (P > .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance. PMID:9498376

  6. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados

  7. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  8. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  9. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  10. Red giants seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  11. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados

  12. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  13. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  14. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  15. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  16. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  17. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  18. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  19. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  20. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  1. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  2. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  3. Ambiguous red shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Białynicki-Birula.

  4. Red microchip VECSEL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Jennifer E.; Morton, Lynne G.; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D.; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  5. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array. PMID:19498743

  6. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < .0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < .0001) while on test BW gain was not different between the 2 groups (P < 0.73). There were no differences detected in marbling score (P < 0.93), BF (P < 0.61), REA (P < 0.15), yield grade (P < 0.85) or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating that there was no relationship between RFI and meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to

  7. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for

  8. High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J C; Huang, J; Rentfrow, G

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned ( = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. The effect of production stage or tissue type on carcass and protein abundance was assessed by 1-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS, and Fisher's protected LSD procedure was used to separate data means. Neither GLAST1 nor EAAT4 mRNA or protein was detected. EAAC1, GLT-1, and GS mRNA were identified in all tissues, but GLT-1 and GS protein were not detected in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, and GS protein was not detected in longissimus dorsi. The EAAC1 content of subcutaneous ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.02) adipose was 2 times greater in B and F than W steers, whereas GS was 5 times greater ( < 0.07) in B than F steers (B = W > F). For longissimus dorsi, EAAC1 ( < 0.01) and GLT-1 ( < 0.04) content decreased with development (S > W > B = F, S = W > B = F, respectively). Within F steers, EAAC1 and GLT-1 mRNA was expressed by subcutaneous, kidney, omental, mesenchymal, and intramuscular adipose tissues, whereas GS mRNA was expressed by all except for intramuscular. Only EAAC1 protein was detected in any adipose tissue, with EAAC1 content being 104% and 112% greater ( < 0.01) in intramuscular than in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, respectively, and not

  9. Early weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance of angus x simmental heifers and the relationship of 12th rib fat and marbling score to feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wertz, E; Berge, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S

    2001-07-01

    Early-weaned Angus x Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effects of postweaning nutritional management on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition to the feed efficiency among heifers fed for a high-quality market. Sixteen heifers were weaned at 73+/-5.5 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 18 mo before entering the feedlot (early-weaned-P). Eighty heifers from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 71+/-5.5 d of age and allowed either ad libitum access to a 25% concentrate diet (early-weaned-25C) or limit-fed a 90% concentrate diet (early-weaned-90C) to achieve a similar ADG. Following a 119-d growing period, 16 early-weaned-90C and 16 early-weaned-25C calves were paired based on BW and growth rate and individually fed during the finishing period along with the early-weaned-P heifers. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat were recorded at approximately 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Feed efficiency was regressed against s.c. and i.m. fat, and i.m. fat was regressed on s.c. fat. Despite a similar ADG, early-weaned-90C calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.05) in the feedlot than early-weaned-25C calves. Heifers finished as yearlings tended (P < or = 0.10) to gain faster but gained less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than early-weaned-90C heifers finished as calves. The rate of s.c. and i.m. fat deposition was similar between early-weaned-90C and early-weaned-25C heifer calves. The calves were grouped together for comparison to yearlings. Feed efficiency decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.01) as s.c. fat cover increased. The rate at which feed efficiency decreased relative to increasing s.c. fat cover was similar regardless of age at feedlot entry. However, heifers finished as calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than yearlings at any given fat thickness. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as i.m. fat increased

  10. Effect of dietary energy source on in vitro substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity of muscle and adipose tissues of Angus and Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R D; Sawyer, J E; Chung, K Y; Schell, M L; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    2007-07-01

    Angus (n = 8; 210 kg of BW) and 7/8 Wagyu (n = 8; 174 kg of BW) steers were used to evaluate the effects of dietary energy source on muscle and adipose tissue metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Steers were assigned to either a grain-based (corn) or hay-based (hay) diet and fed to similar final BW. At slaughter, LM and s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue samples were collected. Portions of the LM and adipose tissues were placed immediately in liquid N for later measurement of glycolytic intermediates. Fresh LM and s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were incubated with [U-(14)C]glucose to assess glucose metabolism in vitro. All in vitro measures were in the presence of 0 or 500 ng/mL of insulin. Also, s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were incubated with [1-(14)C]acetate to quantify lipid synthesis in vitro. Glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate concentrations were 12.6- and 2.4-fold greater in muscle than in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues, respectively. Diet did not affect acetate incorporation into fatty acids (P = 0.86). Insulin did not increase conversion of glucose to CO(2), lactate, or total lipid in steers fed hay but caused an increase (per cell) of 97 to 110% in glucose conversion to CO(2), 46 to 54% in glucose conversion to lactate, and 65 to 160% in glucose conversion to total lipid content in adipose tissue from steers fed corn. On a per-cell basis, s.c. adipose tissue had 37% greater glucose oxidation than i.m. adipose (P = 0.04) and 290% greater acetate incorporation into fatty acids than i.m. adipose (P = 0.04). Insulin addition to s.c. adipose tissue from corn-fed steers failed to stimulate glucose incorporation into fatty acids, but exposing i.m. adipose tissue from corn-fed steers to insulin resulted in a 165% increase in glucose incorporation into fatty acids. These results suggest that feeding hay limited both glucose supply and tissue capacity to increase glucose utilization in response to insulin without altering acetate conversion to fatty acids

  11. Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection levels estimated by qPCR in Angus cattle from an endemic area of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N; Santana, C H; Ibelli, A M G; Néo, T A; Bilhassi, T B; Rabelo, M D; Machado, R Z; Brito, L G; Oliveira, M C S

    2016-07-01

    The levels of infection by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative PCR technique (qPCR). Fifty-one contemporaneous Angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. The number of standard female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA. The blood samples were submitted to DNA extraction and used to quantify the number of copies (NC) of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina by qPCR. The data on tick count and number of DNA copies were transformed for normalization and analyzed by a mixed model method. A multivariate model with repeated measures of the same animal, including the effects of collection, parasite species and their interaction, was used. The repeatability values were obtained from the matrix of (co)variances and were expressed for each species. The correlations between the counts of different species on the same animal, in the same collection or different collections, were also estimated. The results showed the qPCR could distinguish the two between infection by the two Babesia species. Infection levels by B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 100% and 98% of the animals, respectively. Significant differences were found (P<0.05) between the NC of the two Babesia species, B. bovis 1.49±0.07 vs. B. bigemina 0.82±0.06. Low repeatabilities were found for the counts of R. microplus and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.02, respectively. The correlations between R. microplus count and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina were both very near zero. However, an association was observed between the NC of the two species, with a correlation coefficient of 0.30 for measures from the same collection. The absence of associations between the quantity of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina and the tick counts suggests that the variation of parasitemia by the hemoparasites did

  12. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < 0.0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < 0.0001) while on-test gain was not different (P < 0.95). Marbling score was greater in LRFI than HRFI steers (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in REA (P < 0.53), BF (P < 0.65), yield grade (P < 0.24), or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating there was no consistent relationship between RFI and indices of meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0

  13. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huffman, R D; Williams, S E; Hargrove, D D; Johnson, D D; Marshall, T T

    1990-08-01

    Steers (n = 165) of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding were used to study effects of breed group (A, 3/4A:1/4B, 1/2A:1/2B, 1/4A:3/4B), age-season of feeding (calves fed during the cool season vs yearlings fed during the warm season) and slaughter end point (less than .90, 1.0 to 1.15, 1.27 to 1.40, greater than or equal to 1.5 cm of adjusted fat over the ribeye) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had heavier (P less than .05) initial and final feedlot weights than the A and 1/4B steers and higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than the A steers did. Breed types did not differ for feed efficiency. Yearling steers fed in the warm season had higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than calves fed in the cool season, but ADG calculated on an empty-rumen basis did not differ between the two age-seasons of feeding. Calves fed in the cool season were more efficient (P less than .05) than yearlings fed in the warm season when efficiency was expressed on an empty-rumen basis; however, on a live weight basis there was no difference in feed efficiency. No breed group by age-season of feeding interactions on performance were detected. Slaughter end point did not significantly affect feed efficiency on an empty-rumen basis. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had smaller ribeye areas (REA) per 100 kg hot carcass and lower marbling scores than the 1/4B and A steers. Yearlings fed in the warm season produced heavier carcasses (P less than .05) than calves fed in the cool season. As s.c. fat thickness at slaughter increased, hot carcass weight and numerical yield grade increased, whereas REA per 100 kg of hot carcass decreased. Marbling also increased as fatness increased up to about 1.5 cm subcutaneous fat. PMID:2401646

  14. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    PubMed

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P < 0.01) than the A-sired calves. During the feedlot phase, the A-sired calves gained more BW (P < 0.05) than the BB-sired calves. The BB-sired calves had heavier (P < 0.01) carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P < 0.01) fat, carcasses from BB-sired calves had greater yield (P < 0.01) compared with carcasses from A-sired calves. Carcasses from A-sired calves had a greater (P < 0.01) marbling score and greater (P < 0.01) USDA quality grade than carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P < 0.01) compared with steaks from the BB-sired calves. Steer calves were heavier (P < 0.01) at birth and weaning, and had more total BW gain in the feedlot, which resulted in a heavier final BW and HCW compared with the heifers. Steer carcasses also had greater marbling scores and quality grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability

  15. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  16. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  17. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  18. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  19. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  20. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  1. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  2. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  3. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  4. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell ...

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. The effects of breed and level of nutrition on whole-body and muscle protein metabolism in pure-bred Aberdeen angus and Charolais beef steers.

    PubMed

    Lobley, G E; Sinclair, K D; Grant, C M; Miller, L; Mantle, D; Calder, A G; Warkup, C C; Maltin, C A

    2000-09-01

    Eighteen pure-bred steers (live weight 350 kg) from each of two breeds, Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Charolais (CH), were split into three equal groups (six animals each) and offered three planes of nutrition during a 20-week period. The same ration formulation was offered to all animals with amounts adjusted at 3-week intervals to give predicted average weight gains of either 1.0 kg/d (M/M group) or 1.4 kg/d (H/H group). The remaining group (M/H) were offered the same amount of ration as the M/M group until 10 weeks before slaughter when the ration was increased to H. Data on animal performance, carcass characteristics and fibre-type composition in skeletal muscle are presented elsewhere (Maltin et al. 2000; Sinclair et al. 2000). On three occasions (17, 10 and 2 weeks before slaughter) the animals were transferred to metabolism stalls for 1 week, during which total urine collection for quantification of Ntau-methylhistidine (Ntau-MeH) elimination was performed for 4 d. On the last day, animals were infused for 11 h with [2H5]phenylalanine with frequent blood sampling (to allow determination of whole-body phenylalanine flux) followed by biopsies from m. longissimus lumborum and m. vastus lateralis to determine the fractional synthesis rate of mixed muscle protein. For both breeds, the absolute amount of Ntau-MeH eliminated increased with animal age or weight (P < 0.001) and was significantly greater for CH steers, at all intake comparisons, than for AA (P < 0.001). Estimates of fractional muscle breakdown rate (FBR; calculated from Ntau-MeH elimination and based on skeletal muscle as a fixed fraction of live weight) showed an age (or weight) decline for M/M and H/H groups of both breeds (P < 0.001). FBR was greater for the H/H group (P = 0.044). The M/H group also showed a lower FBR for the first two measurement periods (both at M intake) but increased when intake was raised to H. When allowance was made for differences in lean content (calculated from fat scores and

  7. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a

  12. SENTINEL-2A red-edge spectral indices suitability for discriminating burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Fernández-Manso, Oscar; Quintano, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fires are a problematic and recurrent issue in Mediterranean ecosystems. Accurate discrimination between burn severity levels is essential for the rehabilitation planning of burned areas. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) record data in three red-edge wavelengths, spectral domain especially useful on agriculture and vegetation applications. Our objective is to find out whether Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge wavelengths are suitable for burn severity discrimination. As study area, we used the 2015 Sierra Gata wildfire (Spain) that burned approximately 80 km2. A Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS)-grading map with four burn severity levels was considered as reference truth. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadde pseudo-R2 statistics obtained by Multinomial Logistic Regression showed the superiority of red-edge spectral indices (particularly, Modified Simple Ratio Red-edge, Chlorophyll Index Red-edge, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Red-edge) over conventional spectral indices. Fisher's Least Significant Difference test confirmed that Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge spectral indices are adequate to discriminate four burn severity levels.

  13. RED: a red-cell antibody identification expert module.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Svirbely, J R; Evans, C A; Strohm, P; Josephson, J R; Tanner, M

    1985-06-01

    We describe a software module in an expert system RED, which interprets data related to red cell antibody identification. There are three portions to this module: the problem-solving component, which incorporates the knowledge required for antibody identification as a hierarchy of programs. The programs in the hierarchy organize within themselves small pieces of knowledge represented in the form of production rules, which are capable of making judgments concerning a specific hypothesis; an intelligent data base for storage of patient data, red cell attributes, and test results; the "overview critic" portion, which combines the atomic hypotheses judged favorably by the antibody programs into a unified judgment concerning the case. Overview makes the decision to terminate processing with a conclusion about which antibodies are actually present and what specific further tests need to be performed to resolve any remaining ambiguities. PMID:3840517

  14. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  15. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  16. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

  17. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  19. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  20. Betelgeuse and the Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is one of the most magnificent stars in the sky, and one of the nearest red supergiants. Astronomers gathered in Paris in the Autumn of 2012 to decide what we know about its structure, behaviour, and past and future evolution, and how to place this in the general context of the class of red supergiants. Here I reflect on the discussions and propose a synthesis of the presented evidence. I believe that, in those four days, we have achieved to solve a few riddles.

  1. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  2. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  3. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  4. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  5. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  6. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  7. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

  8. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  9. A direct and simultaneous detection of zinc protoporphyrin IX, free protoporphyrin IX, and fluorescent heme degradation product in red blood cell hemolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence emission of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, em. approximately 626 nm), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP, em. approximately 594 nm) and fluorescent heme degradation product (FHDP, em. approximately 466 nm) are identified and simultaneously detected in mouse and human red cell hemolysates, when excited at 365 nm. A novel method is established for comparing relative FHDP, PPIX and ZPP levels in hemolysates without performing red cell porphyrin extractions. The ZPP fluorescence directly measured in hemolysates (F(365/594)) correlates with the ZPP fluorescence obtained from acetone/water extraction (R(2) = 0.9515, P < 0.0001). The relative total porphyrin (ZPP and PPIX) fluorescence obtained from direct hemolysate fluorescence measurements also correlates with red blood cell total porphyrins determined by ethyl acetate extraction (Piomelli extraction, R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.0001). These fluorescent species serves as biomarkers for alterations in Hb synthesis and Hb stability. PMID:16484045

  10. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.