Science.gov

Sample records for red clover insights

  1. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  2. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  3. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  4. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  5. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  6. Red clover interseeded into small grains makes cents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversifying cropping systems using small grains interseeded with red clover spreads out risk and creates opportunities for adding a high quality forage and nitrogen source for subsequent crops. Red clover reliably establishes using the low-cost method of frost-seeding, dropping or spinning the seed...

  7. Persistence of rotationally grazed red clover in mixed stands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in grazing pastures. Historically red clover was limited by its comparatively lower stand persistence in hay and grazed systems. Smith (2000) demonstrated increased persistence under hay management achieved through over 30 years of bree...

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES FROM RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones which cause browning reactions in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and plants including the forage crop red clover (Trifolium pratense). Production of o-quinones in red clover inhibits post-har...

  9. Red clover: An alternative to antibiotic growth promoters?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted at the Forage-Animal Production Research Unit to discover a growth-promoting natural product from red clover (Trifolium pratense). Previously published work included a bioassay for antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals. The bioassay was used to discover th...

  10. Red clover extracts not effective for hot flushes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andrea

    2003-11-01

    Both red clover extracts and placebo equally reduce the frequency of hot flushes. Providers should encourage patients to avoid spending money on supplements and instead add soy to their diet. In general, however, if patients are already convinced that something works, don't discourage them. PMID:14599376

  11. Heritability of frost-seeded red clover establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the colder parts of the United States, in late winter after disappearance of snow cover, red clover (Trifolium pratense) is often broadcast seeded into forage legume-depleted grass pastures to increase pasture forage quality. This method of establishment is referred to as frost seeding. However...

  12. A mowing strategy to convert red clover to annual crops in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are interested in no-till cropping systems. In this study, we found that perennial clover can be converted to corn without tillage. Conversion tactics involved fall mowing in the third year of red clover, followed by between-row mowing of weeds and volunteer red clover in corn gr...

  13. Diversity study on Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks., the causal agent of clover rot in red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; De Riek, J; Heungens, K; Malengier, M; Cnops, G; Van Bockstaele, E

    2010-01-01

    Since the 16th century, red clover has been an important crop in Europe. Since the 1940s, the European areal of red clover has been severely reduced, due to the availability of chemical fertilizers and the growing interest in maize. Nowadays there is a growing interest in red clover again, although some setbacks still remain. An important setback is the low persistence of red clover crops. Clover rot, caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss., is a major disease in Europe and reduces the persistence of red clover crops severely. The fungus infects clover plants through ascospores in the autumn, the disease develops during the winter and early spring and can kill many plants in this period. In early spring, black sclerotia, serving as surviving bodies, are formed on infected plants. Sclerotia can survive up to 7 years in the soil (Ohberg, 2006). The development of clover rot is highly dependent on the weather conditions: a humid fall, necessary for the germination of the ascospores and an overall warm winter with short periods of frost are favourable for the disease. Cold and dry winters slow the mycelial growth down too much and prevent the disease from spreading. Clover rot is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties have yet to be developed. Because of the great annual variation in disease severity, plant breeders cannot use natural infection as an effective means to screen for resistant material. Breeding for resistant cultivars is being slowed down by the lack of a bio-test usable in breeding programs. When applying artificial infections, it is necessary to have an idea of the diversity of the pathogen. A diverse population will require resistance screening with multiple isolates. The objective of this research is to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from the pathogen S. trifoliorum from various European countries. We assessed diversity using a species identification test based on the sequence of

  14. MULTIPLE HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASES FROM RED CLOVER DIFFER IN SEQUENCE, EXPRESSION PATTERN, AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid o-diphenols accumulate in tissues of many plants, functioning as defensive molecules and antioxidants. Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate, see Fig. 1] and clovamide [N-(caffeoyl)-L-DOPA]. In red clover, post-harvest oxi...

  15. Phenolic profiles of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover hay, browning, due to phenolics reacting with amino acids, is associated with higher protein content and greater nutritional value for ruminants. However, because browning is generally associated with poor forage quality, red clover of the “Kenland” variety was selected over eight br...

  16. Winter wheat/red clover intercrop response to tillage and compost amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost-seeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) into winter cereals is an efficient establishment method, although performance under contrasting soil management practices remains unclear. Wheat and intercropped red clover productivity were evaluated in intensive (IT), moderate (MT), and no-tillage ...

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a cool season forage legume, grown throughout the Northeastern USA and is the most widely planted forage legume after alfalfa. Red clover provides high value feed to the livestock because of high protein content and easy digestibility. To date, genomic resources...

  18. THREE POLYPHENOL OXIDASES FROM RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE) DIFFER IN ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES AND ACTIVATION PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones, which cause browning reactions in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and plants including the forage crop red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Production of o-quinones in red clover inhibits postharvest proteolysis during the ensiling proces...

  19. Restricting gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles in red clover (Trifolium pratense) to increase hybridity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a widely grown forage legume harvested for hay or silage, grown in pastures for grazing, and sown as a companion or trap crop. Current breeding methods in red clover for quantitative traits such as biomass yield consist almost entirely of recurrent phenotypic s...

  20. Genetic Map-Based Location of the Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Gametophytic Self-incompatibility Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover is a hermaphadidic allogamous diploid (2n = 2x = 14) with a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red clover GSI has long been studied and it is thought that the genetic control of GSI constitutes a single locus. Although GSI gene...

  1. Field testing Northern U.S. adapted 2,4-D resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) varieties would offer producers more weed control options, particularly in mixed grass/red clover pastures. In the 1980s, work was initiated in Florida to select for 2,4-D tolerant red clover (Taylor, 1989). This Flo...

  2. Red clover for treatment of hot flashes and menopausal symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfarpour, M; Sadeghi, R; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Khorsand, I; Khadivzadeh, T; Muoio, B

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of red clover to relieve hot flashes and menopausal symptoms in peri/postmenopausal women. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library) were searched. The mean frequency of hot flashes in red clover groups was lower compared with that in the control groups (close to statistical significance). Difference in means (MD) of hot flashes frequency was - 1.99 (- 4.12-0.139; p = 0.067; heterogeneity P > 0.01; I(2) = 94.93%; Random effect model). Subjective (vaginal dryness) and objective (maturation value) symptoms of vaginal atrophy showed a significant improvement with 80-mg dose of red clover. Red clover showed less therapeutic effect on psychology status, sexual problems and sleeping disorders. Red clover consumption may decrease frequency of hot flashes, especially in women with severe hot flashes (≥ 5 per day). Red clover may reduce other menopausal symptoms. Further trials are needed to confirm the current systematic review findings. PMID:26471215

  3. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues, depending on its cellular or tissue localization. We used PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In red clov...

  4. Red clover polyphenol oxidase reduces ruminal lipolysis in in vitro batch culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. It has been shown that the rate of lipolysis and proteolysis differs significantly between red clover genotypes with different levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity (Lee et al. 2004). Sullivan and Hatfield, (2006) reported the development of genetically modified isolines of red c...

  5. Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Rapidly Ascertain Seedling Establishment Potential in Red Clover Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing and maintaining forage legumes in grazed pastures is important to many grazing operations. To ascertain plant breeding progress in red clover (Trifolium pratense) over the past 50 years, persistence under rotational grazing in mixture with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) of 220 red cl...

  6. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) draft genome provides a platform for trait improvement

    PubMed Central

    De Vega, Jose J.; Ayling, Sarah; Hegarty, Matthew; Kudrna, Dave; Goicoechea, Jose L.; Ergon, Åshild; Rognli, Odd A.; Jones, Charlotte; Swain, Martin; Geurts, Rene; Lang, Chunting; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Rössner, Stephan; Yates, Steven; Webb, Kathleen J.; Donnison, Iain S.; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Wing, Rod A.; Caccamo, Mario; Powell, Wayne; Abberton, Michael T.; Skøt, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a globally significant forage legume in pastoral livestock farming systems. It is an attractive component of grassland farming, because of its high yield and protein content, nutritional value and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Enhancing its role further in sustainable agriculture requires genetic improvement of persistency, disease resistance, and tolerance to grazing. To help address these challenges, we have assembled a chromosome-scale reference genome for red clover. We observed large blocks of conserved synteny with Medicago truncatula and estimated that the two species diverged ~23 million years ago. Among the 40,868 annotated genes, we identified gene clusters involved in biochemical pathways of importance for forage quality and livestock nutrition. Genotyping by sequencing of a synthetic population of 86 genotypes show that the number of markers required for genomics-based breeding approaches is tractable, making red clover a suitable candidate for association studies and genomic selection. PMID:26617401

  7. Identification of SSR Markers Linked to the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Locus in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination is prevented in red clover by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system (SI). This SI system is likely controlled by two tightly linked genes, effectively creating a single locus. While SI genes have been identified in some plants, they have not been identified in red clover or o...

  8. Correlations Between Visual Biomass Scores and Forage Yield in Space-Planted Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Breeding Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) forage yield remains a prime breeding target for improved variety development. In a world of decreasing forage legume breeding resources, rapidly and cheaply phenotyping plants for the highly quantitative trait of forage yield is vital. Many red clover selection pro...

  9. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  10. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  11. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  12. Gene expression patterns, localization, and substrates of polyphenol oxidase in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes and their corresponding enzyme activity occur in many plants; natural PPO substrates and enzyme/substrate localization are less well characterized. Leaf and root PPO activity in Arabidopsis and five legumes were compared with high-PPO red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)...

  13. Suppressing weed growth after wheat harvest with underseeded red clover in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined cover crop strategies for suppressing weed growth after harvest of wheat. Two cover crop treatments, red clover (mammoth type) or a mixture of oat and dry p...

  14. OPTIMIZING EFFICIENCY AND FLEXIBILITY OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover (Trifolium pra...

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  16. A novel red clover virus associated with root colonization by Olpidium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseased red clover (Trifolium pratense) was observed in 2-year-old plants in a variety trial seeded at Prairie du Sac, WI. Similar symptoms were observed in space-plant nurseries at multiple disparate locations (Arlington, WI; Lancaster, WI; Marshfield, WI; Prairie du Sac, WI). Often healthy plants...

  17. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Red clover vein mosaic virus (genus Carlavirus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) is a serious pathogen of legume crops including pea, chickpea and lentil. The complete nucleotide sequence was generated from an isolate obtained from chickpea in Washington State. The complete genome of RCVMV consists of 8605 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) ...

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASES INVOLVED IN O-DIPHENOL BIOSYNTHESIS IN RED CLOVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid (caffeoyl ester of malic acid) and clovamide (caffeoyl amide of L-DOPA). Post-harvest oxidation of these o-diphenols by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Understanding...

  19. RUMEN MICROBE ADAPTATION TO RED CLOVER POLYPHENOL OXIDASE PROTEIN AND LIPID PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce both proteolysis and lipolysis in incubated red clover (Lee et al. 2004). However it has not been determined whether rumen microbes can adapt to utilize PPO-protected protein and lipid. This study investigated whether rumen inoculum fro...

  20. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus: Biophysics and Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockney, Dustin M.

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a highly robust (Tm=60 °C), 36 nm icosahedral plant virus. The capsid of RCNMV is assembled from 180 chemically equivalent coat proteins (CPs). The CPs arrange in a T=3 symmetry, in 1 of 3 conformations forming the asymmetric subunit (ASU). There are two Ca(II) binding sites per CP; the removal of divalent cations causes the CP subunits of the ASU to rotate away from each other forming a ˜13 A channel. These channels lead to the highly organized bipartite genome of RCNMV and can be closed by adding back Ca(II). Titrimetric analysis and tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine the affinity of RCNMV for Ca(II) to be ˜Kd < 300 nM. It has been shown that doxorubicin (Dox) can be infused into the capsid at a mole ratio of ˜1000:1, Dox-to-virus, and unlike other nanoparticles, there is no detectable leakage. The high loading of Dox is most likely due to intercalation into the genome and significant intercalation or exposure to denaturants was observed to cause loss of capsid stability. To better understand the limitations of cargo loading, Dox and other intercalating molecules (rhodamine 800, ethidium bromide, and propidium iodide) were assayed to determine optimum infusion conditions. Dox was observed to have a propensity to aggregate. In order to manage the Dox aggregation, the infusion buffer was changed from 50 mM Tris-HCl/50 mM NaOAc/50 mM EDTA or 200 mM EDTA at pH 8.0 to 5 mM HEPES/5 mM Na4EDTA/10 mM NaCl pH 7.8. The Dox:RCNMV infusion mole ratio was also lowered from 5000:1 to 500:1 and the incubation temperature was changed from 4 °C to 22 °C for <12 hours, opposed to 24 hours. To impart targeting functionality to RCNMV, biomimetic peptides were conjugated to either the surface capsid lysines or cysteines using standard bioconjugation methods. For all of the biomimetic peptides screened, sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) was used to orthogonally attach the

  1. No effect on pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen by multiple doses of red clover capsule in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Valicherla, Guru Raghavendra; Challagundla, Murali Krishna; Rashid, Mamunur; Syed, Anees Ahmed; Gayen, Jiaur Rahman; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is used in clinical practice for breast cancer patients and to prevent osteoporosis. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) preparations are consumed worldwide as dietary supplements for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. In the present study we investigated the possible herb-drug interaction between red clover and tamoxifen in rats. 15 days pre-treatment with red clover did not alter the tamoxifen and its active metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen pharmacokinetics significantly (p > 0.05). Therefore the therapeutic efficacy of the tamoxifen may not be compromised by the co-administration with red clover. Tamoxifen metabolism is primarily mediated by CYP2D6, CYP3A4 with minor contribution from CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 isoforms. Although, red clover pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the mRNA expression and activity of CYP3a2, no effect on CYP2d4 and increased expression and activity of CYP2c11 could be the plausible reasons for lack of effect on tamoxifen and its metabolite pharmacokinetics in rats. CYP1a1 and CYP2b2 mRNA expression and activity were also significantly reduced by red clover. To extend the clinical utility of the present study, effect of red clover extract on major CYPs using human liver microsomes and HepG2 cell lines were also determined. Similar finding were observed in the human liver preparations as in rats. PMID:26530625

  2. Floral procyanidins of the forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Meagher, Lucy P; Foo, Lai Yeap; Lane, Geoffrey A; Fraser, Karl; Rumball, William

    2004-03-24

    The chemical characteristics of the purified procyanidin polymers of the flowers of the forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) were studied by (13)C NMR, acid-catalyzed degradation with benzyl mercaptan, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The (13)C NMR showed that the fraction consisted of predominantly procyanidin polymers. The thiolysis reaction products indicated a mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 9.3 with epicatechin (81%) as the abundant flavan-3-ol extension unit and the terminating units dominated by catechin (95%). ESI-MS showed a range of oligomeric procyanidin ions (DP of 2-11). The white clover floral prodelphinidins consist of terminal units with nearly equal proportions of epigallocatechin (52%) and gallocatechin (48%) and extender units showing epigallocatechin (56%) and gallocatechin (39%). The dramatic difference in the stereochemistry of the terminal and extender units observed for the red clover floral procyanidins contrasts with the mixture of cis and trans stereochemistry observed for white clover floral prodelphinidins. PMID:15030214

  3. Fertility and growth of nulliparous ewes after feeding red clover silage with high phyto-oestrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, E; Taponen, S; Andersson, M; Sukura, A; Katila, T; Taponen, J

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage with high phyto-oestrogen content on ewe performance during their first breeding season. Red clover silage containing formononetin, biochanin A, genistein, and daidzein was fed to 10 nulliparous ewes of the prolific Finnish Landrace breed before, during and after the breeding season, for a total of 5 months. A control group of 10 ewes was fed with grass silage. The mean numbers of foetuses per pregnancy were 2.1±0.7 and 2.2±0.8 for the red clover and control groups, respectively. The total mass of the uterus with its contents was significantly greater in ewes of the red clover group compared with those of the control group. This difference was mainly explained by the greater volume of foetal fluids. Serum progesterone concentration in the red clover group was significantly lower over the entire period analysed than in the control group. In conclusion, the fecundity of the ewes was not reduced by red clover feed with high phyto-oestrogen concentrations. The volume of foetal fluids increased that could increase the risk for vaginal prolapse before the term. PMID:24984155

  4. Soy, Red Clover, and Isoflavones and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Heidi; Seely, Dugald; Flower, Gillian; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Vadeboncoeur, Sarah; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Sabri, Elham; Fergusson, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Background Soy and red clover isoflavones are controversial due to purported estrogenic activity and possible effects on breast cancer. We conducted a systematic review of soy and red clover for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer, and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to March 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to the safety and efficacy of soy and red clover isoflavones in patients with or at risk of breast cancer. Results Of 4179 records, we included a total of 131 articles: 40 RCTs, 11 uncontrolled trials, and 80 observational studies. Five RCTs reported on the efficacy of soy for hot flashes, showing no significant reductions in hot flashes compared to placebo. There is lack of evidence showing harm from use of soy with respect to risk of breast cancer or recurrence, based on long term observational data. Soy intake consistent with that of a traditional Japanese diet (2-3 servings daily, containing 25-50mg isoflavones) may be protective against breast cancer and recurrence. Human trials show that soy does not increase circulating estradiol or affect estrogen-responsive target tissues. Prospective data of soy use in women taking tamoxifen does not indicate increased risk of recurrence. Evidence on red clover is limited, however existing studies suggest that it may not possess breast cancer-promoting effects. Conclusion Soy consumption may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and mortality. Soy does not have estrogenic effects in humans. Soy intake consistent with a traditional Japanese diet appears safe for breast cancer survivors. While there is no clear evidence of harm, better evidence confirming safety is required before use of high dose (≥100mg) isoflavones can be recommended for breast cancer patients. PMID:24312387

  5. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Asgary, Sedigheh; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein), red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa) and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively) and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028) significantly inhibited (P < 0.050) this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes. PMID:26405442

  6. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    PubMed

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems. PMID:27171465

  7. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems. PMID:27171465

  8. Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-02-28

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the pressure inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Moreover, the ability of HHP-treated seeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of red clover seeds displayed higher germination potential when pre-soaked for 60 min at 20 degrees C prior to HPP (5 min) with final germination percentages of 94%, although their yield was substantially lower than their untreated counterparts. Red clover seeds pre-soaked for 60 min at 4 degrees C followed by HPP at 600 MPa for 5 min at 20 degrees C produced germination percentages of 91 and 95% after 3 and 8 days of sprouting compared to 99 and 100% respectively for untreated seeds. In addition, this condition did not significantly (P>0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stanton L.; Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Swartz, Paul D.; Meilleur, Flora; Lommel, Steven A.; Rose, Robert B.

    2010-11-12

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two virions in the unit cell. The crystals diffracted to better than 4 {angstrom} resolution but were very radiation-sensitive, causing rapid decay of the high-resolution reflections. The data were processed to 6 {angstrom} in the analysis presented here.

  10. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  11. A NOVEL RED CLOVER HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASE HAS ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES CONSISTENT WITH A ROLE IN PHASALIC ACID [2-O-(CAFFEOYL)-L-MALATE] BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid o-diphenols accumulate in tissues of many plants functioning as defensive molecules and antioxidants. Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate] and clovamide [N-(caffeoyl)-L-DOPA]. In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of the...

  12. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  13. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    PubMed Central

    Webb, K. Judith; Cookson, Alan; Allison, Gordon; Sullivan, Michael L.; Winters, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues depending on its cellular or tissue localization. Here we use PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in N2-fixing nodules. In red clover, PPO was not essential for either growth or nodule production, or for nodule function in plants grown under optimal, N-free conditions. However, absence of PPO resulted in a more reduced environment in all tissues, as measured by redox potential, and caused subtle developmental changes in nodules. Leaves and, to a lesser extent nodules, lacking PPO tended to accumulate phenolic compounds. A comparison of nodules of two representative contrasting clones by microscopy revealed that nodules lacking PPO were morphologically and anatomically subtly altered, and that phenolics accumulated in different cells and tissues. Developing nodules lacking PPO were longer, and there were more cell layers within the squashed cell layer (SCL), but the walls of these cells were less thickened and the cells were less squashed. Within the N2-fixing zone, bacteroids appeared more granular and were less tightly packed together, and were similar to developmentally compromised bacteroids elicited by catalase mutant rhizobia reported elsewhere. PMID:25566275

  14. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to help determine the presence of blackpatch (Rhizoctonia leguminicola) in inoculated red clover leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch of red clover, produces alkaloids that cause livestock to salivate excessively. Its presence is generally confirmed by microscopy, disappearance of symptoms after removal of the suspect forage, and chromatographic analysis of slaframine in ext...

  15. Genetic manipulation of miR156 for improvement of biomass production and forage quality in red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in the United States. Improving forage quality and biomass yield is an important goal of forage breeding programs. Plant development, particularly the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, is an important factor affecting bio...

  16. Phenolic profiles and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a legume forage abundant in phenolic compounds. It tends to brown when cut for hay, due to oxidation of phenolic compounds catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and subsequent binding to proteins. Selecting for a greener hay may provide information about the re...

  17. A Novel Red Clover Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase Has Enzymatic Activities Consistent With a Role in Phaselic Acid Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaves accumulate several micromol per g fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate]. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (M...

  18. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...

  19. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of feeding silage made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT), selected for low (LBFT), normal (NBFT) and high (HBFT) levels of condensed tannins (CT), to feeding silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) on milk production and nutrient utilization in ...

  20. MECHANISM OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTION IN REDUCING LIPOLYSIS AND PROTEOLYSIS IN RED CLOVER DURING BATCH CULTURE INCUBATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: We previously showed that red clover, with the PPO1 gene silenced (Sullivan and Hatfield, 2006), exhibited higher levels of lipolysis than the wild type in the presence of rumen micro-organisms. This questioned the hypothetical mode of action of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) being solely th...

  1. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) Genes in Red Clover: Expression in Whole Plants and in Response to Yeast Fungal Elicitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) four unique cDNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) were identified (PAL1-4). PAL2-4 encode nearly identical proteins (> 97%) that are only 89% identical to that encoded by PAL1. Under normal growing conditions in young leaves and flowers, P...

  2. Forage Management Effects on Protein and Fiber Fractions, Protein Degradability, and Dry Matter Yield of Red Clover Conserved as Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the action of o-quinones formed via polyphenol oxidase, conserved red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) contains abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP), but inadequate rumen degradable protein (RDP) for dairy cattle. This study examined how forage management influences RDP, RUP, crude protein...

  3. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and Lys in alfalfa and red clover silage diets fed to lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The action of polyphenol oxidase reduces NPN formation in red clover silage (RCS). In seven previous trials, RCS averaged (% of total N) 36% NPN vs. 54% NPN in alfalfa silage (AS). Feeding RCS has been found to increase intestinal protein absorption but with no improvement in N utilization, suggesti...

  4. CLONING OF HCT AND C3H GENES FROM RED CLOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENCODED ENZYMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many forages, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa), experience significant proteolytic losses when preserved by ensiling. An exception is red clover (Trifolium pratense), which experiences up to 90% less proteolysis than alfalfa when ensiled. My laboratory has recently demonstrated that the reduced l...

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Red Clover Polyphenol Oxidase cDNAs and Expression of Active Protein in Escherichia coli and Transgenic Alfalfa1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael L.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Thoma, Sharon L.; Samac, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and o-diphenol substrates. Wounding of leaves during harvest and ensiling results in browning of leaf tissues from activity of PPO on the o-diphenols. In association with browning, leaf proteins remain undegraded during ensiling, presumably due to PPO-generated o-quinone inhibition of leaf proteases. We cloned three red clover PPO cDNAs, PPO1, PPO2, and PPO3, from a leaf cDNA library. Sequence comparisons among the three red clover PPO clones indicated they are 87% to 90% identical at the nucleotide level (80%–83% amino acid identity). All three encode proteins predicted to localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. RNA-blotting and immunoblotting experiments indicated PPO1 is expressed primarily in young leaves, PPO2 in flowers and petioles, and PPO3 in leaves and possibly flowers. We expressed mature PPO1 in Escherichia coli. A portion of the expressed protein was soluble and functional in an assay for PPO activity. We also expressed the red clover PPO cDNAs under the control of a constitutive promoter in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The expressed red clover PPO proteins were active in alfalfa extracts as evidenced by o-diphenol-dependant extract browning and quantitative assays of PPO activity. Proteolysis in leaf extracts of alfalfa expressing red clover PPO1 was dramatically reduced in the presence of an o-diphenol compared to controls. Transgenic alfalfa expressing red clover PPO should prove an excellent model system to further characterize the red clover PPO enzymes and PPO-mediated inhibition of postharvest proteolysis in forage plants. PMID:15466227

  6. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  7. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  8. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures. PMID:26523589

  9. Red clover HCT2, a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, plays a crucial role in biosynthesis of phaselic acid and other hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves, phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate) accumulates to several mmol kg-1 fresh weight and is a crucial component of a natural system that prevents protein breakdown during harvest and storage of this forage crop. Previously, we identified HCT2, a red clover g...

  10. Effects of red clover on hot flash and circulating hormone concentrations in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadijeh; mousavi bazaz, Mojtaba; abdolahian, Somayeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To critically evaluate the effect of red clover on hot flash, endometrial thickness, and hormones status in postmenopausal and peri- and post-menopausal women. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2014), Scopus (1990 to July 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2014) were searched for published randomized controlled Trials (RCTs). Results: Of 183 relevant publication trials, 11 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The mean hot flashes frequency in red clover was lower than the control groups (MD -1.99; p=0.067). There was larger decrease in FSH (SMD -0.812; CI: -1.93 to 0.312; p=0.157) and SHBG (SMD -0.128; CI-0.425 to 0.170; P=0.4) in red clover group, compared with placebo, which was not however statistically significant. LH (SMD 0.144; CI-0.097 to 0.384, p=0.242), estradiol (SMD 0.240; CI-0.001 to 0.482, p=0.051), testosterone (MD 0.083; CI: -0.560 to 0.726; p=0.901), and endometrial thickness (SDM 0.022; CI: -0.380 to 0.424, p=0.915) showed greater increase in red clover, compared with placebo, although the effect of estradiol was only significant. Conclusion: Red clover had a positive effect of alleviating hot flash in menopausal women. Our data, however, suggested very slight changes in FSH, LH, testosterone, and SHBG and significant effect in estrogen status by red clover consumption. However, the interpretation of results of the current study is limited due to methodological flaws of the included studies, menopause status, and large heterogeneity among them. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current finding. PMID:26693407

  11. EFFECTS OF FEEDING FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON OMASAL FLOW OF NUTRIENTS AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of nonprotein N (NPN) content of alfalfa silage (AS) and red clover silage (RCS) on omasal nutrient flows. Diet...

  12. HCT2, a Novel Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Transferase, is Responsible for Phaselic Acid (2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate) Biosynthesis in Red Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives to o-quinones by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage (1). Agronomically important forages like alfalfa lack both PPO and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their p...

  13. RUMINAL MICRO-ORGANISMS DO NOT ADAPT TO INCREASE UTILIZATION OF POLY-PHENOL OXIDASE PROTECTED RED CLOVER PROTEIN AND GLYCEROL-BASED LIPID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants with subsequent increases in the efficiency of N utilization and the level of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in their products (meat and milk). It has also been reported t...

  14. Factors affecting the separation and bioactivity of red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts assayed against Clostridium sticklandii, a ruminal hyper ammonia-producing bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is rich in phenolic compounds. Both the crude phenolic extract and biochanin A, an isoflavonoid component of the extract, suppress growth of Clostridium sticklandii, a bovine, Gram positive, ruminal hyper-ammonia producing bacterium (HAB). The purpose of this study ...

  15. Dataset of protein changes induced by cold acclimation in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) populations recurrently selected for improved freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bipfubusa, Marie; Rocher, Solen; Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    The data provide an overview of proteomic changes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in response to cold acclimation and recurrent selection for superior freezing tolerance. Proteins were extracted from crowns of two red clover cultivars grown under non-acclimated or cold-acclimated conditions, and plants obtained from the initial genetic background (TF0) and from populations obtained after three (TF3) and four cycles (TF4) of recurrent selection for superior freezing tolerance. Proteins were analyzed using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled to mass spectroscopy (MS and MS/MS). Differentially regulated proteins were subsequently identified using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. The data are related to a recently published research article describing proteome composition changes associated with freezing tolerance in red clover, "A proteome analysis of freezing tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)" (Bertrand et al., 2016 [1]). They are available in the ProteomeXchange Consortium database via the PRIDE partner repository under the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD003689. PMID:27408927

  16. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  17. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Kenland). HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ether (1:1, v/v). The e...

  18. Auto-Oxidation of Ortho-Diphenolic Substrate and Deactivation of Polyphenol Oxidases (Catecholase) During Wilting and Post Harvest Damage in Red Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) in red clover convert diphenolic substrate to highly reactive quinones which, through their reaction with proteins, increase the efficiency of N utilization and increase the proportion of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine products (meat and milk). Auto-oxidat...

  19. RAPD-inferred genetic variability of some indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) nodules.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Andrei; Rosu, Craita M; Stedel, Catalina; Gorgan, Lucian D; Efrose, Rodica C

    2015-09-01

    The application of commercial rhizobial inoculants to legume crops is proving to be an alternative to synthetic fertilizer use. The challenge for sustainable agriculture resides in the compatibility between crop, inoculants and environmental conditions. The evaluation of symbiotic efficiency and genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial strains could lead to the development of better inoculants and increased crop production. The genetic variability of 32 wild indigenous rhizobial isolates was assessed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). The strains were isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) nodules from two distinct geographical regions of Northern and Eastern Romania. Three decamer primers were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationships between the investigated isolates. Cluster analysis revealed a high diversity; most strains clustered together based on their geographical location. PMID:26344027

  20. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    PubMed

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( < 0.001) and 1esser concentrations of MUFA ( < 0.001). The inclusion of forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( < 0.001), with the greatest concentrations being observed in SF-RC. This latter diet also led to the greatest percentage of 18:2 -6 ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; < 0.001), this effect being less marked (-17%; = 0.014) in T-RC in comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; < 0.001 and < 0.008, respectively). The latter group had also a lesser -6-to--3 ratio than the T-SF group ( = 0.01). -11 18:1 was greater ( < 0.03) in lambs given T

  1. Cell-to-Cell Trafficking of Macromolecules through Plasmodesmata Potentiated by the Red Clover Necrotic Mosaic Virus Movement Protein.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T.; Giesman-Cookmeyer, D.; Ding, B.; Lommel, S. A.; Lucas, W. J.

    1993-12-01

    Direct evidence is presented for cell-to-cell trafficking of macromolecules via plasmodesmata in higher plants. The fluorescently labeled 35-kD movement protein of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) trafficked rapidly from cell to cell when microinjected into cowpea leaf mesophyll cells. Furthermore, this protein potentiated rapid cell-to-cell trafficking of RCNMV RNA, but not DNA. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the 35-kD movement protein does not unfold the RCNMV RNA molecules. Thus, if unfolding of RNA is necessary for cell-to-cell trafficking, it may well involve participation of endogenous cellular factors. These findings support the hypothesis that trafficking of macromolecules is a normal plasmodesmal function, which has been usurped by plant viruses for their cell-to-cell spread. PMID:12271056

  2. Supplementing barley or rapeseed meal to dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage: I. Rumen degradability and microbial flow.

    PubMed

    Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-08-01

    The present study was conducted to measure the flow of microbial and nonmicrobial N fractions entering the omasal canal of lactating dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage supplemented with barley and rapeseed meal. Four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, grass-red clover silage alone or supplemented with (on DM basis) 5.1 kg/d of barley, 1.9 kg/d of rape-seed meal or 5.1 kg/d of barley and 1.9 kg/d rapeseed meal. Nonammonia N flow entering the omasal canal was fractionated into microbial and nonmicrobial N using 15N. Microbial N was fractionated into N associated with liquid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and protozoa. Supplementation of diets with barley increased microbial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01) but had no effect on nonmicrobial N flow. Increased microbial N flow was attributed to liquid-associated bacteria and protozoa. Barley had no effect on apparent ruminal N degradability, but increased true ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01). Barley had no effect on urinary N excretion, but increased daily N retention (P = 0.03). Furthermore, barley supplementation decreased ruminal (P = 0.02) and total tract (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility. Supplementation of diets with rapeseed meal increased apparent ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01) and nonmicrobial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01), but had no effect on true ruminal N degradability. Despite higher N excretion in urine, rapeseed meal improved daily N retention (P < 0.01). Milk yield was increased (P < 0.01) by barley and rapeseed meal supplements, with the responses being additive. Responses attained with barley were primarily due to increased energy supply for ruminal microbes and improvements in energy and protein supply for the animal. However, provision of readily digestible carbohydrates in barley did not improve microbial capture of ruminal ammonia. Benefits associated with rapeseed meal supplementation were

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  4. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (P<0.05) and carcass weight (P=0.10) were greater when goats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. PMID:25817803

  5. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Kaur, Parwinder; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nichols, Phillip; Nagano, Soichiro; Appels, Rudi; Erskine, William; Isobe, Sachiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover. The 471.8 Mb assembled sequence covers 85.4% of the subterranean clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. Eight pseudomolecules of 401.1 Mb in length were constructed, based on a linkage map consisting of 35,341 SNPs. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that different clover chromosomes showed different degrees of conservation with other Papilionoideae species. These results provide a reference for genetic and genomic analyses in the genus Trifolium and new insights into evolutionary divergence in Papilionoideae species. PMID:27545089

  6. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Kaur, Parwinder; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nichols, Phillip; Nagano, Soichiro; Appels, Rudi; Erskine, William; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2016-01-01

    Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover. The 471.8 Mb assembled sequence covers 85.4% of the subterranean clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. Eight pseudomolecules of 401.1 Mb in length were constructed, based on a linkage map consisting of 35,341 SNPs. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that different clover chromosomes showed different degrees of conservation with other Papilionoideae species. These results provide a reference for genetic and genomic analyses in the genus Trifolium and new insights into evolutionary divergence in Papilionoideae species. PMID:27545089

  7. Measuring Groundwater Storage Potential in Mountain Meadows using Geophysical Methods at Red Clover Meadow Complex, Sierra Nevada, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, J.; Cornwell, K.

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT The Dotta Canyon meadow, located in the Red Clover Meadow complex, upper Feather River Watershed, Plumas County, California, was studied to measure sediment volume and groundwater storage capacity in this mountain meadow environment. Groundwater resources in mountain meadows play an important role in providing baseflow to local stream systems during dry summer months. Degraded meadows reduce baseflow contributions to local streams throughout the year impacting the local flora and fauna and water resources downstream. Groundwater storage potential of meadows is a function of the total volume of meadow sediments, the types of sediment present and the effective porosity of those materials. Assessing these properties in meadows is difficult though as meadow environments are commonly sensitive to investigative disturbances like drill rigs and backhoes. We applied seismic refraction techniques to measure the thickness of meadow sediments in the 8.3 km2 Dotta Canyon. Specifically we conducted 42 seismic surveys, utilizing forward and reverse profiles to create a depth to bedrock isopach map of the Dotta Canyon meadow. Using ArcGIS software, aerial photographs and field GPS data to measure and calculate the meadow area and limited hand augering, we were able to calculate the volume of sediment in the meadow to be about 2.5E7 cubic meters. Hand augering in the meadow produced a record of meadow stratigraphy and helped determine appropriate locations for the collection of representative core samples. Representative cores were processed for effective porosity using the water porosimetry method. A mean effective porosity of 38%.was applied to volumetric calculations with results suggesting a groundwater storage capacity of 9.4E6 cubic meters.

  8. Interactions between the Bumblebee Bombus pascuorum and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Are Mediated by Plant Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Richard J.; Rowntree, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildflower mixes are often planted around field margins to provide forage for pollinators. Although seed for these mixtures is often wild-sourced, for species where agricultural cultivars are available, for example red clover (Trifolium pratense), cultivars can also be included. Previous evidence suggests that plant genetic background can have a strong influence on plant-arthropod interactions and therefore the provenance and genetic background of the plants included in wildflower mixes could impact plant-pollinator interactions. We tested the performance of five individual T. pratense cultivars against two commercially available wild-sourced T. pratense populations in terms of their ability to attract potential pollinator species (focusing on bumblebees) and their floral traits using greenhouse and garden experiments. The main bumblebee observed interacting with T. pratense was Bombus pascuorum and we found no difference in the absolute number of B. pascuorum visiting the cultivars or wild populations. However, we found variation among cultivars and between wild populations in their ability to attract bumblebees, which seems to be related to their relative investment in different floral traits. There was a positive relationship between biomass and number of inflorescences produced by the wild populations of T. pratense, which was not apparent for the cultivars. This suggests that artificial selection on the cultivars has changed the G-matrix of correlated traits. We show that agricultural cultivars of T. pratense can be as effective as wild populations at attracting pollinators such as bumblebees, but that the genetic background of both cultivars and wild populations can have a significant impact on the attractiveness of the plant to pollinators. We also show divergence in the correlated traits of T. pratense cultivars and wild populations that could lead to outbreeding depression if the plants interbreed. PMID:27552193

  9. Interactions between the Bumblebee Bombus pascuorum and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Are Mediated by Plant Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Sands, Richard J; Rowntree, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Wildflower mixes are often planted around field margins to provide forage for pollinators. Although seed for these mixtures is often wild-sourced, for species where agricultural cultivars are available, for example red clover (Trifolium pratense), cultivars can also be included. Previous evidence suggests that plant genetic background can have a strong influence on plant-arthropod interactions and therefore the provenance and genetic background of the plants included in wildflower mixes could impact plant-pollinator interactions. We tested the performance of five individual T. pratense cultivars against two commercially available wild-sourced T. pratense populations in terms of their ability to attract potential pollinator species (focusing on bumblebees) and their floral traits using greenhouse and garden experiments. The main bumblebee observed interacting with T. pratense was Bombus pascuorum and we found no difference in the absolute number of B. pascuorum visiting the cultivars or wild populations. However, we found variation among cultivars and between wild populations in their ability to attract bumblebees, which seems to be related to their relative investment in different floral traits. There was a positive relationship between biomass and number of inflorescences produced by the wild populations of T. pratense, which was not apparent for the cultivars. This suggests that artificial selection on the cultivars has changed the G-matrix of correlated traits. We show that agricultural cultivars of T. pratense can be as effective as wild populations at attracting pollinators such as bumblebees, but that the genetic background of both cultivars and wild populations can have a significant impact on the attractiveness of the plant to pollinators. We also show divergence in the correlated traits of T. pratense cultivars and wild populations that could lead to outbreeding depression if the plants interbreed. PMID:27552193

  10. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Kim, Dong Chul; Choi, Seong Hun; Han, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2015-01-01

    Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. PMID:25912038

  11. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens.

    PubMed

    Gradish, Angela E; Cutler, G Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  12. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  13. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide

  14. Short communication: Feeding red clover cut in the afternoon or morning to late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Brito, A F

    2015-10-01

    Forages cut in the afternoon (p.m.) generally yield a higher concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) than those cut in the morning (a.m.). We aimed to compare the effects of p.m.-cut red clover baleage (p.m.-RC) versus a.m.-cut RC baleage (a.m.-RC) on milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk components, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients in late-lactation Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous and 2 primiparous Holstein cows received a total mixed ration containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 65% p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC plus 35% concentrate in a crossover design with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. One RC field was split in 2 with the first half cut in the afternoon (1600 h) and the second half in the following morning (0600 h). The p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC contained (% of DM): 12.6 versus 9.43% NSC in samples collected before the beginning of the experiment and 7.49 versus 7.79% NSC in samples collected during the sampling periods (i.e., d 14 to 21). The total mixed rations averaged 18.2 and 17.5% NSC for the p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC, respectively. Feeding p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC did not improve feed intake or milk yield and composition in late-lactation dairy cows. However, milk urea N and plasma urea N were both lowest in cows offered p.m.-RC. With the exception of the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, which was highest in cows fed p.m.-RC, no other changes in nutrient digestibility were observed. Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for the urinary excretion of N and purine derivatives. Further research is needed to better understand NSC losses during storage and the associated effects on baleage quality and animal performance. PMID:26254532

  15. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  16. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Malate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase is Crucial for 2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate Biosynthesis in Red Clover and Defines a New Pathway for Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Ester Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaves accumulate several µmol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medi...

  17. Red Clover Coumarate 3'-Hydroxylase (CYP98A44) is Capable of Hydroxylating P-Coumaroyl-Shikimate but not P-Coumaroyl-Malate: Implications for the Biosynthesis of Phaselic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several µmol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicag...

  18. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  19. Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Stochmal, Anna; Pecetti, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important pasture legume, and Sardinia is known as a major centre of diversification of this species. As other legumes, this clover produces biologically active flavonoids including the subclass of isoflavones that are natural phytoestrogens with positive health effects. Present sources of isoflavones for medical/nutraceutical treatments are red clover (Trifolium pratense) and soybean (Glycine max). This study assessed the content and composition of flavonoids in 14 subterranean clover genotypes from Sardinia, grown ex-situ in comparison with two red clover ecotypes, to acquire information on the potential of the species as an alternative source of isoflavones for possible exploitation. Twenty compounds were tentatively identified across the two clovers after HPLC and LC/ESI-MS analyses, including clovamide, four flavonols, and 15 isoflavones. Most compounds were present as glucosides or glucosyl malonates. Subterranean clover extracts mainly comprised of derivatives of the isoflavones genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin. Compared to red clover, subterranean clover had higher content of total isoflavones and lower concentration of total flavonols. The isoflavone concentration in subterranean clover was higher than literature data for soybean or red clover. The existing genotypic variation warrants the possibility of selecting varieties with high isoflavone concentration for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27415852

  20. Clover Biotechnology Research at FAPRU

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Randy Dinkins (USDA-ARS-FAPRU) is conducting research to determine the utility of using the Medicago Affymetrix Genechip for use with red clover (Trifolium pretense). The Medicago Affymetrix Genechip contains approximately 51,000 probe sets that are derived from Medicago truncatula, 1,800 from Medi...

  1. Temporal changes in population genetic diversity and structure in red and white clover grown in three contrasting environments in northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rosemary P.; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E.; Skøt, Leif; Jones, Charlotte; Skøt, Kirsten P.

    2012-01-01

    Backgound and Aims Extending the cultivation of forage legume species into regions where they are close to the margin of their natural distribution requires knowledge of population responses to environmental stresses. This study was conducted at three north European sites (Iceland, Sweden and the UK) using AFLP markers to analyse changes in genetic structure over time in two population types of red and white clover (Trifolium pratense and T. repens, respectively): (1) standard commercial varieties; (2) wide genetic base (WGB) composite populations constructed from many commercial varieties plus unselected material obtained from germplasm collections. Methods At each site populations were grown in field plots, then randomly sampled after 3–5 years to obtain survivor populations. AFLP markers were used to calculate genetic differentiation within and between original and survivor populations. Key Results No consistent changes in average genetic diversity were observed between original and survivor populations. In both species the original varieties were always genetically distinct from each other. Significant genetic shift was observed in the white clover ‘Ramona’ grown in Sweden. The WGB original populations were more genetically similar. However, genetic differentiation occurred between original and survivor WGB germplasm in both species, particularly in Sweden. Regression of climatic data with genetic differentiation showed that low autumn temperature was the best predictor. Within the set of cold sites the highest level of genetic shift in populations was observed in Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that changes in population structure can occur within a short time span in forage legumes, resulting in the rapid formation of distinct survivor populations in environmentally challenging sites. PMID:22437665

  2. Effect of plant oils and camelina expeller on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on red clover silage.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kokkonen, T; Lampi, A-M; Toivonen, V; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2011-09-01

    Five multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fed red clover silage-based diets were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of various plant oils or camelina expeller on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments consisted of 5 concentrate supplements containing no additional lipid (control), or 29 g/kg of lipid from rapeseed oil (RO), sunflower-seed oil (SFO), camelina-seed oil (CO), or camelina expeller (CE). Cows were offered red clover silage ad libitum and 12kg/d of experimental concentrates. Treatments had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake, whole-tract digestibility coefficients, milk yield, or milk composition. Plant oils in the diet decreased short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acid (6:0-16:0) concentrations, including odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and enhanced milk fat 18:0 and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acid content. Increases in the relative proportions of cis 18:1, trans 18:1, nonconjugated 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were dependent on the fatty acid composition of oils in the diet. Rapeseed oil in the diet was associated with the enrichment of trans 18:1 (Δ4, 6, 7, 8, and 9), cis-9 18:1, and trans-7,cis-9 CLA, SFO resulted in the highest concentrations of trans-5, trans-10, and trans-11 18:1, Δ9,11 CLA, Δ10,12 CLA, and 18:2n-6, whereas CO enhanced trans-13-16 18:1, Δ11,15 18:2, Δ12,15 18:2, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, Δ11,13 CLA, Δ12,14 CLA, Δ13,15 CLA, Δ9,11,15 18:3, and 18:3n-3. Relative to CO, CE resulted in lower 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 concentrations and higher proportions of trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, and trans-11,cis-15 18:2. Comparison of milk fat composition responses to CO and CE suggest that the biohydrogenation of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids to 18:0 in the rumen was less complete for camelina lipid supplied as an expeller than as free oil. In conclusion

  3. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    PubMed

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  4. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  5. Retardation of Senescence in Red Clover Leaf Discs by a New Antiozonant, N-[2-(2-Oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N′-phenylurea 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward H.; Bennett, Jesse H.; Heggestad, Howard E.

    1981-01-01

    Dark-induced senescence in leaf discs from O3-sensitive red clover trifoliates (Trifolium pratense L. cv. `Pennscott') was markedly retarded by treatment with N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl-N′-phenylurea (EDU). EDU also protects against acute and chronic foliar O3 injury when sprayed on intact leaves or supplied to the plants through soil application. Senescence retardation was measured by time-dependent analyses of chlorophyll, protein, and RNA in discs floated on aqueous EDU solutions ranging from 0 to 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU. Chlorophyll degradation, total protein, and nucleic acids were followed over 10-day test periods. EDU at 500 micrograms per milliliter (50 milligrams per pot), a concentration known to provide optimal protection to intact leaves against O3 injury, was most effective in preventing chlorosis and in maintaining high concentrations of protein and RNA in the discs. In discs treated with 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU 90% of the chlorophyll was retained after 10 days in the dark. In contrast, lower concentrations (0, 125, and 250 micrograms per milliliter) showed the complete loss of chlorophyll or an intermediate retardation. The intermediate concentrations were similarly less effective in maintaining protein and RNA levels in the dark stressed leaf discs. It is suggested that EDU retards senescence and mitigates O3 injury through the induction of specific free radical scavenging enzymes and in sustaining RNA and protein synthesis. Images PMID:16661672

  6. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  7. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  8. Removal of Divalent Cations Induces Structural Transitions in Red Clover Necrotic Mosaic Virus, Revealing a Potential Mechanism for RNA Release▿†

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Michael B.; Guenther, Richard H.; Tama, Florence; Sit, Tim L.; Brooks, Charles L.; Mikhailov, Albert M.; Orlova, Elena V.; Baker, Timothy S.; Lommel, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), an icosahedral plant virus, was resolved to 8.5 Å by cryoelectron microscopy. The virion capsid has prominent surface protrusions and subunits with a clearly defined shell and protruding domains. The structures of both the individual capsid protein (CP) subunits and the entire virion capsid are consistent with other species in the Tombusviridae family. Within the RCNMV capsid, there is a clearly defined inner cage formed by complexes of genomic RNA and the amino termini of CP subunits. An RCNMV virion has approximately 390 ± 30 Ca2+ ions bound to the capsid and 420 ± 25 Mg2+ ions thought to be in the interior of the capsid. Depletion of both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from RCNMV leads to significant structural changes, including (i) formation of 11- to 13-Å-diameter channels that extend through the capsid and (ii) significant reorganization within the interior of the capsid. Genomic RNA within native capsids containing both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions is extremely resistant to nucleases, but depletion of both of these cations results in nuclease sensitivity, as measured by a significant reduction in RCNMV infectivity. These results indicate that divalent cations play a central role in capsid dynamics and suggest a mechanism for the release of viral RNA in low-divalent-cation environments such as those found within the cytoplasm of a cell. PMID:16920821

  9. Effects of red clover extract on the activation and proliferation of mouse T lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Xiu-yan; Zeng, Yao-ying

    2008-10-01

    The study investigated the effects of red clover extract (RCE) on mouse T macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. The cell toxic effect of RCE was estimated by MTT assay. Multiple-fluorescence staining plus flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of RCE on CD69/CD25/CD71 expression of mouse T lymphocytes stimulated by Con A; CFDA-SE staining plus flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of RCE on proliferation of T lymphocytes activated by Con A; The effect of RCE on nitric oxide (NO) secretion of mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h was assayed by Griess reagent system. We found that RCE had potent anti-inflammatory effects on mice. RCE had little cell toxic effect on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages. RCE strongly inhibited the excessive production of inflammatory mediators (NO, CD69, CD25, CD71), in a dose-dependent manner, like cyclosporine A injection. RCE could inhibit proliferation of CD3+ T lymphocytes. These data suggested that RCE might exhibit anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation and proliferation of mouse lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages. PMID:19127865

  10. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

  11. Weed Suppression by Seven Clover Species

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Used as cover crops, clover species may differ in their ability to suppress weed growth. Field trials were conducted in Alberta, Canada to measure the growth of brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], in mowed and nonmowed production, as influenced by alsike (Trifolium hybridum L.), balansa [T. michelianum Savi var. balansae (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson [T. incarnatum (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson (T. incarnatum L.), Persian (T. resupinatum L.), red (T. pratense L.), and white Dutch (T. repens L.) clover and fall rye (Secale cereale L.). In 1997, clovers reduced mustard biomass in nonmowed treatments by 29% on a high- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboroll) at Edmonton and by 57% on a low- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboralf) at Breton. At Edmonton, nonmowed mustard biomass was reduced by alsike and berseem clover in 1996 and by alsike, balansa, berseem, and crimson clover in 1997. At Breton, all seven clover species suppressed weed biomass. A negative correlation was noted among clover and mustard biomass at Edmonton but not at Breton. The effects of mowing varied with location, timing, and species. Mowing was beneficial to crop/weed proportion at Edmonton but not at Breton. Mowing at early flowering of mustard large-seeded legumes and sweetclover (Melilotus offici) produced greater benefit than mowing at late flowering. With early mowing, all clover species suppressed mustard growth at Edmonton. Clovers reduced mustard regrowth (g plant21 ) and the number of mustard plants producing regrowth. The characteristics of berseem clover (upright growth, long stems, high biomass, and late flowering) would support its use as a cover crop or forage in north-central Alberta.

  12. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2013-09-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant milk and meat compared with grass silages (GS), an effect that has been attributed to higher activity of polyphenol oxidase in red clover, promoting ruminal escape of dietary lipid. Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in mid lactation fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on ruminal lipid metabolism, using the omasal sampling technique in combination with Cr-EDTA, Yb acetate, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as markers. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter, with RCS replacing GS in a ratio of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a dry matter basis. Silages contained a high proportion of lipid as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), with no difference between forage species (75 and 73% for GS and RCS, respectively). Substitution of GS with RCS had no influence on the intakes of NEFA, polar lipid, triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, or total fatty acids (FA), but altered the ingestion of specific FA. Replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly 18:3n-3 and increased linearly 18:2n-6 intakes. Changes in the proportion of RCS in the diet had no effect on the amounts or on the relative proportions of different lipid fractions at the omasum. On average, NEFA, polar lipid, triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol accounted for 80, 12, 4.4, 2.4, and 0.8% of total FA in omasal digesta, respectively. Replacement of GS with RCS increased linearly the amount of esterified and nonesterified 18:3n-3 at the omasum. Flows of cis-9 18:1 and 18:2n-6 were also increased linearly in response to RCS in the diet, whereas 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-16:0 at the omasum was decreased. Replacing GS with RCS in the diet decreased linearly the

  13. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids. PMID:25075808

  14. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    PubMed

    Petri, Renee M; Mapiye, Cletos; Dugan, Mike E R; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid. PMID:25093808

  15. Subcutaneous Adipose Fatty Acid Profiles and Related Rumen Bacterial Populations of Steers Fed Red Clover or Grass Hay Diets Containing Flax or Sunflower-Seed

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Mike E. R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid. PMID:25093808

  16. Transforming growth factor β1 increase of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase proteins is partly suppressed by red clover isoflavones in human primary prostate cancer-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xunxian; Piao, Yun-Shang; Arnold, Julia T

    2011-11-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) increases dehydro-epiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolism to androgens and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a prostate tissue model where stromal (6S) cells and epithelial (LAPC-4) cells are cocultured. Red clover (RC) isoflavones inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced androgenicity. Mechanisms controlling those activities were explored. Three hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), 3β-HSD, HSD-17β1 and HSD-17β5 involved in metabolizing DHEA to testosterone (TESTO) were investigated. Individual depletion of HSDs in 6S cells significantly reduced TGF-β1/DHEA-induced PSA in LAPC-4 cells in cocultures. Monomer amounts of 3β-HSD were similar without or with TGF-β1 in both cell types but aggregates of 3β-HSD in 6S cells were much higher than those in LAPC-4 cells and were upregulated by TGFβ in 6S cells. Basal and TGF-β1-treated levels of HSD-17β1 and HSD-17β5 in LAPC-4 cells were significantly lower than in 6S cells, whereas levels of HSD-17β1 but not HSD-17β5 were TGFβ inducible. 6S cell HSD genes expression induced by TGFβ or androgen signaling was insignificant to contribute TGF-β1/DHEA-upregulated protein levels of HSDs. RC decreased TGF-β1- upregulation of aggregates of 3β-HSD but not HSD-17β1. Depletion of TGFβ receptors (TGFβ Rs) reduced TGF-β1/DHEA-upregulated HSDs and TESTO. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that TGF-β1 disrupted associations of TGFβ Rs/HSDs aggregates, whereas RC suppressed the dissociations of aggregates of 3β-HSD but not HSD-17β1 from the receptors. Given that TGFβ Rs are recycled with or without ligand, TGF-β1-induced disassociation of the HSDs from TGFβ Rs may increase stability and activity of the HSDs. These data suggest a pathway connecting overproduction of TGFβ with increased PSA in prostate cancer. PMID:21914638

  17. Clovers (Trifolium spp.).

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Ashtiani, Samira; Sahab, Sareena; Panter, Stephen; Mason, John; Spangenberg, German

    2015-01-01

    Clovers (Trifolium spp.) constitute one of the major forage legumes widely grown for its rich protein content and its major role in maintaining environmental sustainability by improving the soil fertility. Gene technology can assist plant improvement efforts in clovers (Trifolium spp.), aiming to improve forage quality, yield, and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. An efficient and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of Trifolium species, using cotyledonary explants and different selectable marker genes, is described. The protocol is robust and allows for genotype and Agrobacterium strain-independent transformation of clovers. Stable meiotic transmission of transgenes has been demonstrated for selected transgenic clovers carrying single T-DNA inserts recovered from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This methodology can also be successfully used for "isogenic transformation" in clovers: the generation of otherwise identical plants with and without the transgene from the two cotyledons of a single seed. Stable transgenes may be used in further functional genomics, develop new traits and profile gene expression using reporters, and facilitate purification of tissue or single cells. PMID:25300844

  18. Incipient seafloor spreading segments: Insights from the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalki, K. A.; Betts, P. G.; Ailleres, L.

    2016-03-01

    Crustal-scale forward models of marine satellite potential field data suggest that the Red Sea comprises a single segment of ocean crust, which extends along ~60% of the Red Sea. The segment "tips" are bounded by continental crust, and there is no evidence for transforms at the segment terminations at the south. These observations indicate that ocean crust formation does not necessarily occur in response to wholesale tearing or "unzipping" of continental lithosphere nor is it necessarily controlled by preexisting transform faults. Ocean crust initiation occurs as a series of isolated segments that coalesce as the basin evolves. The recognition of this process in an orthogonal extension setting is comparable to spreading segmentation in modern ocean systems generated at a highly oblique convergent margin, suggesting that oceanic crust segmentation is not controlled by kinematic boundary conditions. The Red Sea may represent a combination of incipient type I and type II passive margins development.

  19. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  20. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  1. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  2. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  3. Field Abundance Patterns and Odor-Mediated Host Choice by Clover Seed Weevils, Apion fulvipes and Apion trifolii (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    PubMed

    Nyabuga, Franklin N; Carrasco, David; Ranåker, Lynn; Andersson, Martin N; Birgersson, Göran; Larsson, Mattias C; Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Svensson, Glenn P; Anderbrant, Olle; Lankinen, Åsa

    2015-04-01

    The clover seed weevils Apion fulvipes Geoffroy, 1785 and Apion trifolii L., 1768 (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause major losses to seed production of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), respectively. Clover is important as animal forage and an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Because clover is mainly pollinated by bees, the use of insecticides in management of these weevils is discouraged. To gain basic knowledge for development of alternative management strategies, we investigated weevil field abundance over two growing seasons, as well as feeding and olfactory host preferences by A. fulvipes and A. trifolii. Field trap catches in southern Sweden revealed that white clover was dominated by A. fulvipes and red clover by A. trifolii. For both weevil species, female catches were positively correlated to the number of clover buds and flowers in the field. In feeding and olfactory bioassays, females of A. fulvipes and A. trifolii showed a preference for T. repens and T. pratense, respectively. However, the feeding preference was lost when the antennae were removed, indicating a significant role of olfaction in host choice. Male weevils of both species did not show clear olfactory or feeding preferences for host plant species. The field study and laboratory bioassays demonstrate that, at least for female weevils, olfaction is important for selection of host plants. We discuss these novel results in the context of managing these important pests of clover by exploiting olfaction and behavioral attraction to host plant volatiles. PMID:26470160

  4. Isoflavones in several clover species and in milk from goats fed clovers.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Viala, Didier; Ollier, Alain; Combeau, André; Besle, Jean-Michel

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones that exist in forages such as clover can move in milk, and may have beneficial effects on human health. We measured the isoflavones in subterranean (cv Yarloop, Geraldton, Dinninup and Dwalganup) and red (cv Merviot and Hamua) clovers, grown in a mountain environment, and in the milk of two goats fed a fresh mixture of the four subterranean clovers gathered at flowering stage. Isoflavone glycosides were hydrolysed with an improved beta glycosidase method. Free aglycones (FA) and the hydrolysed glycosides + free aglycones fraction (HF) were analysed by HPLC. In milk, the methanol extracted compounds were deconjugated and similarly analysed. Total HF was highest in Yarloop (19 g kg(-1) dry matter) and was three times lower in Merviot. Formononetin was the major compound (46-64% of total HF). FA varied from 30 to 73% of HF. Milk contained formononetin (50 microg L(-1)), similar amounts of equol and p ethylphenol (about 250 microg L(-1)), and equol like compounds (1120 microg L(-1)). Equol, which has estrogenic activity, and p ethylphenol were produced by biotransformation of formononetin, and biochanin A or genistein, respectively. The modulation of isoflavone amounts in milk and the estimation of their interests for human health warrant further investigation. PMID:15630289

  5. Clover: Narratives and Simulations in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tettegah, Sharon; Bailey, Brian P.; Taylor, Kona

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed software application (Clover) is presented for constructing animated narrative vignette. The results have indicated that Clover is a viable tool for providing the process of self discovery, cognitions and identity by using animated narrative vignette simulations.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF RED CLOVER POLYPHENOL OXIDASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is a popular method for preserving forages for animal production systems in the humid regions of the U.S. and Europe. A major problem in silage production is the extensive protein degradation that occurs during the ensiling process, resulting in economic losses of $110 million per year (U.S...

  7. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet

  8. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  9. WHITE CLOVER MORPHOLOGY CHANGES WITH STRESS TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasticity of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) results in morphological changes in plant habit in response to different environmental stresses. This research characterized morphological changes in white clover clones derived either from two cultivars and a germplasm exposed to treatments in 2-...

  10. Evolutionary insights into the origins of weediness in U.S. red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a widespread, economically challenging problem in Southern U.S. rice fields. The two major U.S. red rice types, strawhull and blackhull, are thought to have arisen independently from Asian rice populations in the distant past. Red rice is a weedy relative of rice, a genomic model...

  11. Novel insights into red blood cell physiology using parasites as tools.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Stefan; Gangopadhyay, Preetish; Repnik, Urska; Lingelbach, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian red blood cell is a terminally differentiated cell that lacks a genetic programme and that has only a very limited metabolic capacity. Nonetheless, it serves as habitat for two parasites belonging to the monophyletic group of Apicomplexa, namely Plasmodium and Babesia. Studies of the parasitized red blood cell have revealed several properties that are unknown in the non-infected cell and that are difficult to conceptualize based on our view of red blood cell function. Here we review the current knowledge on host cell invasion and nutrient acquisition by these parasites. We attempt to dissect the factors that are directly contributed by the parasites from those that exist but have remained undetected in the non-infected cell. PMID:26105829

  12. Blackpatch of clover, cause of slobbers syndrome: A review of the disease and the pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and E.S. Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), which infects other legumes as well. This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine ca...

  13. Clover: Compiler directed lightweight soft error resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qingrui; Lee, Dongyoon; Jung, Changhee; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents Clover, a compiler directed soft error detection and recovery scheme for lightweight soft error resilience. The compiler carefully generates soft error tolerant code based on idem-potent processing without explicit checkpoint. During program execution, Clover relies on a small number of acoustic wave detectors deployed in the processor to identify soft errors by sensing the wave made by a particle strike. To cope with DUE (detected unrecoverable errors) caused by the sensing latency of error detection, Clover leverages a novel selective instruction duplication technique called tail-DMR (dual modular redundancy). Once a soft error is detected by either the sensor or the tail-DMR, Clover takes care of the error as in the case of exception handling. To recover from the error, Clover simply redirects program control to the beginning of the code region where the error is detected. Lastly, the experiment results demonstrate that the average runtime overhead is only 26%, which is a 75% reduction compared to that of the state-of-the-art soft error resilience technique.

  14. Clover: Compiler directed lightweight soft error resilience

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Qingrui; Lee, Dongyoon; Jung, Changhee; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents Clover, a compiler directed soft error detection and recovery scheme for lightweight soft error resilience. The compiler carefully generates soft error tolerant code based on idem-potent processing without explicit checkpoint. During program execution, Clover relies on a small number of acoustic wave detectors deployed in the processor to identify soft errors by sensing the wave made by a particle strike. To cope with DUE (detected unrecoverable errors) caused by the sensing latency of error detection, Clover leverages a novel selective instruction duplication technique called tail-DMR (dual modular redundancy). Once a soft error is detected by either themore » sensor or the tail-DMR, Clover takes care of the error as in the case of exception handling. To recover from the error, Clover simply redirects program control to the beginning of the code region where the error is detected. Lastly, the experiment results demonstrate that the average runtime overhead is only 26%, which is a 75% reduction compared to that of the state-of-the-art soft error resilience technique.« less

  15. Infection and nodulation of clover by nonmotile Rhizobium trifolii

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, C.; Albersheim, P.

    1980-02-01

    Nonmotile mutants of Rhizobium trifolii were isolated to determine whether bacterial motility is required for the infection and nodulation of clover. The nonmotile mutants were screened for their ability to infect and nodulate clover seedlings in Fahraeus glass slide assemblies, plastic growth pouches, and vermiculite-sand-filled clay pots. In each system, the nonmotile mutants were able to infect and nodulate clover.

  16. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. PMID:26987003

  17. Thermal architecture of the Clover cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, William F.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter; Chase, Simon; Kiernan, Brian; North, Chris E.

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the Clover cryostats, which are dry cryostats containing three stages of cooling; a pulse tube cooler, a sorption fridge and a continuous miniature dilution refrigerator. We describe the thermal architecture of the system and present thermal data for the various stages including its performance when tilted.

  18. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André; Alam, Intikhab; Simões, Marta Filipa; Daniels, Camille; Ferreira, Ari J.S.; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine–seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine–seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies. PMID:26529193

  19. New Insights on the Terpenome of the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; de Oliveira, Aline Santos; Hill, Lilian Jorge; Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Thompson, Cristiane Carneiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest. PMID:25675000

  20. Biogas potential from forbs and grass-clover mixture with the application of near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Radziah; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the potentials of forbs; caraway, chicory, red clover and ribwort plantain as substrates for biogas production. One-, two- and four-cut systems were implemented and the influence on dry matter yields, chemical compositions and methane yields were examined. The two- and four-cut systems resulted in higher dry matter yields (kg [total solid, TS] ha(-1)) compared to the one-cut system. The effect of plant compositions on biogas potentials was not evident. Cumulative methane yields (LCH4kg(-1) [volatile solid, VS]) were varied from 279 to 321 (chicory), 279 to 323 (caraway), 273 to 296 (ribwort plantain), 263 to 328 (red clover) and 320 to 352 (grass-clover mixture), respectively. Methane yield was modelled by modified Gompertz equation for comparison of methane production rate. Near infrared spectroscopy showed potential as a tool for biogas and chemical composition prediction. The best prediction models were obtained for methane yield at 29 days (99 samples), cellulose, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and crude protein, (R(2)>0.9). PMID:26386414

  1. INTERSEEDED RED CLOVER AND KURA CLOVER LIVING-MULCH SYSTEMS FOR CORN SILAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to reducing nitrate and soil losses from cropland, greater use of companion crops (cover crops and living mulches) could enhance yields of corn-silage based production systems. In a replicated multi-year study in southern Wisconsin, Roundup-Ready corn was grown for silage with Kura-clove...

  2. Simulations of molecular diffusion in lattices of cells: insights for NMR of red blood cells.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, David G; Kuchel, Philip W

    2002-01-01

    The pulsed field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, conducted on a suspension of red blood cells (RBC) in a strong magnetic field yields a q-space plot consisting of a series of maxima and minima. This is mathematically analogous to a classical optical diffraction pattern. The method provides a noninvasive and novel means of characterizing cell suspensions that is sensitive to changes in cell shape and packing density. The positions of the features in a q-space plot characterize the rate of exchange across the membrane, cell dimensions, and packing density. A diffusion tensor, containing information regarding the diffusion anisotropy of the system, can also be derived from the PGSE NMR data. In this study, we carried out Monte Carlo simulations of diffusion in suspensions of "virtual" cells that had either biconcave disc (as in RBC) or oblate spheroid geometry. The simulations were performed in a PGSE NMR context thus enabling predictions of q-space and diffusion tensor data. The simulated data were compared with those from real PGSE NMR diffusion experiments on RBC suspensions that had a range of hematocrit values. Methods that facilitate the processing of q-space data were also developed. PMID:12080109

  3. Chemical Insight Into The Origin of Red and Blue Photoluminescence Arising From Freestanding Silicon Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Dasog, Mita; Yang, Zhenyu; Regli, Sarah; Atkins, Tonya M.; Faramus, Angelique; Singh, Mani P.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are attractive functional materials. They are compatible with standard electronics and communications platforms as well being biocompatible. Numerous methods have been developed to realize size-controlled Si NC synthesis. While these procedures produce Si NCs that appear identical, their optical responses can differ dramatically. Si NCs prepared using high-temperature methods routinely exhibit photoluminescence agreeing with the effective mass approximation (EMA), while those prepared via solution methods exhibit blue emission that is somewhat independent of particle size. Despite many proposals, a definitive explanation for this difference has been elusive for no less than a decade. This apparent dichotomy brings into question our understanding of Si NC properties and potentially limits the scope of their application. The present contribution takes a substantial step forward toward identifying the origin of the blue emission that is not expected based upon EMA predictions. It describes a detailed comparison of Si NCs obtained from three of the most widely cited procedures as well as the conversion of red-emitting Si NCs to blue-emitters upon exposure to nitrogen containing reagents. Analysis of the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of trace nitrogen and oxygen even at the ppm level in Si NCs gives rise to the blue emission. PMID:23394574

  4. CO2 Sequestration in Ultramafic Rocks: Insights from the Red Mountain Magnesite District, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Del Real, P.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    In situ carbonation of ultramafic rocks, while providing a means to store anthropogenic CO2 in a stable mineral form, is thought to present significant technical challenges due to the low effective permeability of the host rock, the positive volume change associated with carbonation, and the slow reaction kinetics of mineral dissolution and precipitation. However, many ultramafic rocks show substantial mineral carbonation, demonstrating the potential to sequester CO2 via this process. An excellent example of a natural analogue for in situ CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rocks is found at the Red Mountain Magnesite District, Stanislaus Co., CA, ~100 km SE of San Francisco. Here, large underground cryptocrystalline magnesite deposits (~106 tons) occur in a variably serpentinized peridotitic segment of the Del Puerto Ophiolite. Volumetrically, the ophiolite has the potential to sequester about 13 Gt of carbon, equivalent to the CO2 emissions generated by ~12,000 1 GW coal-fired power plants in a year. To understand the origin of the magnesite deposits and the implications for CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rocks, physical, geochemical, and isotopic data are combined to develop a model consistent with field observations. At Red Mountain, we find three generations of magnesite formation: (1) nodular bodies (~1 cm to ~50 cm diameter) that replace ultramafic lithologies; (2) fracture-filling stockwork (~1 to 5 cm thick) and massive (up to ~500 m long, several m thick) magnesite veins extending to depths of ~150 m and cross-cutting serpentinized peridotite; and (3) magnesite and serpentinite breccia cemented by later magnesite. Dolomite, huntite, and minor rhodochrosite complete the carbonate assemblage; opal, opal-quartz, and quartz veins are constrained to shear planes and appear to post-date magnesite formation. Thus, silica does not inhibit magnesite precipitation at this site. Pervasive shearing of ultramafic rocks aids in the development of initial fractures through

  5. New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tea E.; Hannington, Mark D.; Leybourne, Matthew; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea hosts the largest known hydrothermal ore deposit on the ocean floor and the only modern analog of brine pool-type metal deposition. The deposit consists mainly of chemical-clastic sediments with input from basin-scale hydrothermal and detrital sources. A characteristic feature is the millimeter-scale layering of the sediments, which bears a strong resemblance to banded iron formation (BIF). Quantitative assessment of the mineralogy based on relogging of archived cores, detailed petrography, and sequential leaching experiments shows that Fe-(oxy)hydroxides, hydrothermal carbonates, sulfides, and authigenic clays are the main "ore" minerals. Mn-oxides were mainly deposited when the brine pool was more oxidized than it is today, but detailed logging shows that Fe-deposition and Mn-deposition also alternated at the scale of individual laminae, reflecting short-term fluctuations in the Lower Brine. Previous studies underestimated the importance of nonsulfide metal-bearing components, which formed by metal adsorption onto poorly crystalline Si-Fe-OOH particles. During diagenesis, the crystallinity of all phases increased, and the fine layering of the sediment was enhanced. Within a few meters of burial (corresponding to a few thousand years of deposition), biogenic (Ca)-carbonate was dissolved, manganosiderite formed, and metals originally in poorly crystalline phases or in pore water were incorporated into diagenetic sulfides, clays, and Fe-oxides. Permeable layers with abundant radiolarian tests were the focus for late-stage hydrothermal alteration and replacement, including deposition of amorphous silica and enrichment in elements such as Ba and Au.

  6. New insights into the bioavailability of red raspberry anthocyanins and ellagitannins.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Borges, Gina; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Bresciani, Letizia; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2015-12-01

    Red raspberries, containing ellagitannins and cyanidin-based anthocyanins, were fed to volunteers and metabolites appearing in plasma and urine were analysed by UHPLC-MS. Anthocyanins were not absorbed to any extent with sub nmol/L concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and a cyanidin-O-glucuronide appearing transiently in plasma. Anthocyanins excreted in urine corresponded to 0.007% of intake. More substantial amounts of phase II metabolites of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, along with 4'-hydroxyhippuric acid, potentially originating from pH-mediated degradation of cyanidin in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, appeared in urine and also plasma where peak concentrations were attained 1-1.5h after raspberry intake. Excretion of 18 anthocyanin-derived metabolites corresponded to 15.0% of intake, a figure substantially higher than obtained in other anthocyanin feeding studies. Ellagitannins pass from the small to the large intestine where the colonic microbiota mediate their conversion to urolithins A and B which appeared in plasma and were excreted almost exclusively as sulfate and glucuronide metabolites. The urolithin metabolites persisted in the circulatory system and were excreted in urine for much longer periods of time than the anthocyanin metabolites although their overall urinary recovery was lower at 7.0% of intake. It is events originating in the proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, and subsequent phase II metabolism, that play an important role in the bioavailability of both anthocyanins and ellagitannins and it is their metabolites which appear in the circulatory system, that are key to elucidating the mode of action(s) underlying the protective effects of these compounds on human health. PMID:26475039

  7. ROLE OF RED CLOVER PPO IN PATHOGEN RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plant polyphenol oxidases (PPO) are copper-containing enzymes which catalyse both hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of o- diphenols to o-quinones. While PPO is widespread in the plant kingdom, its role in plants has not been unequivocally determined; however, evidence ...

  8. Alternatives to Honeybees for Pollinating Clover (Trifolium L.) Germplasm Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to increase seed of perennial clover (Trifolium L.) species housed in the USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) germplasm collection. Each season we grow out 100-125 accessions of clover in Prosser, Washington. Historically, honeybees (Apis mellifera L) have been used as po...

  9. Clover development during spaceflight: A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Debell, Lynnette; Paulsen, Avelina; Spooner, Brian S.; Wong, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  10. Clover development during spaceflight: a model system.

    PubMed

    Guikema, J A; DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B S; Wong, P P

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed. PMID:11537915

  11. Scaling analysis of fat-link irrelevant clover fermion actions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleh, Waseem; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    The fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action is a variant of the O(a)-improved Wilson action where the irrelevant operators are constructed using smeared links. While the use of such smearing allows for the use of highly improved definitions of the field strength tensor F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, we show that the standard 1-loop clover term with a mean field improved coefficient c{sub sw} is sufficient to remove the O(a) errors, avoiding the need for nonperturbative tuning. This result enables efficient dynamical simulations in QCD with the fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action.

  12. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  13. Cortical microtubules in sweet clover columella cells developed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Electron micrographs of columella cells from sweet clover seedlings grown and fixed in microgravity revealed longitudinal and cross sectioned cortical microtubules. This is the first report demonstrating the presence and stability of this network in plants in microgravity.

  14. Using Water Clover to Demonstrate Sexual Reproduction in Ferns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Wilbur J.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures are described for preparing spores from the fern, water clover, for an educational demonstration of germination and sexual reproduction. The demonstration is recommended for biology instructors who want to illustrate the alternation of phases in plants. (SA)

  15. Scaling of fat-link irrelevant-clover fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotti, J.M.; Lasscock, B.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hadron masses are calculated in quenched lattice QCD on a variety of lattices in order to probe the scaling behavior of the Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action, a fat-link clover fermion action in which the purely irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using APE-smeared links. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing.

  16. Insights from ecological niche modeling on the taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckoes (Gekko gecko)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueyun; Chen, Chongtao; Li, Li; Zhao, Chengjian; Chen, Weicai; Huang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The black-spotted tokay and the red-spotted tokay are morphologically distinct and have largely allopatric distributions. The black-spotted tokay is characterized by a small body size and dark skin with sundry spots, while the red-spotted tokay has a relatively large body size and red spots. Based on morphological, karyotypic, genetic, and distribution differences, recent studies suggested their species status; however, their classifications remain controversial, and additional data such as ecological niches are necessary to establish firm hypotheses regarding their taxonomic status. We reconstructed their ecological niches models using climatic and geographic data. We then performed niche similarity tests (niche identity and background tests) and point-based analyses to explore whether ecological differentiation has occurred, and whether such differences are sufficient to explain the maintenance of their separate segments of environmental ranges. We found that both niche models of the black- and the red-spotted tokay had a good fit and a robust performance, as indicated by the high area under the curve (AUC) values (“black” = 0.982, SD = ± 0.002, “red” = 0.966 ± 0.02). Significant ecological differentiation across the entire geographic range was found, indicating that the involvement of ecological differentiation is important for species differentiation. Divergence along the environmental axes is highly associated with climatic conditions, with isothermality being important for the “black” form, while temperature seasonality, precipitation of warmest quarter, and annual temperature range together being important for the “red” form. These factors are likely important factors in niche differentiation between the two forms, which result in morphological replacement. Overall, beside morphological and genetic differentiation information, our results contribute to additional insights into taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the

  17. Polarization of light scattered by clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Paul; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. This phenomenon is not well understood but is potentially of interest for remote sensing of the earth. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of vegetation were measured. The Umov effect, or inverse relation between polarization and reflectance noted by many earlier workers, was observed here and is shown to be a very general property of diffusely scattering surfaces. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The polarization of light scattered from aggregations of leaves is affected by this negatively polarized, transmitted light. The light scattered from the upper leaf surfaces was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for quantitatively by specular Fresnel reflection from small, randomly oriented facets on the surfaces of the leaves.

  18. Genetic Structure and Effective Population Sizes in European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) at a Continental Scale: Insights from Microsatellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Frank E; Frantz, Alain C; Kuehn, Ralph; Bertouille, Sabine; Colyn, Marc; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pérez-González, Javier; Skog, Anna; Sprĕm, Nikica; Flamand, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall F ST = 0.166, Jost's D est = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only 3 genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously found in mtDNA phylogeographic studies: a western group from Iberia to central and parts of Eastern Europe, an eastern group from the Balkans to Eastern Europe, and a third group including the threatened relict populations from Sardinia and Mesola in Italy. This result was also confirmed by a multivariate approach to analyzing our data set, a discriminant analysis of principal components. Calculations of genetic diversity and effective population sizes (linkage disequilibrium approach) yielded the lowest results for Italian (Sardinia, Mesola; N e between 2 and 8) and Scandinavian red deer, in line with known bottlenecks in these populations. Our study is the first to present comparative nuclear genetic data in red deer across Europe and may serve as a baseline for future analyses of genetic diversity and structuring in this widespread ungulate. PMID:26912909

  19. First Report of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Infecting African Clover (Trifolium tembense) in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes a destructive disease which affects many economically important host plants. TSWV has been reported in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), white clover (Trifolium repens), and various unidentified wild clovers (Trifolium spp). in North America and A...

  20. Multielement residues in tissues of guinea pigs fed sweet clover grown on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Furr, K; Stoewsand, G S; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W A

    1975-05-01

    Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) was harvested from fly ash dumped in a landfill site at Lansing, NY. This clover was chopped, dried, and formulated at 45% into an otherwise purified diet and fed to six guinea pigs for 90 days. Control sweet clover was harvested from gravelly subsoil and processed and fed to another group of guinea pigs for the same period. Samples of fly ash, gravelly subsoil, sweet clover, liver, kidneys, and left-rear gastrocnemius muscle of all guinea pigs were freeze-dried and analyzed for 35 elements by neutron activation analysis. The fly ash contained 28 elements at higher levels than the gravelly subsoil, while the clover harvested from fly ash contained 19 elements in increased amounts over those in the clover harvested from the gravel soil. Growth rate of both groups of guinea pigs was similar. Rubidium and selenium were present at higher levels in the tissues of guinea pigs fed the fly ash clover. PMID:1130838

  1. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  2. Plant Guide: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial North American legume that is non-toxic to livestock and wildlife. It can be found in Idaho, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, and California. Western prairie is tap-rooted and reaches a height of 30 to 61 cm. A cluster of st...

  3. Radiation use efficiency of arrowleaf, crimson, rose, and subterranean clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stability of parameters describing growth of cool-season annual clovers is important because of the great interest in utilization as winter cover crops, forage and sources of nitrogen through N2-fixation. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to quantify the key parameter for biomass produc...

  4. Analysis of Keystone Enzyme in Agar Hydrolysis Provides Insight into the Degradation (of a Polysaccharide from) Red Seaweeds*

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Smyth, Leo; Yadav, Anuj; Vocadlo, David J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2012-01-01

    Agars are abundant polysaccharides from marine red algae, and their chemical structure consists of alternating d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose residues, the latter of which are presumed to make the polymer recalcitrant to degradation by most terrestrial bacteria. Here we study a family 117 glycoside hydrolase (BpGH117) encoded within a recently discovered locus from the human gut bacterium Bacteroides plebeius. Consistent with this locus being involved in agarocolloid degradation, we show that BpGH117 is an exo-acting 3,6-anhydro-α-(1,3)-l-galactosidase that removes the 3,6-anhydrogalactose from the non-reducing end of neoagaro-oligosaccharides. A Michaelis complex of BpGH117 with neoagarobiose reveals the distortion of the constrained 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose into a conformation that favors catalysis. Furthermore, this complex, supported by analysis of site-directed mutants, provides evidence for an organization of the active site and positioning of the catalytic residues that are consistent with an inverting mechanism of catalysis and suggests that a histidine residue acts as the general acid. This latter feature differs from the vast majority of glycoside hydrolases, which use a carboxylic acid, highlighting the alternative strategies that enzymes may utilize in catalyzing the cleavage of glycosidic bonds. PMID:22393053

  5. Effect of seed scarification and seeding depth on greenhouse seedling emergence in western prairie clover, Searls prairie clover, and Basalt milkvetch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes, Asfi)), western prairie clover (Dalea ornata, Daor) and Searls' prairie clover (D. searlsiae, Dase) are three North American legumes that hold promise for...

  6. The human Kell blood group binds the erythroid 4.1R protein: new insights into the 4.1R-dependent red cell membrane complex.

    PubMed

    Azouzi, Slim; Collec, Emmanuel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Protein 4.1R plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. We analysed the expression of Kell blood group protein in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis associated with complete 4.1R deficiency (4.1(-) HE). Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed a severe reduction of Kell. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments from erythrocyte membranes showed a direct interaction between Kell and 4.1R. Using different recombinant domains of 4.1R and the cytoplasmic domain of Kell, we demonstrated that the R(46) R motif in the juxta-membrane region of Kell binds to lobe B of the 4.1R FERM domain. We also observed that 4.1R deficiency is associated with a reduction of XK and DARC (also termed ACKR1) proteins, the absence of the glycosylated form of the urea transporter B and a slight decrease of band 3. The functional alteration of the 4.1(-) HE erythrocyte membranes was also determined by measuring various transport activities. We documented a slower rate of HCO3 (-) /Cl(-) exchange, but normal water and ammonia transport across erythrocyte membrane in the absence of 4.1. These findings provide novel insights into the structural organization of blood group antigen proteins into the 4.1R complex of the human red cell membrane. PMID:26455906

  7. Characteristics of a CsI(Tl) Compton-suppressed clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N. T.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ma, F.; Li, S. C.; Liu, M. L.; Zheng, Y.; Fang, Y. D.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Wang, J. G.; Gao, B. S.; Xu, S. W.; Chen, S. Z.

    2013-03-01

    The performance of a four fold segmented clover detector coupled to a CsI-suppressed shield has been tested using several standard radioactive sources. The summing characteristics, hit patterns and absolute efficiency were measured in both crystal and clover modes. Peak-to-total ratios of 57.3% and 45.6% in suppressed clover mode have been determined for 137Cs and 60Co sources, respectively. A Geant4 simulation of the suppressed clover detector, including the segmentation of the germanium crystals, has been created, and the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental data.

  8. New Insights into How Increases in Fertility Improve the Growth of Rice at the Seedling Stage in Red Soil Regions of Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yilin; Shi, Weiming; Wang, Xingxiang

    2014-01-01

    The differences in rhizosphere nitrification activities between high- and low- fertility soils appear to be related to differences in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the soil, implying a relationship to differences in the radial oxygen loss (ROL) of rice roots in these soils. A miniaturised Clark-type oxygen microelectrode system was used to determine rice root ROL and the rhizosphere oxygen profile, and rhizosphere nitrification activity was studied using a short-term nitrification activity assay. Rice planting significantly altered the oxygen cycling in the water-soil system due to rice root ROL. Although the oxygen content in control high-fertility soil (without rice plants) was lower than that in control low-fertility soil, high rice root ROL significantly improved the rhizosphere oxygen concentration in the high-fertility soil. High soil fertility improved the rice root growth and root porosity as well as rice root ROL, resulting in enhanced rhizosphere nitrification. High fertility also increased the content of nitrification-induced nitrate in the rhizosphere, resulting in enhanced ammonium uptake and assimilation in the rice. Although high ammonium pools in the high-fertility soil increased rhizosphere nitrification, rice root ROL might also contribute to rhizosphere nitrification improvement. This study provides new insights into the reasons that an increase in soil fertility may enhance the growth of rice. Our results suggest that an amendment of the fertiliser used in nutrient- and nitrification-poor paddy soils in the red soil regions of China may significantly promote rice growth and rice N nutrition. PMID:25291182

  9. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  10. First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus in Alaska from Clover (Trifolium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During mid-June 2008, distinct mosaic leaves were observed on a cluster of white clover, Trifolium repens L., growing at the edge of a lawn in Palmer, Alaska. Virus minipurification from leaves of affected clover and polyacrylamide electrophoresis implicated a ~35 kDa putative coat protein (CP). Sub...

  11. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  12. Plant Fact Sheet: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dalea L. is a widespread genus of the legume family (Fabaceae), which is comprised of 62 species of prairie clovers in North America. Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial, insect-pollinated legume that is non-toxic and palatable to herbivores. It occures in...

  13. Western and Searls Prairie Clovers: North American Legumes for Rangeland Revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata) and Searls prairie clover (D. searlsiae) are two North American legumes that hold promise for use in rangeland revegetation and conservation. Seeds of w...

  14. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  15. Soil Moisture Dynamics under Corn, Soybean, and Perennial Kura Clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, T.; Venterea, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Rising global food and energy consumption call for increased agricultural production, whereas rising concerns for environmental quality call for farming systems with more favorable environmental impacts. Improved understanding and management of plant-soil water interactions are central to meeting these twin challenges. The objective of this research was to compare the temporal dynamics of soil moisture under contrasting cropping systems suited for the Midwestern region of the United States. Precipitation, infiltration, drainage, evapotranspiration, soil water storage, and freeze/thaw processes were measured hourly for three years in field plots of continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation, and perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) in southeastern Minnesota. The evapotranspiration from the perennial clover most closely followed the temporal dynamics of precipitation, resulting in deep drainage which was reduced up to 50% relative to the annual crops. Soil moisture utilization also continued later into the fall under the clover than under the annual crops. In the annual cropping systems, crop sequence influenced the soil moisture dynamics. Soybean following corn and continuous corn exhibited evapotranspiration which was 80 mm less than and deep drainage which was 80 mm greater than that of corn following soybean. These differences occurred primarily during the spring and were associated with differences in early season plant growth between the systems. In the summer, soil moisture depletion was up to 30 mm greater under corn than soybean. Crop residue also played an important role in the soil moisture dynamics. Higher amounts of residue were associated with reduced soil freezing. This presentation will highlight key aspects of the soil moisture dynamics for these contrasting cropping systems across temporal scales ranging from hours to years. The links between soil moisture dynamics, crop yields, and nutrient leaching

  16. Lattice Calculation of Baryon Masses using Clover Fermion Action

    SciTech Connect

    D.G. Richards; M. Gockeler; P.E.L. Rakow; D. Pleiter; G. Schierholz; R. Horsley; C.M. Maynard

    2002-03-01

    We present a calculation of the lowest-lying baryon masses in the quenched approximation to QCD. The calculations are performed using a non-perturbatively improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found between the masses of the nucleon and its parity partner. An analysis of the mass of the first radial excitation of the nucleon finds a value considerably larger than that of the parity partner of the nucleon, and thus little evidence for the Roper resonance as a simple three-quark state.

  17. Characteristics of a two-fold segmented Clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Lakshmi, S.; Mazumdar, I.; Nagaraj, S.; Naidu, B. S.

    2003-07-01

    The characteristics of a Compton-suppressed, two-fold segmented, Clover detector have been studied in singles and add-back modes for using it in the study of heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. The measurements have been performed with standard sources of 152Eu, 60Co and in-beam γ-rays from the fusion-evaporation reaction 28Si on 27Al at E lab=100 MeV. Reduction in γ-ray Doppler broadenings due to the two-fold segmentation is demonstrated through in-beam data.

  18. Seeding rate effects in oat-berseem clover intercrops

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; O'Donovan, John T.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-10-01

    The sustainability of cereal cropping systems may be improved by the addition of legumes. The effects of seeding rate were studied for intercrops of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Bigbee berseem clover, an annual forage legume, was intercropped with oats on a Black Chernozemic soil at Edmonton, Alberta, in 1996 and 1997. Berseem dry matter (DM) yields were greatly reduced by increasing oat plant density. There was a linear decline in berseem DM with increasing oat DM or oat tiller density. The relationship between oat plant density and berseem DM was nonlinear and varied between years and harvests. Berseem yield reductions varied from 44 to 82% with target densities of 100 oat plants m-2. Effects of berseem seeding rate (BSR) on oats varied between years. Increasing BSR from 6 to 24 kg ha-1 decreased oat tillering, oat DM and oat plant DM by 22-51, 0-57 and 8-51%, respectively, and increased oat tiller DM by 0-18%, with oats at 10 to 20 plants m 2. Differences between years were likely due to environmental factors and relative emergence times. After a silage-stage harvest, oat regrowth was negligible but berseem regrowth averaged 3.1 Mg ha-1 DM.

  19. Maintaining viability of white clover under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihira, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Shinpou, R.; Hara, A.; Ono, F.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure technique developed in physics may give a new possibility if it is applied to a biological study. We have been studying the tolerance of small living samples such as planktons and mosses, and found that all of them were alive after exposed to extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. This technique has been extended to a higher plant Trifolium lepens L. (white clover). A few seeds of white clover were exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 days. After the pressure was released, they were seeded on agar, or directly on sowing soil. Seventeen out of the total 22 seeds exposed to the high pressure were found to be alive. Those exposed for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 h and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. The present technique has the possibility of being applied to improve breed of plants and to discover a very strong species that stands against very severe environmental conditions.

  20. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting.

    PubMed

    Bajar, Bryce T; Wang, Emily S; Lam, Amy J; Kim, Bongjae B; Jacobs, Conor L; Howe, Elizabeth S; Davidson, Michael W; Lin, Michael Z; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intramolecular FRET reporters with different designs. Here we report the engineering of brighter and more photostable variants, mClover3 and mRuby3. mClover3 improves photostability by 60% and mRuby3 by 200% over the previous generation of fluorophores. Notably, mRuby3 is also 35% brighter than mRuby2, making it both the brightest and most photostable monomeric red FP yet characterized. Furthermore, we developed a standardized methodology for assessing FP performance in mammalian cells as stand-alone markers and as FRET partners. We found that mClover3 or mRuby3 expression in mammalian cells provides the highest fluorescence signals of all jellyfish GFP or coral RFP derivatives, respectively. Finally, using mClover3 and mRuby3, we engineered an improved version of the CaMKIIα reporter Camuiα with a larger response amplitude. PMID:26879144

  1. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bajar, Bryce T.; Wang, Emily S.; Lam, Amy J.; Kim, Bongjae B.; Jacobs, Conor L.; Howe, Elizabeth S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intramolecular FRET reporters with different designs. Here we report the engineering of brighter and more photostable variants, mClover3 and mRuby3. mClover3 improves photostability by 60% and mRuby3 by 200% over the previous generation of fluorophores. Notably, mRuby3 is also 35% brighter than mRuby2, making it both the brightest and most photostable monomeric red FP yet characterized. Furthermore, we developed a standardized methodology for assessing FP performance in mammalian cells as stand-alone markers and as FRET partners. We found that mClover3 or mRuby3 expression in mammalian cells provides the highest fluorescence signals of all jellyfish GFP or coral RFP derivatives, respectively. Finally, using mClover3 and mRuby3, we engineered an improved version of the CaMKIIα reporter Camuiα with a larger response amplitude. PMID:26879144

  2. The effects of soil and Trifolium repens (white clover) on the fate of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kakumoto, Masumi; Sugahara, Masataka; Hamasaki, Tatsuhide; Umeda, Mikio; Fukui, Masami

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the behavior of estrogens in the rhizosphere of white clover (Trifolium repens, clover hereafter) with two different pot tests, using soil and agar as growth media. In a pot test using agar spiked with estrogen, the estrogen concentration in the agar with clover decreased to non-detectable levels within one month, while in the agar without clover, 60% of initially added estrogen remained after one month. The half-lives of estrone (E1) and 17beta -estradiol (E2) in the agar with clover were 2.4-3.8 and 13.2 d, respectively. The dissipation of E1 followed first-order rate law, while that of E2 fitted a zero-order reaction, indicating that they had different mechanisms of dissipation from agar. In the soil pot test, the behavior of E1 and E2 was not influenced by clover. An initial rapid decrease in the amount of estrogen extracted by methanol/acetic acid was followed by persistence for 1-3 months, regardless of presence of clover. Moreover, in three weeks E1 and E2 were only partly degraded by microbes extracted from the soil used in the pot test. In this study, abiotic degradation of estrogens and sorption of estrogen to soil, rather than the effects of soil microbes and clover, contributed to the initial rapid dissipation of estrogens in the soil. However, the results of the agar pot test suggested that vegetation such as clover may significantly contribute to removal of estrogens when estrogens in aqueous phase are discharged with surface runoff and preferential flow after heavy rain in agricultural fields, or when present in soils with low estrogen sorptivity. PMID:19280482

  3. The effect of target postgrazing height on sward clover content, herbage yield, and dairy production from grass-white clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, P; Casey, I A; Humphreys, J

    2013-03-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is an important legume for grazed grassland that can increase the profitability and environmental sustainability of milk production. Previous experiments on mown grass-clover plots suggest that low postgrazing heights (PGH) can increase sward clover content and herbage production. However, this has not been tested in actual strip or rotational grazing systems with dairy cows. Furthermore, lowering PGH in grass-only swards (typically perennial ryegrass without white clover) has previously been associated with reduced milk yields per cow. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of PGH by dairy cows on clover content, herbage production, and milk production from strip-grazed grass-white clover swards in Ireland. Three target PGH treatments of 4, 5, and 6 cm were in place for entire grazing seasons (February to November) for 3 consecutive years (2007 to 2009). Each treatment had a mean of 21 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that strip-grazed a mean annual area of 10.2 ha. Postgrazing height was measured twice a day with a rising plate meter, and cows were moved to the next strip once the target PGH was reached. Annual fertilizer nitrogen input was 90 kg of N/ha for each treatment. The PGH treatment did not significantly affect annual milk yield (6,202 kg/cow), solids-corrected milk yield (6,148 kg/cow), fat, protein, or lactose yields (265, 222, and 289 kg/cow, respectively), cow liveweight (592 kg) or body condition score (3.01). The PGH treatment also had no significant effect on sward white clover content (196 g/kg). However, herbage production of both grass and clover were significantly higher with the 4-cm PGH treatment compared with the 6-cm treatment. Mean annual herbage yields were 11.1, 10.2, and 9.1 t of organic matter (OM)/ha for the 4-, 5-, and 6-cm PGH treatments, respectively. The lower herbage production in the 6-cm PGH treatment resulted in lower annual silage production, greater housing requirements

  4. Excited nucleon spectrum using non-perturbative improved clover action

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Richards; M. Gockeler; R. Horsley; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; C. M. Maynard

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the extraction of negative-parity baryon masses from lattice QCD calculations. The mass of the lowest-lying negative-parity J = 1/2- state is computed in quenched lattice QCD using an O(a)-improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found with the nucleon mass. The calculation is performed on two lattice volumes, and three lattice spacings enabling a study of both finite-volume and finite-lattice-spacing uncertainties. A measurement of the first excited radial excitation of the nucleon finds a mass comparable, or even somewhat larger than that of the negative-parity ground state, in accord with other lattice determinations but in disagreement with experiment. Results are also presented for the lightest negative-parity I=3/2 state.

  5. Water-clover ferns, Marsilea, in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacono, Colette C.; Johnson, David M.

    2006-01-01

    A surge in the collection of exotic Marsilea, M. mutica, M. minuta and M. hirsuta in the southeastern United States has prompted the need for updated identification aids. This study provides an annotated key to all water-clover ferns occurring in the region. It describes and illustrates recently documented exotic species and a previously misidentified western introduction. It details the rediscovery of M. ancylopoda, presumed extinct, and confirms its identification as the western species M. oligospora. Finally it clarifies the status and distribution of two additional western North American species introduced to the southeast, M. vestita and M. macropoda.

  6. Characteristics of GRIFFIN high-purity germanium clover detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.

  7. Response of white clover to ozone different environments

    SciTech Connect

    Heagle, A.S.; Reinert, R.A.; Miller, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The value of research on effects of O{sub 3} done in greenhouse or field exposure systems is often questioned because chamber environments may affect plant response. Foliar injury, chlorophyll, and forage weight responses of two clones of white clover (Trifolium reopens L.) to ambient O{sub 3} were compared for plants grown in charcoal-filtered (CF) and nonfiltered air (NF) in a greenhouse and open-top field chambers and in ambient air (NF) in a greenhouse and open-top field chambers and in ambient air (AA) plots at Raleigh, NC. One clone is sensitive to O{sub 3} (NC-S), whereas the other is resistant (NC-R). Comparisons of individual clone responses in CF vs. NF treatments in the greenhouse and in the field and the proportional response of the clones (defined as the NC-S/NC-R response ratio) were used to indicate the relative response to O{sub 3} in the different environments. Foliar injury and chlorophyll responses of NC-S to O{sub 3} were similar in the NF greenhouse, NF open-top chambers, and in AA. However, for individual harvests, the percentage decrease in NC-S forage weight in NF compared with CF was 7 to 23% greater in the greenhouse than in open-top chambers. The NC-S/NC-R forage ratios indicated that clover response to O{sub 3} in NF open-top field chambers was the same as in AA. Large environmental differences between greenhouse and open-top chambers apparently caused differences in plant responses to O{sub 3}, whereas relatively small environmental differences between open-top chambers and ambient air did not. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Insight into the mechanism of end-of-day far-red light (EODFR)-induced shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Oka, Haruka; Yoshimura, Fumi; Ishida, Kai; Yamashino, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Shade avoidance responses are changes in plant architecture to reduce the part of a body that is in the shade in natural habitats. The most common warning signal that induces shade avoidance responses is reduction of red/far-red light ratio perceived by phytochromes. A pair of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, named PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, is crucially involved in the shade avoidance-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. It has been recently reported that PIF7 also plays a role in this event. Here, we examined the involvement of these PIFs in end-of-day far-red light (EODFR) responses under light and dark cycle conditions. It was shown that PIF7 played a predominant role in the EODFR-dependent hypocotyl elongation. We propose the mechanism by which PIF7 together with PIF4 and PIF5 coordinately transcribes a set of downstream genes to promote elongation of hypocotyls in response to the EODFR treatment. PMID:26193333

  9. Five cycles of selection for 2,4-D resistance in red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,4-D and other auxin-like mode of action herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds in pastures. Unfortunately such herbicides also kill beneficial forage legumes in pastures. Although transgene-conferred herbicide-resistance is utilized in some crops, it is unlikely that transgenic breeding ap...

  10. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  11. Paternity and Nested-within-Family Marker Assisted Selection in Space Planted Red Clover Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presented is a cost effective marker assisted selection methodology that utilizes individual plant phenotypes, seed production based knowledge of maternity, molecular marker determined paternity, and nested within halfsib family linkage relationships. Combining all above listed components, selection...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extract on caprine hyper ammonia-producing bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the inefficiencies in rumen fermentation is the catabolism of feed amino acids and peptides by hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB). The HAB can be controlled through selective inhibition with antimicrobials. In vitro ammonia production by uncultivated goat rumen bacteria was inhibited by ...

  13. Suppression of downy brome by red clover as a cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are one of the primary obstacles to successful organic farming. Organic producers till to control weeds, but soil health is being damaged by the extensive tillage. Therefore, organic producers are interested in reducing the amount of tillage in their production systems. This study examined t...

  14. Automated data analysis to rapidly derive and communicate ecological insights from satellite-tag data: a case study of reintroduced red kites.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Zeng, Cheng; Heptinstall, Danny; Ponnamperuma, Kapila; Mellish, Chris; Ben, Stuart; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of satellite-telemetry data mostly occurs long after it has been collected, due to the time and effort needed to collate and interpret such material. Delayed reporting reduces the usefulness of such data for nature conservation where timely information about animal movements is required. To counter this problem, we present a novel approach which combines automated analysis of satellite-telemetry data with rapid communication of insights derived from such data. A relatively simple algorithm (based on radial and angular velocity calculated from fixes) allowed instantaneous detection of excursions away from settlement areas and automated calculation of home ranges on the remaining data. Automating the detection of both excursions and home-range calculations enabled us to disseminate ecological insights from satellite-tag data instantaneously through a dedicated web portal. The automated analysis, interpretation, and communication of satellite-tag and other ecological data offer clear benefits to nature conservation research and practice. PMID:26508348

  15. Does the white clover response to sulphur availability correspond to phenotypic or ontogenetic plasticity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varin, Sébastien; Leveel, Benjamen; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard

    2009-05-01

    White clover ( Trifolium repens L.) is a key species in grasslands. Its performance in grassland communities is strongly linked to nitrogen (N) availability. A decrease in soil sulphur (S) content has appeared in the last few decades in grasslands in Northern Europe and this could change the behaviour of white clover. S is essential for plants and particularly for legumes through its effect upon nitrogen fixation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of S deficiency on white clover fitness, analysing its plasticity in a time course of growth. Three concentrations of SO 42-, "Low S" (0.009 mM), "Medium S" (0.384 mM) and "High S" (1.509 mM), were used to grow plants in a hydroponic system. S availability modified biomasses significantly only at the end of the experiment (11 weeks). Medium S appeared optimal while Low S induced a lower aboveground dry mass. An appropriate S availability (Medium S) not only increased S content but also increased N content by stimulating N 2 fixation. Plant growth analysis using growth fitted curves and the calculation of RGR revealed that S effects on biomass corresponded to the production of different phenotypes and not to a growth delay. This work shows that the acceleration growth phase (49-56 days) is a key period for the nutritional needs of white clover and should be the best period for a sulphur fertilisation regime that aims to enhance white clover fitness.

  16. Effects of Gypsophila saponins on bacterial growth kinetics and on selection of subterranean clover rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fons, F; Amellal, N; Leyval, C; Saint-Martin, N; Henry, M

    2003-06-01

    Plant secondary metabolites, such as saponins, have a considerable impact in agriculture because of their allelopathic effects. They also affect the growth of soil microorganisms, especially fungi. We investigated the influence of saponins on rhizosphere bacteria in vitro and in soil conditions. The effects of gypsophila saponins on the growth kinetics of rhizosphere bacteria were studied by monitoring the absorbance of the cultures in microtiter plates. Gypsophila saponins (1%) increased the lag phase of bacterial growth. The impact of gypsophila saponins on subterranean clover rhizosphere was also investigated in a pot experiment. The addition of gypsophila saponins did not modify clover biomass but significantly increased (twofold with 1% saponins) the weight of adhering soil. The number of culturable heterotrophic bacteria of the clover rhizosphere was not affected by the addition of gypsophila saponins. Nevertheless, the phenotypical characterization of the dominant Gram-negative strains of the clover rhizosphere, using the Biolog system, showed qualitative and quantitative differences induced by 1% saponins. With the addition of saponins, the populations of Chryseomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., the two dominant culturable genera of control clover, were no longer detectable or were significantly decreased, while that of Aquaspirillum dispar increased and Aquaspirillum spp. became the major genus. Aquaspirillum dispar and Aquaspirillum spp. were also the dominant rhizosphere bacteria of Gypsophila paniculata, which greatly accumulates these saponins in its roots. These results suggest that saponins may control rhizosphere bacteria in soil through rhizodeposition mechanisms. PMID:14569290

  17. A study on the multicolour evolution of red-sequence galaxy populations: insights from hydrodynamical simulations and semi-analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, A. D.; Kang, Xi; Contini, E.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Fassbender, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Gavignaud, I.

    2015-09-01

    Context. By means of our own cosmological-hydrodynamical simulation (SIM) and semi-analytical model (SAM), we studied galaxy population properties in clusters and groups, spanning over ten different bands from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared (NIR), and their evolution since redshift z = 2. Aims: We compare our results in terms of red/blue galaxy fractions and of the luminous-to-faint ratio (LFR) on the red sequence (RS) with recent observational data reaching beyond z = 1.5. Methods: Different selection criteria were tested to retrieve the galaxies that effectively belong to the RS: either by their quiescence degree measured from their specific star formation rate (sSFR; the so-called "dead sequence"), or by their position in a colour-colour plane, which is also a function of sSFR. In both cases, the colour cut and the lower limit magnitude thresholds were let to evolve with redshift so that they would follow the natural shift of the characteristic luminosity in the luminosity function (LF). Results: We find that the Butcher-Oemler effect is wavelength-dependent, with the fraction of blue galaxies increasing more steeply in optical-optical than in NIR-optical colours. Moreover, a steep trend in the blue fraction can only be reproduced when an optically fixed luminosity-selected sample is chosen, while the trend flattens when selecting samples by stellar mass or by an evolving magnitude limit. We also find that the RS-LFR behaviour, highly debated in the literature, is strongly dependent on the galaxy selection function: in particular, the very mild evolution that is recovered when using a mass-selected galaxy sample agrees with values reported for some of the highest redshift-confirmed (proto)clusters. For differences that are attributable to environments, we find that normal groups and (to a lesser extent) cluster outskirts present the highest values of both the star-forming fraction and LFR at low z, while fossil groups and cluster cores have the lowest

  18. Effects of ozone on the regrowth and energy reserves of a ladino clover-tall fescue pasture

    SciTech Connect

    Rebbeck, J.; Blum, U.; Heagle, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A ladino clover and tall fescue pasture was established in September 1983 to determine the impact of ozone and available soil moisture on plants grown in open-top field chambers and exposed for 12 h daily to ozone (O{sub 3}) from April through October in 1984 and 1985. Samples were removed periodically to measure above- and below-ground biomass and energy reserves of the clover and fescue. At the final harvest, clover was the dominant species in below-ambient O{sub 3} while fescue was the dominant species at ambient and above-ambient O{sub 3} concentrations. Ladino clover shoot and root biomass was reduced by O{sub 3} for all harvest when compared to clover grown in the charcoal-filtered-air. Statistically-significant O{sub 3} effects were observed on clover shoots prior to roots. For most harvests, the energy reserves of ladino clover roots were suppressed by increasing O{sub 3} concentrations. Clover shoot starch levels were not greatly affected by O{sub 3} or moisture.

  19. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  20. The Case Study: I'm Looking over a White-Striped Clover--A Case of Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krufka, Alison; Evarts, Susan; Wilson, Chester

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this article is an exploration of the process of natural selection using white clover ("Trifolium repens") as an example. In general, two forms of white clover can be found around the world in various habitats. One type has plain green leaves and the other type produces cyanide as a defense against herbivores and signals the…

  1. The evolution of Root effect hemoglobins in the absence of intracellular pH protection of the red blood cell: insights from primitive fishes.

    PubMed

    Regan, Matthew D; Brauner, Colin J

    2010-06-01

    The Root effect, a reduction in blood oxygen (O(2)) carrying capacity at low pH, is used by many fish species to maximize O(2) delivery to the eye and swimbladder. It is believed to have evolved in the basal actinopterygian lineage of fishes, species that lack the intracellular pH (pH(i)) protection mechanism of more derived species' red blood cells (i.e., adrenergically activated Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; betaNHE). These basal actinopterygians may consequently experience a reduction in blood O(2) carrying capacity, and thus O(2) uptake at the gills, during hypoxia- and exercise-induced generalized blood acidoses. We analyzed the hemoglobins (Hbs) of seven species within this group [American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), bowfin (Amia calva), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), and pirarucu (Arapaima gigas)] for their Root effect characteristics so as to test the hypothesis of the Root effect onset pH value being lower than those pH values expected during a generalized acidosis in vivo. Analysis of the haemolysates revealed that, although each of the seven species displayed Root effects (ranging from 7.3 to 40.5% desaturation of Hb with O(2), i.e., Hb O(2) desaturation), the Root effect onset pH values of all species are considerably lower (ranging from pH 5.94 to 7.04) than the maximum blood acidoses that would be expected following hypoxia or exercise (pH(i) 7.15-7.3). Thus, although these primitive fishes possess Hbs with large Root effects and lack any significant red blood cell betaNHE activity, it is unlikely that the possession of a Root effect would impair O(2) uptake at the gills following a generalized acidosis of the blood. As well, it was shown that both maximal Root effect and Root effect onset pH values increased significantly in bowfin over those of the more basal species, toward values of similar magnitude to those of most of the more derived

  2. Counterclockwise block rotation linked to southward propagation and overlap of sub-aerial Red Sea Rift segments, Afar Depression: Insight from paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye; Rowland, Julie; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-four cooling units from the Pleistocene extrusive volcanic rocks exposed in regions bordered by the active Red Sea magmatic segments, in the northwestern central Afar Depression, were sampled for paleomagnetic study. Six to 12 samples were collected from each paleomagnetic site. Samples were demagnetized using Alternating Field (AF) and Thermal (TH) demagnetization techniques. The samples were then measured using the JR-6A spinner magnetometer available at the department of Earth Sciences of Addis Ababa University. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) direction reveals mostly one or two simple and straightforward components of magnetizations; the first, low-stability component is isolated by heating to 100 °C-300 °C or by AF of 10-30 mT. The magnetization directions after these steps generally define straight lines that are directed towards the origin, and interpreted as primary NRM or ChRM (Characteristic Remanent Magnetization) and the direction of magnetization was determined. Results of the magnetization decay curve plots and rock magnetic analyses using a Variable Field Translation Balance (VFTB) indicate that magnetic mineralogy is dominated by Ti-poor titano-magnetite with magnetic grain sizes in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range, with minor presence of goethite and maghemite in a few cases. An overall mean direction calculated for the 26 sites located within the overlap zone is obtained (D = 354.4°, I = 13.2°, N = 26, K = 43.5, α95 = 4.3°), and compared to the expected Geomagnetic Axial Dipole (GAD) field, based on the Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) Curve of the African plate (Besse and Courtillot, 1991, 2003), a difference in declination ΔD = - 6.5° ± 4.0° is obtained. This declination difference is interpreted as counterclockwise rotation about a vertical axis, in agreement with rift propagation and right stepping overlap geometry of the Alayta-Dabbahu magmatic segments. The difference in inclination ΔI = 7.8° ± 3.9° is

  3. Analytical characterization of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odor families and the concept of fruitiness of wines.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ana; Campo, Eva; Fariña, Laura; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2007-05-30

    The aroma profile of five premium red wines has been studied by sensory descriptive analysis, quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and chemical quantitative analysis. The most relevant findings have been confirmed by sensory analysis. Forty-five odorants, including the most intense, were identified. At least 37 odorants can be found at concentrations above their odor threshold. A satisfactory agreement between GC-O and quantitative data was obtained in most cases. Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, (E)-whiskey lactone, and guaiacol were responsible for the veggie, woody, and toasted characters of the wines, respectively. The sweet-caramel notes are related to the presence of at least five compounds with flowery and sweet notes. The phenolic character can be similarly related to the presence of 12 volatile phenols. The berry fruit note of these wines is related to the additive effect of nine fruity esters. Ethanol exerts a strong suppression effect on fruitiness, whereas norisoprenoids and dimethyl sulfide enhance fruity notes. PMID:17488088

  4. Structural insights into the evolution of a sexy protein: novel topology and restricted backbone flexibility in a hypervariable pheromone from the red-legged salamander, Plethodon shermani.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Damien B; Bowen, Kathleen E; Doty, Kari A; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Lane, Andrew N; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    In response to pervasive sexual selection, protein sex pheromones often display rapid mutation and accelerated evolution of corresponding gene sequences. For proteins, the general dogma is that structure is maintained even as sequence or function may rapidly change. This phenomenon is well exemplified by the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily: a diverse class of vertebrate proteins co-opted for many biological functions - such as components of snake venoms, regulators of the complement system, and coordinators of amphibian limb regeneration. All of the >200 structurally characterized TFPs adopt the namesake "three-finger" topology. In male red-legged salamanders, the TFP pheromone Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF) is a hypervariable protein such that, through extensive gene duplication and pervasive sexual selection, individual male salamanders express more than 30 unique isoforms. However, it remained unclear how this accelerated evolution affected the protein structure of PMF. Using LC/MS-MS and multidimensional NMR, we report the 3D structure of the most abundant PMF isoform, PMF-G. The high resolution structural ensemble revealed a highly modified TFP structure, including a unique disulfide bonding pattern and loss of secondary structure, that define a novel protein topology with greater backbone flexibility in the third peptide finger. Sequence comparison, models of molecular evolution, and homology modeling together support that this flexible third finger is the most rapidly evolving segment of PMF. Combined with PMF sequence hypervariability, this structural flexibility may enhance the plasticity of PMF as a chemical signal by permitting potentially thousands of structural conformers. We propose that the flexible third finger plays a critical role in PMF:receptor interactions. As female receptors co-evolve, this flexibility may allow PMF to still bind its receptor(s) without the immediate need for complementary mutations. Consequently, this unique

  5. Influence of the Afar plume on the deep structure of Aden and Red Sea margins - Insight from teleseismic tomography in western Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Basuyau, Clémence; Leroy, Sylvie; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Rolandone, Frédérique; Ganad, Ismail Al; Khanbari, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Continental rupture processes under mantle plume influence are still poorly known although extensively studied. The Afar plume has been largely investigated in Ethiopia to study early stages of continental break-up. Here we imaged the lithospheric structure of western continental Yemen to evaluate the role of the Afar plume on the evolution of the continental margin and its extent towards the East. A part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory) permitted the deployment of twenty-three broadband stations in Yemen (from 2009 to 2010). Using a classical teleseismic tomography (Aki et al., 1974) on these stations together with a permanent GFZ station, we image the relative velocity variations of P-waves in the crust and lithosphere down to 300 km depth, with a maximum lateral resolution of about ~20 km. The model thus obtained shows (1) a dramatic and localized thinning of the crust in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden (2) the presence of magmatic underplating related to seaward dipping reflectors under those two volcanic margins (3) two granitic syn-rift intrusions on the border of the great escarpment (4) a low velocity anomaly in which with evidence of partial melting, just below thick Oligocene trapps series and other volcanic events (from 15 Ma to present). This low velocity anomaly could correspond to an abnormally hot mantle and could be responsible for dynamic topography and recent magmatism in western Yemen. (5) Finally, we infer the presence of hot material under the Southwestern corner of Yemen that could be related to Miocene volcanism in Jabal an Nar.

  6. Blackpatch of Clover, Cause of Slobbers Syndrome: A Review of the Disease and the Pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota), morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals and their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested. PMID:26858953

  7. Blackpatch of Clover, Cause of Slobbers Syndrome: A Review of the Disease and the Pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota), morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals and their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested. PMID:26858953

  8. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  9. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  10. Water Balance and Nitrate Leaching for Corn in Kura Clover Living Mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems with improved environmental performance are needed in the Midwestern United States. Corn (Zea mays L.) grown in kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) living mulch is a relatively new cropping system which may have potential to meet that need. Our objectives were to determine the...

  11. Corn performance under managed drought stress and in a kura clover living mulch intercropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A corn (Zea mays L.) and kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) intercropping system provides ecological services but competition for water between the grain crop and the living mulch crop leads to reduced corn yields. Our objectives in this study were to determine (i) if drought-tolerant corn ca...

  12. Soil erosion and nutrient runoff in corn silage with kura clover living mulch and winter rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) silage is a productive and popular forage crop that can exacerbate soil loss, surface water runoff, and nonpoint source nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of using kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) living ...

  13. Finite Volume Study of the Delta Magnetic Moments Using Dynamical Clover Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, Christopher; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the magnetic dipole moment of the $\\Delta$ baryon using a background magnetic field on 2+1-flavors of clover fermions on anisotropic lattices. We focus on the finite volume effects that can be significant in background field studies, and thus we use two different spatial volumes in addition to several quark masses.

  14. Phytoextraction of Soil Phosphorus by Potassium-Fertilized Grass-Clover Swards.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Bart G H; van Eekeren, Nick

    2016-03-01

    In the development of the Dutch National Ecological Network, many hectares of arable land are converted to nature areas to protect plant and animal species. This encompasses development of species-rich grasslands. On former agricultural land on sandy soils, this development is often hampered by relatively high phosphorus (P) levels, which also cause eutrophication. Standard practices to decrease the amount of P are either topsoil removal or long-term mowing of low-yielding established grassland. Both methods have disadvantages, and there is a need for additional techniques. As an alternative, phytoextraction ("mining") of soil P has been proposed. We tested a new technique of mining without mineral N fertilizer by cropping an intensively mown grass-clover with potassium (K) fertilization that could potentially be used as cattle feed. A long-term field experiment was conducted, comparing soil P removal by grass-clover swards with and without supplementary K fertilization on a sandy soil. During the experiment, which ran from 2002 to 2009, soil P levels and nutrient contents of grass-clover were measured, and P and K balances were calculated. Our results show that grass-clover with K fertilization removed excess soil P (also at lower P levels) at a relatively high rate (34 kg P ha yr, significantly higher than without K fertilization; < 0.05) and produced reasonable yields of grass-clover. Our P balance suggested reduced leaching from the topsoil during this experiment. For nature restoration in agricultural areas, this tool opens many possibilities. PMID:27065418

  15. Systemic colonization of clover (Trifolium repens) by Clostridium botulinum strain 2301

    PubMed Central

    Zeiller, Matthias; Rothballer, Michael; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Böhnel, Helge; Gessler, Frank; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cases of botulism in cattle and other farm animals and also in farmers increased dramatically. It was proposed, that these cases could be affiliated with the spreading of compost or other organic manures contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores on farm land. Thus, soils and fodder plants and finally farm animals could be contaminated. Therefore, the colonization behavior and interaction of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT D) producing C. botulinum strain 2301 and the non-toxin producing Clostridium sporogenes strain 1739 were investigated on clover (Trifolium repens) in a field experiment as well as in phytochamber experiments applying axenic and additionally soil based systems under controlled conditions. Plants were harvested and divided into root and shoot parts for further DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays; subsamples were fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, we observed significant differences in the growth behavior of clover plants when inoculated with clostridial spores, indicating a plant growth promoting effect. Inoculated plants showed an increased growth index (shoot size, wet and dry weight) and an enlarged root system induced by the systemic colonization of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301. To target C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, 16S rDNA directed primers were used and to specifically detect C. botulinum, BoNT D toxin genes targeted primers, using a multiplex PCR approach, were applied. Our results demonstrate an effective colonization of roots and shoots of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301 and C. sporogenes strain 1739. Detailed analysis of colonization behavior showed that C. botulinum can occur as individual cells, in cell clusters and in microcolonies within the rhizosphere, lateral roots and within the roots tissue of clover. PMID:26583010

  16. Intercomparison of satellite-derived aerosol optical depths with ship-based microtops observations over the Red Sea from the AEGAEO campaign in 2011 and insights into dust influence over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.; Stenchikov, G. L.; De La Torre, P.; Bangalath, H.; Smirnov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Among its many influences on the climate system, dust aerosol can substantially modify the Earth's radiation balance via its direct impact on both the amount of reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy escaping to space. Over ocean, instantaneous aircraft and satellite observations of dust events have shown that the reflected shortwave component can be enhanced by over 100Wm-2. However, while there have been a number of observational and modelling campaigns designed to probe dust-climate interactions over North Africa, the North Atlantic, Asia, the Americas and the Mediterranean, relatively little attention has been paid to the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. Here we describe a novel set of ship-based observations aimed at characterising aerosol loading over the Red Sea via a series of five cruises through September-December 2011. Typically ship-based aerosol loadings were indicative of background, hazy conditions, with 0.6 micron optical depths of the order 0.2. However, somewhat elevated loadings were also captured during the earliest of the ship cruises in September, optical depths reaching ~ 0.5. In all cases, comparisons of these data with co-located satellite retrievals from the SEVIRI and MODIS sensors showed good overall agreement with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9 for all five cruises, giving confidence in the general performance of the retrieval algorithms employed. To probe the general behaviour of the region in more detail, aerosol optical depths from each satellite sensor were then used to create a record of aerosol loading over the Red Sea for the full September-December 2011 time period. The fifteen minute time resolution data available from SEVIRI provides insight into the timing and duration of specific dust events, while the enhanced spatial resolution of MODIS can allow greater detail to be discerned at the instrument overpass times. Initial results show the expected pattern of behaviour, with enhanced aerosol optical depths in

  17. [Rapid selection of white clover germplasms' crude protein traits by SPAD and Fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Yan, Rong; Cao, Wen-juan; Shu, Bin; Zhang, Ying-jun

    2009-09-01

    White clover is one of the most important forages in the world, with high nutritive value and crude protein content. Crude protein traits of white clover germplasms was selected using SPAD and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The SPAD value was measured by Chlorophyll Meter SPAD-502, and was used to evaluate the crude protein of white clover. In the vegetative period, there was a positive relationship between SPAD value and foliar protein content (y = 0.422x + 4.984, R2 = 0.737), but in the flowering period, there was a negative relationship between the two indexes (y = -0.345x + 37.50, R2 = 0.711). Crude protein content of white clover germplasms was predicted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy with PLS regression and the model was validated by cross validation and external validation. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of cross validation, the RMSECV, and the correlation coefficient of external validation are 0.904, 0.988%, and 0.987, respectively. NIRS model of white clover crude protein content has good accuracy and precision. FT-NIRS was more accurate than SPAD. NIRS is feasible as a rapid analysis method, and can be used in the selection and breeding of white clover germplasms to improve the breeding efficiency. PMID:19950635

  18. Genome sequence of the clover-nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Melino, Vanessa; Terpolilli, Jason; Ardley, Julie; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont on the perennial clovers originating from Europe and the Mediterranean basin. TA1 however is ineffective with many annual and perennial clovers originating from Africa and America. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,618,824 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a 6 scaffold of 32 contigs, contains 8,493 protein-coding genes and 83 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976881

  19. Use of ethylenediurea to detect effects of ambient ozone on biomass production by clover cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, W.; Johnson, M.; Frenkel, M.

    1995-12-31

    Ozone-tolerant (NCR) and ozone-sensitive (NCS) clonal plants of ladino white clover (Trifolium repens) were grown in 15-liter pots filled with a peat/perlite artificial growing medium during the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons. All plants were exposed to ambient concentrations of ozone. Beginning the first day plants were in the field, and continuing at 7-day intervals until final harvests, each plant was sprayed with 300 ppm ethylenediurea (EDU). Foliar biomass harvests were made at 28-day intervals and dry weights of leaves/stems determined. Biomass weights for NCR were unaffected by EDU. EDU ameliorated the effects of ambient ozone on NCR plants, allowing detection of the effects of ozone on an ozone-sensitive clone of white clover.

  20. Beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03) augments salt tolerance of white clover

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qing-Qing; Lü, Xin-Pei; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Qiao, Yan; Paré, Paul W.; Wang, Suo-Min; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Wu, Yong-Na; Pang, Xiao-Pan; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an increasingly serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural output potential. Selected beneficial soil bacteria can promote plant growth and augment tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 has been shown to confer growth promotion and abiotic stress tolerance in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we examined the effect of this beneficial soil bacterium on salt tolerance in the legume forage crop, white clover. Plants of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivar Huia) were grown from seeds with or without soil inoculation of the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03 supplemented with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mM NaCl water into soil. Growth parameters, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osmotic potential were monitored during the growth cycle. Endogenous Na+ and K+ contents were determined at the time of harvest. White clover plants grown in GB03-inoculated soil were significantly larger than non-inoculated controls with respect to shoot height, root length, plant biomass, leaf area and chlorophyll content; leaf MDA content under saline condition and leaf osmotic potential under severe salinity condition (150 mM NaCl) were significantly decreased. Furthermore, GB03 significantly decreased shoot and root Na+ accumulation and thereby improved K+/Na+ ratio when GB03-inoculated plants were grown under elevated salt conditions. The results indicate that soil inoculation with GB03 promotes white clover growth under both non-saline and saline conditions by directly or indirectly regulating plant chlorophyll content, leaf osmotic potential, cell membrane integrity and ion accumulation. PMID:25339966

  1. Effects of stress ethylene inhibitors on sweet clover (Melilotus Alba L.) seedling growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brown, Christopher S.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous experiments from our lab have shown that seeds of sweet clover, when germinated and grown within the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) on a slow rotating clinostat produce significantly greater levels of the volatile stress hormone, ethylene, when compared to seeds treated the same but without clinorotation. In both conditions, carbon dioxide levels reached high levels and seedling growth was inhibited. However, clinorotation inhibited growth to a greater extent. To help determine to what extent microgravity influences stress ethylene production and to what extent ethylene inhibits seedling growth, we have extended the above experiments by growing sweet clover in the presence of aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), inhibitors of stress ethylene biosynthesis and action, respectively. Seeds of sweet clover were germinated and grown for five days in the FPA under two gravity conditions: under stationary conditions on Earth and in microgravity onboard the space shuttle, Discovery (STS-63), which launched Feb. 3, 1995. Upon recovery, gas samples were aspirated from the growth chambers and carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph. Then the tissue was weighed, photographed and fixed, and is current undergoing further morphological and microscopic characterization.

  2. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  3. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  4. P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism.

    PubMed

    Hisa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2014-01-20

    Mixed infection of pea (Pisum sativum) with Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) led to more severe disease symptoms (a phenomenon called viral synergism). Similar to the mixed ClYVV/WClMV infection, a WClMV-based vector encoding P3N-PIPO of ClYVV exacerbated the disease symptoms. Infection with the WClMV vector encoding ClYVV HC-Pro (a suppressor of RNA silencing involved in potyviral synergisms), also resulted in more severe symptoms, although to a lesser extent than infection with the vector encoding P3N-PIPO. Viral genomic RNA accumulated soon after inoculation (at 2 and 4 days) at higher levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding HC-Pro but at lower levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding P3N-PIPO than in peas infected with WClMV encoding GFP. Our results suggest that ClYVV P3N-PIPO is involved in the synergism between ClYVV and WClMV during pea infection through an unknown mechanism different from suppression of RNA silencing. PMID:24418553

  5. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  6. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Root Dynamics of Sorghum, Clover, and Soybean Grown Under Sustainable and Conventional Agricultural Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 (ambient + 360 ppm) on root dynamics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), and soybean (Glycine max) produced under conventional (tillage following winter fallow) and sustainable (no-till following clover winter cover crop) agr...

  7. Salinity-mediated cyanogenesis in white clover (Trifolium repens) affects trophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Elias, Jacob D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing soil salinity poses a major plant stress in agro-ecosystems worldwide. Surprisingly little is known about the quantitative effect of elevated salinity on secondary metabolism in many agricultural crops. Such salt-mediated changes in defence-associated compounds may significantly alter the quality of food and forage plants as well as their resistance against pests. In the present study, the effects of soil salinity on cyanogenesis in white clover (Trifolium repens), a forage crop of international importance, are analysed. Methods Experimental clonal plants were exposed to five levels of soil salinity, and cyanogenic potential (HCNp, total amount of accumulated cyanide in a given plant tissue), β-glucosidase activity, soluble protein concentration and biomass production were quantified. The attractiveness of plant material grown under the different salt treatments was tested using cafeteria-style feeding trials with a generalist (grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum) and a specialist (clover leaf weevil, Hypera punctata) herbivore. Key Results Salt treatment resulted in an upregulation of HCNp, whereas β-glucosidase activity and soluble protein concentration showed no significant variation among treatments. Leaf area consumption of both herbivore species was negatively correlated with HCNp, indicating bottom-up effects of salinity-mediated changes in HCNp on plant consumers. Conclusions The results suggest that soil salinity leads to an upregulation of cyanogenesis in white clover, which results in enhanced resistance against two different natural herbivores. The potential implications for such salinity-mediated changes in plant defence for livestock grazing remain to be tested. PMID:25006176

  8. Is white clover able to switch to atmospheric sulphur sources when sulphate availability decreases?

    PubMed

    Varin, Sébastien; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard

    2013-05-01

    Sulphur (S) is one of the very few nutrients that plants can absorb either through roots as sulphate or via leaves in a gas form such as SO2 or H2S. This study was realized in a non-S-enriched atmosphere and its purpose was to test whether clover plants can increase their ability to use atmospheric S when sulphate availability decreases. A novel methodology measuring the dilution of (34)S provided from a nutrient solution by atmospheric (32)S was developed to measure S acquisition by Trifolium repens L. Clones of white clover were grown for 140 d in a hydroponic system with three levels of sulphate concentrations. S concentration in plants decreased with S deficiency and plant age. In the experimental conditions used here, S derived from atmospheric deposition (Sdad) constituted from 36% to 100% of the total S. The allocation of S coming from atmospheric and pedospheric sources depends on organs and compounds. Nodules appeared as major sinks for sulphate. A greater proportion of atmospheric S was observed in buffer-soluble proteins than in the insoluble S fraction. Decreasing the S concentration in the nutrient solution resulted in an increase in the Sdad:leaf area ratio and in an increase in the leaf:stolon and root:shoot mass ratios, suggesting that a plasticity in the partitioning of resources to organs may allow a higher gain of S by both roots and leaves. This study shows that clover can increase its ability to use atmospheric S even at low concentration when pedospheric S availability decreases. PMID:23645868

  9. Greenhouse gas fluxes induced by tillage and fertilisation in an organic grass-clover-wheat sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Reduced tillage is technically a challenging task in organic arable farming due to the weed competition but also concerning the destruction of grass-clover leys. Regarding its climate impact, there are hardly any data existing. Soil-derived greenhouse gas fluxes were therefore monitored in a long-term field trial in Frick/CH. The trial is arranged in a strip-split-plot design on a heavy clay soil and compares since 2002 conventional tillage (up to 15 cm deep mouldboard ploughing) with reduced tillage (skim plough 5 cm deep and occasional chisel ploughing). In addition, cattle slurry only (SL) is compared with a slurry/manure compost treatment (MC) at a rate of 90 kg N/year. MC plots received one manure compost and two slurry batches, the latter applied with SL the same day but with half the amount. The overall management is in compliance with the EU organic farming regulation. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were monitored in a two-year period including a grass-clover ley, its destruction and a subsequent winter wheat crop. We adjusted the closed chamber sampling method developed by Flessa et al. (1995) with eight replicates for each treatment. Gas and soil sampling took place weekly with additional measurements after fertiliser and tillage management. Soil samples were analysed for mineralised nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon and water filled pore space. Flux calculation included linear and non-linear regression calculated with the HMR-Model after Pedersen et al. (2010) and Fuss et al. (unpublished). N2O fluxes calculated with the non-linear model were 10% higher than calculated with the linear model only. First results for the grass-clover period show no significant differences in N2O fluxes neither between reduced tillage and ploughing nor between slurry and manure compost/slurry application. However, ley destruction induced high N2O emissions which will be discussed with the subsequent wheat period.

  10. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure.

    PubMed

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Laegdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans C B; Jacobsen, Ole H; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-06-01

    Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1m. Although degradation of the CGs during leaching proceeded with half lives in the interval 1.5-35 h depending on soil characteristics, a fraction of the applied CGs (0.9-3.2%) was recovered in the leachate as either CGs or toxic cyanide species. Detoxification of the HCN formed was rapid in soil and leachate from both sandy and loamy soil. However, 30% of the leachate samples exceeded the EU threshold value of 50 micrgl(-1) total cyanide for drinking water and 85% exceeded the US threshold of 5 micrgl(-1) for cyanide chronic ecotoxicity in fresh water. This study demonstrates that even easily degradable natural products present in crop plants as defense compounds pose a threat to the quality of groundwater and surface waters. This aspect needs consideration in assessment of the risk associated with use of crops as green manure to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well as in genetic engineering approaches to design crops with improved pest resistance. PMID:18472138

  11. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles. PMID:18338188

  12. Developing the Late Quaternary Record of Pluvial Lake Clover, Northern Great Basin, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laabs, B. J.; Munroe, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Clover was one of numerous closed-basin pluvial lakes that formed in the northern Great Basin during the Pleistocene. The geomorphic record of the lake includes continuous shoreline ridges and spits at altitudes of as much as 25 m above the modern playa surface. The history of Lake Clover is poorly known compared to those of the larger lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, but can provide a useful framework for understanding regional-scale environmental changes during the latest Pleistocene. Shoreline ridges of Lake Clover are preserved at altitudes of ca. 1729, 1725, 1719, and 1715 m asl, which correspond to intervals when the lake attained a surface area of 788, 726, 618, and 524 km2, respectively. Although the chronology of highstands at these altitudes is still being developed (through radiocarbon and luminescence-dating methods), the morphology and orientations of prominent shoreline features provide clues to regional air-circulation patterns during highstands. The highest shoreline is represented by a gravel ridge that can be traced nearly continuously around the perimeter of the lake basin. The ridge is uniformly developed along shorelines of differing aspect, suggesting that the wind field during the ice-free season was not dominated by a single direction. Along the eastern and western shores of the basin, the lower shorelines are manifested by a similar gravel ridge. However, in other sectors of the basin, features associated with progressively lower shorelines reveal an increasing dominance of northward longshore drift. The most dramatic features correspond with the 1719 m shoreline and include 1) a pronounced V-shaped, northward projecting spit at the southern end of the basin, 2) a 3-km long spit projecting to the north-northwest along the northeastern shoreline, and 3) a tombolo connecting a former island to the northern shore. Together these features suggest that dominant wind directions became more southerly during the ice-free season when the lake

  13. Negative ion mass spectrometry and the detection of carbonyls and HCN from clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Thomas G.; Kato, Shuji; Fall, Ray; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2000-12-01

    We have demonstrated that negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) can be used to distinguish several isomeric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted from wounded plants. Reaction chemistry with HO-, hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns, and collision-induced dissociation spectra allow identification of the isomers. Laboratory studies of emissions from wounded clover using NI-CIMS show several previously detected VOCs, but also clearly demonstrate the emission of HCN. This compound is presumably formed by the decomposition of cyanogenic glycosides which also form aldehyde and ketone byproducts. These results suggest that NI-CIMS may be a valuable tool for investigating VOCs and HCN release from vegetation.

  14. Surface-water quality assessment of the Clover Creek basin, Pierce County, Washington, 1991-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing urbanization in the 67-square-mile Clover Creek Basin has generated interest in the effects of land-use changes on local water quality. To investigate these effects, water-quality and streamflow data were collected from 19 surface-water sites in the basin over a 16-month period from January 1991 through April 1992. These data were used to understand the effects of surficial geology, land-use practices, and wastewater disposal practices on surface-water quality within the basin. The basin was divided into four drainage subbasins with dissimilar hydrogeologic, land-use, and water-quality characteristics. In the Upper Clover Creek subbasin, the high permeability of surficial geologic materials promotes infiltration of precipitation to ground water and thus attenuates the response of streams to rainfall. Significant interaction occurs between surface and ground water in this subbasin, and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance values, similar to those found historically in local ground water, indicate that sources such as subsurface waste-disposal systems and fertilizers are affecting surface- water quality in this area. In the Spanaway subbasin, the presence of Spanaway and Tule Lakes affects water quality, primarily because of the reduced velocity and long residence time of water in the lakes. Reduced water velocity and long residence times (1) cause settling of suspended materials, thereby reducing concentrations of suspended sediment and constituents that are bound to the sediment; (2) promote biological activity, which tends to trap nutrients in the lakes; and (3) allow dispersion to attenuate peaks in discharge and water-quality constituent concentrations. In the North Fork subbasin, the low permeability of surficial geologic materials and areas of intensive land development inhibit infiltration of precipitation and thus promote surface runoff to streams. Surface pathways provide little attenuation of storm runoff and result in rapid increases

  15. Precise measurement of CMB polarisation from Dome-C: the BRAIN and CLOVER experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piat, M.; Rosset, C.; Bartlett, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Bréele, E.; Maestrini, A.; Tripon Canseliet, C.; Algani, C.; Girard, M.; Pajot, F.; Masi, S.; de Bernardis, P.; Piccirillo, L.; Mafei, B.; Jones, M.; Taylor, A.

    2004-12-01

    The characterisation of CMB polarisation is one of the next challenge in observational cosmology. This is especially true for the so-called B-modes that are at least 3 order of magnitude lower than CMB temperature fluctuations. A precise measurement of the angular power spectrum of these B-modes will give important constraints on inflation parameters. In this talk, I will describe two complementary experiments, BRAIN and CLOVER, dedicated to CMB polarisation measurement. These experiments are proposed to be installed in Dome-C, Antarctica, to take advantage of the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and to allow long integration time.

  16. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba).

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Line E; Krogh, Paul Henning; Nielsen, Torben; Kjaer, Christian; Stenersen, Jørgen

    2003-12-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O-substituted analogues of fluorene (carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran, respectively), and the quinoline representative acridine. Seedling growth was a far more sensitive endpoint than seed emergence for all substances. Concentrations estimated to give a 20% reduction of seedling fresh weight (EC20-values) ranged from 36 to 290 mgkg(-1) for carbazole, 43 to 93 mgkg(-1) for dibenzofuran, 37 to 110 mgkg(-1) for dibenzothiophene, 140 to 650 mgkg(-1) for fluoranthene, 55 to 380 mgkg(-1) for fluorene, 37 to 300 mgkg(-1) for phenanthrene, and 49 to 1300 mgkg(-1) for pyrene. For acridine, no toxicity was observed within the concentration range tested (1-1000 mgkg(-1)). As illustrated by the EC20-values, there was a rather large difference in sensitivity between the species, and T. pratense was the most sensitive of the species tested. PMID:14505722

  17. Antimicrobial Effects of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Phenolic Extract on the Ruminal Hyper Ammonia-producing Bacterium, Clostridium sticklandii SR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal proteolysis and subsequent amino acid degradation represent considerable economic loss in ruminant production. The hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) are responsible for amino acid deamination in the rumen. HAB can be controlled with ionophores, but they are also susceptible to plant-sy...

  18. EFFECTS OF FEEDING FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In trial 1, 15 Holsteins were fed 3 total mixed rations (TMR) with 33% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in 3 x 3 Latin squares (28 d periods). Two TMR contained (dry matter basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS) or 40% ammonium-tetraformate treated alfalfa silage (TAS), 20% corn silage (CS), 33% high...

  19. Performance and carcass parameters when meat goats were finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...

  20. Performance, blood parameters, and fecal egg count when meat goats were finished on red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, or chicory pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most farms use forage-based systems for goat production, but control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in small ruminants is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may have natural anthelmintic compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage...

  1. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  2. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  3. Genome sequence of the clover symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain CC275e.

    PubMed

    Delestre, Clément; Laugraud, Aurélie; Ridgway, Hayley; Ronson, Clive; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Barrett, Brent; Ballard, Ross; Griffiths, Andrew; Young, Sandra; Blond, Celine; Gerard, Emily; Wakelin, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain CC275e is a highly effective, N2-fixing microsymbiont of white clover (Trifolium repens L.). The bacterium has been widely used in both Australia and New Zealand as a clover seed inoculant and, as such, has delivered the equivalent of millions of dollars of nitrogen into these pastoral systems. R. leguminosarum strain CC275e is a rod-shaped, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore forming bacterium. The genome was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument using a 2 × 150 bp paired end library and assembled into 29 scaffolds. The genome size is 7,077,367 nucleotides, with a GC content of 60.9 %. The final, high-quality draft genome contains 6693 protein coding genes, close to 85 % of which were assigned to COG categories. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JRXL00000000. The sequencing of this genome will enable identification of genetic traits associated with host compatibility and high N2 fixation characteristics in Rhizobium leguminosarum. The sequence will also be useful for development of strain-specific markers to assess factors associated with environmental fitness, competiveness for host nodule occupancy, and survival on legume seeds (New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment program, 'Improving forage legume-rhizobia performance' contract C10X1308 and DairyNZ Ltd.). PMID:26649149

  4. The Impact of Kura Clover Living Mulch on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Corn/Soybean System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and the dominant ozone depleting substance. Produced primarily in agricultural soils, efforts to reduce N2O emissions are underway, but mitigation results thus far have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bie...

  5. Soil erosion and nutrient runoff in corn silage production with kura clover living mulch and winter rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) harvested for silage is a productive forage crop, but one that can exacerbate soil loss, surface water runoff, and nonpoint source nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of using Kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bie...

  6. Phytoplasma infecting cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas infecting cherry and lilac in Lithuania were found to represent two lineages related to clover phyllody phytoplasma (CPh), a subgroup 16SrI-C strain exhibiting rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. 16S rDNAs amplified from the cherry bunchy leaf (ChBL) and lilac little leaf (LcLL) p...

  7. Yield, Nutritive Value and Silage Fermentation of Kura Clover-Reed Canarygrass and Lucerne Herbages in Northern USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of excellent winter hardiness, persistence, and nutritive value of both kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) suggest that intercropping these two crops could represent a good replacement for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage where...

  8. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistence and efficacy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Wood, Bruce W

    2012-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized that a clover cover crop enhances B. bassiana efficacy and persistence (e.g., by protecting the fungus against abiotic environmental stresses). The hypothesis was tested by conducting field trials in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2009 and 2010. The study included four treatments arranged in a factorial with two levels of fungus (endemic fungus only, and application of a commercial B. bassiana product), and two levels of clover (white clover, Trifolium repens L., and no clover). Fungal persistence was measured by determining the number of CFUs per gram of soil over time (during 42 d postapplication of B. bassiana in 2009 and 29 d in 2010). Efficacy was measured by capturing naturally emerging C. caryae and subsequently determining mortality and mycosis (over 24 d in 2009 and 17 d in 2010). In 2009, greater prevalence of B. bassiana conidia was detected in plots receiving fungal applications compared with no fungus applications, and no clear effect of clover was observed in plots receiving B. bassiana applications in either year. In 2010, B. bassiana prevalence in the endemic fungus plus clover treatment was higher than fungus without clover, and was similar to plots receiving additional B. bassiana applications. Given that we observed enhanced persistence of endemic B. bassiana in 2010 but not 2009, the impact of clover appears to be a cumulative effect. Mortality of C. caryae (averaged over the sampling periods) ranged between 68-74% in plots receiving B. bassiana applications and 51-56% in plots with endemic fungus only. C. caryae mortality and mycosis data also provided evidence that endemic B. bassiana efficacy was enhanced by clover

  9. Effects of Common Mycorrhizal Network on Plant Carbohydrates and Soil Properties in Trifoliate Orange-White Clover Association.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Lou, You-Gen; Deng, Dao-Juan; Rahman, Mohammed Mahabubur; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Common mycorrhizal network (CMN) allows nutrients and signals to pass between two or more plants. In this study, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) and white clover (Trifolium repens) were planted in a two-compartmented rootbox, separated by a 37-μm nylon mesh and then inoculated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Diversispora spurca. Inoculation with D. spurca resulted in formation of a CMN between trifoliate orange and white clover, whilst the best AM colonization occurred in the donor trifoliate orange-receptor white clover association. In the trifoliate orange-white clover association, the mycorrhizal colonization of receptor plant by extraradical hyphae originated from the donor plant significantly increased shoot and root fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration of the receptor plant. Enzymatic activity of soil β-glucoside hydrolase, protease, acid and neutral phosphatase, water-stable aggregate percentage at 2-4 and 0.5-1 mm size, and mean weight diameter in the rhizosphere of the receptor plant also increased. The hyphae of CMN released more easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein and total glomalin-related soil protein into the receptor rhizosphere, which represented a significantly positive correlation with aggregate stability. AMF inoculation exhibited diverse changes in leaf and root sucrose concentration in the donor plant, and AM colonization by CMN conferred a significant increase of root glucose in the receptor plant. These results suggested that CMN formed in the trifoliate orange-white clover association, and root AM colonization by CMN promoted plant growth, root glucose accumulation, and rhizospheric soil properties in the receptor plant. PMID:26556792

  10. Effects of Common Mycorrhizal Network on Plant Carbohydrates and Soil Properties in Trifoliate Orange–White Clover Association

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Lou, You-Gen; Deng, Dao-Juan; Rahman, Mohammed Mahabubur; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Common mycorrhizal network (CMN) allows nutrients and signals to pass between two or more plants. In this study, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) and white clover (Trifolium repens) were planted in a two-compartmented rootbox, separated by a 37–μm nylon mesh and then inoculated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Diversispora spurca. Inoculation with D. spurca resulted in formation of a CMN between trifoliate orange and white clover, whilst the best AM colonization occurred in the donor trifoliate orange–receptor white clover association. In the trifoliate orange–white clover association, the mycorrhizal colonization of receptor plant by extraradical hyphae originated from the donor plant significantly increased shoot and root fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration of the receptor plant. Enzymatic activity of soil β-glucoside hydrolase, protease, acid and neutral phosphatase, water-stable aggregate percentage at 2–4 and 0.5–1 mm size, and mean weight diameter in the rhizosphere of the receptor plant also increased. The hyphae of CMN released more easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein and total glomalin-related soil protein into the receptor rhizosphere, which represented a significantly positive correlation with aggregate stability. AMF inoculation exhibited diverse changes in leaf and root sucrose concentration in the donor plant, and AM colonization by CMN conferred a significant increase of root glucose in the receptor plant. These results suggested that CMN formed in the trifoliate orange–white clover association, and root AM colonization by CMN promoted plant growth, root glucose accumulation, and rhizospheric soil properties in the receptor plant. PMID:26556792