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Sample records for red clover isoflavones

  1. Soy, Red Clover, and Isoflavones and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Heidi; Seely, Dugald; Flower, Gillian; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Vadeboncoeur, Sarah; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Sabri, Elham; Fergusson, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Background Soy and red clover isoflavones are controversial due to purported estrogenic activity and possible effects on breast cancer. We conducted a systematic review of soy and red clover for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer, and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to March 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to the safety and efficacy of soy and red clover isoflavones in patients with or at risk of breast cancer. Results Of 4179 records, we included a total of 131 articles: 40 RCTs, 11 uncontrolled trials, and 80 observational studies. Five RCTs reported on the efficacy of soy for hot flashes, showing no significant reductions in hot flashes compared to placebo. There is lack of evidence showing harm from use of soy with respect to risk of breast cancer or recurrence, based on long term observational data. Soy intake consistent with that of a traditional Japanese diet (2-3 servings daily, containing 25-50mg isoflavones) may be protective against breast cancer and recurrence. Human trials show that soy does not increase circulating estradiol or affect estrogen-responsive target tissues. Prospective data of soy use in women taking tamoxifen does not indicate increased risk of recurrence. Evidence on red clover is limited, however existing studies suggest that it may not possess breast cancer-promoting effects. Conclusion Soy consumption may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and mortality. Soy does not have estrogenic effects in humans. Soy intake consistent with a traditional Japanese diet appears safe for breast cancer survivors. While there is no clear evidence of harm, better evidence confirming safety is required before use of high dose (≥100mg) isoflavones can be recommended for breast cancer patients. PMID:24312387

  2. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  3. Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Stochmal, Anna; Pecetti, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important pasture legume, and Sardinia is known as a major centre of diversification of this species. As other legumes, this clover produces biologically active flavonoids including the subclass of isoflavones that are natural phytoestrogens with positive health effects. Present sources of isoflavones for medical/nutraceutical treatments are red clover (Trifolium pratense) and soybean (Glycine max). This study assessed the content and composition of flavonoids in 14 subterranean clover genotypes from Sardinia, grown ex-situ in comparison with two red clover ecotypes, to acquire information on the potential of the species as an alternative source of isoflavones for possible exploitation. Twenty compounds were tentatively identified across the two clovers after HPLC and LC/ESI-MS analyses, including clovamide, four flavonols, and 15 isoflavones. Most compounds were present as glucosides or glucosyl malonates. Subterranean clover extracts mainly comprised of derivatives of the isoflavones genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin. Compared to red clover, subterranean clover had higher content of total isoflavones and lower concentration of total flavonols. The isoflavone concentration in subterranean clover was higher than literature data for soybean or red clover. The existing genotypic variation warrants the possibility of selecting varieties with high isoflavone concentration for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27415852

  4. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  5. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  6. Isoflavones in several clover species and in milk from goats fed clovers.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Viala, Didier; Ollier, Alain; Combeau, André; Besle, Jean-Michel

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones that exist in forages such as clover can move in milk, and may have beneficial effects on human health. We measured the isoflavones in subterranean (cv Yarloop, Geraldton, Dinninup and Dwalganup) and red (cv Merviot and Hamua) clovers, grown in a mountain environment, and in the milk of two goats fed a fresh mixture of the four subterranean clovers gathered at flowering stage. Isoflavone glycosides were hydrolysed with an improved beta glycosidase method. Free aglycones (FA) and the hydrolysed glycosides + free aglycones fraction (HF) were analysed by HPLC. In milk, the methanol extracted compounds were deconjugated and similarly analysed. Total HF was highest in Yarloop (19 g kg(-1) dry matter) and was three times lower in Merviot. Formononetin was the major compound (46-64% of total HF). FA varied from 30 to 73% of HF. Milk contained formononetin (50 microg L(-1)), similar amounts of equol and p ethylphenol (about 250 microg L(-1)), and equol like compounds (1120 microg L(-1)). Equol, which has estrogenic activity, and p ethylphenol were produced by biotransformation of formononetin, and biochanin A or genistein, respectively. The modulation of isoflavone amounts in milk and the estimation of their interests for human health warrant further investigation. PMID:15630289

  7. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  8. Transforming growth factor β1 increase of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase proteins is partly suppressed by red clover isoflavones in human primary prostate cancer-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xunxian; Piao, Yun-Shang; Arnold, Julia T

    2011-11-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) increases dehydro-epiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolism to androgens and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a prostate tissue model where stromal (6S) cells and epithelial (LAPC-4) cells are cocultured. Red clover (RC) isoflavones inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced androgenicity. Mechanisms controlling those activities were explored. Three hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), 3β-HSD, HSD-17β1 and HSD-17β5 involved in metabolizing DHEA to testosterone (TESTO) were investigated. Individual depletion of HSDs in 6S cells significantly reduced TGF-β1/DHEA-induced PSA in LAPC-4 cells in cocultures. Monomer amounts of 3β-HSD were similar without or with TGF-β1 in both cell types but aggregates of 3β-HSD in 6S cells were much higher than those in LAPC-4 cells and were upregulated by TGFβ in 6S cells. Basal and TGF-β1-treated levels of HSD-17β1 and HSD-17β5 in LAPC-4 cells were significantly lower than in 6S cells, whereas levels of HSD-17β1 but not HSD-17β5 were TGFβ inducible. 6S cell HSD genes expression induced by TGFβ or androgen signaling was insignificant to contribute TGF-β1/DHEA-upregulated protein levels of HSDs. RC decreased TGF-β1- upregulation of aggregates of 3β-HSD but not HSD-17β1. Depletion of TGFβ receptors (TGFβ Rs) reduced TGF-β1/DHEA-upregulated HSDs and TESTO. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that TGF-β1 disrupted associations of TGFβ Rs/HSDs aggregates, whereas RC suppressed the dissociations of aggregates of 3β-HSD but not HSD-17β1 from the receptors. Given that TGFβ Rs are recycled with or without ligand, TGF-β1-induced disassociation of the HSDs from TGFβ Rs may increase stability and activity of the HSDs. These data suggest a pathway connecting overproduction of TGFβ with increased PSA in prostate cancer. PMID:21914638

  9. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  10. Red clover interseeded into small grains makes cents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversifying cropping systems using small grains interseeded with red clover spreads out risk and creates opportunities for adding a high quality forage and nitrogen source for subsequent crops. Red clover reliably establishes using the low-cost method of frost-seeding, dropping or spinning the seed...

  11. Persistence of rotationally grazed red clover in mixed stands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in grazing pastures. Historically red clover was limited by its comparatively lower stand persistence in hay and grazed systems. Smith (2000) demonstrated increased persistence under hay management achieved through over 30 years of bree...

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES FROM RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones which cause browning reactions in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and plants including the forage crop red clover (Trifolium pratense). Production of o-quinones in red clover inhibits post-har...

  13. Red clover: An alternative to antibiotic growth promoters?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted at the Forage-Animal Production Research Unit to discover a growth-promoting natural product from red clover (Trifolium pratense). Previously published work included a bioassay for antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals. The bioassay was used to discover th...

  14. Red clover extracts not effective for hot flushes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andrea

    2003-11-01

    Both red clover extracts and placebo equally reduce the frequency of hot flushes. Providers should encourage patients to avoid spending money on supplements and instead add soy to their diet. In general, however, if patients are already convinced that something works, don't discourage them. PMID:14599376

  15. Heritability of frost-seeded red clover establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the colder parts of the United States, in late winter after disappearance of snow cover, red clover (Trifolium pratense) is often broadcast seeded into forage legume-depleted grass pastures to increase pasture forage quality. This method of establishment is referred to as frost seeding. However...

  16. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    PubMed

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  17. A mowing strategy to convert red clover to annual crops in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are interested in no-till cropping systems. In this study, we found that perennial clover can be converted to corn without tillage. Conversion tactics involved fall mowing in the third year of red clover, followed by between-row mowing of weeds and volunteer red clover in corn gr...

  18. Diversity study on Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks., the causal agent of clover rot in red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; De Riek, J; Heungens, K; Malengier, M; Cnops, G; Van Bockstaele, E

    2010-01-01

    Since the 16th century, red clover has been an important crop in Europe. Since the 1940s, the European areal of red clover has been severely reduced, due to the availability of chemical fertilizers and the growing interest in maize. Nowadays there is a growing interest in red clover again, although some setbacks still remain. An important setback is the low persistence of red clover crops. Clover rot, caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss., is a major disease in Europe and reduces the persistence of red clover crops severely. The fungus infects clover plants through ascospores in the autumn, the disease develops during the winter and early spring and can kill many plants in this period. In early spring, black sclerotia, serving as surviving bodies, are formed on infected plants. Sclerotia can survive up to 7 years in the soil (Ohberg, 2006). The development of clover rot is highly dependent on the weather conditions: a humid fall, necessary for the germination of the ascospores and an overall warm winter with short periods of frost are favourable for the disease. Cold and dry winters slow the mycelial growth down too much and prevent the disease from spreading. Clover rot is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties have yet to be developed. Because of the great annual variation in disease severity, plant breeders cannot use natural infection as an effective means to screen for resistant material. Breeding for resistant cultivars is being slowed down by the lack of a bio-test usable in breeding programs. When applying artificial infections, it is necessary to have an idea of the diversity of the pathogen. A diverse population will require resistance screening with multiple isolates. The objective of this research is to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from the pathogen S. trifoliorum from various European countries. We assessed diversity using a species identification test based on the sequence of

  19. MULTIPLE HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASES FROM RED CLOVER DIFFER IN SEQUENCE, EXPRESSION PATTERN, AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid o-diphenols accumulate in tissues of many plants, functioning as defensive molecules and antioxidants. Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate, see Fig. 1] and clovamide [N-(caffeoyl)-L-DOPA]. In red clover, post-harvest oxi...

  20. Phenolic profiles of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover hay, browning, due to phenolics reacting with amino acids, is associated with higher protein content and greater nutritional value for ruminants. However, because browning is generally associated with poor forage quality, red clover of the “Kenland” variety was selected over eight br...

  1. Winter wheat/red clover intercrop response to tillage and compost amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost-seeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) into winter cereals is an efficient establishment method, although performance under contrasting soil management practices remains unclear. Wheat and intercropped red clover productivity were evaluated in intensive (IT), moderate (MT), and no-tillage ...

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a cool season forage legume, grown throughout the Northeastern USA and is the most widely planted forage legume after alfalfa. Red clover provides high value feed to the livestock because of high protein content and easy digestibility. To date, genomic resources...

  3. THREE POLYPHENOL OXIDASES FROM RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE) DIFFER IN ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES AND ACTIVATION PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones, which cause browning reactions in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and plants including the forage crop red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Production of o-quinones in red clover inhibits postharvest proteolysis during the ensiling proces...

  4. Restricting gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles in red clover (Trifolium pratense) to increase hybridity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a widely grown forage legume harvested for hay or silage, grown in pastures for grazing, and sown as a companion or trap crop. Current breeding methods in red clover for quantitative traits such as biomass yield consist almost entirely of recurrent phenotypic s...

  5. Genetic Map-Based Location of the Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Gametophytic Self-incompatibility Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover is a hermaphadidic allogamous diploid (2n = 2x = 14) with a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red clover GSI has long been studied and it is thought that the genetic control of GSI constitutes a single locus. Although GSI gene...

  6. Field testing Northern U.S. adapted 2,4-D resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) varieties would offer producers more weed control options, particularly in mixed grass/red clover pastures. In the 1980s, work was initiated in Florida to select for 2,4-D tolerant red clover (Taylor, 1989). This Flo...

  7. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  8. Mitigation of Ergot Vasoconstriction by Clover Isoflavones in Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.; Kagan, Isabelle A.; Ji, Huihua; Bush, Lowell P.

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in ruminants that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen-fistulated goats (Capra hircus) to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can (1) promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and (2) relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)–timothy (Phleum pratense) hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline) and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Experiment 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day on treatment (DOT) in Experiment 1, and on all imaging sessions during Experiment 2. For Experiment 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Experiment 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Experiment 1. During Experiment 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1) from baselines over 1, 2

  9. Mitigation of Ergot Vasoconstriction by Clover Isoflavones in Goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D; Kagan, Isabelle A; Ji, Huihua; Bush, Lowell P

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in ruminants that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen-fistulated goats (Capra hircus) to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can (1) promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and (2) relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)-timothy (Phleum pratense) hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline) and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Experiment 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day on treatment (DOT) in Experiment 1, and on all imaging sessions during Experiment 2. For Experiment 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Experiment 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Experiment 1. During Experiment 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1) from baselines over 1, 2, 3

  10. Red clover for treatment of hot flashes and menopausal symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfarpour, M; Sadeghi, R; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Khorsand, I; Khadivzadeh, T; Muoio, B

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of red clover to relieve hot flashes and menopausal symptoms in peri/postmenopausal women. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library) were searched. The mean frequency of hot flashes in red clover groups was lower compared with that in the control groups (close to statistical significance). Difference in means (MD) of hot flashes frequency was - 1.99 (- 4.12-0.139; p = 0.067; heterogeneity P > 0.01; I(2) = 94.93%; Random effect model). Subjective (vaginal dryness) and objective (maturation value) symptoms of vaginal atrophy showed a significant improvement with 80-mg dose of red clover. Red clover showed less therapeutic effect on psychology status, sexual problems and sleeping disorders. Red clover consumption may decrease frequency of hot flashes, especially in women with severe hot flashes (≥ 5 per day). Red clover may reduce other menopausal symptoms. Further trials are needed to confirm the current systematic review findings. PMID:26471215

  11. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues, depending on its cellular or tissue localization. We used PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In red clov...

  12. Red clover polyphenol oxidase reduces ruminal lipolysis in in vitro batch culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. It has been shown that the rate of lipolysis and proteolysis differs significantly between red clover genotypes with different levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity (Lee et al. 2004). Sullivan and Hatfield, (2006) reported the development of genetically modified isolines of red c...

  13. Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Rapidly Ascertain Seedling Establishment Potential in Red Clover Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing and maintaining forage legumes in grazed pastures is important to many grazing operations. To ascertain plant breeding progress in red clover (Trifolium pratense) over the past 50 years, persistence under rotational grazing in mixture with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) of 220 red cl...

  14. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) draft genome provides a platform for trait improvement

    PubMed Central

    De Vega, Jose J.; Ayling, Sarah; Hegarty, Matthew; Kudrna, Dave; Goicoechea, Jose L.; Ergon, Åshild; Rognli, Odd A.; Jones, Charlotte; Swain, Martin; Geurts, Rene; Lang, Chunting; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Rössner, Stephan; Yates, Steven; Webb, Kathleen J.; Donnison, Iain S.; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Wing, Rod A.; Caccamo, Mario; Powell, Wayne; Abberton, Michael T.; Skøt, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a globally significant forage legume in pastoral livestock farming systems. It is an attractive component of grassland farming, because of its high yield and protein content, nutritional value and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Enhancing its role further in sustainable agriculture requires genetic improvement of persistency, disease resistance, and tolerance to grazing. To help address these challenges, we have assembled a chromosome-scale reference genome for red clover. We observed large blocks of conserved synteny with Medicago truncatula and estimated that the two species diverged ~23 million years ago. Among the 40,868 annotated genes, we identified gene clusters involved in biochemical pathways of importance for forage quality and livestock nutrition. Genotyping by sequencing of a synthetic population of 86 genotypes show that the number of markers required for genomics-based breeding approaches is tractable, making red clover a suitable candidate for association studies and genomic selection. PMID:26617401

  15. Identification of SSR Markers Linked to the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Locus in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination is prevented in red clover by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system (SI). This SI system is likely controlled by two tightly linked genes, effectively creating a single locus. While SI genes have been identified in some plants, they have not been identified in red clover or o...

  16. Correlations Between Visual Biomass Scores and Forage Yield in Space-Planted Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Breeding Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) forage yield remains a prime breeding target for improved variety development. In a world of decreasing forage legume breeding resources, rapidly and cheaply phenotyping plants for the highly quantitative trait of forage yield is vital. Many red clover selection pro...

  17. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  18. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  19. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  20. Gene expression patterns, localization, and substrates of polyphenol oxidase in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes and their corresponding enzyme activity occur in many plants; natural PPO substrates and enzyme/substrate localization are less well characterized. Leaf and root PPO activity in Arabidopsis and five legumes were compared with high-PPO red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)...

  1. Suppressing weed growth after wheat harvest with underseeded red clover in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined cover crop strategies for suppressing weed growth after harvest of wheat. Two cover crop treatments, red clover (mammoth type) or a mixture of oat and dry p...

  2. OPTIMIZING EFFICIENCY AND FLEXIBILITY OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover (Trifolium pra...

  3. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  4. A novel red clover virus associated with root colonization by Olpidium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseased red clover (Trifolium pratense) was observed in 2-year-old plants in a variety trial seeded at Prairie du Sac, WI. Similar symptoms were observed in space-plant nurseries at multiple disparate locations (Arlington, WI; Lancaster, WI; Marshfield, WI; Prairie du Sac, WI). Often healthy plants...

  5. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Red clover vein mosaic virus (genus Carlavirus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) is a serious pathogen of legume crops including pea, chickpea and lentil. The complete nucleotide sequence was generated from an isolate obtained from chickpea in Washington State. The complete genome of RCVMV consists of 8605 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) ...

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASES INVOLVED IN O-DIPHENOL BIOSYNTHESIS IN RED CLOVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid (caffeoyl ester of malic acid) and clovamide (caffeoyl amide of L-DOPA). Post-harvest oxidation of these o-diphenols by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Understanding...

  7. RUMEN MICROBE ADAPTATION TO RED CLOVER POLYPHENOL OXIDASE PROTEIN AND LIPID PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce both proteolysis and lipolysis in incubated red clover (Lee et al. 2004). However it has not been determined whether rumen microbes can adapt to utilize PPO-protected protein and lipid. This study investigated whether rumen inoculum fro...

  8. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus: Biophysics and Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockney, Dustin M.

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a highly robust (Tm=60 °C), 36 nm icosahedral plant virus. The capsid of RCNMV is assembled from 180 chemically equivalent coat proteins (CPs). The CPs arrange in a T=3 symmetry, in 1 of 3 conformations forming the asymmetric subunit (ASU). There are two Ca(II) binding sites per CP; the removal of divalent cations causes the CP subunits of the ASU to rotate away from each other forming a ˜13 A channel. These channels lead to the highly organized bipartite genome of RCNMV and can be closed by adding back Ca(II). Titrimetric analysis and tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine the affinity of RCNMV for Ca(II) to be ˜Kd < 300 nM. It has been shown that doxorubicin (Dox) can be infused into the capsid at a mole ratio of ˜1000:1, Dox-to-virus, and unlike other nanoparticles, there is no detectable leakage. The high loading of Dox is most likely due to intercalation into the genome and significant intercalation or exposure to denaturants was observed to cause loss of capsid stability. To better understand the limitations of cargo loading, Dox and other intercalating molecules (rhodamine 800, ethidium bromide, and propidium iodide) were assayed to determine optimum infusion conditions. Dox was observed to have a propensity to aggregate. In order to manage the Dox aggregation, the infusion buffer was changed from 50 mM Tris-HCl/50 mM NaOAc/50 mM EDTA or 200 mM EDTA at pH 8.0 to 5 mM HEPES/5 mM Na4EDTA/10 mM NaCl pH 7.8. The Dox:RCNMV infusion mole ratio was also lowered from 5000:1 to 500:1 and the incubation temperature was changed from 4 °C to 22 °C for <12 hours, opposed to 24 hours. To impart targeting functionality to RCNMV, biomimetic peptides were conjugated to either the surface capsid lysines or cysteines using standard bioconjugation methods. For all of the biomimetic peptides screened, sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) was used to orthogonally attach the

  9. No effect on pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen by multiple doses of red clover capsule in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Valicherla, Guru Raghavendra; Challagundla, Murali Krishna; Rashid, Mamunur; Syed, Anees Ahmed; Gayen, Jiaur Rahman; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is used in clinical practice for breast cancer patients and to prevent osteoporosis. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) preparations are consumed worldwide as dietary supplements for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. In the present study we investigated the possible herb-drug interaction between red clover and tamoxifen in rats. 15 days pre-treatment with red clover did not alter the tamoxifen and its active metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen pharmacokinetics significantly (p > 0.05). Therefore the therapeutic efficacy of the tamoxifen may not be compromised by the co-administration with red clover. Tamoxifen metabolism is primarily mediated by CYP2D6, CYP3A4 with minor contribution from CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 isoforms. Although, red clover pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the mRNA expression and activity of CYP3a2, no effect on CYP2d4 and increased expression and activity of CYP2c11 could be the plausible reasons for lack of effect on tamoxifen and its metabolite pharmacokinetics in rats. CYP1a1 and CYP2b2 mRNA expression and activity were also significantly reduced by red clover. To extend the clinical utility of the present study, effect of red clover extract on major CYPs using human liver microsomes and HepG2 cell lines were also determined. Similar finding were observed in the human liver preparations as in rats. PMID:26530625

  10. Floral procyanidins of the forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Meagher, Lucy P; Foo, Lai Yeap; Lane, Geoffrey A; Fraser, Karl; Rumball, William

    2004-03-24

    The chemical characteristics of the purified procyanidin polymers of the flowers of the forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) were studied by (13)C NMR, acid-catalyzed degradation with benzyl mercaptan, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The (13)C NMR showed that the fraction consisted of predominantly procyanidin polymers. The thiolysis reaction products indicated a mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 9.3 with epicatechin (81%) as the abundant flavan-3-ol extension unit and the terminating units dominated by catechin (95%). ESI-MS showed a range of oligomeric procyanidin ions (DP of 2-11). The white clover floral prodelphinidins consist of terminal units with nearly equal proportions of epigallocatechin (52%) and gallocatechin (48%) and extender units showing epigallocatechin (56%) and gallocatechin (39%). The dramatic difference in the stereochemistry of the terminal and extender units observed for the red clover floral procyanidins contrasts with the mixture of cis and trans stereochemistry observed for white clover floral prodelphinidins. PMID:15030214

  11. Fertility and growth of nulliparous ewes after feeding red clover silage with high phyto-oestrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, E; Taponen, S; Andersson, M; Sukura, A; Katila, T; Taponen, J

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage with high phyto-oestrogen content on ewe performance during their first breeding season. Red clover silage containing formononetin, biochanin A, genistein, and daidzein was fed to 10 nulliparous ewes of the prolific Finnish Landrace breed before, during and after the breeding season, for a total of 5 months. A control group of 10 ewes was fed with grass silage. The mean numbers of foetuses per pregnancy were 2.1±0.7 and 2.2±0.8 for the red clover and control groups, respectively. The total mass of the uterus with its contents was significantly greater in ewes of the red clover group compared with those of the control group. This difference was mainly explained by the greater volume of foetal fluids. Serum progesterone concentration in the red clover group was significantly lower over the entire period analysed than in the control group. In conclusion, the fecundity of the ewes was not reduced by red clover feed with high phyto-oestrogen concentrations. The volume of foetal fluids increased that could increase the risk for vaginal prolapse before the term. PMID:24984155

  12. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Asgary, Sedigheh; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein), red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa) and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively) and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028) significantly inhibited (P < 0.050) this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes. PMID:26405442

  13. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    PubMed

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems. PMID:27171465

  14. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems. PMID:27171465

  15. Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-02-28

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the pressure inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Moreover, the ability of HHP-treated seeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of red clover seeds displayed higher germination potential when pre-soaked for 60 min at 20 degrees C prior to HPP (5 min) with final germination percentages of 94%, although their yield was substantially lower than their untreated counterparts. Red clover seeds pre-soaked for 60 min at 4 degrees C followed by HPP at 600 MPa for 5 min at 20 degrees C produced germination percentages of 91 and 95% after 3 and 8 days of sprouting compared to 99 and 100% respectively for untreated seeds. In addition, this condition did not significantly (P>0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stanton L.; Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Swartz, Paul D.; Meilleur, Flora; Lommel, Steven A.; Rose, Robert B.

    2010-11-12

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two virions in the unit cell. The crystals diffracted to better than 4 {angstrom} resolution but were very radiation-sensitive, causing rapid decay of the high-resolution reflections. The data were processed to 6 {angstrom} in the analysis presented here.

  17. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  18. A NOVEL RED CLOVER HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASE HAS ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES CONSISTENT WITH A ROLE IN PHASALIC ACID [2-O-(CAFFEOYL)-L-MALATE] BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid o-diphenols accumulate in tissues of many plants functioning as defensive molecules and antioxidants. Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate] and clovamide [N-(caffeoyl)-L-DOPA]. In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of the...

  19. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  20. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    PubMed Central

    Webb, K. Judith; Cookson, Alan; Allison, Gordon; Sullivan, Michael L.; Winters, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues depending on its cellular or tissue localization. Here we use PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in N2-fixing nodules. In red clover, PPO was not essential for either growth or nodule production, or for nodule function in plants grown under optimal, N-free conditions. However, absence of PPO resulted in a more reduced environment in all tissues, as measured by redox potential, and caused subtle developmental changes in nodules. Leaves and, to a lesser extent nodules, lacking PPO tended to accumulate phenolic compounds. A comparison of nodules of two representative contrasting clones by microscopy revealed that nodules lacking PPO were morphologically and anatomically subtly altered, and that phenolics accumulated in different cells and tissues. Developing nodules lacking PPO were longer, and there were more cell layers within the squashed cell layer (SCL), but the walls of these cells were less thickened and the cells were less squashed. Within the N2-fixing zone, bacteroids appeared more granular and were less tightly packed together, and were similar to developmentally compromised bacteroids elicited by catalase mutant rhizobia reported elsewhere. PMID:25566275

  1. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to help determine the presence of blackpatch (Rhizoctonia leguminicola) in inoculated red clover leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch of red clover, produces alkaloids that cause livestock to salivate excessively. Its presence is generally confirmed by microscopy, disappearance of symptoms after removal of the suspect forage, and chromatographic analysis of slaframine in ext...

  2. Genetic manipulation of miR156 for improvement of biomass production and forage quality in red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in the United States. Improving forage quality and biomass yield is an important goal of forage breeding programs. Plant development, particularly the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, is an important factor affecting bio...

  3. Phenolic profiles and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression of red clover (Trifolium pratense) selected for decreased postharvest browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a legume forage abundant in phenolic compounds. It tends to brown when cut for hay, due to oxidation of phenolic compounds catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and subsequent binding to proteins. Selecting for a greener hay may provide information about the re...

  4. A Novel Red Clover Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase Has Enzymatic Activities Consistent With a Role in Phaselic Acid Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaves accumulate several micromol per g fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate]. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (M...

  5. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...

  6. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of feeding silage made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT), selected for low (LBFT), normal (NBFT) and high (HBFT) levels of condensed tannins (CT), to feeding silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) on milk production and nutrient utilization in ...

  7. MECHANISM OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTION IN REDUCING LIPOLYSIS AND PROTEOLYSIS IN RED CLOVER DURING BATCH CULTURE INCUBATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: We previously showed that red clover, with the PPO1 gene silenced (Sullivan and Hatfield, 2006), exhibited higher levels of lipolysis than the wild type in the presence of rumen micro-organisms. This questioned the hypothetical mode of action of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) being solely th...

  8. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) Genes in Red Clover: Expression in Whole Plants and in Response to Yeast Fungal Elicitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) four unique cDNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) were identified (PAL1-4). PAL2-4 encode nearly identical proteins (> 97%) that are only 89% identical to that encoded by PAL1. Under normal growing conditions in young leaves and flowers, P...

  9. Forage Management Effects on Protein and Fiber Fractions, Protein Degradability, and Dry Matter Yield of Red Clover Conserved as Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the action of o-quinones formed via polyphenol oxidase, conserved red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) contains abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP), but inadequate rumen degradable protein (RDP) for dairy cattle. This study examined how forage management influences RDP, RUP, crude protein...

  10. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and Lys in alfalfa and red clover silage diets fed to lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The action of polyphenol oxidase reduces NPN formation in red clover silage (RCS). In seven previous trials, RCS averaged (% of total N) 36% NPN vs. 54% NPN in alfalfa silage (AS). Feeding RCS has been found to increase intestinal protein absorption but with no improvement in N utilization, suggesti...

  11. CLONING OF HCT AND C3H GENES FROM RED CLOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENCODED ENZYMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many forages, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa), experience significant proteolytic losses when preserved by ensiling. An exception is red clover (Trifolium pratense), which experiences up to 90% less proteolysis than alfalfa when ensiled. My laboratory has recently demonstrated that the reduced l...

  12. Effects of Isoflavones and Amino Acid Therapies for Hot Flashes and Co-occurring Symptoms during the Menopausal Transition and Early Post Menopause: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Annette; Ismail, Rita; Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Cray, Lori; Schnall, Janet G.; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2014-01-01

    Aims Review controlled clinical trials of isoflavones and amino acid preparation effects on hot flashes and at least one other symptom including mood, sleep, pain, and cognitive function that women report during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Methods An experienced reference librarian searched PubMed/Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, AMED, and Alt-Health Watch for English-language randomized controlled trials between 2004 to July 2011. Seventeen trials of isoflavones and amino acid effects on hot flashes and one additional symptom were identified. Results In five trials of soy isoflavone preparations, two (6g soy germ extract and 25g soy protein in soy nuts) significantly decreased hot flashes, but no other symptoms. In the seven trials of other isoflavones, six significantly reduced hot flashes; in addition, Red Clover (80 mg) significantly reduced mood symptoms; Rexflavone (350 mg) for women with Kupperman Index > 20 significantly reduced sleep symptoms; two trials had significant reductions for pain: Isoflavone powder (90 mg) and Red Clover (80 mg). The only trial in this systematic review that significantly reduced cognitive symptoms was Red Clover (80 mg). In one trial, Red Clover isoflavone (80 mg/d) significantly relieved hot flashes, mood, pain, and cognitive symptoms. Amino acids yielded no significant results. Equol supplements of 30 mg/d for non-Equol producing women significantly reduced mood symptoms in one trial. The Magnolia Bark Extract combination significantly reduced hot flashes, mood, and sleep symptoms. Conclusions Isoflavone trials yielded significant reductions on hot flashes and co-occurring symptoms during the menopausal transition and postmenopause, but studies require replication with larger sample sizes and attention to measurement of outcomes. PMID:24951101

  13. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    PubMed Central

    das Neves, Michelline Viviane Marques; da Silva, Tânia Maria Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; da Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Oliveira, Eduardo de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2) was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 μg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 μg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 μg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 μg/mL for bacteria and 32 μg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 μg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 μg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis. PMID:26887239

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Red Clover Polyphenol Oxidase cDNAs and Expression of Active Protein in Escherichia coli and Transgenic Alfalfa1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael L.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Thoma, Sharon L.; Samac, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and o-diphenol substrates. Wounding of leaves during harvest and ensiling results in browning of leaf tissues from activity of PPO on the o-diphenols. In association with browning, leaf proteins remain undegraded during ensiling, presumably due to PPO-generated o-quinone inhibition of leaf proteases. We cloned three red clover PPO cDNAs, PPO1, PPO2, and PPO3, from a leaf cDNA library. Sequence comparisons among the three red clover PPO clones indicated they are 87% to 90% identical at the nucleotide level (80%–83% amino acid identity). All three encode proteins predicted to localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. RNA-blotting and immunoblotting experiments indicated PPO1 is expressed primarily in young leaves, PPO2 in flowers and petioles, and PPO3 in leaves and possibly flowers. We expressed mature PPO1 in Escherichia coli. A portion of the expressed protein was soluble and functional in an assay for PPO activity. We also expressed the red clover PPO cDNAs under the control of a constitutive promoter in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The expressed red clover PPO proteins were active in alfalfa extracts as evidenced by o-diphenol-dependant extract browning and quantitative assays of PPO activity. Proteolysis in leaf extracts of alfalfa expressing red clover PPO1 was dramatically reduced in the presence of an o-diphenol compared to controls. Transgenic alfalfa expressing red clover PPO should prove an excellent model system to further characterize the red clover PPO enzymes and PPO-mediated inhibition of postharvest proteolysis in forage plants. PMID:15466227

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  16. Consensus: soy isoflavones as a first-line approach to the treatment of menopausal vasomotor complaints.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias; Arjomand-Wölkart, Karin; Birkhäuser, Martin H; Genazzani, Andrea R; Gruber, Doris M; Huber, J; Kölbl, Heinz; Kreft, Samo; Leodolter, Sepp; Linsberger, Doris; Metka, Markus; Simoncini, Tommaso; Vrabic Dezman, Lucija

    2016-06-01

    The association between an increased uptake of isoflavones and a reduced frequency of menopausal hot flushes was first described in 1992, based on a lower incidence of hot flushes in countries with a high consumption of soy. Since then, numerous clinical trials with various sources of isoflavones including soy and red clover have been presented, with practically all of the studies with adequate design delivering an outcome in favour of isoflavone supplementation. An in-depth risk assessment (EFSA 2015) concludes that the amply available human data does not indicate any suspected harmful effects from a potential interaction of isoflavones with hormone-sensitive tissues in the mammary gland, the uterus and the thyroid gland. Safety was ascertained with long-term intake of up to 150 mg isoflavones per day ingested for the duration of at least 3 years. Moreover, high isoflavone intake was found to have preventive effects with respect to breast cancer. Clinical findings indicate potential benefits of isoflavone exposure even during breast cancer treatment with tamoxifen or anastrozole. PMID:26943176

  17. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures. PMID:26523589

  18. Red clover HCT2, a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, plays a crucial role in biosynthesis of phaselic acid and other hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves, phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate) accumulates to several mmol kg-1 fresh weight and is a crucial component of a natural system that prevents protein breakdown during harvest and storage of this forage crop. Previously, we identified HCT2, a red clover g...

  19. Effects of red clover on hot flash and circulating hormone concentrations in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadijeh; mousavi bazaz, Mojtaba; abdolahian, Somayeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To critically evaluate the effect of red clover on hot flash, endometrial thickness, and hormones status in postmenopausal and peri- and post-menopausal women. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2014), Scopus (1990 to July 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2014) were searched for published randomized controlled Trials (RCTs). Results: Of 183 relevant publication trials, 11 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The mean hot flashes frequency in red clover was lower than the control groups (MD -1.99; p=0.067). There was larger decrease in FSH (SMD -0.812; CI: -1.93 to 0.312; p=0.157) and SHBG (SMD -0.128; CI-0.425 to 0.170; P=0.4) in red clover group, compared with placebo, which was not however statistically significant. LH (SMD 0.144; CI-0.097 to 0.384, p=0.242), estradiol (SMD 0.240; CI-0.001 to 0.482, p=0.051), testosterone (MD 0.083; CI: -0.560 to 0.726; p=0.901), and endometrial thickness (SDM 0.022; CI: -0.380 to 0.424, p=0.915) showed greater increase in red clover, compared with placebo, although the effect of estradiol was only significant. Conclusion: Red clover had a positive effect of alleviating hot flash in menopausal women. Our data, however, suggested very slight changes in FSH, LH, testosterone, and SHBG and significant effect in estrogen status by red clover consumption. However, the interpretation of results of the current study is limited due to methodological flaws of the included studies, menopause status, and large heterogeneity among them. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current finding. PMID:26693407

  20. EFFECTS OF FEEDING FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON OMASAL FLOW OF NUTRIENTS AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of nonprotein N (NPN) content of alfalfa silage (AS) and red clover silage (RCS) on omasal nutrient flows. Diet...

  1. HCT2, a Novel Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Transferase, is Responsible for Phaselic Acid (2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate) Biosynthesis in Red Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives to o-quinones by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage (1). Agronomically important forages like alfalfa lack both PPO and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their p...

  2. RUMINAL MICRO-ORGANISMS DO NOT ADAPT TO INCREASE UTILIZATION OF POLY-PHENOL OXIDASE PROTECTED RED CLOVER PROTEIN AND GLYCEROL-BASED LIPID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants with subsequent increases in the efficiency of N utilization and the level of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in their products (meat and milk). It has also been reported t...

  3. Factors affecting the separation and bioactivity of red clover (Trifolium pratense) extracts assayed against Clostridium sticklandii, a ruminal hyper ammonia-producing bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is rich in phenolic compounds. Both the crude phenolic extract and biochanin A, an isoflavonoid component of the extract, suppress growth of Clostridium sticklandii, a bovine, Gram positive, ruminal hyper-ammonia producing bacterium (HAB). The purpose of this study ...

  4. Dataset of protein changes induced by cold acclimation in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) populations recurrently selected for improved freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bipfubusa, Marie; Rocher, Solen; Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    The data provide an overview of proteomic changes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in response to cold acclimation and recurrent selection for superior freezing tolerance. Proteins were extracted from crowns of two red clover cultivars grown under non-acclimated or cold-acclimated conditions, and plants obtained from the initial genetic background (TF0) and from populations obtained after three (TF3) and four cycles (TF4) of recurrent selection for superior freezing tolerance. Proteins were analyzed using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled to mass spectroscopy (MS and MS/MS). Differentially regulated proteins were subsequently identified using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. The data are related to a recently published research article describing proteome composition changes associated with freezing tolerance in red clover, "A proteome analysis of freezing tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)" (Bertrand et al., 2016 [1]). They are available in the ProteomeXchange Consortium database via the PRIDE partner repository under the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD003689. PMID:27408927

  5. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  6. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Kenland). HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ether (1:1, v/v). The e...

  7. Auto-Oxidation of Ortho-Diphenolic Substrate and Deactivation of Polyphenol Oxidases (Catecholase) During Wilting and Post Harvest Damage in Red Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) in red clover convert diphenolic substrate to highly reactive quinones which, through their reaction with proteins, increase the efficiency of N utilization and increase the proportion of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine products (meat and milk). Auto-oxidat...

  8. Isoflavone rumen metabolites: A missing link in the benefits of legumes on grazing animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clovers are widely used to add protein to ruminant diets. Clovers and other legumes also produce a class of small molecules called isoflavones. Isoflavones have estrogenic properties, which can interfere with reproduction in grazing ruminants, but they also have benefits. We identified potential b...

  9. RAPD-inferred genetic variability of some indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) nodules.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Andrei; Rosu, Craita M; Stedel, Catalina; Gorgan, Lucian D; Efrose, Rodica C

    2015-09-01

    The application of commercial rhizobial inoculants to legume crops is proving to be an alternative to synthetic fertilizer use. The challenge for sustainable agriculture resides in the compatibility between crop, inoculants and environmental conditions. The evaluation of symbiotic efficiency and genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial strains could lead to the development of better inoculants and increased crop production. The genetic variability of 32 wild indigenous rhizobial isolates was assessed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). The strains were isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) nodules from two distinct geographical regions of Northern and Eastern Romania. Three decamer primers were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationships between the investigated isolates. Cluster analysis revealed a high diversity; most strains clustered together based on their geographical location. PMID:26344027

  10. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    PubMed

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( < 0.001) and 1esser concentrations of MUFA ( < 0.001). The inclusion of forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( < 0.001), with the greatest concentrations being observed in SF-RC. This latter diet also led to the greatest percentage of 18:2 -6 ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; < 0.001), this effect being less marked (-17%; = 0.014) in T-RC in comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; < 0.001 and < 0.008, respectively). The latter group had also a lesser -6-to--3 ratio than the T-SF group ( = 0.01). -11 18:1 was greater ( < 0.03) in lambs given T

  11. Cell-to-Cell Trafficking of Macromolecules through Plasmodesmata Potentiated by the Red Clover Necrotic Mosaic Virus Movement Protein.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T.; Giesman-Cookmeyer, D.; Ding, B.; Lommel, S. A.; Lucas, W. J.

    1993-12-01

    Direct evidence is presented for cell-to-cell trafficking of macromolecules via plasmodesmata in higher plants. The fluorescently labeled 35-kD movement protein of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) trafficked rapidly from cell to cell when microinjected into cowpea leaf mesophyll cells. Furthermore, this protein potentiated rapid cell-to-cell trafficking of RCNMV RNA, but not DNA. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the 35-kD movement protein does not unfold the RCNMV RNA molecules. Thus, if unfolding of RNA is necessary for cell-to-cell trafficking, it may well involve participation of endogenous cellular factors. These findings support the hypothesis that trafficking of macromolecules is a normal plasmodesmal function, which has been usurped by plant viruses for their cell-to-cell spread. PMID:12271056

  12. Supplementing barley or rapeseed meal to dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage: I. Rumen degradability and microbial flow.

    PubMed

    Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-08-01

    The present study was conducted to measure the flow of microbial and nonmicrobial N fractions entering the omasal canal of lactating dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage supplemented with barley and rapeseed meal. Four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, grass-red clover silage alone or supplemented with (on DM basis) 5.1 kg/d of barley, 1.9 kg/d of rape-seed meal or 5.1 kg/d of barley and 1.9 kg/d rapeseed meal. Nonammonia N flow entering the omasal canal was fractionated into microbial and nonmicrobial N using 15N. Microbial N was fractionated into N associated with liquid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and protozoa. Supplementation of diets with barley increased microbial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01) but had no effect on nonmicrobial N flow. Increased microbial N flow was attributed to liquid-associated bacteria and protozoa. Barley had no effect on apparent ruminal N degradability, but increased true ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01). Barley had no effect on urinary N excretion, but increased daily N retention (P = 0.03). Furthermore, barley supplementation decreased ruminal (P = 0.02) and total tract (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility. Supplementation of diets with rapeseed meal increased apparent ruminal N degradability (P < 0.01) and nonmicrobial N flow entering the omasal canal (P < 0.01), but had no effect on true ruminal N degradability. Despite higher N excretion in urine, rapeseed meal improved daily N retention (P < 0.01). Milk yield was increased (P < 0.01) by barley and rapeseed meal supplements, with the responses being additive. Responses attained with barley were primarily due to increased energy supply for ruminal microbes and improvements in energy and protein supply for the animal. However, provision of readily digestible carbohydrates in barley did not improve microbial capture of ruminal ammonia. Benefits associated with rapeseed meal supplementation were

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  14. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (P<0.05) and carcass weight (P=0.10) were greater when goats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. PMID:25817803

  15. Measuring Groundwater Storage Potential in Mountain Meadows using Geophysical Methods at Red Clover Meadow Complex, Sierra Nevada, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, J.; Cornwell, K.

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT The Dotta Canyon meadow, located in the Red Clover Meadow complex, upper Feather River Watershed, Plumas County, California, was studied to measure sediment volume and groundwater storage capacity in this mountain meadow environment. Groundwater resources in mountain meadows play an important role in providing baseflow to local stream systems during dry summer months. Degraded meadows reduce baseflow contributions to local streams throughout the year impacting the local flora and fauna and water resources downstream. Groundwater storage potential of meadows is a function of the total volume of meadow sediments, the types of sediment present and the effective porosity of those materials. Assessing these properties in meadows is difficult though as meadow environments are commonly sensitive to investigative disturbances like drill rigs and backhoes. We applied seismic refraction techniques to measure the thickness of meadow sediments in the 8.3 km2 Dotta Canyon. Specifically we conducted 42 seismic surveys, utilizing forward and reverse profiles to create a depth to bedrock isopach map of the Dotta Canyon meadow. Using ArcGIS software, aerial photographs and field GPS data to measure and calculate the meadow area and limited hand augering, we were able to calculate the volume of sediment in the meadow to be about 2.5E7 cubic meters. Hand augering in the meadow produced a record of meadow stratigraphy and helped determine appropriate locations for the collection of representative core samples. Representative cores were processed for effective porosity using the water porosimetry method. A mean effective porosity of 38%.was applied to volumetric calculations with results suggesting a groundwater storage capacity of 9.4E6 cubic meters.

  16. Interactions between the Bumblebee Bombus pascuorum and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Are Mediated by Plant Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Richard J.; Rowntree, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildflower mixes are often planted around field margins to provide forage for pollinators. Although seed for these mixtures is often wild-sourced, for species where agricultural cultivars are available, for example red clover (Trifolium pratense), cultivars can also be included. Previous evidence suggests that plant genetic background can have a strong influence on plant-arthropod interactions and therefore the provenance and genetic background of the plants included in wildflower mixes could impact plant-pollinator interactions. We tested the performance of five individual T. pratense cultivars against two commercially available wild-sourced T. pratense populations in terms of their ability to attract potential pollinator species (focusing on bumblebees) and their floral traits using greenhouse and garden experiments. The main bumblebee observed interacting with T. pratense was Bombus pascuorum and we found no difference in the absolute number of B. pascuorum visiting the cultivars or wild populations. However, we found variation among cultivars and between wild populations in their ability to attract bumblebees, which seems to be related to their relative investment in different floral traits. There was a positive relationship between biomass and number of inflorescences produced by the wild populations of T. pratense, which was not apparent for the cultivars. This suggests that artificial selection on the cultivars has changed the G-matrix of correlated traits. We show that agricultural cultivars of T. pratense can be as effective as wild populations at attracting pollinators such as bumblebees, but that the genetic background of both cultivars and wild populations can have a significant impact on the attractiveness of the plant to pollinators. We also show divergence in the correlated traits of T. pratense cultivars and wild populations that could lead to outbreeding depression if the plants interbreed. PMID:27552193

  17. Interactions between the Bumblebee Bombus pascuorum and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Are Mediated by Plant Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Sands, Richard J; Rowntree, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Wildflower mixes are often planted around field margins to provide forage for pollinators. Although seed for these mixtures is often wild-sourced, for species where agricultural cultivars are available, for example red clover (Trifolium pratense), cultivars can also be included. Previous evidence suggests that plant genetic background can have a strong influence on plant-arthropod interactions and therefore the provenance and genetic background of the plants included in wildflower mixes could impact plant-pollinator interactions. We tested the performance of five individual T. pratense cultivars against two commercially available wild-sourced T. pratense populations in terms of their ability to attract potential pollinator species (focusing on bumblebees) and their floral traits using greenhouse and garden experiments. The main bumblebee observed interacting with T. pratense was Bombus pascuorum and we found no difference in the absolute number of B. pascuorum visiting the cultivars or wild populations. However, we found variation among cultivars and between wild populations in their ability to attract bumblebees, which seems to be related to their relative investment in different floral traits. There was a positive relationship between biomass and number of inflorescences produced by the wild populations of T. pratense, which was not apparent for the cultivars. This suggests that artificial selection on the cultivars has changed the G-matrix of correlated traits. We show that agricultural cultivars of T. pratense can be as effective as wild populations at attracting pollinators such as bumblebees, but that the genetic background of both cultivars and wild populations can have a significant impact on the attractiveness of the plant to pollinators. We also show divergence in the correlated traits of T. pratense cultivars and wild populations that could lead to outbreeding depression if the plants interbreed. PMID:27552193

  18. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Kim, Dong Chul; Choi, Seong Hun; Han, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2015-01-01

    Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. PMID:25912038

  19. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens.

    PubMed

    Gradish, Angela E; Cutler, G Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  20. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  1. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide

  2. Short communication: Feeding red clover cut in the afternoon or morning to late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Brito, A F

    2015-10-01

    Forages cut in the afternoon (p.m.) generally yield a higher concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) than those cut in the morning (a.m.). We aimed to compare the effects of p.m.-cut red clover baleage (p.m.-RC) versus a.m.-cut RC baleage (a.m.-RC) on milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk components, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients in late-lactation Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous and 2 primiparous Holstein cows received a total mixed ration containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 65% p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC plus 35% concentrate in a crossover design with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. One RC field was split in 2 with the first half cut in the afternoon (1600 h) and the second half in the following morning (0600 h). The p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC contained (% of DM): 12.6 versus 9.43% NSC in samples collected before the beginning of the experiment and 7.49 versus 7.79% NSC in samples collected during the sampling periods (i.e., d 14 to 21). The total mixed rations averaged 18.2 and 17.5% NSC for the p.m.-RC and a.m.-RC, respectively. Feeding p.m.-RC or a.m.-RC did not improve feed intake or milk yield and composition in late-lactation dairy cows. However, milk urea N and plasma urea N were both lowest in cows offered p.m.-RC. With the exception of the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, which was highest in cows fed p.m.-RC, no other changes in nutrient digestibility were observed. Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for the urinary excretion of N and purine derivatives. Further research is needed to better understand NSC losses during storage and the associated effects on baleage quality and animal performance. PMID:26254532

  3. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  4. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Malate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase is Crucial for 2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate Biosynthesis in Red Clover and Defines a New Pathway for Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Ester Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaves accumulate several µmol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medi...

  5. Red Clover Coumarate 3'-Hydroxylase (CYP98A44) is Capable of Hydroxylating P-Coumaroyl-Shikimate but not P-Coumaroyl-Malate: Implications for the Biosynthesis of Phaselic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several µmol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicag...

  6. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  7. Quantification of five isoflavones and coumestrol in various solid agroenvironmental matrices using ¹³c₃-labeled internal standards.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Praplan, Arnaud P; Becker, Linus; Wettstein, Felix E; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    We developed and validated three different sample preparation and extraction methods followed by HPLC-MS/MS (negative electrospray ionization) analysis for the quantification of estrogenic isoflavones (formononetin, daidzein, equol, biochanin A, and genistein) and coumestrol in red clover, soil, and manure. Plant and manure samples were solid-liquid extracted, whereas soil was extracted with accelerated solvent extraction. Absolute recoveries were between 80 and 93%, 20 and 30%, and 14 and 91% for plant, soil, and manure samples, respectively. Relative recoveries ranged from 75 to 105% for all matrices, indicating that isotope-labeled internal standards (¹³C₃-formononetin, ¹³C₃-daidzein, ¹³C₃-equol, ¹³C₃-biochanin A, and ¹³C₃-genistein) were capable to compensate for losses during analysis. The limits of detection in red clover, soil, and manure were 3-9 μg/g(dryweight(dw)), 0.6-8.2 ng/g(dw), and 34.2 ng/g(dw) to 17.0 μg/g(dw), respectively. Formononetin was the most dominant compound in red clover plants (up to 12.5 mg/g(dw)) and soil (up to 3.3 μg/g(dw)), whereas equol prevailed in manure (up to 387 μg/g(dw)). PMID:21204535

  8. Mutagenic potential of the isoflavone irilone in cultured V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Anne; Albrecht, Annette E; Esch, Harald L; Lehmann, Leane

    2015-04-16

    After consumption of red clover-based dietary supplements, plasma concentrations of the isoflavone irilone (IRI) equal that of the well-investigated daidzein. Since some isoflavones are genotoxic, the potential of IRI to induce mutations was investigated. Gene mutations were determined by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) assay and sequencing of mutant cDNA, chromosome and genome mutations by micronucleus assay complemented by immunochemical staining of centromere proteins and microtubules in cultured V79 cells. Cell proliferation was monitored by electronic cell counting, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. IRI did not affect the mutant frequency in the Hprt locus but altered the mutation spectrum by increasing the proportion of deletions and decreasing that of base pair substitutions. Induction of chromosome mutations was supported by a slight but significant increase in the number of micronucleated cells containing chromosomal fragments despite activation of three cell cycle checkpoints possibly interfering with micronuclei formation. Moreover, IRI exhibited a strong aneugenic potential characterized by disrupted mitotic spindles, mitotic arrest, and asymmetrical cell divisions leading to chromosome loss, nuclear fragmentation as well as mitotic catastrophe. Thus, IRI might be another isoflavone to be taken into account in safety assessment of dietary supplements. PMID:25703823

  9. Clover Biotechnology Research at FAPRU

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Randy Dinkins (USDA-ARS-FAPRU) is conducting research to determine the utility of using the Medicago Affymetrix Genechip for use with red clover (Trifolium pretense). The Medicago Affymetrix Genechip contains approximately 51,000 probe sets that are derived from Medicago truncatula, 1,800 from Medi...

  10. Temporal changes in population genetic diversity and structure in red and white clover grown in three contrasting environments in northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rosemary P.; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E.; Skøt, Leif; Jones, Charlotte; Skøt, Kirsten P.

    2012-01-01

    Backgound and Aims Extending the cultivation of forage legume species into regions where they are close to the margin of their natural distribution requires knowledge of population responses to environmental stresses. This study was conducted at three north European sites (Iceland, Sweden and the UK) using AFLP markers to analyse changes in genetic structure over time in two population types of red and white clover (Trifolium pratense and T. repens, respectively): (1) standard commercial varieties; (2) wide genetic base (WGB) composite populations constructed from many commercial varieties plus unselected material obtained from germplasm collections. Methods At each site populations were grown in field plots, then randomly sampled after 3–5 years to obtain survivor populations. AFLP markers were used to calculate genetic differentiation within and between original and survivor populations. Key Results No consistent changes in average genetic diversity were observed between original and survivor populations. In both species the original varieties were always genetically distinct from each other. Significant genetic shift was observed in the white clover ‘Ramona’ grown in Sweden. The WGB original populations were more genetically similar. However, genetic differentiation occurred between original and survivor WGB germplasm in both species, particularly in Sweden. Regression of climatic data with genetic differentiation showed that low autumn temperature was the best predictor. Within the set of cold sites the highest level of genetic shift in populations was observed in Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that changes in population structure can occur within a short time span in forage legumes, resulting in the rapid formation of distinct survivor populations in environmentally challenging sites. PMID:22437665

  11. Effect of plant oils and camelina expeller on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on red clover silage.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kokkonen, T; Lampi, A-M; Toivonen, V; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2011-09-01

    Five multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fed red clover silage-based diets were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of various plant oils or camelina expeller on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments consisted of 5 concentrate supplements containing no additional lipid (control), or 29 g/kg of lipid from rapeseed oil (RO), sunflower-seed oil (SFO), camelina-seed oil (CO), or camelina expeller (CE). Cows were offered red clover silage ad libitum and 12kg/d of experimental concentrates. Treatments had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake, whole-tract digestibility coefficients, milk yield, or milk composition. Plant oils in the diet decreased short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acid (6:0-16:0) concentrations, including odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and enhanced milk fat 18:0 and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acid content. Increases in the relative proportions of cis 18:1, trans 18:1, nonconjugated 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were dependent on the fatty acid composition of oils in the diet. Rapeseed oil in the diet was associated with the enrichment of trans 18:1 (Δ4, 6, 7, 8, and 9), cis-9 18:1, and trans-7,cis-9 CLA, SFO resulted in the highest concentrations of trans-5, trans-10, and trans-11 18:1, Δ9,11 CLA, Δ10,12 CLA, and 18:2n-6, whereas CO enhanced trans-13-16 18:1, Δ11,15 18:2, Δ12,15 18:2, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, Δ11,13 CLA, Δ12,14 CLA, Δ13,15 CLA, Δ9,11,15 18:3, and 18:3n-3. Relative to CO, CE resulted in lower 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 concentrations and higher proportions of trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, and trans-11,cis-15 18:2. Comparison of milk fat composition responses to CO and CE suggest that the biohydrogenation of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids to 18:0 in the rumen was less complete for camelina lipid supplied as an expeller than as free oil. In conclusion

  12. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    PubMed

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  13. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  14. Retardation of Senescence in Red Clover Leaf Discs by a New Antiozonant, N-[2-(2-Oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N′-phenylurea 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward H.; Bennett, Jesse H.; Heggestad, Howard E.

    1981-01-01

    Dark-induced senescence in leaf discs from O3-sensitive red clover trifoliates (Trifolium pratense L. cv. `Pennscott') was markedly retarded by treatment with N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl-N′-phenylurea (EDU). EDU also protects against acute and chronic foliar O3 injury when sprayed on intact leaves or supplied to the plants through soil application. Senescence retardation was measured by time-dependent analyses of chlorophyll, protein, and RNA in discs floated on aqueous EDU solutions ranging from 0 to 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU. Chlorophyll degradation, total protein, and nucleic acids were followed over 10-day test periods. EDU at 500 micrograms per milliliter (50 milligrams per pot), a concentration known to provide optimal protection to intact leaves against O3 injury, was most effective in preventing chlorosis and in maintaining high concentrations of protein and RNA in the discs. In discs treated with 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU 90% of the chlorophyll was retained after 10 days in the dark. In contrast, lower concentrations (0, 125, and 250 micrograms per milliliter) showed the complete loss of chlorophyll or an intermediate retardation. The intermediate concentrations were similarly less effective in maintaining protein and RNA levels in the dark stressed leaf discs. It is suggested that EDU retards senescence and mitigates O3 injury through the induction of specific free radical scavenging enzymes and in sustaining RNA and protein synthesis. Images PMID:16661672

  15. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  16. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC) and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1) has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1) shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms. PMID:27455321

  17. Removal of Divalent Cations Induces Structural Transitions in Red Clover Necrotic Mosaic Virus, Revealing a Potential Mechanism for RNA Release▿†

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Michael B.; Guenther, Richard H.; Tama, Florence; Sit, Tim L.; Brooks, Charles L.; Mikhailov, Albert M.; Orlova, Elena V.; Baker, Timothy S.; Lommel, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), an icosahedral plant virus, was resolved to 8.5 Å by cryoelectron microscopy. The virion capsid has prominent surface protrusions and subunits with a clearly defined shell and protruding domains. The structures of both the individual capsid protein (CP) subunits and the entire virion capsid are consistent with other species in the Tombusviridae family. Within the RCNMV capsid, there is a clearly defined inner cage formed by complexes of genomic RNA and the amino termini of CP subunits. An RCNMV virion has approximately 390 ± 30 Ca2+ ions bound to the capsid and 420 ± 25 Mg2+ ions thought to be in the interior of the capsid. Depletion of both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from RCNMV leads to significant structural changes, including (i) formation of 11- to 13-Å-diameter channels that extend through the capsid and (ii) significant reorganization within the interior of the capsid. Genomic RNA within native capsids containing both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions is extremely resistant to nucleases, but depletion of both of these cations results in nuclease sensitivity, as measured by a significant reduction in RCNMV infectivity. These results indicate that divalent cations play a central role in capsid dynamics and suggest a mechanism for the release of viral RNA in low-divalent-cation environments such as those found within the cytoplasm of a cell. PMID:16920821

  18. Effects of red clover extract on the activation and proliferation of mouse T lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Xiu-yan; Zeng, Yao-ying

    2008-10-01

    The study investigated the effects of red clover extract (RCE) on mouse T macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. The cell toxic effect of RCE was estimated by MTT assay. Multiple-fluorescence staining plus flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of RCE on CD69/CD25/CD71 expression of mouse T lymphocytes stimulated by Con A; CFDA-SE staining plus flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of RCE on proliferation of T lymphocytes activated by Con A; The effect of RCE on nitric oxide (NO) secretion of mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h was assayed by Griess reagent system. We found that RCE had potent anti-inflammatory effects on mice. RCE had little cell toxic effect on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages. RCE strongly inhibited the excessive production of inflammatory mediators (NO, CD69, CD25, CD71), in a dose-dependent manner, like cyclosporine A injection. RCE could inhibit proliferation of CD3+ T lymphocytes. These data suggested that RCE might exhibit anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation and proliferation of mouse lymphocytes and the NO secretion of mouse macrophages. PMID:19127865

  19. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

  20. Weed Suppression by Seven Clover Species

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Used as cover crops, clover species may differ in their ability to suppress weed growth. Field trials were conducted in Alberta, Canada to measure the growth of brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], in mowed and nonmowed production, as influenced by alsike (Trifolium hybridum L.), balansa [T. michelianum Savi var. balansae (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson [T. incarnatum (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson (T. incarnatum L.), Persian (T. resupinatum L.), red (T. pratense L.), and white Dutch (T. repens L.) clover and fall rye (Secale cereale L.). In 1997, clovers reduced mustard biomass in nonmowed treatments by 29% on a high- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboroll) at Edmonton and by 57% on a low- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboralf) at Breton. At Edmonton, nonmowed mustard biomass was reduced by alsike and berseem clover in 1996 and by alsike, balansa, berseem, and crimson clover in 1997. At Breton, all seven clover species suppressed weed biomass. A negative correlation was noted among clover and mustard biomass at Edmonton but not at Breton. The effects of mowing varied with location, timing, and species. Mowing was beneficial to crop/weed proportion at Edmonton but not at Breton. Mowing at early flowering of mustard large-seeded legumes and sweetclover (Melilotus offici) produced greater benefit than mowing at late flowering. With early mowing, all clover species suppressed mustard growth at Edmonton. Clovers reduced mustard regrowth (g plant21 ) and the number of mustard plants producing regrowth. The characteristics of berseem clover (upright growth, long stems, high biomass, and late flowering) would support its use as a cover crop or forage in north-central Alberta.

  1. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2013-09-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant milk and meat compared with grass silages (GS), an effect that has been attributed to higher activity of polyphenol oxidase in red clover, promoting ruminal escape of dietary lipid. Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in mid lactation fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on ruminal lipid metabolism, using the omasal sampling technique in combination with Cr-EDTA, Yb acetate, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as markers. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter, with RCS replacing GS in a ratio of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a dry matter basis. Silages contained a high proportion of lipid as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), with no difference between forage species (75 and 73% for GS and RCS, respectively). Substitution of GS with RCS had no influence on the intakes of NEFA, polar lipid, triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, or total fatty acids (FA), but altered the ingestion of specific FA. Replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly 18:3n-3 and increased linearly 18:2n-6 intakes. Changes in the proportion of RCS in the diet had no effect on the amounts or on the relative proportions of different lipid fractions at the omasum. On average, NEFA, polar lipid, triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol accounted for 80, 12, 4.4, 2.4, and 0.8% of total FA in omasal digesta, respectively. Replacement of GS with RCS increased linearly the amount of esterified and nonesterified 18:3n-3 at the omasum. Flows of cis-9 18:1 and 18:2n-6 were also increased linearly in response to RCS in the diet, whereas 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-16:0 at the omasum was decreased. Replacing GS with RCS in the diet decreased linearly the

  2. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids. PMID:25075808

  3. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    PubMed

    Petri, Renee M; Mapiye, Cletos; Dugan, Mike E R; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid. PMID:25093808

  4. Subcutaneous Adipose Fatty Acid Profiles and Related Rumen Bacterial Populations of Steers Fed Red Clover or Grass Hay Diets Containing Flax or Sunflower-Seed

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Mike E. R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid. PMID:25093808

  5. Biochanin A, a Phytoestrogenic Isoflavone with Selective Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 4, Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wun-Chang; Lin, Ling-Hung; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Chi-Yin; Chen, Chien-Ming; Shih, Chung-Hung

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential of biochanin A, a phytoestrogenic isoflavone of red clover (Triflolium pratense), for use in treating asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biochanin A (100 μmol/kg, orally (p.o.)) significantly attenuated airway resistance (RL), enhanced pause (Penh), and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) values induced by methacholine (MCh) in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed an increase in the number of total inflammatory cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the mice. However, it did not influence interferon (IFN)-γ levels. Biochanin A (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) also significantly suppressed the total and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and BALF, and enhanced the total IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. The PDE4H/PDE4L value of biochanin A was calculated as >35. Biochanin A did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Biochanin A (10~30 μM) significantly reduced cumulative OVA (10~100 μg/mL)-induced contractions in the isolated guinea pig trachealis, suggesting that it inhibits degranulation of mast cells. In conclusion, red clover containing biochanin A has the potential for treating allergic asthma and COPD. PMID:21437195

  6. Clovers (Trifolium spp.).

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Ashtiani, Samira; Sahab, Sareena; Panter, Stephen; Mason, John; Spangenberg, German

    2015-01-01

    Clovers (Trifolium spp.) constitute one of the major forage legumes widely grown for its rich protein content and its major role in maintaining environmental sustainability by improving the soil fertility. Gene technology can assist plant improvement efforts in clovers (Trifolium spp.), aiming to improve forage quality, yield, and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. An efficient and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of Trifolium species, using cotyledonary explants and different selectable marker genes, is described. The protocol is robust and allows for genotype and Agrobacterium strain-independent transformation of clovers. Stable meiotic transmission of transgenes has been demonstrated for selected transgenic clovers carrying single T-DNA inserts recovered from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This methodology can also be successfully used for "isogenic transformation" in clovers: the generation of otherwise identical plants with and without the transgene from the two cotyledons of a single seed. Stable transgenes may be used in further functional genomics, develop new traits and profile gene expression using reporters, and facilitate purification of tissue or single cells. PMID:25300844

  7. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  8. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  9. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  10. Field Abundance Patterns and Odor-Mediated Host Choice by Clover Seed Weevils, Apion fulvipes and Apion trifolii (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    PubMed

    Nyabuga, Franklin N; Carrasco, David; Ranåker, Lynn; Andersson, Martin N; Birgersson, Göran; Larsson, Mattias C; Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Svensson, Glenn P; Anderbrant, Olle; Lankinen, Åsa

    2015-04-01

    The clover seed weevils Apion fulvipes Geoffroy, 1785 and Apion trifolii L., 1768 (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause major losses to seed production of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), respectively. Clover is important as animal forage and an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Because clover is mainly pollinated by bees, the use of insecticides in management of these weevils is discouraged. To gain basic knowledge for development of alternative management strategies, we investigated weevil field abundance over two growing seasons, as well as feeding and olfactory host preferences by A. fulvipes and A. trifolii. Field trap catches in southern Sweden revealed that white clover was dominated by A. fulvipes and red clover by A. trifolii. For both weevil species, female catches were positively correlated to the number of clover buds and flowers in the field. In feeding and olfactory bioassays, females of A. fulvipes and A. trifolii showed a preference for T. repens and T. pratense, respectively. However, the feeding preference was lost when the antennae were removed, indicating a significant role of olfaction in host choice. Male weevils of both species did not show clear olfactory or feeding preferences for host plant species. The field study and laboratory bioassays demonstrate that, at least for female weevils, olfaction is important for selection of host plants. We discuss these novel results in the context of managing these important pests of clover by exploiting olfaction and behavioral attraction to host plant volatiles. PMID:26470160

  11. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Kaur, Parwinder; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nichols, Phillip; Nagano, Soichiro; Appels, Rudi; Erskine, William; Isobe, Sachiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover. The 471.8 Mb assembled sequence covers 85.4% of the subterranean clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. Eight pseudomolecules of 401.1 Mb in length were constructed, based on a linkage map consisting of 35,341 SNPs. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that different clover chromosomes showed different degrees of conservation with other Papilionoideae species. These results provide a reference for genetic and genomic analyses in the genus Trifolium and new insights into evolutionary divergence in Papilionoideae species. PMID:27545089

  12. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Kaur, Parwinder; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nichols, Phillip; Nagano, Soichiro; Appels, Rudi; Erskine, William; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2016-01-01

    Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover. The 471.8 Mb assembled sequence covers 85.4% of the subterranean clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. Eight pseudomolecules of 401.1 Mb in length were constructed, based on a linkage map consisting of 35,341 SNPs. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that different clover chromosomes showed different degrees of conservation with other Papilionoideae species. These results provide a reference for genetic and genomic analyses in the genus Trifolium and new insights into evolutionary divergence in Papilionoideae species. PMID:27545089

  13. Clover: Narratives and Simulations in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tettegah, Sharon; Bailey, Brian P.; Taylor, Kona

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed software application (Clover) is presented for constructing animated narrative vignette. The results have indicated that Clover is a viable tool for providing the process of self discovery, cognitions and identity by using animated narrative vignette simulations.

  14. An isoflavone from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, K S; Rao, J V

    2000-03-01

    A new isoflavone together with liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin has been isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Based on spectral methods, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as 6-hydroxy,7,2',4',5'-tetramethoxyisoflavone. PMID:10724187

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF RED CLOVER POLYPHENOL OXIDASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is a popular method for preserving forages for animal production systems in the humid regions of the U.S. and Europe. A major problem in silage production is the extensive protein degradation that occurs during the ensiling process, resulting in economic losses of $110 million per year (U.S...

  16. Glycation is regulated by isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Silvan, Jose Manuel; Srey, Chou; Ames, Jennifer M; del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2014-09-01

    The effect of soy isoflavones on the Maillard reaction (MR) was investigated. Model systems composed of the soy protein glycinin (10 mg mL(-1)) and fructose (40 mg mL(-1)) under basic pH (∼12) conditions were employed for testing the anti-glycative effect of the major antioxidant soy isoflavones (genistin and genistein at 10 μg mL(-1)) and a soy isoflavone-rich extract. The contents of total phenols (TPCs) and total flavonoids (TFCs) of the isoflavone-rich extract were determined. Glycinin was pre-incubated with isoflavones for 1 h and 16 h at 60 °C prior to MR. The progress of MR was estimated by analysis of free amino groups by OPA assay; carbohydrate covalently bound to the protein backbone using phenol-sulfuric acid assay, protein-bound N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) by UPLC-MS and spectral analysis of fluorescent protein-bound AGEs. Genistin (10 μg mL(-1), 23 μM) and its aglycone genistein (10 μg mL(-1), 37 μM) did not prevent protein glycation (p > 0.05). The soy isoflavone-rich extract containing 2.5 mg mL(-1) of TFC efficiently decreased the amount of carbohydrate bound to the protein skeleton (20%) (p < 0.05) and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (>80%) (p < 0.05). The anti-glycative mechanism of isoflavones may be related to its conjugation to glycation sites of the protein structure (free amino groups), their antioxidant character and trapping of dicarbonyl intermediates. Extracts based on mixtures of isoflavones may be useful for producing glycated conjugates avoiding the substantial formation of AGEs bound to protein. PMID:25051420

  17. ISOFLAVONE LEVELS IN FIVE SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) GENOTYPES ARE ALTERED BY PHYTOCHROME-MEDIATED LIGHT TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether concentrations of different isoflavones (puerarin, genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin) in shoots and roots of five selected soybean genotypes would respond the same or differently to red (650 nm peak transmittance)) and far-red (750...

  18. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet

  19. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  20. [Modern instrumentation for the studies of isoflavones].

    PubMed

    Vacek, J; Klejdus, B; Lojková, L; Kubán, V

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones belong to the natural substances exhibiting a number of physiological effects in living organisms. The substances are synthesized in plant tissues as protective agents against biotic stress (i.e. bacterial infection). Isoflavones are also an important dietary constituent in human nutrition. The review discusses modern trends in the studies of isoflavones in plant materials and foodstuffs and procedures for chemical analyses of isoflavones in human body fluids and plant tissues. Highly effective extraction and purification techniques, i.e. solid-phase extraction (SFE), accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE), and Soxhlet extraction, are presented. Latest procedures in chromatographic separation of isoflavones that apply different types of stationary phases are described. Immunochemical analysis, electrochemical sensing of isoflavones, spectrometric and other analytical techniques and their applications are also mentioned. Special attention is focused on a highly selective and sensitive technique of mass spectrometry and its application for identification of isoflavones and their glucosides in plants. Studies of interactions of isoflavones with cell receptors and a number of biologically active substances such as DNA and proteins are described. The reason for the presentation of the review was not to give a full overview of the presented topics but mainly to show modern and the most recent methods in the studies of isoflavones. PMID:18578418

  1. WHITE CLOVER MORPHOLOGY CHANGES WITH STRESS TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasticity of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) results in morphological changes in plant habit in response to different environmental stresses. This research characterized morphological changes in white clover clones derived either from two cultivars and a germplasm exposed to treatments in 2-...

  2. A new isoflavone glucoside from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, K S; Srinivasa Rao, J V

    2000-01-01

    A new isoflavone glucoside (1) together with the known santal has been isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Based on spectral methods, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as 4',5-dihydroxy 7-O-methyl isoflavone 3'-O-beta-D-glucoside. PMID:11256696

  3. Isoflavones in retail and institutional soy foods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Song, T; Buseman, G; Barua, K; Beecher, G R; Trainer, D; Holden, J

    1999-07-01

    A national sampling plan was developed to select the most widely used isoflavone-containing foods in the United States. Foods were selected based on their retail volume and sampled in five geographical areas representing seven metropolitan areas. Isoflavones were analyzed from composite samples, raw and cooked, and reported by brand. Quality control measures were evaluated throughout the study. Isoflavone levels ranged from 1 microg/g in soy sauces to 540 microg/g in tempeh. Soymilk and tofu represented the major portion of soy foods evaluated. These data will appear in the electronic version of USDA Handbook No. 8 of Food Composition Data in 1999. PMID:10552547

  4. Mitigation of ergot vasoconstriction by clover isoflavones in goats (Capra hircus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenphialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is e...

  5. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones. PMID:23161396

  6. Blackpatch of clover, cause of slobbers syndrome: A review of the disease and the pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and E.S. Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), which infects other legumes as well. This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine ca...

  7. Clover: Compiler directed lightweight soft error resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qingrui; Lee, Dongyoon; Jung, Changhee; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents Clover, a compiler directed soft error detection and recovery scheme for lightweight soft error resilience. The compiler carefully generates soft error tolerant code based on idem-potent processing without explicit checkpoint. During program execution, Clover relies on a small number of acoustic wave detectors deployed in the processor to identify soft errors by sensing the wave made by a particle strike. To cope with DUE (detected unrecoverable errors) caused by the sensing latency of error detection, Clover leverages a novel selective instruction duplication technique called tail-DMR (dual modular redundancy). Once a soft error is detected by either the sensor or the tail-DMR, Clover takes care of the error as in the case of exception handling. To recover from the error, Clover simply redirects program control to the beginning of the code region where the error is detected. Lastly, the experiment results demonstrate that the average runtime overhead is only 26%, which is a 75% reduction compared to that of the state-of-the-art soft error resilience technique.

  8. Clover: Compiler directed lightweight soft error resilience

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Qingrui; Lee, Dongyoon; Jung, Changhee; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents Clover, a compiler directed soft error detection and recovery scheme for lightweight soft error resilience. The compiler carefully generates soft error tolerant code based on idem-potent processing without explicit checkpoint. During program execution, Clover relies on a small number of acoustic wave detectors deployed in the processor to identify soft errors by sensing the wave made by a particle strike. To cope with DUE (detected unrecoverable errors) caused by the sensing latency of error detection, Clover leverages a novel selective instruction duplication technique called tail-DMR (dual modular redundancy). Once a soft error is detected by either themore » sensor or the tail-DMR, Clover takes care of the error as in the case of exception handling. To recover from the error, Clover simply redirects program control to the beginning of the code region where the error is detected. Lastly, the experiment results demonstrate that the average runtime overhead is only 26%, which is a 75% reduction compared to that of the state-of-the-art soft error resilience technique.« less

  9. Infection and nodulation of clover by nonmotile Rhizobium trifolii

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, C.; Albersheim, P.

    1980-02-01

    Nonmotile mutants of Rhizobium trifolii were isolated to determine whether bacterial motility is required for the infection and nodulation of clover. The nonmotile mutants were screened for their ability to infect and nodulate clover seedlings in Fahraeus glass slide assemblies, plastic growth pouches, and vermiculite-sand-filled clay pots. In each system, the nonmotile mutants were able to infect and nodulate clover.

  10. Developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in plant-microbe interactions in rhizospheres. Soybean roots secrete daidzein and genistein to attract rhizobia. Despite the importance of isoflavones in plant-microbe interactions, little is known about the developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots. In this study, soybeans were grown in hydroponic culture, and isoflavone contents in tissues, isoflavone secretion from the roots, and the expression of isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase (ICHG) were investigated. Isoflavone contents did not show strong growth-dependent changes, while secretion of daidzein from the roots dramatically changed, with higher secretion during vegetative stages. Coordinately, the expression of ICHG also peaked at vegetative stages. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in 8- and 15-fold increases in secretion of daidzein and genistein, respectively, with no induction of ICHG. Taken together, these results suggest that large amounts of isoflavones were secreted during vegetative stages via the hydrolysis of (malonyl)glucosides with ICHG. PMID:26168358

  11. A new isoflavone from the fruits of Madhuca latifolia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Khan, Shazia; Nadeem Kardar, M

    2010-01-01

    A new isoflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,2'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylendioxy isoflavone, was isolated from the Madhuca latifolia fruit coatings. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:20013476

  12. ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES ARE UNDERESTIMATED IN TISSUES USING ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many health effects of soy foods are attributed to isoflavones. Isoflavones upon absorption present as free form, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugates in blood, urine, and bile. Little is known about the molecular forms and the relative concentrations of soy isoflavones in target organs. Acid hydroly...

  13. Thermal architecture of the Clover cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, William F.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter; Chase, Simon; Kiernan, Brian; North, Chris E.

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the Clover cryostats, which are dry cryostats containing three stages of cooling; a pulse tube cooler, a sorption fridge and a continuous miniature dilution refrigerator. We describe the thermal architecture of the system and present thermal data for the various stages including its performance when tilted.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Soy Isoflavone Extracts in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Martínez-Riera, Roser; de la Torre, Rafael; Pizarro, Nieves

    2015-08-12

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein produce several biological activities related to health benefits. A number of isoflavone extracts are commercially available, but there is little information concerning the specific isoflavone content of these products or differences in their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. This study describes the development and validation of an analytical method to detect and quantify daidzein, genistein, and equol in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was applied in a crossover, randomized, bioavailability study. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered the same total isoflavones dose from two isoflavone supplement preparations (Super-Absorbable Soy Isoflavones (Life Extension, USA) and Fitoladius (Merck, Spain)). The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-24/dose and Cmax/dose) of the isoflavones from the two preparations differed significantly. Such differences in bioavailability and kinetics may have relevant effects on the health benefits derived from their intake. PMID:26186408

  15. Soy isoflavones as safe functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Song, Won O; Chun, Ock Kyoung; Hwang, Inkyeong; Shin, Han Seung; Kim, Bong-Gwan; Kim, Kun Soo; Lee, Sang-Yun; Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Sung G

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, isoflavones have increased in popularity as an alternative to estrogen therapy, particularly after the Women's Health Initiative demonstrated an increased risk of breast cancer, stroke, and heart attacks in response to estrogen and progesterone intervention. Isoflavones are heterocyclic phenols with structural similarity to estradiol-17beta and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Actions at the cellular level depend on the target tissue, receptor status of the tissue, and the level of endogenous estrogen. Clinical studies of soy-based diets evaluating the relation between soy consumption and serum lipid concentrations revealed that soy consumption significantly decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of soy protein on breast tissue as evidenced by the lower rates of breast cancer in East Asian countries where soy is a predominant part of the diet. Soy products also alleviate menopausal symptoms by reducing hot flashes. However, whether these biological effects of soy products originated from isoflavones is not clear. Furthermore, data available from human studies on the effect of isoflavones on osteoporosis are limited, and additional studies are needed to support a role in osteoporosis prevention. To date, no adverse effects of short- or long-term use of soy proteins are known in humans, and the only adverse effects known are those reported in animals. In conclusion, isoflavones are biologically active compounds, and current data are insufficient to draw definitive conclusions regarding the use of isoflavones as an alternative to estrogen for hormone replacement in postmenopausal women. Large, long-term intervention studies examining adverse effects and disease outcomes are needed before definitive conclusion can be drawn. PMID:18158825

  16. Biogas potential from forbs and grass-clover mixture with the application of near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Radziah; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the potentials of forbs; caraway, chicory, red clover and ribwort plantain as substrates for biogas production. One-, two- and four-cut systems were implemented and the influence on dry matter yields, chemical compositions and methane yields were examined. The two- and four-cut systems resulted in higher dry matter yields (kg [total solid, TS] ha(-1)) compared to the one-cut system. The effect of plant compositions on biogas potentials was not evident. Cumulative methane yields (LCH4kg(-1) [volatile solid, VS]) were varied from 279 to 321 (chicory), 279 to 323 (caraway), 273 to 296 (ribwort plantain), 263 to 328 (red clover) and 320 to 352 (grass-clover mixture), respectively. Methane yield was modelled by modified Gompertz equation for comparison of methane production rate. Near infrared spectroscopy showed potential as a tool for biogas and chemical composition prediction. The best prediction models were obtained for methane yield at 29 days (99 samples), cellulose, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and crude protein, (R(2)>0.9). PMID:26386414

  17. INTERSEEDED RED CLOVER AND KURA CLOVER LIVING-MULCH SYSTEMS FOR CORN SILAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to reducing nitrate and soil losses from cropland, greater use of companion crops (cover crops and living mulches) could enhance yields of corn-silage based production systems. In a replicated multi-year study in southern Wisconsin, Roundup-Ready corn was grown for silage with Kura-clove...

  18. Optimization of a yeast estrogen screen and its applicability to study the release of estrogenic isoflavones from a soygerm powder.

    PubMed Central

    De Boever, P; Demaré, W; Vanderperren, E; Cooreman, K; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    Here we describe a redesigned protocol of the yeast estrogen screen developed by Routledge and Sumpter. The redesigned test comprises two steps. First, a large amount of yeast with estrogenic compounds is incubated for 24 hr. Subsequently, a mixture of cycloheximide and the chromogenic substrate chlorophenol red-beta-d-galactopyranoside (CPRG) is added. The cycloheximide stops protein synthesis and allows for an end-point measurement of beta-galactosidase activity generated during the first 24 hr. CPRG is converted to chlorophenol red and reflects beta-galactosidase activity, which is indicative of the estrogenic activity. The modifications shorten the duration of the assay at least 1 day and avoid interference of the estrogenic CPRG or chlorophenol red. The redesigned and the original protocol were used to study the estrogenic activity of bisphenol A, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDT, and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein). Bisphenol A, methoxychlor, and genistein triggered higher levels of beta-galactosidase activity in the redesigned protocol. Estrogenic activity of p,p'-DDT could only be demonstrated with the redesigned protocol. Glycitein and daidzein failed to give a response with both protocols. We also studied deconjugation of beta-glycosidic isoflavones present in soygerm powder. Treatment of the soygerm powder with beta-glycosidase released isoflavones. The estrogenic response of the samples was confirmed with the redesigned protocol and correlated with the amount of genistein present. The release of isoflavones under conditions prevailing in the intestines was studied. Bacterial beta-glycosidase present in the large intestine released isoflavones, and moderate estrogenic activity could be demonstrated. PMID:11485867

  19. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  20. ROLE OF RED CLOVER PPO IN PATHOGEN RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plant polyphenol oxidases (PPO) are copper-containing enzymes which catalyse both hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of o- diphenols to o-quinones. While PPO is widespread in the plant kingdom, its role in plants has not been unequivocally determined; however, evidence ...

  1. Removing isoflavones from modern soyfood: Why and how?

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, Adrian; Lamothe, Valérie; Delample, Mathieu; Denayrolles, Muriel; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Estrogenic isoflavones were found, in the 1940s, to disrupt ewe reproduction and were identified in soy-consumers' urine in 1982. This led to controversy about their safety, often supported by current Asian diet measurements, but not by historical data. Traditional Asian recipes of soy were tested while assaying soy glycosilated isoflavones. As these compounds are water-soluble, their concentration is reduced by soaking. Pre-cooking or simmering time-dependently reduces the isoflavone:protein ratio in Tofu. Cooking soy-juice for 15 or 60min decreases the isoflavone:protein ratios in Tofu from 6.90 to 3.57 and 1.80, respectively (p<0.001). Traditional Tempeh contains only 18.07% of the original soybean isoflavones (p<0.001). Soy-juice isoflavones were reduced by ultra-filtration (6.54 vs 1.24 isoflavone:protein; p<0.001). Soy-protein and isoflavones are dissociated by water rinsing and prolonged cooking, but these have no equivalent in modern processes. As regards human health, a precise definition of the safety level of isoflavone intake requires additional studies. PMID:27211649

  2. Malonyl isoflavone glucosides are chiefly hydrolyzed and absorbed in the colon.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto-Yano, Hiroko; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Fukui, Kensuke; Tsuzaki, Shinichi; Takamatsu, Kiyoharu; Uehara, Mariko

    2014-03-12

    Malonyl isoflavone glucosides are water-soluble derivatives of soybean hypocotyls. This study compared the hydrolysis and absorption of malonyl isoflavone glucosides and nonmalonyl isoflavone glucosides in rats. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were measured after oral administration of malonyl isoflavone glucosides or isoflavone glucosides. After fasting, the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were excised, and homogenates were prepared. The extent of hydrolysis of each glucoside by each intestinal homogenate was measured. Plasma levels of isoflavone aglycones, such as daidzein and glycitein, were higher in rats administered malonyl isoflavone glucosides than in those administered isoflavone glucosides. The area under the curve of daidzein in plasma of rats administered malonyl isoflavone glucosides was also significantly greater than that in those administered isoflavone glucosides. A transport experiment using Caco-2 cells suggested that degradation of malonyl glucosides to aglycones is necessary for intestinal absorption. Malonyl isoflavone glucosides were hydrolyzed only in the colon, whereas hydrolysis of isoflavone glucosides occurred in the jejunum, ileum, and colon. These results indicated more effective absorption of malonyl isoflavone glucosides than of nonmalonyl isoflavone glucosides. Moreover, effective absorption of malonyl isoflavone aglycones in the colon contributed to the significant increase in plasma isoflavone levels. PMID:24524651

  3. Alternatives to Honeybees for Pollinating Clover (Trifolium L.) Germplasm Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to increase seed of perennial clover (Trifolium L.) species housed in the USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) germplasm collection. Each season we grow out 100-125 accessions of clover in Prosser, Washington. Historically, honeybees (Apis mellifera L) have been used as po...

  4. Clover development during spaceflight: A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Debell, Lynnette; Paulsen, Avelina; Spooner, Brian S.; Wong, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  5. Clover development during spaceflight: a model system.

    PubMed

    Guikema, J A; DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B S; Wong, P P

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed. PMID:11537915

  6. A new acylated isoflavone glucoside from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, K S; Srinivasa Rao, J V

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus resulted in the isolation of a new acylated isoflavone glucoside. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral studies as 4',5-dihydroxy-7-O-methyl isoflavone 3'-O-D-(3''-E-cinnamoyl)glucoside. PMID:10993243

  7. Soy isoflavone supplementation and breast density in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer. Breast density, a marker for breast cancer risk, increases as a result of hormone replacement therapy. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and breast density using the mammograms from 358 women who participated in the multi-s...

  8. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Yi; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Zhen-Long; Chong, Tie; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015. Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms “isoflavone”, “Phytoestrogen”, “soy”, “genistin”, and “PCa”. Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men. The effect of isoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones. The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa. Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels. In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa. Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa. However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa. PMID:26831238

  9. Isoflavones Reduce Copper with Minimal Impact on Iron In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karlíčková, Jana; Macáková, Kateřina; Říha, Michal; Pinheiro, Liliane Maria Teixeira; Filipský, Tomáš; Horňasová, Veronika; Hrdina, Radomír; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are commonly consumed in many Asian countries and have potentially positive effects on human being. Only a few and rather controversial data on their interactions with copper and iron are available to date. 13 structurally related isoflavones were tested in the competitive manner for their Cu/Fe-chelating/reducing properties. Notwithstanding the 5-hydroxy-4-keto chelation site was associated with ferric, ferrous, and cupric chelation, the chelation potential of isoflavones was low and no cuprous chelation was observed. None of isoflavones was able to substantially reduce ferric ions, but the vast majority reduced cupric ions. The most important feature for cupric reduction was the presence of an unsubstituted 4′-hydroxyl; contrarily the presence of a free 5-hydroxyl decreased or abolished the reduction due to chelation of cupric ions. The results from this study may enable additional experiments which might clarify the effects of isoflavones on human being and/or mechanisms of copper absorption. PMID:26273421

  10. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Summary Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse correlation between isoflavone intake and risk of breast cancer is likely. However, a negative impact on breast cancer disease, especially on hormone receptor-positive tumors, cannot be excluded at present. PMID:20877680

  11. Scaling analysis of fat-link irrelevant clover fermion actions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleh, Waseem; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    The fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action is a variant of the O(a)-improved Wilson action where the irrelevant operators are constructed using smeared links. While the use of such smearing allows for the use of highly improved definitions of the field strength tensor F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, we show that the standard 1-loop clover term with a mean field improved coefficient c{sub sw} is sufficient to remove the O(a) errors, avoiding the need for nonperturbative tuning. This result enables efficient dynamical simulations in QCD with the fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action.

  12. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  13. Cortical microtubules in sweet clover columella cells developed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Electron micrographs of columella cells from sweet clover seedlings grown and fixed in microgravity revealed longitudinal and cross sectioned cortical microtubules. This is the first report demonstrating the presence and stability of this network in plants in microgravity.

  14. Using Water Clover to Demonstrate Sexual Reproduction in Ferns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Wilbur J.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures are described for preparing spores from the fern, water clover, for an educational demonstration of germination and sexual reproduction. The demonstration is recommended for biology instructors who want to illustrate the alternation of phases in plants. (SA)

  15. Soy isoflavone intake is associated with risk of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Navarro, Sandi L; Bruce, Margaret E; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis affecting children. Incidence of KD varies according to ethnicity and is highest in Asian populations. Although genetic differences may explain this variation, dietary or environmental factors could also be responsible. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary soy and isoflavone consumption in a cohort of KD children just before disease onset and their mothers' intake during pregnancy and nursing. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavone consumption is associated with risk of KD in US children, potentially explaining some of the ethnic-cultural variation in incidence. We evaluated soy food intake and isoflavone consumption in nearly 200 US KD cases and 200 age-matched controls using a food frequency questionnaire for children and in their mothers. We used a logistic regression model to test the association of isoflavones and KD. Maternal surveys on soy intake during pregnancy and nursing showed no significant differences in isoflavone consumption between groups. However, we identified significantly increased KD risk in children for total isoflavone (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.96) and genistein (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.46-4.16) intakes, when comparing high soy consumers vs nonconsumers. In addition, significantly increased KD risk occurred in Asian-American children with the highest consumption (total isoflavones: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.73-30.75; genistein: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.92-36.24) compared to whites. These findings indicate that childhood dietary isoflavone consumption, but not maternal isoflavone intake during pregnancy and nursing, relates to KD risk in an ethnically diverse US population. PMID:27440537

  16. Scaling of fat-link irrelevant-clover fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotti, J.M.; Lasscock, B.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hadron masses are calculated in quenched lattice QCD on a variety of lattices in order to probe the scaling behavior of the Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action, a fat-link clover fermion action in which the purely irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using APE-smeared links. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing.

  17. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    PubMed

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression. PMID:24972463

  18. Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Bi, Xiaojuan; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks. PMID:27294954

  19. Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Bi, Xiaojuan; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks. PMID:27294954

  20. Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the

  1. Antioxidant isoflavones in Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Young, J Christopher

    2003-10-22

    Recent findings that many human chronic diseases are associated with oxidative stresses have instigated the search for dietary antioxidants. Many phytochemicals, particularly phenolic compounds, have been found to possess strong antioxidant activity and reduce the risks of those diseases. Isoflavones, a special phenolic group found in soybean, have been found to act as antioxidants in some model systems. This study investigated the isoflavone content in a unique nonedible tree fruit, Osage orange [Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid], and methods for the extraction, identification, and quantification of the two major isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin, were developed. The ethyl acetate extract contained 25.7% osajin and 36.2% pomiferin, and the two isoflavones were at 9.5 g kg(-1) of fresh Osage orange. Two model systems, FRAP and beta-CLAMS, were used to measure the antioxidant activity of these two isoflavones. Pomiferin was found to be a strong antioxidant in both systems, comparable to the antioxidant vitamins C and E and the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Osajin and the two soybean isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) showed no antioxidant activity. Although the Osage orange fruit is not a food source, it is considered to be safe and, therefore, a potentially good source of an antioxidant nutraceutical and functional food ingredient. PMID:14558760

  2. Polarization of light scattered by clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Paul; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. This phenomenon is not well understood but is potentially of interest for remote sensing of the earth. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of vegetation were measured. The Umov effect, or inverse relation between polarization and reflectance noted by many earlier workers, was observed here and is shown to be a very general property of diffusely scattering surfaces. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The polarization of light scattered from aggregations of leaves is affected by this negatively polarized, transmitted light. The light scattered from the upper leaf surfaces was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for quantitatively by specular Fresnel reflection from small, randomly oriented facets on the surfaces of the leaves.

  3. Rapid method for the determination of 14 isoflavones in food using UHPLC coupled to photo diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Shim, You-Shin; Yoon, Won-Jin; Hwang, Jin-Bong; Park, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Dongwon; Ha, Jaeho

    2015-11-15

    A rapid method for the determination of 14 types of isoflavones in food using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity and linearity. The UHPLC separation was performed on a reverse-phase C18 column (particle size 2 μm, i.d. 2 mm, length 100 mm) using a photo diode array detector that was fixed to 260 nm. The limits of detection and quantification of the UHPLC analyses ranged from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precision of the individual isoflavones were less than 11.77% and calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r(2) = 0.99) within the tested ranges. These results suggest that the rapid method used in this study could be available to determine of 14 types of isoflavones in a variety of food such as soy bean, black bean, red bean and soybean paste. PMID:25977042

  4. First Report of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Infecting African Clover (Trifolium tembense) in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes a destructive disease which affects many economically important host plants. TSWV has been reported in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), white clover (Trifolium repens), and various unidentified wild clovers (Trifolium spp). in North America and A...

  5. Dalvelutinoside, a new isoflavone glycoside from the methanol extract of Dalbergia velutina roots.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-07-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, dalvelutinoside (1), together with one known isoflavone (2) and five known isoflavone glycosides (3-7) were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Dalbergia velutina. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. PMID:26594823

  6. SULFATION OF THE ISOFLAVONES GENISTEIN AND DAIDZEIN IN HUMAN AND RAT LIVER AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoestrogens, in particular the isoflavone aglycones genistein and daidzein, are thought to be the bioactive components of soy. Like estrogens, isoflavones can be sulfur-conjugated. However, although isoflavones in the serum are found largely in the form of glucuronide and sulfur conjugates follow...

  7. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  8. Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2014-10-01

    We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while β-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. PMID:24799251

  9. Multielement residues in tissues of guinea pigs fed sweet clover grown on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Furr, K; Stoewsand, G S; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W A

    1975-05-01

    Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) was harvested from fly ash dumped in a landfill site at Lansing, NY. This clover was chopped, dried, and formulated at 45% into an otherwise purified diet and fed to six guinea pigs for 90 days. Control sweet clover was harvested from gravelly subsoil and processed and fed to another group of guinea pigs for the same period. Samples of fly ash, gravelly subsoil, sweet clover, liver, kidneys, and left-rear gastrocnemius muscle of all guinea pigs were freeze-dried and analyzed for 35 elements by neutron activation analysis. The fly ash contained 28 elements at higher levels than the gravelly subsoil, while the clover harvested from fly ash contained 19 elements in increased amounts over those in the clover harvested from the gravel soil. Growth rate of both groups of guinea pigs was similar. Rubidium and selenium were present at higher levels in the tissues of guinea pigs fed the fly ash clover. PMID:1130838

  10. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  11. Plant Guide: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial North American legume that is non-toxic to livestock and wildlife. It can be found in Idaho, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, and California. Western prairie is tap-rooted and reaches a height of 30 to 61 cm. A cluster of st...

  12. Radiation use efficiency of arrowleaf, crimson, rose, and subterranean clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stability of parameters describing growth of cool-season annual clovers is important because of the great interest in utilization as winter cover crops, forage and sources of nitrogen through N2-fixation. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to quantify the key parameter for biomass produc...

  13. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol. PMID:22621769

  14. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  15. Isoflavones in human breast milk and other biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Custer, L J; Tanaka, Y

    1998-12-01

    We established a method for using HPLC and diode-array ultraviolet scanning to quantitate soy isoflavonoids in foods and in human plasma, urine, and breast milk. The analytes occurring as glycoside conjugates were hydrolyzed enzymatically before HPLC analysis if extracted from biological matrices or were subjected to direct HPLC analysis after extraction from foods. We monitored the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, and biochanin-A and their mammalian metabolites equol and O-desmethylangolensin in human plasma, urine, and breast milk. Analytes were identified by absorbance patterns, fluorometric and electrochemical detection. and comparison with internal and external standards. In addition, we identified analytes by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilylation. The HPLC method was also used to measure concentrations of isoflavones and their glucoside conjugates in various soy-based infant formulas. Total isoflavone concentrations varied between 155 and 281 mg/kg. After one woman received a moderate challenge with 20 g roasted soybeans (equivalent to 37 mg isoflavones), we detected mean total isoflavone concentrations of approximately 2.0 micromol/L in plasma, 0.2 micromol/L in breast milk, and 3.0 micromol/h in urine. According to our measurements, with adjustment for body weight, isoflavonoid exposure is 4-6 times higher in infants fed soy-based formula than in adults eating a diet rich in soyfoods (approximately 30 g/d). Implications of the presented results for the potential cancer-preventing activity of isoflavones by exposing newborn infants to these phytochemicals are discussed. PMID:9848518

  16. EFFECTS OF SOY PROTEIN AND ISOFLAVONES ON INSULIN RESISTANCE AND ADIPONECTIN IN MALE MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Janice D.; Zhang, Li; Shadoan, Melanie K.; Kavanagh, Kylie; Chen, Haiying; Trenasari, Kristitianti; Kaplan, Jay R.; Adams, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. However, isoflavones also bind to PPAR’s which are strongly associated with insulin action. Soy protein with its isoflavones has previously been shown to improve glycemic control in diabetic postmenopausal women and to improve insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized monkeys. The purpose of the current report was to extend our studies of dietary soy protein to male monkeys and determine effects of the soy isoflavones on insulin resistance. Two studies are reported here. Study one involved 91 male monkeys consuming three diets differing only by the source of protein (casein-lactalbumin, soy protein with a low isoflavone concentration or soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) were done and plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein concentrations were determined after 25 months of study. Samples of visceral fat were obtained at 31 months for assessment adiponectin and PPARγ expression. The second study involved 8 monkeys in a Latin square design that compared the effects of diets with either casein/lactalbumin, soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration, or soy protein that was alcohol-washed to deplete the isoflavones. After eight weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins were assessed. At ten weeks, skeletal muscle was biopsied for determination of insulin receptor, PPARα and PPARγ content. The major findings were that consumption of isoflavone-containing soy protein dose-dependently increased insulin responses to the glucose challenge and decreased plasma adiponectin while isoflavone-depleted soy protein decreased body weight and had no effect on plasma adiponectin concentrations. Muscle PPARα and γ expression was also increased with the isoflavone-depleted soy relative to either casein or soy protein containing the isoflavones. Further studies are needed to determine the

  17. Effect of seed scarification and seeding depth on greenhouse seedling emergence in western prairie clover, Searls prairie clover, and Basalt milkvetch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes, Asfi)), western prairie clover (Dalea ornata, Daor) and Searls' prairie clover (D. searlsiae, Dase) are three North American legumes that hold promise for...

  18. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  19. Isoflavones and phytosterols contained in Xuezhikang capsules modulate cholesterol homeostasis in high-fat diet mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dong; Sun, Jian-guo; Sun, Run-bin; Ou-Yang, Bing-chen; Yao, Lan; Aa, Ji-ye; Zhou, Fang; Zhang, Jing-wei; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Guang-ji

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular disease. Three fractions F1, F2 and F3 (primarily containing isoflavones, monacolins or phytosterols, respectively) are extracted from Xuezhikang capsules. In this study we evaluated the lipid-lowering effects of these fractions and explored the potential mechanisms of actions. Methods: Mice treated with a high-fat diet (HFD) were orally adminis¬tered lovastatin (10 mg·kg−1·d−1), XZK (1200 mg·kg−1·d−1), F1 (27.5 mg·kg−1·d−1), F2 (11.3 mg·kg−1·d−1) or F3 (35 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 10 weeks. Lipids were measured using commercial enzymatic kits, and the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis were evaluated using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: XZK increased the fecal excretion of lipids and bile acids, reduced serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels by 40%, 55% and 46%, respectively, and increased serum HDL-C by 31%. Administration of F1 repressed serum TC and TG by 24% and 52%, respectively, and elevated hepatic synthesis of CYP7A1. It also increased hepatic elimination of bile acids in the fecal excretions by 79% through upregulating BSEP and downregulating NTCP. Administration of F3 decreased serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels by 33%, 29% and 39%, respectively, and increased serum HDL-C by 28%, sig¬nificantly reduced intestinal absorption of cholesterol by inhibiting the transcription of NPC1L1, and elevated excretion of TC, FC and CE by 96%, 72% and 101%, respectively. Administration of F2 showed pharmacological effects similar to those of lovastatin. Conclusion: Isoflavones and phytosterols in XZK exert cholesterol-lowering effects in HFD mice through mechanisms that differ from those of lovastatin. Isoflavones and phytosterols act in a complimentary manner: through enhancing the elimination of bile acids and reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption

  20. Characteristics of a CsI(Tl) Compton-suppressed clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N. T.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ma, F.; Li, S. C.; Liu, M. L.; Zheng, Y.; Fang, Y. D.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Wang, J. G.; Gao, B. S.; Xu, S. W.; Chen, S. Z.

    2013-03-01

    The performance of a four fold segmented clover detector coupled to a CsI-suppressed shield has been tested using several standard radioactive sources. The summing characteristics, hit patterns and absolute efficiency were measured in both crystal and clover modes. Peak-to-total ratios of 57.3% and 45.6% in suppressed clover mode have been determined for 137Cs and 60Co sources, respectively. A Geant4 simulation of the suppressed clover detector, including the segmentation of the germanium crystals, has been created, and the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental data.

  1. Dietary sources and determinants of soy isoflavone intake among midlife Chinese Women in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sieu-gaen; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Kam F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2007-11-01

    The dietary sources, intake levels, and determinants of soy isoflavone intake were examined using 3217 dietary recalls (DR) collected from 141 Hong Kong Chinese women aged 50-61 y. Multiple-pass 24-h DR were administered by phone by trained interviewers on 23 random, nonconsecutive days to participants over a 12-mo period from 2001 to 2002. We calculated isoflavone intake using analytical values in the Chinese University of Hong Kong Soy Isoflavone Database. Results indicated that the daily intake of total isoflavones was 7.8 +/- 5.6 mg in the study population. Non-Cantonese women had a higher intake of 10.7 +/- 7.6 mg compared with 7.3 +/- 5.0 mg in Cantonese women (P = 0.04). Altogether, 22 foods contributed approximately 90% of the total isoflavone intake. Soft tofu alone accounted for approximately 21% of the isoflavone intake, followed by bean curd skin (7.1%), name-brand soybean milk (6.3%), homemade soybean milk (6.2%), and generic soybean milk (5.8%). Combined, these 5 food items contributed 46% of the total dietary isoflavones. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated dialect group, self-reported health, and age group were significant independent predictors of soy isoflavone consumption. The data provide the basis for elucidating the patterns, determinants, and assessment of dietary soy isoflavone intake in Asian women. PMID:17951484

  2. Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Maha; Banerjee, Mousumi; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Djuric, Zora; Pollak, Michael N; Doerge, Daniel; Fontana, Joseph; Chinni, Sreenivasa; Davis, Joanne; Forman, Jeffrey; Wood, David P; Kucuk, Omer

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between soy intake and prostate cancer (Pca) risk. We have previously observed that soy isoflavone genistein induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of both androgen-sensitive and androgen-independent Pca cells in vitro. To determine the clinical effects of soy isoflavones on Pca we conducted a pilot study in patients with Pca who had rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Patients with Pca were enrolled in the study if they had either newly diagnosed and untreated disease under watchful waiting with rising PSA (group I) or had increasing serum PSA following local therapy (group II) or while receiving hormone therapy (group III). The study intervention consisted of 100 mg of soy isoflavone (Novasoy) taken by mouth twice daily for a minimum of 3 or maximum of 6 mo. Forty-one patients were enrolled (4 in group I, 18 in group II, and 19 in group III) and had a median PSA level of 13.3 ng/ml. Thirty-nine patients could be assessed for response. Soy isoflavone supplementation was given for a median of 5.5 (range 0.8-6) mo per patient. Although there were no sustained decreases in PSA qualifying for a complete or partial response, stabilization of the PSA occurred in 83% of patients in hormone-sensitive (group II) and 35% of hormone-refractory (group III) patients. There was a decrease in the rate of the rise of serum PSA in the whole group (P = 0.01) with rates of rise decreasing from 14 to 6% in group II (P = 0.21) and from 31 to 9% in group III (P = 0.05) following the soy isoflavone intervention. Serum genistein and daidzein levels increased during supplementation from 0.11 to 0.65 microM (P = 0.00002) and from 0.11 to 0.51 microM (P = 0.00001), respectively. No significant changes were observed in serum levels of testosterone, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or 5-OHmdU. These data suggest that soy isoflavones may benefit some patients with Pca. PMID:15087261

  3. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  4. Isoflavones in Chickpeas Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Prevent Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yinging; Ren, Guixing

    2015-11-11

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia arising from defects in insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of isoflavones in chickpea sprouts germinated in light (IGL) and isoflavones in chickpea seeds (ICS) on insulin resistance through their role in suppression of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Results showed that IGL and ICS inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, and the suppressive effect of IGL was stronger (p < 0.05) than that of ICS, evidenced by a decrease of Oil Red O staining and intracellular triacylglycerol content in the mature adipocytes. IGL and ICS also stimulated glucose uptake significantly (p < 0.05). Besides, IGL and ICS treatment caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels of adipogenesis-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells were also markedly down-regulated (p < 0.05). PMID:26494490

  5. Enhancement of Antioxidant and Isoflavones Concentration in Gamma Irradiated Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Boris M.; Štajner, Dubravka; Mandić, Anamarija; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Kevrešan, Slavko

    2013-01-01

    Serbian soybean genotype Ana was gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 4, and 10 kGy in order to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation on isoflavone (genistein, daidzein, and their glycosides genistin and daidzin) contents and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect (HRSE). The increase in genistin and daidzin contents as well as antioxidant activities was observed especially at doses of 4 and 10 kGy. Results were also compared with our previous results relating to total phenol content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenger capacity (DPPH RSC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Our results indicated that doses up to 10 kGy improve the antioxidant activities of soybean and also nutritional quality with respect to isoflavone content. All results were analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and autoscaling transformation of data). Significant positive correlations were observed between genistin, daidzin, DPPH RSC, and HRSE. PMID:24298214

  6. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins. PMID:16600295

  7. Advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i.e. placebo group and 160 mgs of isoflavone group, the duration is 12 weeks, conducted a double-blind manner. The dependent variabel is total of AV lesion, whereas the intermediate variable is DHT that will be examined using ELISA. Defferential test and multivariate analysis were performed on dependent, independent and intermediate variables. Results: This study found that the difference in mean of total AV lesion before treatment was not significant (p: 0.099), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Difference of mean DHT level before treatment was not significant (p: 0.574), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Delta of DHT (p: 0.003) (r: 0.736) had significant influence on delta of total AV lesion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that supplementation with 160 mgs/day of soybean isoflavone can reduce total AV lesion as a result of decreased DHT level. PMID:26413190

  8. Flavanone and isoflavone glucosylation by non-Leloir glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; Wray, Victor; Seeger, Michael; Sepúlveda-Boza, Silvia; Hofer, Bernd

    2016-09-10

    Flavonoids possess a wide range of biological activities. Their glycosylation is of considerable interest, as it often positively influences their pharmacokinetic and other molecular properties. We recently showed that two non-Leloir glycosyltransferases that use sucrose as carbohydrate donor, an amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea (Ams-Np) and a glucansucrase from Streptococcus oralis (GtfR-So), were hardly able to glucosylate flavones, but accepted flavanes as substrates. We now examined compounds from two other flavonoid classes, flavanones and isoflavones for glucose transfer by these enzymes. Taxifolin was investigated as a flavanone analogue of both, the accepted pentahydroxyflavane catechin and the non-accepted pentahydroxyflavone quercetin. It was glucosylated by both enzymes, but much better by GtfR-So than by Ams-Np due to apparent strong inhibition of the latter. The acceptance of a collection of isoflavones strongly depended on the substitution pattern of the core. Only two of the 10 compounds examined yielded glucosides in satisfactory amounts. With these substrates, both enzymes catalyzed formation of a range of products, differing in the number of saccharide units. The structures of mono- and diglycosylated compounds obtained in higher amounts were elucidated. While GtfR-So attached glucose to taxifolin in the B ring at O4', both enzymes glucosylated the isoflavones in the A ring at O7. All products were α-glucosides. Interglycosidic linkages formed by Ams-Np were α1-4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of glucosylation of flavanone and isoflavone aglycones by an amylosucrase. All characterized compounds have not previously been described. PMID:27374405

  9. Co-Administration of Soy Isoflavones and Vitamin D in Management of Irritable Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Vahedi, Homayoon; Poustchi, Hossein; Khademi, Behnam; Saadi, Mohsen; Zemestani, Maryam; Janani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The substantial characteristics of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) are associated with estrogens in women. Both soy isoflavones and vitamin D can modulate estrogen receptors in the colonic smooth muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy isoflavones, vitamin D and their probable interactions in women with IBS. Methods In a factorial blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 women with IBS (age:18-75yr, were randomly assigned in 4 arms to receive either placebo of vitamin D and placebo of soy isoflavones (P+P), or placebo of vitamin D and soy isoflavones (P+S), or vitamin D and placebo of soy isoflavones (D+P), or vitamin D and soy isoflavones (D+S) for 6 weeks. Dosage of soy isoflavone was 2 capsules of 20 mg soy isoflavones per day, and dosage of vitamin D was one pearl of 50’000 IU biweekly. The clinical outcomes were IBS symptoms severity scores (IBS-SSS), disease- specific quality of life (IBS-QOL) and total score (IBS-TS) that evaluated at weeks 0, 6, and 10, and compared to each other. Results IBS-TS improved significantly in both S+P and D+P groups (p- value = 0.004, 0.015). The interaction effect of soy isoflavones and vitamin D on IBS-TS was significant (p<0.05). The interaction effect of soy isoflavones with vitamin D and the main effect of vitamin D on IBS-SSS were not statistically significant, whereas IBS-SSS decreased significantly in S+P and D+P groups (p-value = 0.001, 0.047 respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate that co-administration of soy isoflavones with vitamin D did not improve the IBS- SSS and IBS- QOL; however, it improved the IBS-TS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT02026518 PMID:27490103

  10. Cognitive effects of soy isoflavones in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Fischer, Barbara L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Atwood, Craig S.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous trial, treatment with soy isoflavones was associated with improved nonverbal memory, construction, verbal fluency, and speeded dexterity compared to treatment with placebo in cognitively healthy older men and women. Objective The current trial aimed to examine the potential cognitive benefits of soy isoflavones in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. METHODS Sixty-five men and women over the age of 60 were treated with 100mg/day soy isoflavone, or matching placebo capsules for six months. APOE genotype was determined for all participants. Cognitive outcomes and plasma isoflavone levels were measured at Baseline, and at two additional time points. RESULTS Fifty-nine subjects completed all study visits. Thirty-four were women (52.3%); average age was 76.3 (SD=7.2) years, and 31 (47.7%) were APOE4 positive. Plasma isoflavone levels increased in subjects treated with soy isoflavones compared to Baseline and to placebo, although intersubject variability in plasma levels was large. No significant differences in treatment effects emerged between treatment groups or genders. Analyses of associations between changes in cognition and plasma isoflavone levels revealed an association between equol levels and speed dexterity and verbal fluency. CONCLUSIONS Six months of 100mg/day treatment with soy isoflavones did not benefit cognition in older men and women with Alzheimer’s disease. However, our results suggest the need to examine the role of isoflavone metabolism, i.e., the ability to effectively metabolize soy isoflavones by converting daidzen to equol when attempting fully clarify the cognitive effects of isoflavones. PMID:26401779

  11. Understanding the cardiovascular actions of soy isoflavones: potential novel targets for antihypertensive drug development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Doug; Song, Jin; Mark, Connie; Eyster, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Interest in and use of "natural" remedies has grown exponentially in recent years. Compounds that have attracted considerable attention are the isoflavones, particular those found in soy. This review will provide a critical evaluation of our current understanding of the effects, mechanisms of action, and potential clinical applications of soy isoflavones in hypertension. Current data indicate that soy isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein and equol, relax vascular smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo via a combination of mechanisms including potentiation of endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilator systems and inhibition of constrictor mechanisms. These effects involve both classical genomic as well non genomic actions. Isoflavone actions are mediated in part via interactions with estrogen receptors where soy isoflavones induce unique receptor conformations and exert tissue dependent effects similar to the selective estrogen receptor modulators. Signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, PI3-Kinase/Akt and cAMP contribute to isoflavone isoflavone activation of eNOS in the vasculature as well. Isoflavones also target the kidney to increase renal blood flow and sodium excretion. Finally, soy isoflavones interact with humoral systems such as the renin angiotensin. Data from animal studies show consistently that the aggregate effect of these actions is attenuation of hypertension. In contrast, studies in humans remain controversial. Recent data also suggest that analogues of isoflavones may possess unique vascular actions. Thus significant opportunity remains for study of the effects and mechanisms of action of soy isoflavones on hypertension in both animals and humans. PMID:19202595

  12. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (P<0.005). Among six isoflavones, daidzin was positively associated with MCF-7 cell growth (P<0.005, r = 0.13966), whereas the negative correlation between genistin and MCF-7 cell growth was nearly significant (P≤0.0562, r = -0.026141). Furthermore, in drug interaction studies daidzin-rich isoflavone extracts antagonized tamoxifen, an ER inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the glyconic daidzin-rich soy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic

  13. First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus in Alaska from Clover (Trifolium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During mid-June 2008, distinct mosaic leaves were observed on a cluster of white clover, Trifolium repens L., growing at the edge of a lawn in Palmer, Alaska. Virus minipurification from leaves of affected clover and polyacrylamide electrophoresis implicated a ~35 kDa putative coat protein (CP). Sub...

  14. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  15. Plant Fact Sheet: Western Prairie Clover [Dalea Ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dalea L. is a widespread genus of the legume family (Fabaceae), which is comprised of 62 species of prairie clovers in North America. Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas) Eaton & Wright] is a perennial, insect-pollinated legume that is non-toxic and palatable to herbivores. It occures in...

  16. Western and Searls Prairie Clovers: North American Legumes for Rangeland Revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata) and Searls prairie clover (D. searlsiae) are two North American legumes that hold promise for use in rangeland revegetation and conservation. Seeds of w...

  17. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  18. Formation of polyhydroxylated isoflavones from the soybean seed isoflavones daidzein and glycitein by bacteria isolated from tempe.

    PubMed

    Klus, K; Barz, W

    1995-12-01

    Five tempe-derived bacterial strains identified as Micrococcus or Arthrobacter species were shown to transform the soybean isoflavones daidzein and glycitein to polyhydroxylated isoflavones by different hydroxylation reactions. All strains converted glycitein and daidzein to 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (factor 2) and the latter substrate also to 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone. Three strains transformed daidzein to 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone and 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. In addition, two strains formed 6,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein. Conversion of glycitein by these two strains led to the formation of factor 2 and 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. The structures of these transformation products were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and chemical degradation. PMID:8588745

  19. Soil Moisture Dynamics under Corn, Soybean, and Perennial Kura Clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, T.; Venterea, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Rising global food and energy consumption call for increased agricultural production, whereas rising concerns for environmental quality call for farming systems with more favorable environmental impacts. Improved understanding and management of plant-soil water interactions are central to meeting these twin challenges. The objective of this research was to compare the temporal dynamics of soil moisture under contrasting cropping systems suited for the Midwestern region of the United States. Precipitation, infiltration, drainage, evapotranspiration, soil water storage, and freeze/thaw processes were measured hourly for three years in field plots of continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation, and perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) in southeastern Minnesota. The evapotranspiration from the perennial clover most closely followed the temporal dynamics of precipitation, resulting in deep drainage which was reduced up to 50% relative to the annual crops. Soil moisture utilization also continued later into the fall under the clover than under the annual crops. In the annual cropping systems, crop sequence influenced the soil moisture dynamics. Soybean following corn and continuous corn exhibited evapotranspiration which was 80 mm less than and deep drainage which was 80 mm greater than that of corn following soybean. These differences occurred primarily during the spring and were associated with differences in early season plant growth between the systems. In the summer, soil moisture depletion was up to 30 mm greater under corn than soybean. Crop residue also played an important role in the soil moisture dynamics. Higher amounts of residue were associated with reduced soil freezing. This presentation will highlight key aspects of the soil moisture dynamics for these contrasting cropping systems across temporal scales ranging from hours to years. The links between soil moisture dynamics, crop yields, and nutrient leaching

  20. Lattice Calculation of Baryon Masses using Clover Fermion Action

    SciTech Connect

    D.G. Richards; M. Gockeler; P.E.L. Rakow; D. Pleiter; G. Schierholz; R. Horsley; C.M. Maynard

    2002-03-01

    We present a calculation of the lowest-lying baryon masses in the quenched approximation to QCD. The calculations are performed using a non-perturbatively improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found between the masses of the nucleon and its parity partner. An analysis of the mass of the first radial excitation of the nucleon finds a value considerably larger than that of the parity partner of the nucleon, and thus little evidence for the Roper resonance as a simple three-quark state.

  1. Characteristics of a two-fold segmented Clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Lakshmi, S.; Mazumdar, I.; Nagaraj, S.; Naidu, B. S.

    2003-07-01

    The characteristics of a Compton-suppressed, two-fold segmented, Clover detector have been studied in singles and add-back modes for using it in the study of heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. The measurements have been performed with standard sources of 152Eu, 60Co and in-beam γ-rays from the fusion-evaporation reaction 28Si on 27Al at E lab=100 MeV. Reduction in γ-ray Doppler broadenings due to the two-fold segmentation is demonstrated through in-beam data.

  2. Various doses of soy isoflavones do not modify mammographic density in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones have functional similarity to human estrogens and may protect against breast cancer as a result of their antiestrogenic activity or increase risk as a result of their estrogen-like properties. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and mammographic density, a str...

  3. Update of the USDA’s Database for the Isoflavone Content in Selected Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones have weak estrogenic, as well as other, biological properties that may contribute to the reduction of the risk of some chronic diseases. Although evidence for the beneficial role of isoflavones in breast cancer has become conflicted, results of clinical trials for prostate cancer are en...

  4. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  5. USDA database for the isoflavone content of selected foods. Release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, a subclass of flavonoids, have weak estrogenic, as well as other biological properties that may contribute to the reduction of the risk of some chronic diseases. Consumption of soy isoflavones alone and along with soy protein lowers serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans. A review ...

  6. Comparison of Extraction Solvents and Techniques Used for the Assay of Isoflavones from Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of extraction solvents and techniques on the assay of isoflavones from soybean was investigated. This systematic study was undertaken to address substantial variations in the solvents and procedures used for the extraction of isoflavones from soybeans by different research groups as descr...

  7. Clinical outcomes of a 2-y soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones are naturally occurring phytochemicals with weak estrogenic cellular effects. Despite numerous clinical trials of short-term isoflavone supplementation, there is a paucity of data regarding longer-term outcomes and safety. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of soy hypocoty...

  8. Assessment of Sources and Dietary Intake of Isoflavone in the U.S. Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy products are a major source of dietary isoflavones, with weak estrogenic, and other biological properties that may contribute to the reduction of the risk of some chronic diseases, such as certain cancers, i.e. prostate and melanoma. This presentation will examine sources of isoflavones in the d...

  9. Dietary sources of isoflavones and the methodology used for the analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy and soy derived food products have often been consumed for their health beneficial properties. These beneficial effects have been partially associated with isoflavones. This short communication summarizes the major dietary sources of isoflavones and their health benefits as documented in curre...

  10. ARE THERE ANY CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PROTEINS AND BIOACTIVE ISOFLAVONES IN SOYBEANS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans provide an inexpensive source of proteins with an annual value of $17.7 billion. It is the second most valuable cash crop grown in the US. Soybeans are also the most abundant natural source of bioactive isoflavones. Isoflavone-enriched extracts have been evaluated in the prevention of a ...

  11. Impact of dietary soy isoflavones in pregnancy on fetal programming of endothelial function in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bonacasa, Barbara; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that soy-based diets containing phytoestrogens (isoflavones) afford protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. The molecular mechanisms by which the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and equol afford protection against oxidative stress remain to be investigated in large scale clinical trials. Isoflavones are transferred across the placenta in both rodents and humans, yet there is limited information on their actions in pregnancy and the developmental origins of disease. Our studies established that feeding a soy isoflavone-rich diet during pregnancy, weaning, and postweaning affords cardiovascular protection in aged male rats. Notably, rats exposed to a soy isoflavone-deficient diet throughout pregnancy and adult life exhibited increased oxidative stress, diminished antioxidant enzyme and eNOS levels, endothelial dysfunction, and elevated blood pressure in vivo. The beneficial effects of refeeding isoflavones to isoflavone-deficient rats include an increased production of nitric oxide and EDHF, an upregulation of antioxidant defense enzymes and lowering of blood pressure in vivo. This review focuses on the role that isoflavones in the fetal circulation may play during fetal development in affording protection against CVD in the offspring via their ability to activate eNOS, EDHF, and redox-sensitive gene expression. PMID:21418378

  12. Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant estrogens that are abundant in soy. Although purported to protect against bone loss, the efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Our aim was to test the effect of soy isoflav...

  13. Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Randomized Three Year Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has indicated that soy protein with isoflavones may attenuate bone loss in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women (45.8-65.0 years) by maintaining bone mineral density (BMD), and this bone-sparing effect would be g...

  14. Intricate environment-modulated genetic networks control isoflavone accumulation in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.) seed isoflavones have long been considered a desirable trait to target in selection programs for their involvement on fitness for humans and the plant per se. However, attempts to modify seed isoflavone content have not always produced the expected results because the...

  15. Effect of a soymilk supplement containing isoflavones on urinary F2 isoprostane levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Sukwan; Anderson, Karl E; Nagamani, Manubai; Grady, James J; Lu, Lee-Jane W

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated soy diets with reduced risk of breast and some other cancers, and oxidative cellular damage may contribute to the development of these and other diseases. We tested the effect of a soymilk supplement rich in isoflavones on a measure of cellular lipid peroxidation in a controlled feeding study. Eight premenopausal women consumed a constant diet that included soymilk containing 113-207 mg/day total isoflavones and 4 mo later a constant soy diet low (<5 mg/day) in isoflavones, both for a complete menstrual cycle. The average daily urinary excretions of daidzein and genistein were 24.6 +/- 10.1 and 9.2 +/- 6.1 mg/day, respectively, during the high-isoflavone soy diet and were below the detection limit during the low-isoflavone diet. F2 isoprostane 8-iso-PGF-2alpha excretion varied widely within and between subjects, and the group mean was not significantly different during the high- and low-isoflavone soy diet (7.67 +/- 1.13 and 8.65 +/- 1.18 nmol/12 h, mean +/- SD, respectively). However, individual changes in 8-iso-PGF-2alpha between the two soymilk drinks were significantly associated with age (r = -0.87; P = 0.006) and several measures of isoflavone exposure, namely, daidzein dose (r = 0.81; P = 0.015), combined daidzein and genistein dose (r = 0.77; P = 0.03), and total urinary excretion of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) (r = 0.71; P = 0.05). The findings suggest that soy isoflavones may reduce lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner, with greater effects in older women, and with lower doses of isoflavones. PMID:16351509

  16. Effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of human breast tumors: findings from preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and many women with breast cancer live more than 5 years after their diagnosis. Breast cancer patients and survivors have a greater interest in taking soy foods and isoflavone supplements. However, the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, it is critical to determine if and when isoflavones are beneficial or detrimental to breast cancer patients. According to the available preclinical data, high concentrations of isoflavones inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells, regardless of their estrogen receptor (ER) status. In comparison, genistein, a major isoflavone, has stimulated tumor growth at low concentrations and mitigated tamoxifen efficacy in ER-positive breast cancer. Studies have indicated that the relative levels of genistein and estrogen at the target site are important to determine the genistein effect on the ER-positive tumor growth. However, studies using ovariectomized mice and subcutaneous xenograft models might not truly reflect estrogen concentrations in human breast tumors. Moreover, it may be an oversimplification that isoflavones stimulate hormone-dependent tumor growth due to their potential estrogenic effect since studies also suggest nonestrogenic anticancer effects of isoflavones and ER-independent anticancer activity of tamoxifen. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and estrogen in human breast tumors should be considered better in future preclinical studies and the parameters that can estimate those levels in breast tumors are required in human clinical/epidemiological investigation. In addition, it will be important to identify the molecular mechanisms that either inhibit or promote the growth of breast cancer cells by soy isoflavones, and use those molecules to evaluate the relevance of the preclinical findings to the human disease and to predict the health effects of isoflavones in human breast tumors. PMID:25493176

  17. Intricate environment-modulated genetic networks control isoflavone accumulation in soybean seeds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.) seed isoflavones have long been considered a desirable trait to target in selection programs for their contribution to human health and plant defense systems. However, attempts to modify seed isoflavone contents have not always produced the expected results because their genetic basis is polygenic and complex. Undoubtedly, the extreme variability that seed isoflavones display over environments has obscured our understanding of the genetics involved. Results In this study, a mapping population of RILs with three replicates was analyzed in four different environments (two locations over two years). We found a total of thirty-five main-effect genomic regions and many epistatic interactions controlling genistein, daidzein, glycitein and total isoflavone accumulation in seeds. The use of distinct environments permitted detection of a great number of environment-modulated and minor-effect QTL. Our findings suggest that isoflavone seed concentration is controlled by a complex network of multiple minor-effect loci interconnected by a dense epistatic map of interactions. The magnitude and significance of the effects of many of the nodes and connections in the network varied depending on the environmental conditions. In an attempt to unravel the genetic architecture underlying the traits studied, we searched on a genome-wide scale for genomic regions homologous to the most important identified isoflavone biosynthetic genes. We identified putative candidate genes for several of the main-effect and epistatic QTL and for QTL reported by other groups. Conclusions To better understand the underlying genetics of isoflavone accumulation, we performed a large scale analysis to identify genomic regions associated with isoflavone concentrations. We not only identified a number of such regions, but also found that they can interact with one another and with the environment to form a complex adaptable network controlling seed isoflavone levels

  18. Seeding rate effects in oat-berseem clover intercrops

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; O'Donovan, John T.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-10-01

    The sustainability of cereal cropping systems may be improved by the addition of legumes. The effects of seeding rate were studied for intercrops of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Bigbee berseem clover, an annual forage legume, was intercropped with oats on a Black Chernozemic soil at Edmonton, Alberta, in 1996 and 1997. Berseem dry matter (DM) yields were greatly reduced by increasing oat plant density. There was a linear decline in berseem DM with increasing oat DM or oat tiller density. The relationship between oat plant density and berseem DM was nonlinear and varied between years and harvests. Berseem yield reductions varied from 44 to 82% with target densities of 100 oat plants m-2. Effects of berseem seeding rate (BSR) on oats varied between years. Increasing BSR from 6 to 24 kg ha-1 decreased oat tillering, oat DM and oat plant DM by 22-51, 0-57 and 8-51%, respectively, and increased oat tiller DM by 0-18%, with oats at 10 to 20 plants m 2. Differences between years were likely due to environmental factors and relative emergence times. After a silage-stage harvest, oat regrowth was negligible but berseem regrowth averaged 3.1 Mg ha-1 DM.

  19. Maintaining viability of white clover under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihira, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Shinpou, R.; Hara, A.; Ono, F.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure technique developed in physics may give a new possibility if it is applied to a biological study. We have been studying the tolerance of small living samples such as planktons and mosses, and found that all of them were alive after exposed to extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. This technique has been extended to a higher plant Trifolium lepens L. (white clover). A few seeds of white clover were exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 days. After the pressure was released, they were seeded on agar, or directly on sowing soil. Seventeen out of the total 22 seeds exposed to the high pressure were found to be alive. Those exposed for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 h and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. The present technique has the possibility of being applied to improve breed of plants and to discover a very strong species that stands against very severe environmental conditions.

  20. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting.

    PubMed

    Bajar, Bryce T; Wang, Emily S; Lam, Amy J; Kim, Bongjae B; Jacobs, Conor L; Howe, Elizabeth S; Davidson, Michael W; Lin, Michael Z; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intramolecular FRET reporters with different designs. Here we report the engineering of brighter and more photostable variants, mClover3 and mRuby3. mClover3 improves photostability by 60% and mRuby3 by 200% over the previous generation of fluorophores. Notably, mRuby3 is also 35% brighter than mRuby2, making it both the brightest and most photostable monomeric red FP yet characterized. Furthermore, we developed a standardized methodology for assessing FP performance in mammalian cells as stand-alone markers and as FRET partners. We found that mClover3 or mRuby3 expression in mammalian cells provides the highest fluorescence signals of all jellyfish GFP or coral RFP derivatives, respectively. Finally, using mClover3 and mRuby3, we engineered an improved version of the CaMKIIα reporter Camuiα with a larger response amplitude. PMID:26879144

  1. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting

    PubMed Central

    Bajar, Bryce T.; Wang, Emily S.; Lam, Amy J.; Kim, Bongjae B.; Jacobs, Conor L.; Howe, Elizabeth S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intramolecular FRET reporters with different designs. Here we report the engineering of brighter and more photostable variants, mClover3 and mRuby3. mClover3 improves photostability by 60% and mRuby3 by 200% over the previous generation of fluorophores. Notably, mRuby3 is also 35% brighter than mRuby2, making it both the brightest and most photostable monomeric red FP yet characterized. Furthermore, we developed a standardized methodology for assessing FP performance in mammalian cells as stand-alone markers and as FRET partners. We found that mClover3 or mRuby3 expression in mammalian cells provides the highest fluorescence signals of all jellyfish GFP or coral RFP derivatives, respectively. Finally, using mClover3 and mRuby3, we engineered an improved version of the CaMKIIα reporter Camuiα with a larger response amplitude. PMID:26879144

  2. Sorption of isoflavones to river sediment and model sorbents and outcomes for larval fish exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Megan M; Rearick, Daniel C; Overgaard, Camilla G; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Arnold, William A

    2015-01-23

    Isoflavones are compounds whose presence in the aquatic environment is increasingly recognized and may be of concern due to their potential to act as endocrine disruptors. Sorption to particles may be a relevant removal mechanism for isoflavones. This work investigated the influence of pH, ionic strength, and sediment composition on sorption of genistein and daidzein, two key isoflavones, using sorption isotherms and edges. The effect of sorbed isoflavones on the survival, growth, and predator avoidance performance of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was assessed. Sorption to goethite and kaolinite was pH-dependent, with a maximum near pH 7 for both compounds. Sorption to montmorillonite was ionic-strength dependent but largely pH-independent. Overall, sorption to sediments is likely to sequester less than 5% of isoflavones in a discharge. No statistically significant effects were observed for larvae exposed to sorbed isoflavones, suggesting that sorption to sediments reduces exposure to isoflavones. PMID:24792866

  3. The effects of soil and Trifolium repens (white clover) on the fate of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kakumoto, Masumi; Sugahara, Masataka; Hamasaki, Tatsuhide; Umeda, Mikio; Fukui, Masami

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the behavior of estrogens in the rhizosphere of white clover (Trifolium repens, clover hereafter) with two different pot tests, using soil and agar as growth media. In a pot test using agar spiked with estrogen, the estrogen concentration in the agar with clover decreased to non-detectable levels within one month, while in the agar without clover, 60% of initially added estrogen remained after one month. The half-lives of estrone (E1) and 17beta -estradiol (E2) in the agar with clover were 2.4-3.8 and 13.2 d, respectively. The dissipation of E1 followed first-order rate law, while that of E2 fitted a zero-order reaction, indicating that they had different mechanisms of dissipation from agar. In the soil pot test, the behavior of E1 and E2 was not influenced by clover. An initial rapid decrease in the amount of estrogen extracted by methanol/acetic acid was followed by persistence for 1-3 months, regardless of presence of clover. Moreover, in three weeks E1 and E2 were only partly degraded by microbes extracted from the soil used in the pot test. In this study, abiotic degradation of estrogens and sorption of estrogen to soil, rather than the effects of soil microbes and clover, contributed to the initial rapid dissipation of estrogens in the soil. However, the results of the agar pot test suggested that vegetation such as clover may significantly contribute to removal of estrogens when estrogens in aqueous phase are discharged with surface runoff and preferential flow after heavy rain in agricultural fields, or when present in soils with low estrogen sorptivity. PMID:19280482

  4. Reaction mechanism of isoflavone O-methyltransferase: A theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Feng-Chao; Pan, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2011-01-01

    The methyl-transfer reaction mechanism catalyzed by Isoflavone O-methyl-transferase (IOMT) and the roles of several residues around the active site are investigated by employing density functional method. The calculations confirm that the proton transfer from daidzein to His257 occurs barrierlessly, and the methyl group is transferred from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to phenolate ion in a single SN2 step with a barrier of 17.0 kcal/mol, consistent with experimental value. Glu318 and Asp288 play important roles in lowering the reaction barrier.

  5. [Dietary isolated isoflavone supplements for peri- and postmenopausal women: risks and questionable benefits].

    PubMed

    Andres, S; Lampen, A

    2013-02-01

    Isolated isoflavones are frequently offered as dietary supplements for the alleviation of peri- and postmenopausal complaints. These mainly soy-based secondary plant compounds are marketed with the claim of having numerous beneficial effects such as protection against breast cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence for most of these health impacts. In addition, there is a controversial ongoing discussion about the safety of these products. After a long-term intake of high isoflavone doses, adverse effects on the breast tissue, the endometrium, and the thyroid, the last one especially under iodine-deficient conditions, cannot be excluded. Owing to their estrogenic effects, isoflavones may promote the growth of estrogen-sensitive malignant cells. The risk assessment of isoflavones is especially focused on peri- and postmenopausal women because they are the target group for dietary supplements based on isolated isoflavones and have, anyway, a higher risk for breast cancer. Since long-term treatment with isolated isoflavones, especially at high doses, is considered critical, we recommend that patients consume isoflavone-based supplements only after advice and under medical supervision. PMID:23232539

  6. The effect of target postgrazing height on sward clover content, herbage yield, and dairy production from grass-white clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, P; Casey, I A; Humphreys, J

    2013-03-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is an important legume for grazed grassland that can increase the profitability and environmental sustainability of milk production. Previous experiments on mown grass-clover plots suggest that low postgrazing heights (PGH) can increase sward clover content and herbage production. However, this has not been tested in actual strip or rotational grazing systems with dairy cows. Furthermore, lowering PGH in grass-only swards (typically perennial ryegrass without white clover) has previously been associated with reduced milk yields per cow. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of PGH by dairy cows on clover content, herbage production, and milk production from strip-grazed grass-white clover swards in Ireland. Three target PGH treatments of 4, 5, and 6 cm were in place for entire grazing seasons (February to November) for 3 consecutive years (2007 to 2009). Each treatment had a mean of 21 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that strip-grazed a mean annual area of 10.2 ha. Postgrazing height was measured twice a day with a rising plate meter, and cows were moved to the next strip once the target PGH was reached. Annual fertilizer nitrogen input was 90 kg of N/ha for each treatment. The PGH treatment did not significantly affect annual milk yield (6,202 kg/cow), solids-corrected milk yield (6,148 kg/cow), fat, protein, or lactose yields (265, 222, and 289 kg/cow, respectively), cow liveweight (592 kg) or body condition score (3.01). The PGH treatment also had no significant effect on sward white clover content (196 g/kg). However, herbage production of both grass and clover were significantly higher with the 4-cm PGH treatment compared with the 6-cm treatment. Mean annual herbage yields were 11.1, 10.2, and 9.1 t of organic matter (OM)/ha for the 4-, 5-, and 6-cm PGH treatments, respectively. The lower herbage production in the 6-cm PGH treatment resulted in lower annual silage production, greater housing requirements

  7. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  8. Exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Hendriks, W H

    2010-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided diets, and the isoflavone content of each diet was determined by acid hydrolysis and HPLC quantification. Proximate nutritional composition was also determined. Over half the diets analysed contained detectable concentrations of isoflavones, whereby total isoflavone content ranged from 1.75-183 mg/kg dry matter. The zoo-specific diets were calculated to deliver a median isoflavone dose of 0.07 mg/kg body weight (BW) and a maximum of 1.95 mg/kg BW to captive cheetahs. On a metabolic body weight basis this equates to a maximum of 4.90-5.43 mg/kg(0.75) . Some diets prepared for hand-rearing neonatal cheetahs could expose neonates to doses of up to 4.24 mg/kg BW (or 4.24-6.33 mg/kg(0.75) for cubs under 3 months of age). Only one of six zoo-specific diets was found to deliver isoflavones in doses shown to possess biological activity in other species. Therefore, on average, dietary isoflavones were not found in commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs in concentrations predicted to cause physiological changes. However, a small proportion of these diets, including hand-rearing formulas, contained elevated isoflavones concentrations which may influence cheetah fertility, behaviour or other physiological parameters. PMID:20662971

  9. Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal and soybean isoflavones content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Marcos R. R.; Mandarino, José M. G.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-09-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique that detects paramagnetic centers and can detect free radicals with high sensitivity. In food, free radicals can be generated by several commonly used industrial processes, such as radiosterilization or heat treatment. EPR spectroscopy is used to detect radioinduced free radicals in food. In this work the relation between EPR signal induced by gamma irradiation treatment and soybean isoflavones content was investigated. Present results did not show correlation between total isoflavones content and the EPR signal. Nevertheless, some isoflavone contents had a negative correlation with the radiation-induced EPR signal.

  10. Solvent effect in NMR spectroscopy: Methoxyl resonance shifts induced by trifluoroacetic acid in isoflavones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Hirday N.; Sanduja, Sudershan K.; Sanduja, Radhika; Parmar, Virinder S.

    1H NMR spectra of eight different methoxylated isoflavones have been measured in deuterated chloroform and in a mixture (1 : 1) of deuterated chloroform and trifluoroacetic acid. The TFA-induced shifts of the methoxyl resonances have been interpreted and can serve as a guide in inferring the structures of natural or new isoflavones. This study is particularly useful in distinguishing a C-5 methoxyl from a C-7 methoxyl and a C-2' methoxyl from C-3' or C-4' methoxyl groups in an isoflavone. The steric, electronic and conformational factors are discussed to explain the different shift values.