Science.gov

Sample records for red marrow 131ina

  1. Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderman, S. J.; Roberson, P. L.; Bolch, W. E.; Dewaraja, Y. K.

    2013-07-01

    A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary β particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction.

  2. Development and evaluation of a new algorithm for determining radiation dose to the red bone marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracappa, Peter F.

    Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation. Red bone marrow cannot be easily modeled because it is distributed heterogeneously throughout the skeleton and cannot be distinguished from yellow or inactive bone marrow by radiographic means, so dosimetry models must apply algorithms to estimate the dose to the red bone marrow. The current methods for deriving red bone marrow distribution from CT data are based on assumptions that may not be anatomically realistic and the uncertainty of such calculations has been difficult to estimate. This dissertation describes a new algorithm for calculating the distribution of red bone marrow and the applications of the algorithm. The CT data and red bone marrow distribution algorithms are incorporated into an EGS4 user code to assess the effects of the red bone marrow distribution on the computed dose to the red bone marrow for three irradiation scenarios. Parallel beams of monoenergetic photons have been modeled from the Anterior-Posterior, Posterior-Anterior, Left Lateral and Right Lateral directions in the energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV. Monoenergetic photons in the range of 30 keV to 1 MeV have been modeled in geometries representing head and abdominal CT examinations. A so-called "whole body irradiation" procedure for a 6-direction 3.9 MeV electron protocol has also been studied. Comparing the whole body red bone marrow doses for these irradiations demonstrates a discrepancy between the two different methods for parallel beams of photons below about 200 keV as high as 25%. At higher energies, the disparity in red bone marrow dose is less than 5%. For non-uniform irradiations, however, a greater improvement is realized with the proposed new method. An improvement in red bone marrow dose of 25% to 35% was found for the CT examinations, and nearly 40% for the whole body electron skin treatment protocol. The data presented here justify the need to better understand the uncertainty in existing dosimetry methodologies for radiation protection. This dissertation also presents recommendations for incorporating the new algorithm into other models and for future work.

  3. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

  4. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. PMID:25206807

  5. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600–1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. PMID:25206807

  6. Visible red and infrared light alters gene expression in human marrow stromal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Qing; Wai, Daniel; Zhou, Qunzhou; Shi, Shihong; Le, Anh D; Shi, Songtao; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether or not gene expression in human marrow stromal fibroblast (MSF) cells depends on light wavelength and energy density. Material and Methods Primary cultures of isolated human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSC) were exposed to visible red (VR, 633 nm) and infrared (IR, 830) radiation wavelengths from a light emitting diode (LED) over a range of energy densities (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 Joules/cm2) Cultured cells were assayed for cell proliferation, osteogenic potential, adipogenesis, mRNA and protein content. mRNA was analyzed by microarray, and compared among different wavelengths and energy densities. Mesenchymal and epithelial cell responses were compared to determine whether responses were cell-type specific. Protein array analysis was used to further analyze key pathways identified by microarrays. Result Different wavelengths and energy densities produced unique sets of genes identified by microarray analysis. Pathway analysis pointed to TGF beta 1 in the visible red and Akt 1 in the infrared wavelengths as key pathways to study. TGF beta protein arrays suggested switching from canonical to non-canonical TGF beta pathways with increases to longer IR wavelengths. Microarrays suggest RANKL and TIMP 10 followed IR energy density dose response curves. Epithelial and mesenchymal cells respond differently to stimulation by light suggesting cell-type specific response is possible. Conclusions These studies demonstrate differential gene expression with different wavelengths, energy densities and cell types. These differences in gene expression have the potential to be exploited for therapeutic purposes and can help explain contradictory results in the literature when wavelengths, energy densities and cell types differ. PMID:25865533

  7. Resolution enhancement in MR spectroscopy of red bone marrow fat via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianfeng; Cui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuqing; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is generally inaccessible in red bone marrow (RBM) tissues using conventional MRS techniques. This is because signal from these tissues suffers from severe inhomogeneity in the main static B0 field originated from the intrinsic honeycomb structures in trabecular bone. One way to reduce effects of B0 field inhomogeneity is by using the intermolecular double quantum coherence (iDQC) technique, which has been shown in other systems to obtain signals insensitive to B0 field inhomogeneity. In the present study, we employed an iDQC approach to enhance the spectral resolution of RBM. The feasibility and performance of this method for achieving high resolution MRS was verified by experiments on phantoms and pig vertebral bone samples. Unsaturated fatty acid peaks which overlap in the conventional MRS were well resolved and identified in the iDQC spectrum. Quantitative comparison of fractions of three types of fatty acids was performed between iDQC spectra on the in situ RMB and conventional MRS on the extracted fat from the same RBM. Observations of unsaturated fatty acids with iDQC MRS may provide valuable information and may hold potential in diagnosis of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and leukemia.

  8. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

  9. Fluorescence microscopy is superior to polarized microscopy for detecting amyloid deposits in Congo red-stained trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan; Sadimin, Evita; Richardson, Maurice; Goodell, Lauri; Fyfe, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The classic gold standard for detecting amyloid deposits is Congo red-stained bright field and polarized microscopy (CRPM). A prior study showed that Congo red fluorescence (CRF) microscopy had increased sensitivity compared with traditional CRPM when analyzing fat pad specimens. The purpose of the current study was to determine the sensitivity of CRF for evaluating Congo red-stained bone marrow biopsy specimens, and to compare these results with those of CRPM. We compared the CRPM and the CRF analyses of 33 trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens with clinical or morphologic suspicion of amyloid deposits. These results were verified against immunohistochemical staining with anti-amyloid P antibody. CRF achieved 100% sensitivity, and CRPM achieved 75% sensitivity. Both groups showed 100% specificity compared with amyloid P immunohistochemical staining. The results show that CRF is a sensitive method to analyze trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens for amyloid deposits. PMID:23010714

  10. Differentiation between Focal Malignant Marrow-Replacing Lesions and Benign Red Marrow Deposition of the Spine with T2*-Corrected Fat-Signal Fraction Map Using a Three-Echo Volume Interpolated Breath-Hold Gradient Echo Dixon Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Pyo; Kannengiesser, Stephan; Paek, Mun-Young; Chung, Tae-Sub; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of T2*-corrected fat-signal fraction (FF) map by using the three-echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo (VIBE) Dixon sequence to differentiate between malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of vertebrae. Materials and Methods We assessed 32 lesions from 32 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging after being referred for assessment of a known or possible vertebral marrow abnormality. The lesions were divided into 21 malignant marrow-replacing lesions and 11 benign red marrow depositions. Three sequences for the parameter measurements were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR imaging scanner as follows: three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence for FF; conventional T1-weighted imaging for the lesion-disc ratio (LDR); pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images for the contrast-enhancement ratio (CER). A region of interest was drawn for each lesion for parameter measurements. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the parameters and their sensitivities and specificities at the most ideal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were obtained. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were respectively compared between FF and CER. Results The AUCs of FF, LDR, and CER were 0.96, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. In the comparison of diagnostic performance between the FF and CER, the FF showed a significantly larger AUC as compared to the CER (p = 0.030), although the difference of sensitivity (p = 0.157) and specificity (p = 0.157) were not significant. Conclusion Fat-signal fraction measurement using T2*-corrected three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence is feasible and has a more accurate diagnostic performance, than the CER, in distinguishing benign red marrow deposition from malignant bone marrow-replacing lesions. PMID:25469090

  11. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M. Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (∼17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 × 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa.

  12. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in (131)I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results.

    PubMed

    Giostra, A; Richetta, E; Pasquino, M; Miranti, A; Cutaia, C; Brusasco, G; Pellerito, R E; Stasi, M

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher (131)I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from (131)I activity in the blood and the dose from (131)I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher (131)I activities to be safely used in-treatment. PMID:27200493

  13. Comparison of a restrictive versus liberal red cell transfusion policy for patients with myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia, and other congenital bone marrow failure disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone marrow failure disorders include a heterogenous group of disorders, of which myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), forms the largest subgroup. MDS is predominantly a disease of the elderly, with many elderly people managed conservatively with regular allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to treat their anaemia. However, RBC transfusions are not without risk. Despite regular transfusions playing a central role in treating such patients, the optimal RBC transfusion strategy (restrictive versus liberal) is currently unclear. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of a restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy for patients with myelodysplasia, acquired aplastic anaemia, and other inherited bone marrow failure disorders. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Ovid EMBASE (from 1974), EBSCO CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to 26th May 2015. Selection criteria RCTs including patients with long-term bone marrow failure disorders that require allogeneic blood transfusion, who are not being actively treated with a haematopoietic stem cell transplant, or intensive chemotherapy. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane review methodology. One author initially screened all references, and excluded any that were clearly irrelevant or duplicates. Two authors then independently screened all abstracts of articles, identified by the review search strategy, for relevancy. Two authors independently assessed the full text of all potentially relevant articles for eligibility, completed the data extraction and assessed the studies for risk of bias using The Cochrane Collaboration’s ’Risk of bias’ tool. Main results We included one trial (13 participants) and identified three ongoing trials that assess RBC transfusion strategies in people with MDS. The quality of the evidence was very low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. The one included study randomised participants to a restrictive [haemoglobin (Hb) transfusion trigger < 72 g/L, 8 participants] or liberal [Hb trigger < 96 g/L, 5 participants] transfusion policy. There was insufficient evidence to determine a difference in all-cause mortality (1 RCT; 13 participants; RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.32; very low quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine a difference in the number of red blood cell transfusions (1 RCT; 13 participants; 1.8 units per patient per month in the liberal group, compared to 0.8 in the restrictive arm, no standard deviation was reported; very low quality evidence). There were no anaemia-related complications reported (cardiac failure) and no reported effect on activity levels (no statistics provided). The study did not report: mortality due to bleeding/infection/transfusion reactions or iron overload, quality of life, frequency and length of hospital admissions, serious infections (requiring admission to hospital), or serious bleeding (e.g. WHO/CTCAE grade 3 (or equivalent) or above). Authors’ conclusions This review indicates that there is currently a lack of evidence for the recommendation of a particular transfusion strategy for bone marrow failure patients undergoing supportive treatment only. The one RCT included in this review was only published as an abstract and contained only 13 participants. Further randomised trials with robust methodology are required to develop the optimal transfusion strategy for such patients, particularly as the incidence of the main group of bone marrow failure disorders, MDS, rises with an ageing population. PMID:26436602

  14. Comparison of mathematical models for red marrow and blood absorbed dose estimation in the radioiodine treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranti, A.; Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Gino, E.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    Metastatic and recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma is preferably treated with 131I, whose administered activity is limited by red marrow (RM) toxicity, originally correlated by Benua to a blood absorbed dose higher than 2 Gy. Afterward a variety of dosimetric approaches has been proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the Benua formula with the ones of other three blood and RM absorbed dose formulae. Materials and methods have been borrowed by the dosimetric protocol of the Italian Internal Dosimetry group and adapted to the routine of our centre. Wilcoxon t-tests and percentage differences have been applied for comparison purposes. Results are significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other, with an average percentage difference between Benua versus other results of -22%. The dosimetric formula applied to determine blood or RM absorbed dose may contribute significantly to increase heterogeneity in absorbed dose and dose-response results. Standardization should be a major objective.

  15. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  16. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  17. Regeneration of red bone marrow in rat lower jaw after transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells into the site of injury.

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Matveeva, V A; Kolesnikov, I S; Drovosekov, M N; Toder, M S; Shevela, A I

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration processes in rat mandibular bone after transplantation of a suspension of autologous BM MSC in culture medium were studied by methods of light microscopy and X-ray densitometry. It was found that the structures of red BM in the callus after transplantation of autologous BM MSC formed earlier than in natural reparation. The formation of cavities containing BM determines lower tissue density at the site of injury after transplantation of autologous BM MSC on weeks 4 and 5 of observation than during spontaneous healing. These changes progressed throughout the observation period and attested to accelerated bone tissue reparation. PMID:22803127

  18. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  19. Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

  20. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  1. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from 225 g to 300 g, appeared to have no substantial effect for the estimated absorbed dose.

  2. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's ...

  3. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  4. Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

  5. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may ... This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are ...

  6. Relationship of bone marrow type and microvasculature of the microdistribution and local dosimetry of plutonium in the adult skeleton. [Beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.; Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1984-08-01

    Most plutonium-induced bone tumors in beagles arise in trabecular bone sites surrounded by hematopoietic tissue. The microvasculature and the relative incorporation of /sup 241/Pu (a low energy ..beta.. emitter) on trabecular bone surfaces from red and fatty marrow sites were studied in the adult beagle. The vascular volume, as determined by India ink perfusion, was about 16% in the red marrow and about 2% in the fatty marrow. Plutonium concentrations on bone surfaces of red marrow sites are about 0.43 pCi/cm/sup 2//nCi/kg of injected dosage, a factor of eight greater than at fatty marrow sites. The differences in the bone marrow microvasculature between red and fatty marrow help to explain differences in plutonium incorporation and local bone physiology in these skeletal sites. These observations may relate to the nonuniform distribution of plutonium-induced osteosarcomas observed in adult, long-lived mammals.

  7. [Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].

    PubMed

    Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

  8. National Marrow Donor Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... our daughters life A single mother's transplant story Knowledge is power Donor stories Paul, marrow donor, explains donation process Nehal and Rohit donate their baby's cord blood to help others Parents Monique and Michael talk ...

  9. Marrow transplantation for leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.D.

    1981-07-01

    Marrow transplantation for selected patients with leukemia, as for patients with severe combined immunologic deficiency or severe aplastic anemia, has now become an accepted clinical procedure. For patients with acute leukemia who have relapsed after achieving a remission of chemotherapy, marrow grafting from an identical twin or an HLA-identical sibling has now been demonstrated to produce median remissions as long as or longer than any reported for combination chemotherapy. In contrast to chemotherapy, marrow transplantation offers the possibility of cure for a small but significant fraction of these patients. Marrow transplantation for patients with ANL in first remission has now resulted in median survivals much longer than any reported with chemotherapy. Although it now appears that more than 50% of these patients can be cured with marrow transplantation, a much longer follow-up is indicated since some patients who achieve a complete remission with combination chemotherapy are now living for a long time, and some of these patients (less than 20%) may also be cured. Current intensive research with new modalities such as interferon, Acyclovir, Cyclosporin A, and monoclonal antibodies can reasonably be expected to improve the overall results of marrow transplantation.

  10. Bone marrow fat.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  11. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Discomfort from needles in the arms Bone marrow harvest. This minor surgery is done under general anesthesia. ... takes about an hour. After a bone marrow harvest, the donor stays in the hospital until he ...

  12. What Are Bone Marrow Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Another type of stem cell, called an embryonic (em-bre-ON-ik) stem cell, can develop into any type of cell in the body. These cells aren't found in bone marrow. Overview Doctors use bone marrow tests to diagnose blood and bone marrow diseases and conditions, including: Conditions in which a person ...

  13. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... bandage are applied to the skin. The bone marrow fluid is sent to a laboratory and examined under a microscope. ... are allergic to any medications If you are pregnant If you have ... you are taking You must sign a consent form for the procedure.

  14. Overview of marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-12-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references.

  15. Phase I/II study of Holmium-166-DOTMP for bone marrow ablation in multiple myeloma prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT)

    SciTech Connect

    Podoloff, D.A.; Bhadkamkar, V.H.; Kasi, L.P.

    1994-05-01

    We evaluated a bone seeking radionuclide, Ho-166 DOTMP (which has both beta and gamma energies) as an agent for bone marrow ablation prior to bone marrow transplant. Six men and 1 woman in the age range 42-59 yrs. who had previously failed conventional chemotherapy using VAD (Vincristine, Adriamycin, Dexamethasone) were treated. Each patient received a diagnostic dose (Dx) of 30 mCi of Ho-166 DOTMP and underwent serial total body images using photopeak and scatter windows. Transmission images were obtained on day O. Transmission, scatter and photopeak images were used to calculate marrow dose and skeletal uptake. Therapy dose (Tx) was established to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to the marrow. Bone marrow biopsy samples from lilac crest were obtained to determine activity concentration and to calculate marrow dose. The Dx was followed by a Tx of 25 Gy (3 pts.), 40 Gy (3 pts.) and 50 Gy (1 pt.). Additional total body imaging was accomplished prior to each Tx and SPECT after the final Tx. Bone retention varied from 26-33%. The calculated red marrow dose varied from 11 to 48 Gy. Toxicity was minimal and included: myalgia (1), nausea (2), increased BUN (1), sore throat (1), fever (1x1 day). Bone marrow ablation was achieved in 3/7 pts. The last pt. treated at the highest dose level had greater than 75% reduction in myeloma protein. We conclude that at doses as high as 31.8 mCi/Kg no significant toxicity has been observed. Diagnostic pretherapy imaging and derived dosimetry is helpful in prescribing a red marrow dose prior to radionuclide therapy. The MTD has not yet been reached. However, thus far Ho-166 DOTMP has safely ablated bone marrow prior to BMT.

  16. Clinical approach to marrow failure.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    The treatment and medical management of aplastic anemia fundamentally differ between patients with inherited versus acquired marrow failure; however, the diagnosis of an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome is frequently obscure. Recent exciting advances in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes have resulted in a profusion of new tests to aid in diagnosis. This in turn has raised questions regarding the appropriate choice of testing for the patient presenting with aplastic anemia. Important clues to the diagnosis of an inherited marrow failure syndrome may be gleaned from careful attention to the clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory workup. PMID:20008218

  17. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePlus

    Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the skin surface. They develop before ... There are two main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

  18. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  19. Hematopoietic bone marrow in the adult knee: spin-echo and opposed-phase gradient-echo MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lang, P; Fritz, R; Majumdar, S; Vahlensieck, M; Peterfy, C; Genant, H K

    1993-01-01

    Hematopoietic bone marrow in the distal femur of the adult may be mistaken for a pathologic marrow process in magnetic resonance imaging of the knee. We investigated the incidence of hematopoietic marrow in the distal femur in a series of 51 adult patients and compared spin-echo (TR/TE in ms: 500/35, 2000/80) and opposed-phase gradient-echo (0.35 T, TR/TE in ms: 1000/30, theta = 75 degrees) magnetic resonance images. Zones with intermediate to low signal intensity on T1-weighted spin-echo and opposed-phase gradient-echo sequences representing hematopoietic marrow within high signal intensity fatty marrow were observed in 18 of the 51 patients. Five patterns of marrow signal reduction were identified; type 0: uniform high signal, i.e., no signal change; type I, focal signal loss; type II, multifocal signal loss without confluence; type III, confluent signal loss; and type IV, complete homogeneous reduction in marrow signal. Opposed-phase gradient-echo sequences demonstrated markedly greater red-yellow marrow contrast than conventional spin-echo sequences. Follow-up studies in three patients using a gradient-echo sequence with TE varying from 10 to 21 ms at 1-ms increments showed a cyclic increase and decrease in red and yellow marrow signal intensity depending on the TE. The contribution of intravoxel chemical shift effects on red-yellow marrow contrast in opposed-phase gradient-echo images was verified by almost complete cancellation of the TE-dependent marrow signal oscillation with use of a chemically selective pulse presaturating the water protons. Hematopoietic marrow in the adult distal femur in the absence of hematologic abnormalities is found primarily in women of menstruating age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8438189

  20. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  1. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  2. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  3. Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ... NEXT >> Updated: November 15, 2011 Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant in the News May 19, 2015 New ...

  4. KSC CENTER DIRECTOR ACCEPTS PLAQUE FOR RECORD-SETTING BONE MARROW DONOR REGISTRATION DRIVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive Chairman Dr. George A. Martin and Center Director Jay Honeycutt (left to right) accept a plaque from the Leukemia Society of America's Associate Executive Director Martin Bernstine and the American Red Cross' Southeast Regional Director Jeff Koenreich. Representatives from the American Red Cross and the Leukemia Society of America came to KSC to honor those involved in the record-setting Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive held here earlier this year. Over 900 potential donors were added to the National Bone Marrow Registry as a result of the KSC drive. The drive established a new record for the most people registered in a single day for the American Red Cross in the three state region of which Florida is a part.

  5. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  6. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be done to collect a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as a stem cell transplant ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). continue Preparation After the procedure is explained and all of ...

  7. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be done to collect a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as stem cell transplantation ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). continue Preparation After the procedure is explained and all of ...

  8. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice. PMID:26364875

  9. Bone marrow granulomas in mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, M.; Colodro, I.; Talbert, W.; Ellis, R.; Chatterjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with mononucleosis, one due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the other due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), presenting with high fever, malaise and hepatitis, had granulomas in the bone marrow but not in the liver. In patients who have unexplained fever, bone marrow granulomas may be a clue to CMV or EBV infection and need not initially raise the fear of prognostically more severe illness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2825152

  10. Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers

    PubMed Central

    Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21275831

  11. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  12. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  13. Internal dose to active marrow and endosteum from radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H

    2015-04-01

    This study analyses the active marrow and endosteum dose differences between the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) male and female reference computational phantoms and the stylised phantom for two thyroid agents. The active marrow and endosteum doses from (131)I and (123)I were calculated for 0-55 % maximum thyroid uptakes using the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. The biokinetic models were taken from ICRP Publication 53. To evaluate the absorbed doses to red marrow and endosteum, the deposited energy was determined for the 19 spongiosa regions and 6 medullary cavities and was mass weighted using the mass fractions available in ICRP Publication 116. The results were then compared with the published values given in ICRP Publication 53. The poor anatomic realism of the stylised phantom used in ICRP Publication 53 leads to important dose differences between the ICRP voxel phantoms and the stylised phantom. The influence of the use of different bone material was also investigated. Underestimations of ∼60% were observed for active marrow doses of the stylised phantom compared with reference voxel phantoms. The results highlight the importance of the accuracy of the shape and inter-organ distances of the anthropomorphic model used. PMID:25157198

  14. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  15. Red leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaberge, Marco

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this program is to measure the red leaks in the 8 WFPC2 UV filters {F122M, F300W, F255W, F218W, F185W, F170W, F160BW, F122M}. We will use red crossing filters to isolate and directly measure the leaks. No observations of this kind have ever been performed with WFPC2 to check the red leaks in the UV filters, most of them being extensively used by GO/GTO programs. A previous calibration program has only imaged spectrophotometric standard stars with UV filters {no filter crossing} thus the red leak is hard to measure using those data. The throughput curves for some of the UV filters {F300W, F255W, F218W, F185W} in synphot have incomplete information, some of them have gaps in the measurements as wide as 3000A.

  16. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis . Journal of the American Medical Association . 2006;295(17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  17. A stochastic model of radiation-induced bone marrow damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cotlet, G.; Blue, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    A stochastic model, based on consensus principles from radiation biology, is used to estimate bone-marrow stem cell pool survival (CFU-S and stroma cells) after irradiation. The dose response model consists of three coupled first order linear differential equations which quantitatively describe time dependent cellular damage, repair, and killing of red bone marrow cells. This system of differential equations is solved analytically through the use of a matrix approach for continuous and fractionated irradiations. The analytic solutions are confirmed through the dynamical solution of the model equations using SIMULINK. Rate coefficients describing the cellular processes of radiation damage and repair, extrapolated to humans from animal data sets and adjusted for neutron-gamma mixed fields, are employed in a SIMULINK analysis of criticality accidents. The results show that, for the time structures which may occur in criticality accidents, cell survival is established mainly by the average dose and dose rate.

  18. Blood volume and red cell life span (M113), part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Prechamber, in-chamber, and postchamber blood samples taken from Skylab simulation crewmembers did not indicate significant shortening of the red cell life span during the mission. This does not suggest that the space simulation environment could not be associated with red cell enzyme changes. It does show that any changes in enzymes were not sufficiently great to significantly shorten red cell survival. There was no evidence of bone marrow erythropoetic suppression nor was there any evidence of increased red cell destruction.

  19. The distribution of Thorotrast in human bone marrow: a case report.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Humphreys, J A; Kathren, R L; Mays, C W

    1992-07-01

    Samples of bone containing cellular and fatty bone marrow were removed at autopsy from the body of a woman who, following an automobile accident, had been injected with approximately 25 mL of the radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast. The woman survived for 36 y after the accident and died at age 72 y following bone marrow failure. The samples were analyzed to determine their thorium content by x-ray fluorescence and by image analysis. In addition, Thorotrast was visualized in the different bones examined by light microscopy and by backscattered electron imaging with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed Thorotrast to be largely restricted to areas of cellular bone marrow. In such regions, Thorotrast was present throughout the marrow tissue and was also concentrated within cells that were commonly aggregated within focalized areas of the marrow. Overall the results suggest a rather uniform pattern of Thorotrast uptake by the red bone marrow at different skeletal sites. Significant deposits of Thorotrast were not found in fatty yellow marrow. We conclude that Thorotrast-derived risk estimates for human leukemia following high LET, alpha irradiation may be used for calculating the risks of alpha exposure, but with caution. PMID:1522010

  20. Modeling Hematopoiesis and Responses to Radiation Countermeasures in a Bone Marrow-on-a-Chip.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, Yu-Suke; Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Mammoto, Akiko; Watters, Alexander L; Bahinski, Anthony; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-05-01

    Studies on hematopoiesis currently rely on animal models because in vitro culture methods do not accurately recapitulate complex bone marrow physiology. We recently described a bone marrow-on-a-chip microfluidic device that enables the culture of living hematopoietic bone marrow and mimics radiation toxicity in vitro. In the present study, we used this microdevice to demonstrate continuous blood cell production in vitro and model bone marrow responses to potential radiation countermeasure drugs. The device maintained mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in normal proportions for at least 2 weeks in culture. Increases in the number of leukocytes and red blood cells into the microfluidic circulation also could be detected over time, and addition of erythropoietin induced a significant increase in erythrocyte production. Exposure of the bone marrow chip to gamma radiation resulted in reduction of leukocyte production, and treatment of the chips with two potential therapeutics, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), induced significant increases in the number of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid cells in the fluidic outflow. In contrast, BPI was not found to have any effect when analyzed using static marrow cultures, even though it has been previously shown to accelerate recovery from radiation-induced toxicity in vivo. These findings demonstrate the potential value of the bone marrow-on-a-chip for modeling blood cell production, monitoring responses to hematopoiesis-modulating drugs, and testing radiation countermeasures in vitro. PMID:26993746

  1. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Mendes, Larissa Sena Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma and hairy cell leukaemia variant. This can be done by assessment of the spleen but as this is now rarely performed in this disorder distinction is almost always possible by a combination of morphological and immunophenotypic studies on bone marrow trephine biopsy, which can be supplemented by assessment of BRAF-V600E mutation assessment in borderline cases. PMID:26614898

  2. [Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes].

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes comprise a series of disorders caused by various gene mutations. Genetic tests were formerly difficult to perform because of the large size and number of causative genes. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing has enabled simultaneous testing of all causative genes to be performed at an acceptable cost. We collaboratively conducted a series of whole-exome sequencing studies of patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes and discovered RPS27/RPL27 and FANCT as causative genes of Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Fanconi anemia, respectively. Furthermore, we established a target gene sequencing system to cover 189 genes associated with pediatric blood diseases to assist genetic diagnoses in clinical practice. In this review, discovery of new causative genes and possible roles of next-generation sequencing in the genetic diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are discussed. PMID:26935625

  3. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-11-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  4. [The effect of autologous mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow origin on regeneration of damaged rat bottom jaw bone].

    PubMed

    Maĭborodin, I V; Matveeva, V A; Kolesnikov, I S; Drovosekov, M N; Toder, M S; Shevela, A I

    2012-01-01

    The regeneration processes after introduction in site of damaged bone of rat bottom jaw of autologous mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow origin (AMSCBMO) in suspension were studied by methods of light microscopy and x-ray densitometry. Morphological methods showed that formation of red bone marrow in bone callosity occurs much earlier after use AMSCBMO than in the time of natural course of reparation. Formation of cavities with a marrow decreases tissue density after application AMSCBMO in a site of damage in 4 and 5 weeks of supervision. The specified changes progress during all time of observation and are the certificate of accelerated development of regenerative processes in bone tissue. PMID:22678598

  5. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  6. Marrow Fat and Bone—New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Horowitz, Mark C.; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Scheller, Erica L.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is growing interest in the relationship between bone mineral density, bone strength, and fat depots. Marrow adipose tissue, a well-established component of the marrow environment, is metabolically distinct from peripheral fat depots, but its functional significance is unknown. Objective: In this review, we discuss animal and human data linking the marrow adipose tissue depot to parameters of bone density and integrity as well as the potential significance of marrow adipose tissue in metabolic diseases associated with bone loss, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and anorexia nervosa. Potential hormonal determinants of marrow adipose tissue are also discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that whereas most animal and human data demonstrate an inverse association between marrow adipose tissue and measures of bone density and strength, understanding the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue and its hormonal determinants will be critical to better understanding its role in skeletal integrity and the role of marrow adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of bone loss. PMID:23393168

  7. A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D.; Sgouros, George

    2012-05-01

    Ra-223, an α-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metastases of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histogram results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e. the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 to 20 Gy. The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the absorbed fraction method of dose calculation.

  8. [The role of blood banks in bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Höcker, P; Wagner, A; Sklenar, G

    1991-01-01

    The transfusion service (TS) plays an important role in bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Many of the techniques and methods employed are also used in the daily work of a TS like tissue typing, apheresis techniques, handling of blood and its components under sterile conditions. In the pretransplantation phase the TS is responsible for the typing of recipient and presumptive donors, harvesting of autologous blood and selection of appropriate blood components. During BMT the TS can perform bone marrow harvesting, depletion of red cells in case of ABO-incompatibility and bone marrow manipulation when T-cell depletion or purging procedures are considered. Peripheral stem cell harvest by apheresis is also best performed by the TS experienced in such techniques. Storage of hematopoietic cells in liquid nitrogen and thawing are also techniques already used in most of the transfusion services. Post BMT, the support with blood components, irradiated and almost free of white cells to avoid TA-GVH and CMV-infection, is a major job of the TS. These facts demonstrate that a well organized transfusion service is a 'conditio sine qua non' for successful BMT. PMID:1725636

  9. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. PMID:25911618

  10. Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

    1986-07-01

    Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.

  11. Association of long-term tacrolimus (FK506) therapy with abnormal megakaryocytosis, bone marrow fibrosis, and dyserythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhongbo; Loew, Thomas; Hammer, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Haematopoietic abnormalities associated with tacrolimus are relatively rare with reversible pure red cell aplasia being the most common. We report for the first time, to our best knowledge, tacrolimus therapy associated with bone marrow fibrosis, abnormal megakaryocytosis, and dyserythopoiesis in a 17-year-old male treated with tacrolimus for nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26273466

  12. Stable trichimerism after marrow grafting from 2 DLA-identical canine donors and nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, William; Kuhr, Christian S.; Diaconescu, Razvan; Harkey, Michael A.; Georges, George E.; Sale, George E.; Zellmer, Eustacia; Baran, Szczepan; Jochum, Christoph; Stone, Brad; Storb, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is generally accomplished using a single donor, multiple donors have been used to enhance the speed of engraftment, particularly in the case of umbilical cord blood grafts. Here we posed the question in the canine HCT model whether stable dual-donor chimerism could be established using 2 DLA-identical donors. We identified 8 DLA-identical littermate triplets in which the marrow recipients received 2 Gy total body irradiation followed by marrow infusions from 2 donors and postgrafting immunosuppression. All 8 dogs showed initial “trichimerism,” which was sustained in 5 dogs, while 2 dogs rejected one of the allografts and remained mixed chimeras, and 1 dog rejected both allografts. Immune function in one trichimeric dog, as tested by mixed leukocyte culture response and antibody response to sheep red blood cells, was found to be normal. Five dogs received kidney grafts from one of their respective marrow donors at least 6 months after HCT without immunosuppressive drugs, and grafts in 4 dogs are surviving without rejection. In summary, following nonmyeloablative conditioning, simultaneous administration of marrow grafts from 2 DLA-identical littermates could result in sustained trichimerism, and immunologic tolerance could include a kidney graft from one of the marrow donors. PMID:17369487

  13. Marrow transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, J; Anasetti, C

    1995-11-01

    The use of an HLA-compatible unrelated donor is an option for patients who require an allogeneic transplant but lack a family member match. Grafts from unrelated volunteer donors have provided long-term disease-free survival for a variable proportion of patients, depending on degree of HLA matching with the donor, patient's disease, disease stage, and age. The number of volunteers in marrow donor registries worldwide has increased to more than 2.5 million. The number of unrelated donor transplants facilitated by the US National Marrow Donor Program alone will exceed 900 this year. Progress in HLA-typing technology results in a more precise definition of donor and recipient matching and new assays have been developed with initial success to measure alloreactive T-cell precursors for selection of donors with less antihost reactivity. Prevention and treatment of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, opportunistic infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease remain a challenge. PMID:9372034

  14. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

    Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

  15. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific transplant center. U.S. Transplant Data by Disease Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants reported for a specific disease. You can also ...

  16. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  17. Differential diagnoses of bone marrow granuloma.

    PubMed Central

    Eid, A; Carion, W; Nystrom, J S

    1996-01-01

    The finding of a granuloma on a bone marrow biopsy is not common. The etiologic spectrum encompasses a wide variety of disorders. We present the case of a young woman with a bone marrow granuloma and discuss the differential diagnosis, emphasizing the most common causes. This disorder can be associated with serious diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8764626

  18. Rosiglitazone Promotes Bone Marrow Adipogenesis to Impair Myelopoiesis under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenyi; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Shujuan; Feng, Yonghuai; Liu, Kaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The therapeutic use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) causes unwanted hematological side effects, although the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that rosiglitazone impairs the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which ultimately leads to hematological abnormalities. Methods Mice were fed a rosiglitazone-supplemented diet or a normal diet for 6 weeks. To induce hematopoietic stress, all mice were injected once with 250 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) intraperitoneally. Next, hematopoietic recovery, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) subsets, and myeloid differentiation after 5-Fu treatment were evaluated. The adipogenesis induced by rosiglitazone was assessed by histopathology and oil red O staining. The effect of adipocytes on HSPCs was studied with an in vitro co-culture system. Results Rosiglitazone significantly enhanced bone marrow adipogenesis and delayed hematopoietic recovery after 5-Fu treatment. Moreover, rosiglitazone inhibited proliferation of a granulocyte/monocyte progenitor (GMP) cell population and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) colonies, although the proliferation and mobilization of Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells (LSK) was maintained following hematopoietic stress. These effects could be partially reversed by the selective PPARγ antagonist BADGE. Finally, we demonstrated in a co-culture system that differentiated adipocytes actively suppressed the myeloid differentiation of HSPCs. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that rosiglitazone inhibits myeloid differentiation of HSPCs after stress partially by inducing bone marrow adipogenesis. Targeting the bone marrow microenvironment might be one mechanism by which rosiglitazone impairs stress-induced hematopoiesis. PMID:26895498

  19. Enrichment for GM-CFU from human bone marrow using Sambucus nigra agglutinin: potential application to bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, M; Manor, D; Slavin, S

    1986-11-01

    A new lectin, purified from black elder-berries, Sambucus nigra L. (SNA I, hereafter called SNA), was used for fractionation of normal human marrow cells. The stem cell enrichment capability of SNA was investigated by comparing colony formation (GM-CFU) in unagglutinated cell fractions (SNA-) following agglutination with SNA with that with soybean agglutinin (SBA-). GM-CFU recovery in SNA- was equal or superior to that in the SBA- fraction. A modified procedure was developed to combine stem cell enrichment and depletion of E-rosette-forming T-lymphocytes. Bone marrow cells were exposed in one step to SNA and to untreated sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Nonagglutinated, nonrosetting cells were collected after Ficoll-Hypaque-gradient separation. The procedure, a modification of Reisner's multistep procedure involving the agglutination of SBA+ cells; separation of the unagglutinated SBA- cells from the top of a 5% bovine-serum-albumin gradient; the formation of E-rosettes with SRBC; and the separation of rosettes over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient, is faster, simpler, and as effective for T-cell depletion and stem cell enrichment. PMID:3533587

  20. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    PubMed

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis. PMID:26940276

  1. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Colnot, C. . E-mail: colnotc@orthosurg.ucsf.edu; Huang, S.; Helms, J.

    2006-11-24

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

  2. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... our daughters life A single mother's transplant story Knowledge is power Donor stories Paul, marrow donor, explains donation process Nehal and Rohit donate their baby's cord blood to help others Parents Monique and Michael talk ...

  3. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  4. The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, Rıdvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

  5. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  6. Calcitriol modulates the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on macrophage functions

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Bahman Mansouri; Ahangaran, Nahideh Afzale; Froushani, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Some evidence showed that calcitriol has an important role in regulating growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells and macrophage is not clear yet. The current study was done to investigate the in vitro effects of calcitriol on the interactions between bone marrow-derived MSCs and rat macrophages. Materials and Methods: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and pulsed with different concentrations of calcitriol (50, 100 and 200 nanomolar) for 24, 48 and 72 hr. Then, mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with macrophages for 4 hr. Finally, macrophages were evaluated for ability to uptake neutral red, phagocytosis activity against opsonized yeast, respiratory burst and viability. Results: Our data showed that bone marrow-derived MSCs pulsed with calcitriol may cause a significant increase in uptake of neutral red and phagocytic activity of opsonized heat killed baker’s yeast. Moreover, treatment of MSCs with calcitriol enhanced macrophage viability. Nevertheless, the respiratory burst of macrophages was significantly reduced in macrophages co-cultured with calcitriol-treated MSCs compared to control group. Conclusion: Calcitriol may accelerate and potentiate anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization by MSCs. PMID:26351558

  7. Pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation patient: inside the erythroblast

    PubMed Central

    Labbadia, Francesca; Salido-Fierréz, Eduardo; Majado-Martinez, Juliana; Cabañas-Perianes, Valentin; Moraleda, Jiménez José M.

    2012-01-01

    A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes. PMID:23087806

  8. Bone Marrow Abnormalities in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhurve, Sharad A.; Dhurve, Alka S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4 counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AIDS and those without AIDS according to NACO criteria. Bone marrow examination was performed for indication of anemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Results As per CDC criteria 59.81% patients had AIDS in 107 patients. The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 93.12% patients. Bone marrow was normocellular in 79.06% of non-AIDS and 79.68% of AIDS, hypocellular in 13.95% of non-AIDS and 12.5% of AIDS, hypercellular in 06.97% of non-AIDS and 07.81 % of AIDS patients. Dysplasia was statistically and significantly associated with anemia. For myelodysplasia in bone marrow in HIV patients we noted granulocytic dysplasia in 4.65% in Non – AIDS and 14.06% AIDS patients. Erythroid dysplasia was found in 9.30% in Non – AIDS, 12.5% in AIDS group. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 4 cases of ART (4.93%) and 3 cases (4.68%) of AIDS group. Abnormal cells like plasma cell, histiocyte and toxic granule were found in bone marrow. Conclusions Myelodysplasia was more common in AIDS than in non AIDS patients. Granulocytic series is most commonly associated with evidence of dysplasia. Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Thus bone marrow study is imperative to methodically observe and follow clinical and laboratory aberration in such patients in order to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic skills pertinent to HIV/AIDS. PMID:23795271

  9. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dominic W; Loughran, Thomas P; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Sasu, Sebastian; Song, Sophie X; Epling-Burnette, P K; Paquette, Ronald L

    2008-05-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia rarely occur concurrently. We report a case in which these disorders were associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia. The peripheral blood cytopenias improved after glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered, and response was maintained with cyclosporine. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia should be suspected in the setting of unexplained bone marrow failure. PMID:17915315

  10. Celiac disease with pure red cell aplasia: an unusual hematologic association in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sitangshu; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Pratyay; Sinha, Malay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Anemia in Celiac disease (CD) is usually hypoproliferative, reflecting impaired absorption of essential nutrients like iron and various vitamins. We report a 2-year-old boy with Celiac disease and severe anemia due to pure red cell aplasia, diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. This rare, unexplained extra digestive manifestation responded to gluten free diet. PMID:25332626

  11. [Bone marrow aspiration for diagnostic purposes].

    PubMed

    Letestu, R; Valensi, F

    2003-01-01

    Examination of bone marrow aspiration is an important tool in the diagnosis of haematological diseases. First attempts of bone marrow sampling took place at the beginning of the twentieth century. Thereafter, numerous methods were proposed and different materials were described. The commonly accepted sites for sampling are sternum and the iliac crest. We describe here a sampling procedure for each site. Bone marrow aspiration is a safely investigation, but not recommended for patients with impaired haemostasis. The physician must be aware of its side effects and complications which could occur. The consequence of the complications varies according to the type of iatrogenic injury. Prevention and rapid diagnosis are a crucial point in the management of bone marrow aspiration accidents. To avoid malpractice, the procedure should be taught by senior physicians including theoretical as well as practical learning. The purpose of the learning is a high quality of care to ensure patients the best comfort in subsequent bone marrow examinations, this point being particularly important in paediatrics. PMID:14711606

  12. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

  13. Abnormal bone marrow histopathology in paediatric mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melody C; Metcalfe, Dean D; Clark, Alicia S; Wayne, Alan S; Maric, Irina

    2015-03-01

    The diagnostic criteria for paediatric mastocytosis are largely based on adult studies and bone marrow findings are not well described in children. We evaluated use of the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of systemic disease in paediatric mastocytosis. In addition, we identified unique clinico-histopathological features within the biopsies. One hundred and thirteen children with paediatric mastocytosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health between 1986 and 2013. Complete bone marrow evaluations were performed in 50 cases. Seven children had repeat procedures. Bone marrows were analysed by histopathology, flow cytometry and for KIT D816V. Bone marrow biopsies displayed mild atypical haematopoietic maturation, increased haematogones and hypocellularity in a sub-set of patients with urticaria pigmentosa, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis and indolent systemic mastocytosis. Hypocellularity was most pronounced in those with urticaria pigmentosa. Haematogones were highest, on average, in patients with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis or mastocytomas. There was no evidence of peripheral blood cytopenias, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasm or leukaemia within this cohort. The WHO criteria are applicable for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis in paediatrics. Although unsuspected bone marrow findings typically seen in myeloproliferative disorders are frequent in paediatric mastocytosis, patients within this study remained clinically stable without progression to a more aggressive variant. PMID:25429914

  14. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  15. Bone Marrow Changes in Adolescent Girls With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A; Buzney, Catherine D; Mulkern, Robert V; Kleinman, Paul K; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD). Coronal T1-weighted (T1W) images and T1 maps were generated from T1 relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyses in T1W images using a scale of signal intensity from 0 (homogeneous hyperintensity, no RM) to 4 (all dark, complete RM). Subjects with AN exhibited nearly twofold lower metaphyseal RM scores in both the femur (0.64 versus 1.22, p = .03) and tibia (0.54 versus 0.96, p = .08). In relaxometric measurements of four selected regions (femur and tibia amd epiphysis and metaphysis), subjects with AN showed higher mean epiphyseal but lower metaphyseal T1. The net AN-control difference between epiphysis and metaphysis was 70 ms in the femur (+31 versus −35 ms, p = .02) and of smaller magnitude in the tibia. In relaxometry data from the full width of the femur adjacent to the growth plate, AN subjects showed mean T1 consistently lower than in controls by 30 to 50 ms in virtually every part of the sampling region. These findings suggest that adolescents with AN exhibit premature conversion of hematopoietic to fat cells in the marrow of the peripheral skeleton potentially owing to adipocyte over osteoblast differentiation in the mesenchymal stem cell pool. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19653811

  16. Bone marrow changes in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A; Buzney, Catherine D; Mulkern, Robert V; Kleinman, Paul K; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M

    2010-02-01

    Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 +/- 1.6 years (mean +/- SD). Coronal T(1)-weighted (T(1)W) images and T(1) maps were generated from T(1) relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyses in T(1)W images using a scale of signal intensity from 0 (homogeneous hyperintensity, no RM) to 4 (all dark, complete RM). Subjects with AN exhibited nearly twofold lower metaphyseal RM scores in both the femur (0.64 versus 1.22, p = .03) and tibia (0.54 versus 0.96, p = .08). In relaxometric measurements of four selected regions (femur and tibia amd epiphysis and metaphysis), subjects with AN showed higher mean epiphyseal but lower metaphyseal T(1). The net AN-control difference between epiphysis and metaphysis was 70 ms in the femur (+31 versus -35 ms, p = .02) and of smaller magnitude in the tibia. In relaxometry data from the full width of the femur adjacent to the growth plate, AN subjects showed mean T(1) consistently lower than in controls by 30 to 50 ms in virtually every part of the sampling region. These findings suggest that adolescents with AN exhibit premature conversion of hematopoietic to fat cells in the marrow of the peripheral skeleton potentially owing to adipocyte over osteoblast differentiation in the mesenchymal stem cell pool. PMID:19653811

  17. Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents

    SciTech Connect

    Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Sawich, C.

    1989-06-01

    The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using the binding of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase /sup 3/H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

  18. Future of bone marrow transplantation in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Fefer, A.

    1982-05-01

    The editorial presents an assessment of the current status of bone marrow transportation (BMT) for treatment of leukemia and the problems that must be resolved to render the approach more widely applicable. Studies are in progress which may show that the patient's autologous bone marrow, cryopreserved when it has no detectable tumor and reinfused after supralethal chemoradiotherapy, is associated with long-term, tumor-free survival. Effective chemoradiotherapy regimens may be identified from studies of twin BMT and the potential problem of tumor contamination of infused autologous marrow resolved by using monoclonal antibodies directed to tumor cells. Solving the problems associated with syngeneic, allogenic or autologous BMT may make it possible to use BMT for patients with nonhematologic malignancies sensitive to high doses of chemoradiotherapy. (JMT)

  19. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  20. Kinetics, distribution, and sites of destruction of indium-111 oxine labelled red cells in haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Heyns, A D; Lötter, M G; Kotzè, H F; Wessels, P; Pieters, H; Badenhorst, P N

    1985-01-01

    The survival of red cells labelled with indium-111 oxine in the circulation was determined. In vivo distribution at equilibrium and sites of deposition at the T50In--that is, the half life of labelled red cells--were quantitated with a scintillation camera and computer assisted image analysis. Although the rate of elution. Of 111In from the red cells was higher than that of chromium-51-disodium chromate, estimates of T50In and T50Cr corresponded reasonably well and were shortened in haemolytic anaemia. In normal subjects red cells were sequestered mainly in the liver and spleen. In five patients with different types of haemolytic anaemia two distinct patterns of red cell sequestration could be recognised: mainly splenic sequestration, and destruction of red cells in the liver, spleen, and the bone marrow. These patterns were expected for the particular disease studied. Images PMID:3918078

  1. Allogeneic marrow grafts from donors with congenital chromosomal abnormalities in marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Barquinero, J; Witherspoon, R; Sanders, J; Horowitz, M M; Montuoro, A; Patton, D F; Bacigalupo, A; Abecasis, M M; Miale, T; Rozman, C

    1995-07-01

    To determine whether siblings with chromosomal abnormalities in marrow cells which are associated with cellular defects (e.g. Down syndrome or heterozygosity for Fanconi syndrome) are suitable donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplants, we have reviewed the patient files at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) and carried out a survey among member centres of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR). The 57 of 253 (23%) member centres which responded to the survey reported seven transplants from donors with the following conditions: Down syndrome (n = 2), suspected heterozygotes for Fanconi syndrome (n = 3), and 47,XXX syndrome (n = 2), among a total of 5,561 allogeneic transplants from HLA-identical siblings. Adding the three cases seen at the Fed Hutchinson Cancer Research Center among 2,927 HLA-identical sibling transplants during 1992 resulted in 10 transplants among 8,488 cases transplanted overall: four with Down syndrome, four suspected of being heterozygous for Fanconi syndrome, and two trisomy X. Three out of four grafts from siblings with Down syndrome had complications, including poor graft function (n = 2) and graft failure (n = 1). Two of four recipients of marrow from presumed Fanconi syndrome heterozygotes presented with poor graft function and a third recipient developed graft failure after initial evidence of engraftment. The two patients given marrow from siblings with 47,XXX syndrome engrafted uneventfully. The experience reported here shows a low frequency of encountering an HLA-identical sibling donor who has chromosomal abnormalities in marrow cells consistent with Down syndrome or heterozygosity for Fanconi syndrome, about one case among 1,000 transplants. The much higher than expected incidence of graft problems with marrow from such a donor would make it reasonable to look either for an alternative marrow donor or consider an autologous transplant, in case a sibling marrow donor with Down syndrome or heterozygosity for Fanconi syndrome is encountered, although a donor with trisomy X seems acceptable. PMID:7646999

  2. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  3. Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

  4. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Following Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dutcher, Janice P.; Fan, Wen; Wiernik, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent systemic treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). Anemia requiring transfusion of 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was required during the second week of IL-2 therapy. One month following completion of high-dose IL-2 treatment, she was hospitalized for severe, symptomatic anemia and received 5 units of PRBCs. She was referred back for evaluation. A complete hematologic evaluation was performed including antiviral serology, evaluation for hemolysis, complete iron studies, and finally bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The diagnosis was pure red cell aplasia, and no inciting viral cause could be ascertained. She required PRBCs for 5 months following IL-2 therapy. It was concluded that IL-2 was the cause of her red cell aplasia. This subsequently resolved spontaneously, and she had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, 1 and 2 years after treatment. PMID:27144182

  5. Marrow cells as progenitors of lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Fine, Alan

    2004-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence showing that marrow-derived cells can engraft as differentiated epithelial cells of various tissues, including the lung. These findings challenge long-held views regarding the basic biology of stem cells. Elucidating the fundamental mechanisms controlling these processes is the major challenge of this field. Regardless, these experiments suggest new strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. PMID:14757420

  6. [Genetic diversity and bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Marry, E

    2012-05-01

    The genetic origin of the patients, for whom a bone marrow transplantation has been proposed, is a key determinant in the possibility of identifying or not a compatible unrelated donor, and consequently in the possibility of performing the bone marrow transplantation. The required strict HLA compatibility, in the context of a bone marrow transplantation, increases the difficulty. A patient has one chance over four to have a compatible donor within his brothers and sisters, if any. This chance becomes one over a million, as an average, in the context of unrelated donor search. Taking into consideration the genetic history of the populations, their evolution and the large actual HLA diversity, the probability of finding an unrelated donor for a defined patient varies according to the frequency and the combination of the patient's HLA antigens, genetic markers inherited not only from his parents, but also from his ancestries. In the unrelated context, the HLA compatible donor most probably shares the same genetic history than the patient, and consequently belongs to the same population group. The study of the genetic of populations explains the difficulties in finding an unrelated compatible donor in the migrant populations, particularly those originated from Africa and from the middle east, due to their HLA specificities and to the small number of donors sharing the same origins registered on a volunteer bone marrow donors' file worldwide. PMID:22454281

  7. Bone marrow transplantation: clinical and radiologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Patzik, S B; Smith, C; Kubicka, R A; Kaizer, H

    1991-07-01

    With the advent of histocompatibility typing, use of bone marrow transplantation for treating hematogenous cancer has dramatically increased. Marrow grafting is preceded by intense immunosuppressive, marrow ablative treatment, usually with high-dose chemotherapy and whole-body irradiation. Because the recipient may be immunocompromised for months after transplantation due to this regimen, complications are numerous. Complications are classified according to the following intervals: pre-engraftment (from pretransplantation treatment to engraftment), postengraftment (3 months afterward), and delayed (longer than 3 months after engraftment). Pre-engraftment complications include bacterial, fungal, and viral infections; tissue-damaging effects (eg, toxic pneumonitis); hepatic veno-occlusive disease; and graft rejection. Postengraftment complications include viral, fungal, and protozoal infections; acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); and pneumatosis intestinalis. Delayed complications include chronic GVHD and recurrence of cancer. As part of the follow-up team, radiologists should be familiar with clinical aspects of marrow transplantation and be alert for early, potential life-threatening complications. PMID:1887115

  8. Bone marrow manifestations in multicentric Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hazem A H; Balachandran, Kirsty; Bower, Mark; Naresh, Kikkeri N

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to document the morphological and immunophenotypic features, and describe the diagnostic features of bone marrow (BM) involvement in human herpes virus 8 Multicentric Castleman disease (HHV8-MCD). BM trephine biopsy (BMTB) specimens from 28 patients were revisited. Samples were evaluated for expression of CD3, CD20, CD138, CD68R, glycophorin C, CD42b, HHV8-latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA1), Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA and light chains. Presence of significant numbers of HHV8-LANA1(+) lymphoid/plasmacytic cells, noted in 10/28 cases, was indicative of BM involvement and was associated with low CD4 and CD8 counts in peripheral blood. The characteristic morphological appearance of MCD seen in lymph nodes is a rare finding in BMTB. 4/5 cases with lymphoid aggregates were involved by MCD, whereas 6/23 cases without lymphoid aggregates were involved by MCD (P = 0·023). 9/18 cases with hypercellular marrow were involved by MCD, whilst only 1/8 cases with normo/hypocellular marrow showed involvement by MCD (P = 0·070). While 9/21 cases with increased marrow reticulin were involved by MCD, none of the cases with no increase in reticulin were involved by MCD (P = 0·080). Reactive plasmacytosis is a frequent finding. We conclude that bone marrow is involved in a significant proportion of patients with MCD (36%), and involvement can be identified by HHV8-LANA1 immunohistochemistry. PMID:26817834

  9. Frequency of Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Rat Bone Marrow Exposed to 2.45 GHz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosic, I.; Busljeta, I.

    2005-01-01

    Wistar rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous, radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) field 2 hours daily, 7 days weekly, at power density 5 10 mW/cm2. Four subgroups were created in order to be irradiated 4, 16, 30 and 60 hours. Sham-exposed controls were included in the study. Animals were euthanized on the final irradiation day of each treated subgroup. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine the extent of genotoxicity after the particular treatment time. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical evaluation of data. In comparison to the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MW irradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells.

  10. Participation of bone marrow derived cells in cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Badiavas, Evangelos V; Abedi, Mehrdad; Butmarc, Janet; Falanga, Vincent; Quesenberry, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Bone marrow has long been known to be a source of stem cells capable of regeneration of the hematopoeitic system. Recent reports, however, have indicated that bone marrow might also contain early stem cells that can differentiate into other organ tissues such as skin. While these studies have illustrated that bone marrow stem cells could find their way to the skin, they have not addressed the dynamics of how bone marrow stem cells might participate in the homeostatis and regeneration of skin. In this report we followed green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow transplanted into non-GFP mice in order to determine the participation of bone marrow stem cells in cutaneous wounds. Our results indicate that there are a significant number of bone marrow cells that traffic through both wounded and non-wounded skin. Wounding stimulated the engraftment of bone marrow cells to the skin and induced bone marrow derived cells to incorporate into and differentiate into non-hematopoietic skin structures. This report thus illustrates that bone marrow might be a valuable source of stem cells for the skin and possibly other organs. Wounding could be a stimulus for bone marrow derived stem cells to travel to organs and aid in the regeneration of damaged tissue. PMID:12811816

  11. Bone marrow evaluation in small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Giaccone, G; Ciuffreda, L; Donadio, M; Ferrati, P; Risio, M; Leria, G; Bonardi, G; Calciati, A

    1987-01-01

    Bone marrow examination is commonly included in the staging of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). We reviewed marrow samples of 103 patients. Marrow examination was mainly performed by unilateral or bilateral biopsy of iliac crests, using a Jamshidi needle. Only 6 of 97 evaluable cases (6.2 per cent) were positive for marrow metastases at staging, and in 3 cases (3 per cent) bone marrow was the only metastatic site. No focal metastases were found in additional sections made from the blocks of negative samples. In our experience bone marrow biopsy was of little value in staging SCLC. Bilateral biopsy plus aspirate, with the addition of more sophisticated staining techniques might, however, provide a higher yield of positive marrow involvement. PMID:2820447

  12. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  13. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  14. Grapevine red blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease was first recognized in 2008 in vineyards in Napa County in California. The name ‘red blotch' was given to distinguish disease symptoms from those caused by leafroll viruses and other graft-transmissible agents involved in graft union disorders (see pages… this compendi...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-12-28

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject's health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    PubMed Central

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  17. Post-bone marrow transplant patient management.

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, bone marrow transplant (BMT) is the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. BMT is, however, a risky procedure with many potentially serious complications. Some complications are the result of the conditioning regimen, a stage of transplantation that includes large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Conditioning-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia often result in infection, bleeding, and mucositis. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD), a chemotherapy-induced hepatotoxicity, can cause a mild to severe form of liver disease. Other complications are directly attributable to the engrafted new marrow. Graft-versus-host disease, a rejection process initiated by immunocompetent donor T lymphocytes, is a complication frequently observed in allogeneic BMT. Approximately 14-28 days after the day of transplant, signs of engraftment begin to appear. When specific discharge criteria are met, the BMT patient is discharged from the hospital. Specific follow-up medical care is ongoing for about one year after BMT. PMID:2293508

  18. Genotoxicity of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in bone marrow cells of rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M; Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Lankoff, Anna; Dušinská, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Although nanomaterials have the potential to improve human life, their sideline effects on human health seem to be inevitable and still remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) at different doses and particle sizes to bone marrow cells. Both types of nanoparticles were chosen due to their wide applications of them in consumer products. Rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg bw of 20 nm AgNPs or with 5 mg/kg bw 200 nm AgNPs or with 5 mg/kg bw 21 nm TiO2NPs. The samples were taken at 24 h, 1 week and 4 weeks following the exposure. Micronucleus test and the Comet assay were used to detect DNA damage. Neither AgNPs nor TiO2NPs caused cytotoxicity to bone marrow red and white cells. The polychromatic erythrocytes are the main target of both nanoparticles. A single exposure to AgNPs induced significantly enhanced frequency of micronuclei not only at 24 h after exposure, but also 1 and 4 weeks later, whereas single exposure to TiO2NPs showed positive effect at 24 h only. Negative responses were shown in reticulocytes (micronuclei) and in leukocytes (Comet assay) of bone marrow. Results indicated that different bone marrow cells display different susceptibility toward genotoxicity mediated by both investigated nanoparticles. The use of materials containing nanoparticles and the potential health implication of them should be monitored. PMID:24321264

  19. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

  20. Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

  1. Liver disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Farthing, M J; Clark, M L; Sloane, J P; Powles, R L; McElwain, T J

    1982-01-01

    Liver dysfunction occurs after bone marrow transplantation but the relative importance of graft versus host disease and other factors, such as infection, radiation, and drugs, has not been clearly established. We have studied liver status before and after bone marrow transplantation in 43 consecutive patients and have related this to survival and factors that are recognised to cause liver injury. Minor abnormalities of liver tests occurred in 21% of patients before grafting but this did not influence survival or the development of liver disease after transplantation. During the first 50 days after grafting, 83% of patients had abnormal liver tests which were more severe in patients who subsequently died. Alanine transaminase was significantly higher in non-survivors and appeared to predict survival early after transplantation. Only non-survivors developed clinical signs of liver disease. Severe liver disease was always associated with graft versus host disease and atypia of the small bile ducts was the most useful histological marker of hepatic involvement with this disease. Two of the patients with hepatic graft versus host disease also has hepatic veno-occlusive disease and three fatalities had opportunistic infection of the liver, although, in the latter, death was not due primarily to liver dysfunction. Previous hepatitis and androgen therapy could not be implicated as important causes of hepatic damage but chemotherapy for acute leukaemia and conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation appear to be the most important factors in the development of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7042484

  2. Bone Marrow Edema: Chronic Bone Marrow Lesions of the Knee and the Association with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jason; Beutel, Bryan; Bosco, Joseph; Strauss, Eric; Youm, Thomas; Jazrawi, Laith

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow edema of the knee occurs secondary to a myriad of causes. The hallmark of a bone marrow lesion (BML) is an area of decreased signal intensity on T1 weighted MRI with a corresponding area of increased signal intensity on a T2 weighted MRI. Recently, chronic bone marrow lesions have been correlated with knee pain and progression of osteoarthritis. These lesions have also been associated with other degenerative conditions such as meniscal tears, cartilage deterioration, subchondral cyst formation, mechanical malalignment, and ultimately progression to arthroplasty. Medical treatments, such as prostacyclin and bisphosphonate therapy, have shown promise. Alignment procedures, as well as core decompression and subchondroplasty, have been used as surgical treatments for chronic BMLs. PMID:26977546

  3. Bone marrow ablation followed by allogeneic marrow grafting during first complete remission of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.J.; Spruce, W.E.; Farbstein, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    Of 33 patients who had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation during first complete remission of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 21 patients have now been followed in continued complete remission for 6-64 mo (median greater than 18 mo) without maintenance chemotherapy. The median age of the surviving patients is 27 yr. Transplant-related complications occurring throughout the first year after marrow grafting were fatal in 7 patients, and leukemic recurrence led to the death of 5 patients. The actuarial long-term disease-free survival is 60% and the actuarial remission rate is 79%.

  4. Bone marrow transplant for a girl with bone marrow failure and cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Tanabe, Takayuki; Nishikawa, Takuro; Yamaki, Yuni; Kurauchi, Koichiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2014-06-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used with increasing frequency to treat congenital bone marrow failure syndrome (CBMFs) successfully. Decision to perform BMT, however, is difficult in the case of comorbidity because of regimen-related toxicities. We describe here a child with CBMFs, severe cerebral palsy (CP) at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and mental retardation (MR) who was transfusion dependent despite various medications. She underwent BMT from an HLA-1 locus-mismatched unrelated donor. Although engraftment was successful, no neurological improvement was seen 5 years after BMT. While CBMFs patients who have CP and MR could undergo transplantation safely, they may not benefit neurologically from BMT. PMID:24894930

  5. Pathophysiological role of enhanced bone marrow adipogenesis in diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Piccinin, Meghan A; Khan, Zia A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes leads to complications in select organ systems primarily by disrupting the vasculature of the target organs. These complications include both micro- (cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macro-(atherosclerosis) angiopathies. Bone marrow angiopathy is also evident in both experimental models of the disease as well as in human diabetes. In addition to vascular disruption, bone loss and increased marrow adiposity have become hallmarks of the diabetic bone phenotype. Emerging evidence now implicates enhanced marrow adipogenesis and changes to cellular makeup of the marrow in a novel mechanistic link between various secondary complications of diabetes. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of enhanced marrow adipogenesis in diabetes and the link between changes to marrow cellular composition, and disruption and depletion of reparative stem cells. PMID:26317050

  6. New perspectives on bone marrow contrast agents and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Mohanty, Arpan; Cuenod, Charles; Pichler, Bernd; Link, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of bone marrow provides a noninvasive diagnosis of the vascularity, cell quantity, and composition of the normal and pathological bone marrow. This article reviews new and evolving techniques for bone marrow MR imaging with a special focus on translational and clinical applications. Evaluations of bone marrow perfusion with standard small molecular contrast agents and, more recently, with macromolecular contrast agents are currently being applied for therapy monitoring. Cell-specific contrast agents are expected to improve the sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow MR imaging. Novel cellular and molecular imaging techniques for the depiction of cell metabolism and specific biochemical pathways are discussed. Cell tracking techniques may allow specific diagnoses of inflammatory processes as well as monitoring of novel therapies based on stem cells. Future developments of fusion imaging techniques and bifunctional contrast agents are directed to combine comprehensive information about bone marrow structure and function with targeted and image-guided therapies. PMID:19455477

  7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    As Voyager 1 flew by Jupiter, it captured this photo of the Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is an anti-cyclonic (high- pressure) storm on Jupiter that can be likened to the worst hurricanes on Earth. An ancient storm, it is so large that three Earths could fit inside it. This photo, and others of Jupiter, allowed scientists to see different colors in clouds around the Great Red Spot which imply that the clouds swirl around the spot (going counter-clockwise) at varying altitudes. The Great Red Spot had been observed from Earth for hundreds of years, yet never before with this clarity and closeness (objects as small as six hundred kilometers can be seen). The Voyager mission has been managed by NASA's Office of Space Science and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Vertebral hyperemia associated with bone marrow insult and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, H.A.; Bolden, R.O.; Simone, F.J.

    1984-06-01

    A 15-year-old boy with rhabdoid sarcoma received chemotherapy, which was followed by bone marrow depression, massive nosebleeds and, finally, hematologic recovery. On both hepatobiliary and renal scintigraphy, prominent vertebral activity was present in early images. Correlation with his clinical course suggests that the findings reflect hyperemia due to marrow insult and recovery. Radionuclide imaging to detect hyperemia may be a useful probe for drug effects on hematopoietic bone marrow.

  10. Marrow Fat and Bone: Review of Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ann V.

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in the connection between fat and bone, there has been increased investigation of the relationship with marrow fat in particular. Clinical research has been facilitated by the development of non-invasive methods to measure bone marrow fat content and composition. Studies in different populations using different measurement techniques have established that higher marrow fat is associated with lower bone density and prevalent vertebral fracture. The degree of unsaturation in marrow fat may also affect bone health. Although other fat depots tend to be strongly correlated, marrow fat has a distinct pattern, suggesting separate mechanisms of control. Longitudinal studies are limited, but are crucial to understand the direct and indirect roles of marrow fat as an influence on skeletal health. With greater appreciation of the links between bone and energy metabolism, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between marrow fat and bone. It is well established that levels of marrow fat are higher in older adults with osteoporosis, defined by either low bone density or vertebral fracture. However, the reasons for and implications of this association are not clear. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship to bone. PMID:25870585

  11. Japanese epidemiological survey with consensus statement on Japanese guidelines for treatment of iron overload in bone marrow failure syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomonaga, Masao; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakao, Shinji; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Matsumura, Itaru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Niitsu, Yoshiro; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with bone marrow failure syndromes need frequent transfusions of red blood cells, and most of them eventually suffer from organ dysfunction induced by excessively accumulated iron. The only way to treat transfusion-induced iron overload is iron chelating therapy. However, most patients have not been treated effectively because daily/continuous administration of deferoxamine is difficult for outpatients. Recently, a novel oral iron chelator, deferasirox, has been developed, and introduction of the drug may help many patients benefit from iron chelation therapy. In this review, we will discuss the current status of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients, and the development of Japanese guidelines for the treatment of iron overload in Japan, which were established by the National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes in Japan. PMID:18581199

  12. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  13. Autologous bone marrow transplantation by photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.

    1992-06-01

    Simultaneous exposure of Merocyanine 540 dye containing cultured tumor cells to 514-nm laser light (93.6 J/cm2) results in virtually complete cell destruction. Under identical conditions, 40% of the normal progenitor (CFU-GM) cells survive the treatment. Laser- photoradiation treated, cultured breast cancer cells also were killed, and living tumor cells could not be detected by clonogenic assays or by anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody method. Thus, laser photoradiation therapy could be useful for purging of contaminating tumor cells from autologous bone marrow.

  14. Metastatic thymoma involving the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Wenceslao, Stella; Krause, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Although relatively rare, thymomas can be involved in a considerable variety of clinical presentations. Clinicians should be mindful of the breadth of associations with other diseases, including autoimmune disorders and many secondary nonthymic malignancies. For the pathologist, knowledge of the extremely varied histopathologic presentation of thymoma is vital to formulate a proper differential, workup, and diagnosis. The presented case illustrates the finding of very rare metastatic thymoma involvement of bone marrow, identified during evaluation for pancytopenia. The history of prior prostate cancer and an uncharacterized pancreatic lesion, as well as the familial presentation, also suggests a possible underlying hereditary syndrome. PMID:26722174

  15. The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chirnomas, S Deborah; Kupfer, Gary M

    2013-12-01

    Molecular pathogenesis may be elucidated for inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). The study and presentation of the details of their molecular biology and biochemistry is warranted for appropriate diagnosis and management of afflicted patients and to identify the physiology of the normal hematopoiesis and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Several themes have emerged within each subsection of IBMFS, including the ribosomopathies, which include ribosome assembly and ribosomal RNA processing. The Fanconi anemia pathway has become interdigitated with the familial breast cancer syndromes. In this article, the diseases that account for most IBMFS diagnoses are analyzed. PMID:24237972

  16. Splenocytes Seed Bone Marrow of Myeloablated Mice: Implication for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Yang, Mingjie; Arias, Ana; Song, Lei; Li, Fuqiang; Tian, Fang; Qin, Minghui; Yukht, Ada; Williamson, Ian K.; Shah, Prediman K.; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. In this process, the spleen is seeded with mobilized bone marrow cells that augment its hematopoietic ability. It is unclear whether these immigrant cells that are produced/reprogrammed in spleen are similar or different from those found in the bone marrow. To begin to understand this, we investigated the relative potency of adult splenocytes per se to repopulate bone marrow of lethally-irradiated mice and its functional consequences in atherosclerosis. The splenocytes were harvested from GFP donor mice and transplanted into myeloablated wild type recipient mice without the inclusion of any bone marrow helper cells. We found that adult splenocytes repopulated bone marrow of myeloablated mice and the transplanted cells differentiated into a full repertoire of myeloid cell lineages. The level of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow of recipient mice was dependent on the cell origin, i.e., the donor splenocytes gave rise to significantly more monocytes/macrophages than the donor bone marrow cells. This occurred despite a significantly lower number of hematopoietic stem cells being present in the donor splenocytes when compared with donor bone marrow cells. Atherosclerosis studies revealed that donor splenocytes displayed a similar level of atherogenic and atheroprotective activities to those of donor bone marrow cells. Cell culture studies showed that the phenotype of macrophages derived from spleen is different from those of bone marrow. Together, these results demonstrate that splenocytes can seed bone marrow of myeloablated mice and modulate atherosclerosis. In addition, our study shows the potential of splenocytes for therapeutic interventions in inflammatory disease. PMID:26038819

  17. A brief introduction of the Chinese Marrow Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Hong, J L

    2009-06-01

    The Data Bank of Chinese Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors (Chinese Marrow Donor Program, CMDP) is operated under the guidance of Red Cross Society of China. It is in charge of the administration of propagation, organisation, mobilisation of volunteers, and the standardisation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, preliminary search, clinical transplantation, and all related activities in unrelated stem cell transplantation in China. The Advisor Committee--composed by experts in the fields of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), HLA typing, legislation, information technology and ethics--guides the development of the CMDP. The budget of CMDP mainly comes from funds of National Charity Lottery and other charities. Up to the end of 2008, 31 branch registries and HLA-typing laboratories, five high-resolution laboratories, and one quality-control laboratory were established and authorized. There are more than 950,000 donors in our data pool. The CMDP has established clinical relationship with over 100 hospitals. More than 1100 CMDP donors have donated peripheral blood stem cells to patients successfully. The CMDP has also signed cooperation agreement with five of the seven major cord blood banks in mainland China. As a result, there are over 30,000 units of cord blood available for searching in our system. This will improve the matching and using rate of cord blood. The emergence of the CMDP has filled a void in mainland China's contribution to clinical HSCT and donor search worldwide. It has performed preliminary searches for overseas patients including Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, United States, Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, Korea and Singapore, and over 50 donations have been completed. PMID:19494398

  18. The study of indicators of bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous injection of gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikht, Nataliya I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-03-01

    In study the evaluation of the influence of gold nanorods on morphological indicators of red bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous administration of gold nanorods was conducted. We used gold nanorods with length 41 ± 8 nm and diameter of 10.2±2 nm, synthesized in the laboratory of nanobiotechnology IBPPM RAS (Saratov). After intravenous administration of gold nanorods the decrease of leukocytes, platelets and lymphocytes was observed in animals of control group in blood. It was marked the decrease of the number of mature cellular elements of the leukocyte germ in bone marrow - stab neutrophils and segmented leukocytes, and the increase of immature elements- metamyelocytes, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ after nanoparticle administration. The decrease of leukocyte amount was noted in blood and the increase of cellular elements of the leukocyte germ was revealed in bone marrow, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ in rats with alloxan diabetes and transplanted tumors. The changes of morphological indicators of blood and bone marrow testify about stimulation of myelocytic sprouts of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as a result of reduction of mature cells in peripheral blood after gold nanoparticle administration.

  19. Simultaneous development of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) activity in irradiated mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sihvola, M.; Hurme, M.

    1987-10-01

    Spleen cells from irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice were tested for their ability to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against P815 target (ADCC-P815), ADCC against sheep red blood cells (ADCC-SRBC), and natural killer (NK) activity judged as YAC-1 lysis at different times after bone marrow reconstitution. Donor-derived ADCC-P815 effectors were found to appear in the spleens 10-12 days after bone marrow reconstitution simultaneously with the appearance of donor-derived NK cells. NK cells recently derived from bone marrow are known to express the Thy-1 antigen; the phenotype of the ''early'' ADCC-P815 effectors was found to be the same as that of NK cells, i.e., Thy-1+, asialo-GM1+. These data suggest that ADCC-P815 effector cells belong to the NK cell population. ADCC-SRBC, in contrast to ADCC-P815 and NK activity, was already high on Day 7 after bone marrow reconstitution. However, it was mediated partly by recipient-derived effectors. ADCC-SRBC effectors were characterized to be different from ADCC-P815 effectors.

  20. [A case of pure red cell aplasia with hypogammaglobulinemia appearing after thymo-thymectomy].

    PubMed

    Kokubo, M; Shirohashi, Y; Inaba, K; Sato, H; Tateyama, K

    1999-06-01

    We present a case of 83-year-old woman with pure red cell aplasia appearing eight months after thymo-thymectomy for an invasive thymoma. She underwent thymo-thymectomy for an invasive thymoma in July 1996. Preoperative examination revealed neither anemia nor hypogammaglobulinemia. About eight months after the operation, she was readmitted because of anemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed absence of erythroblasts and chest CT revealed norecurrence of thymoma. Her anemia had responded to ciclosporin. PMID:10380482

  1. Holoprosencephaly and Pure Red Cell Aplasia in a Feline Leukaemia Virus-Positive Kitten.

    PubMed

    Southard, T L; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, J; Priest, H; Stokol, T

    2016-01-01

    A 9-month-old, female, domestic longhair cat with severe anaemia tested positive for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and was humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination. Gross findings included a non-divided rostral telencephalon, consistent with semilobar holoprosencephaly. Histological examination of the bone marrow revealed an almost complete absence of erythroid precursor cells, consistent with pure red cell aplasia, and mild to moderate myelofibrosis. This case demonstrates a very unusual central nervous system defect, as well as an atypical presentation of pure red cell aplasia, in a FeLV-positive kitten. PMID:26897097

  2. Selective decontamination in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Guiot, H. F.; van Furth, R.

    1992-01-01

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation become immunocompromised for various reasons. Deep granulocytopenia, induced by conditioning (chemotherapy and total body irradiation), renders the patient at risk for serious bacterial and fungal infections. Our strategy for prevention of these infections by selective decontamination (SD) is the result of more than 15 years of clinical experience and research. The combination of antibiotics, used as standard SD (neomycin, polymyxin B, pipemidic acid and amphotericin B), with the application of local antimicrobial agents eliminates aerobic Gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. from the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract, while the majority of the anaerobic flora persist and support colonization resistance (CR). The antibiotics used either are not resorbed or do not yield therapeutic serum concentrations. Antibiotics which induce therapeutic serum concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, are only used for SD on a limited scale. When Gram-negative rods persist despite intake of the standard regimen, ciprofloxacin is given until these persisting rods are eliminated. If the patients cannot swallow the oral regimen, i.v. cotrimoxazole is given temporarily. Streptococcal infections are prevented by the i.v. administration of penicillin for 14 days starting on the first day after cytotoxic treatment (conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). The combination of SD and systemic prophylaxis has been shown to be adequate; the major problem then remaining is a relatively mild catheter-associated infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:1468520

  3. Painless transient bone marrow edema syndrome in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vivek; Hermann, George; Balwani, Manisha; Simpson, William L

    2014-11-01

    Transient regional migratory osteoporosis, considered to be part of the spectrum of bone marrow edema syndrome, is a rare condition with an unknown etiology. Patients usually present with lower extremity pain, most commonly in the 4th-5th decades of life. We describe a 15-year-old male patient with type 1 Gaucher disease who presented with transient bone marrow edema syndrome with features most closely resembling regional migratory osteoporosis. The patient presented with bone marrow edema of the lateral tibial epiphysis of his right knee that was incidentally seen on routine surveillance MRI that was performed as protocol for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease on enzyme replacement therapy. At this time, the patient had no pain and physical examination was normal. Follow-up MRI of the right knee 4 months afterward showed complete resolution of the signal abnormality in the right tibial epiphysis, and repeat study 8 months later displayed a new focus of painless migratory edema of the medial tibial epiphysis of the same knee. These changes completely resolved as well. Marrow signal abnormalities in children with Gaucher disease can have a broad differential, including infection, marrow infiltration, trauma, osteonecrosis, and bone marrow edema syndrome, amongst others. Correct diagnosis of bone marrow edema syndrome is critical, as this disease process most often resolves on conservative measures. The unusual presentation of transient bone marrow edema syndrome with regional migratory osteoporosis features in a young patient with Gaucher disease is described. PMID:24893724

  4. First Reported Case of Ehrlichia ewingii Involving Human Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Allen, M. Brandon; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Sloan, Lynne M.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Musham, Chaitanya K.; Ramos, Jeanette M.; Cetin, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female with a history of multiple tick bites presented with fever and pancytopenia. Intracytoplasmic rickettsial morulae were detected on peripheral smear and bone marrow biopsy specimens, and PCR amplified Ehrlichia ewingii DNA from both specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. ewingii infection of human bone marrow. PMID:25187638

  5. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  6. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  7. Caffeine inhibits adipogenic differentiation of primary adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Hui; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yeh, Hua; Su, Shu-Jem

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine consumption has been related to loss of body weight and modulates lipid metabolism. However, impacts of caffeine on adipogenic differentiation have not been well determined yet. The present study evaluated the effects of caffeine on adipogenesis using primary rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a mouse bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in vitro. ADSCs and M2-10B4 were continuously exposed to caffeine (0.1-1mM) during adipogenic differentiation for 7 and 12 days, respectively. Oil red O and Nile red staining showed that caffeine reduced lipid droplet and adipocyte levels in both cell types. In addition, Nile red staining and FACScan flow cytometry showed that caffeine dose-dependently decreased adipocyte differentiation from 20% to 50% of the control ADSCs and M2-10B4 cells. Caffeine decreased the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and TNFα in a dose-dependent manner. Rather, low concentration of caffeine (0.1mM) significantly increased IL-6 expression, but unexpectedly inhibited that at a concentration more than 0.3mM. Taken together, caffeine was able to effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs and M2-10B4 cells partly through its inhibition of adipogenesis-related factors. PMID:23727198

  8. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    PubMed

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  9. The bone marrow microenvironment and leukemia: biology and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Edward Allan R; Brown, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that interaction with the bone marrow stromal microenvironment contributes to the survival of leukemia cells. One explanation for this phenomenon is the interaction between the cell surface receptors CXCR4 and CXCL12. Through CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, leukemia cells migrate to microscopic niches within the bone marrow, which leads to increased proliferation and survival. Several studies have suggested that increased CXCR4 expression may portend a poor prognosis in various types of leukemia, possibly due to increased protection of leukemia cells by bone marrow stroma. A potential therapeutic strategy to overcome this stromal-mediated survival advantage is to target CXCR4. Inhibition of CXCR4 may allow leukemia cells to be released from bone marrow niches that confer resistance to chemotherapy and negate the survival benefit imparted by bone marrow stroma. PMID:21668393

  10. Lustre on Red Sky.

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, Stephen Todd; Mervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    The goals of Lustre on Red Sky are: (1) provide home/projects/scratch Lustre file systems; (2) adhere to the Sun HPC stack; (3) implement software RAID on Sun provided JBODs; and (4) design for easy administration. Conclusions are: (1) software RAID includes additional risks and administration vs. hardware RAID solutions; (2) limited testing of hardware in these configurations make it ill-suited for rapid deployment in a production environment; and (3) Lustre has been a shining star on this machine, Red Sky users are pleased with its performance.

  11. Chronically Inadequate Sleep Results in Abnormal Bone Formation and Abnormal Bone Marrow in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Carol A.; Folley, Anne E.; Toth, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep over long durations of the lifespan is believed to adversely affect proper development and healthful aging, although how this might become manifested is unknown. In the present study, rats were repeatedly sleep restricted during 72 days to permit maladaptations to evolve, thereby permitting study. Densitometric and histomorphometric analyses were performed on harvested bone. In sleep-restricted rats, bone lined by osteoid was reduced 45-fold and osteoid thickness was decreased, compared with controls. This corresponded to a decrease in osteoblast number and activity. The percentage of bone lined by osteoclasts did not differ from that of controls. Plasma concentrations of an osteoclast marker (TRACP 5b) were increased in sleep-restricted rats, indicating increased bone resorption. The low amount of new bone formation without a reduction in bone resorption is diagnostic of osteopenia. Bone mineral density was decreased in femurs from sleep-restricted rats compared with control, indicating osteoporosis. Red marrow in sleep-restricted rats contained only 37% of the fat and more than twice the number of megakaryocytes compared to that of the control rats. These findings in marrow suggest changed plasticity and increased hematopoiesis. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1, a known, major mediator of osteoblast differentiation and the proliferation of progenitor cells, was decreased by 30% in sleep-restricted rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronically inadequate sleep affects bone metabolism and bone marrow composition in ways that have implications for development, aging, bone healing and repair, and blood cell differentiation. PMID:22946089

  12. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  13. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  14. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  15. 'Saanich' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

  16. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  17. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  18. CHINOOK RED RASPBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Chinook' is a new primocane fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore. released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station, the Washington State University A...

  19. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  20. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  1. Lung function after bone marrow grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Depledge, M.H.; Barrett, A.; Powles, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    Results of a prospective lung function study are presented for 48 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1978 and 1980. Patients with active disease or who were in remission following cytoreductive chemotherapy had mildly impaired gas exchange prior to grafting. After TBI and BMT all patients studied developed progressive deterioration of lung function during the first 100 days, although these changes were subclinical. Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) were associated with further worsening of restrictive ventilatory defects and diffusing capacity (D/sub L/CO). Beyond 100 days, ventilatory ability returned to normal and gas transfer improved, although it failed to reach pre-transplant levels. There was no evidence of progressive pulmonary fibrosis during the first year after grafting.

  2. Marrow failure: a window into ribosome biology.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Davide; Shimamura, Akiko

    2014-10-30

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and dyskeratosis congenita are inherited syndromes characterized by marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Genetic and molecular studies have uncovered distinct abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis underlying each of these 3 disorders. How defects in ribosomes, the essential organelles required for protein biosynthesis in all cells, cause tissue-specific abnormalities in human disease remains a question of fundamental scientific and medical importance. Here we review the overlapping and distinct clinical features of these 3 syndromes and discuss current knowledge regarding the ribosomal pathways disrupted in each of these disorders. We also explore the increasing complexity of ribosome biology and how this informs our understanding of developmental biology and human disease. PMID:25237201

  3. [Current problems in pediatric bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kato, S

    1993-05-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been increasingly applied to a variety of potentially fatal diseases in childhood. However, trends of indication of BMT are changing because chemotherapy in leukemia and immunosuppressive therapy with/without colony stimulating factor in aplastic anemia are improving. Several progresses have been noted in matched unrelated BMT and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as well as in sibling BMT or autologous BMT. Many efforts are being made to decrease rejection rate or leukemia relapse and to improve quality of life by new conditioning regimens. Attempts to induce GVL effects or syngeneic GVHD are currently under progress. The quality of life in long term surviving children are generally good and acceptable, although delay in growth, infertility, cataract and obstructive lung disease are seen in a few patients. PMID:8315825

  4. The Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chirnomas, S. Deborah; Kupfer, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the rarity of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), they represent diseases for which the molecular pathogenesis may be elucidated. Their study and presentation of the details of their molecular biology and biochemistry is warranted not only for appropriate diagnosis and management of afflicted patients but also because they lend clues to the normal physiology of the normal hematopoiesis and, in many cases, mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Several themes have emerged within each subsection of IBMFS, including the ribosomopathies that entail both ribosome assembly as well as ribosomal RNA processing. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway itself has become interdigitated with the familial breast cancer syndromes. The sections that follow present a more detailed analysis of the diseases that account for the majority of IBMFS diagnoses. PMID:24237972

  5. Marrow failure: a window into ribosome biology

    PubMed Central

    Ruggero, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and dyskeratosis congenita are inherited syndromes characterized by marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Genetic and molecular studies have uncovered distinct abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis underlying each of these 3 disorders. How defects in ribosomes, the essential organelles required for protein biosynthesis in all cells, cause tissue-specific abnormalities in human disease remains a question of fundamental scientific and medical importance. Here we review the overlapping and distinct clinical features of these 3 syndromes and discuss current knowledge regarding the ribosomal pathways disrupted in each of these disorders. We also explore the increasing complexity of ribosome biology and how this informs our understanding of developmental biology and human disease. PMID:25237201

  6. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Trimming the Fat.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Burr, Aaron A; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-06-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and the development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of the potential impact of MAT on health and disease. PMID:27094502

  7. RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.; Langdon, A.B.

    1987-05-20

    A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands that simplifies formatting. LATEX runs on the J-Vax and the LLL-LCC Pyramid machines. RED2TEX resides in Unix directory CHASE/TEX.

  8. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y.; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed+ perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317+ IL-7hi cells, identified at ∼1%–3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  9. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ai-Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Xing; Yu, Ai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered as the most promising cells source for bone engineering. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors play important roles in bone mass turnover. The aim of this study is to test if activation of CB2 receptor by chemical agonist could enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone BM-MSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining and real time PCR were performed to test the osteogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was carried out to examine the mineralization. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to study the role of CB2 receptor in osteogenic differentiation. Results showed activation of CB2 receptor increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes, and enhanced deposition of calcium in extracellular matrix. Knockdown of CB2 receptor by siRNA inhibited ALP activity and mineralization. Results of immunofluorescent staining showed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase is reduced by knocking down of CB2 receptor. Finally, bone marrow samples demonstrated that expression of CB2 receptor is much lower in osteoporotic patients than in healthy donors. Taken together, data from this study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays important role in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Lack of CB2 receptor may be related to osteoporosis. PMID:25685815

  10. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes.

    PubMed

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed(+) perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317(+) IL-7(hi) cells, identified at ∼ 1%-3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  11. Influenza virus infects bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro: implications for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have differentiation, immunomodulatory, and self-renewal properties and are, therefore, an attractive tool for regenerative medicine and autoimmune diseases. MSCs may be of great value to treat graft-versus-host disease. Influenza virus causes highly contagious seasonal infection and occasional pandemics. The infection is severe in children, elderly, and immunocompromised hosts including hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine if MSCs are permissive to influenza virus replication. We isolated MSCs from the bone marrow of 4- to 6-week-old germ-free pigs. Swine and human influenza virus strains were used to infect MSCs in vitro. MSCs expressed known influenza virus ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 sialic acid receptors and supported replication of swine and human influenza viruses. Viral infection of MSCs resulted in cell lysis and proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings demonstrate that bone marrow-derived MSCs are susceptible to influenza virus. The data also suggest that transplantation of bone marrow MSCs from influenza virus-infected donors may transmit infection to recipients. Also, MSCs may get infected if infused into a patient with an ongoing influenza virus infection. PMID:23006541

  12. A Method for Generation of Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages from Cryopreserved Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Djalma S.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2010-01-01

    The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells. PMID:21179419

  13. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... preparations of red yeast rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as dietary supplements to lower blood levels of cholesterol and related lipids. Some red yeast rice products contain substances called ...

  14. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    PubMed Central

    Helleberg, Marie; Goka, Bamenla Q; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Obeng-Adjei, George; Rodriques, Onike; Kurtzhals, Jorgen AL

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. Materials and methods Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal®), aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria®) were used to differentiate between patients with (1) no malaria, (2) recent cleared malaria, (3) persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW), plasma levels of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and erythropoietin (EPO) were measured as markers of erythropoiesis. Interleukin (IL) 10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α were used as inflammation markers. Results EPO was correlated with haemoglobin, irrespective of malaria (R = -0.36, P < 0.001). Persistent P. falciparum infection, but not recent malaria without residual parasites, was associated with bone marrow suppression i.e., low RDW (P < 0.001 vs. P = 0.56) and sTfR (P = 0.02 vs. P = 0.36). TNF-α and IL-10 levels were not associated with bone marrow suppression. Conclusion In the treatment of malaria, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy. PMID:16321150

  15. In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells. These data suggest that MS processing may be used to enhance the performance of marrow-derived CTPs in clinical bone regeneration procedures. Further assessment in a more stringent bone defect model is proposed. PMID:23082937

  16. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  17. Red Knots at Delaware Bay

    Red knots, an at-risk shorebird, at Delaware Bay. Red knots like to feed on horseshoe crab eggs to refuel after their marathon migrations of some 10,000 miles. Declines of horseshoe crabs and red knots seem to be related....

  18. Defective adhesion and homing of hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplasia to stromal cells of normal bone marrow cultures.

    PubMed

    Manakova, T E; Tsvetaeva, N V; Belkin, V M; Momotyuk, K S; Khoroshko, N D

    2005-01-01

    Hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were characterized by lower adhesion to normal stromal sublayer compared to bone marrow precursors from healthy donors, while adhesion to fibroblast monolayer and fibronectin was similar in bone marrow cells from patients and donors. In vitro experiments showed that the percentage of adherent hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome in normal stromal sublayer and fibroblasts was lower compared to healthy donors. The decrease in adhesive activity of hemopoietic precursors from the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome probably contributes to impairment of cell-cell interactions in the bone marrow of these patients. PMID:16142262

  19. Red lead: understanding red lead in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, J. P.; Dlaska, M. K.; Batson, R.

    The use of red lead in battery plates is not very well known to a large segment of the lead-acid battery industry. Historically, it was used in pasted and tubular positive plates in order to improve their formation time and enhance deep-cycle performance. Although the use of red lead has diminished over the last few decades, many companies are again considering the use of red lead in their plates. This article aims to give manufacturers a solid knowledge of the properties of red lead, including production and handling methods. Further, it presents an understanding of the influence in battery production, battery performance, and the cost-saving potential of red lead usage. The first part of the article is intended to explain the chemical and physical properties and fields of usage of red lead. The most widely used red lead product specifications for the battery industry are presented and explained. In the second part, the typical equipment for the production of red lead is reviewed. Raw material requirements, material handling equipment, a red lead furnace and milling are presented and discussed. The reader is taken through the production of a typical batch of red lead. Operating charts, process control data and system photos will help to understand the production process. The final part outlines an overall view of process requirements and identifies stages in lead-acid battery production that will be influenced by the use of red lead.

  20. Clover, red (Trifolium pratense).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L; Quesenberry, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important forage legume, a population of red clover with high potential for regeneration in tissue culture has been developed. Here we provide a detailed procedure for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of genotypes derived from this regenerable population. We have successfully used this methodology to express β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes as well as for hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous genes for polyphenol oxidase and a transferase crucial in phaselic acid accumulation. PMID:25300845

  1. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  2. Evaluation of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for photodynamic bone marrow purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keij, Jan F.; Jiang, Yajuan; Sotiropoulos, Damianos A.; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Visser, Jan W.

    1998-07-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 was tested as a photosensitizer for the selective photoinactivation of malignant cells in bone marrow transplantation samples. Using a murine model system, incubation of 1.5 X 107 cells/mL with 15 nM Pc 4 followed by exposure to red light ((lambda) > 600 nm, fluence of 18 J/cm2) was shown to result in a greater than 6 log10 reduction of the clonogenic growth for the murine cell lines ABE-8.1/2, BC3A and L1210. The clonogenic growth of WEHI-3 and P815 cells was reduced by more than 5 log10 and more than 3 log10, respectively. Late murine hematopoietic progenitor cells were less sensitive than cancer cells; the surviving fractions were 0.084 for the colony forming unit, megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk); 0.038 for the colony forming unit, granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM); 0.0018 for the colony forming unit, mix (CFU-mix) and < 0.003 for burst forming units, erythroid (BFU-E). Early hematopoietic progenitor cells, assayed in the in vitro cobble stone area forming cell assay, were not affected by the photodynamic treatment. Likewise, in vivo assays of early hematopoietic progenitor cells showed no reduction of their ability to repopulate the bone marrow. Irradiation of the samples following incubation of 1.5 X 106 cells/mL with Pc 4 resulted in increased photosensitivity of all cell types, including the early and late hematopoietic progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of Pc 4 uptake by the cells revealed that the increased photosensitivity could be traced to increased Pc 4 uptake; however, Pc 4 uptake among cell types did not correlate with photosensitivity. When mixed with bone marrow (BM) cells, Pc 4 uptake in the cell lines increased as the fraction of BM increased from 0.5 to 0.95. These observations suggest that Pc 4 may be a suitable photosensitizer for bone marrow purging.

  3. Inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by erythropoietin via activating ERK and P38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Liu, G X; Zhu, J C; Chen, X Y; Zhu, A Z; Liu, C C; Lai, Q; Chen, S T

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether erythropoietin (EPO) can inhibit adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the mouse bone marrow and its underlying mechanism. We separated and extracted mouse bone marrow MSCs and induced adipogenic differen-tiation using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, insulin, and dexamethasone. Different concentrations of EPO were added to the cells and observed by Oil Red O staining on the 20th day to quantitatively analyze the degree of cell differentiation. mRNA expression levels of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, and adiponectin were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the activity of PPARγ, extracellular sig-nal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined by western blotting. EPO significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation of MSCs after 20 days and reduced absorbance values by Oil Red O staining without affecting proliferation activity. EPO downregulated the mRNA expression of PPARγ, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, fatty acid binding protein 4, and adiponec-tin during adipogenesis and increased protein phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and PPARγ during differentiation. EPO downregulated the mRNA expression of PPARγ, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, fatty acid binding protein 4, and adiponectin by increasing protein phosphor-ylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and PPARγ during differentiation, which inhibited adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:26125905

  4. Arsenic trioxide regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow MSCs of aplastic anemia patients through BMP4 gene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan Chen; Liu, Sheng Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xue Fei; Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Mei; Qiu, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The typical pathological feature of aplastic anemia (AA) is the rise in the number of fat cells and the reduction of osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, both fat cells and osteobalsts in bone marrow are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Generally, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation is a dynamic and balanceable process. The imbalance of the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation may participate in the occurrence and progress of many diseases. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, Oil Red-O and Alizarin red were used to detect the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is much higher, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is much lower in the MSCs of AA patients compared with healthy controls. ATO inhibits adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in the MSC of AA patients. The expression of BMP4 is increased with ATO treatment. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is decreased, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is increased after transfection of BMP4 gene into the MSCs of AA patients. This study shows that ATO regulates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance of MSCs in AA, which provides a theoretical basis for the adjunctive therapy of ATO on AA. The BMP4 gene is involved in the ATO regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance, which provides a new target for the treatment of AA. PMID:26215597

  5. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  6. Who Needs a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to find out whether you have any medical problems that could cause complications after the transplant. (See "What To Expect Before a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant" for more information.) Rate This Content: NEXT >> ...

  7. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Marrow Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bonemarrowdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Its Bone Marrow Niche.

    PubMed

    Yu, V W C; Scadden, D T

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells do not thrive without their niche. The bone marrow microenvironment is where hematopoietic stem cells maintain their cell state while receiving physiological input to modify their activity in response to changing physiological demands. The complexity of the bone marrow microenvironment is being unraveled and indicates that multiple different cell types contribute to the regulation of stem and progenitor cells. Further, it is becoming evident that the bone marrow represents a composite of niches with different components and different functional roles in hematopoiesis. It is now evident that alterations in specific stromal cells that comprise the bone marrow microenvironment can contribute to hematologic pathology. In this chapter, we will review the history of the niche concept, evolving information about its components and how niche dysfunction may contribute to disease. PMID:27137653

  9. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  10. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    MedlinePlus

    ... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with a ... Transplant Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant A ...

  11. NIH Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Consensus Conference

    Cancer.gov

    This day and a half symposium will bring together experts in blood and marrow transplantation, late effects, and health care delivery to discuss current evidence and knowledge gaps, develop consensus guidelines, and inform future research in the BMT survivor population.

  12. FK506-induced intractable leukoencephalopathy following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Misawa, A; Takeuchi, Y; Hibi, S; Todo, S; Imashuku, S; Sawada, T

    2000-02-01

    FK506-related leukoencephalopathy has been reported to be reversible and readily treated by discontinuation or reduction of FK506. We describe two pediatric cases of FK506-related leukoencephalopathy following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, which could not be readily controlled. These cases show that FK506-related leukoencephalopathy is not always reversible, and patients may develop epilepsy. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 331-334. PMID:10673708

  13. Pathophysiology and Management of Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Akiko; Alter, Blanche P.

    2012-01-01

    The inherited marrow failure syndromes are a diverse set of genetic disorders characterized by hematopoietic aplasia and cancer predisposition. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable and much broader than previously recognized. The medical management of the inherited marrow failure syndromes differs from that of acquired aplastic anemia or malignancies arising in the general population. Diagnostic workup, molecular pathogenesis, and clinical treatment are reviewed. PMID:20417588

  14. Evaluation of radiation effects on hematopoetic bone marrow by immunoscintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R.; Buell, U.

    1994-05-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause dose-dependent damage to the hematopoetic bone marrow (HBM) within the portal. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate acute suppression and long term recovery of HBM by use of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy (BMI) with monoclonal antibodies (1 mg of intact BW 250/183 labelled with 350-400 MBq Tc-99m) against NCA-95, expressed on granulocytes and their precursor cells. Ninety-five planar scintigrams covering 114 portals were analyzed. Antibody uptake of irradiated bone marrow was quantified by ROI-technique and expressed as percentage of uptake in corresponding areas outside the portal. During irradiation a marked drop of marrow uptake significantly correlating with the already received dose was observed. Scans obtained after completion of radiotherapy revealed a reduced uptake ({approximately}40% of the reference region) for about 4 years. Afterwards bone marrow normalized in portals with doses <35 Gy while following >35 Gy diminished uptake (70{plus_minus}25%) persisted indicating irreversible damage to HBM. We conclude that BMI is suitable for evaluation of acute damage and long time recovery of functional bone marrow after therapeutic irradiation and may be used for optimized planning of repeated radiotherapy.

  15. The bone marrow in aplastic anaemia: Diagnostic and prognostic features

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, B.; Lewis, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Bone marrow preparations were examined from 80 patients with aplastic anaemia. The degree of cellularity varied greatly and in a third of the cases it was normal or even hypercellular at one site of aspiration. In the severely hypoplastic marrows lymphoid cells were predominant and this situation was associated with a worse prognosis. There was no correlation between marrow lymphoid cell content and blood lymphocyte count but there was an inverse relationship between blood lymphocyte count and marrow erythroblasts and a close direct relationship between the blood neutrophil count and marrow myeloid cell content. In all cases a proportion of the erythroblasts showed morphological abnormalities. These included especially megaloblastic changes and asynchrony of nuclear-cytoplasmic maturation. There were also binucleated cells, internuclear chromatin bridges, intercellular cytoplasmic connexions, nuclear degenerative changes, namely, blurred outlines, irregular shapes, budding and fragmentation, and atypical mitotic figures. These appearances illustrate the extent to which a qualitative defect of erythropoiesis occurs as part of the haematological pattern in aplastic anaemia, and in some cases dominates the bone marrow picture. Similar cytological features were found in all cases, including five patients with Fanconi's anaemia. Images PMID:4832303

  16. Benzene toxicokinetics in humans: exposure of bone marrow to metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K H; Bois, F Y; Daisey, J M; Auslander, D M; Spear, R C

    1994-01-01

    A three compartment physiologically based toxicokinetic model was fitted to human data on benzene disposition. Two separate groups of model parameter derivations were obtained, depending on which data sets were being fitted. The model was then used to simulate five environmental or occupational exposures. Predicted values of the total bone marrow exposure to benzene and cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow were generated for each scenario. The relation between cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and continuous benzene exposure was also investigated in detail for simulated inhalation exposure concentrations ranging from 0.0039 ppm to 150 ppm. At the level of environmental exposures, no dose rate effect was found for either model. The occupational exposures led to only slight dose rate effects. A 32 ppm exposure for 15 minutes predicted consistently higher values than a 1 ppm exposure for eight hours for the total exposure of bone marrow to benzene and the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow. The general relation between the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and the inhalation concentration of benzene is not linear. An inflection point exists in some cases leading to a slightly S shaped curve. At environmental levels (0.0039-10 ppm) the curve bends upward, and it saturates at high experimental exposures (greater than 100 ppm). PMID:8044234

  17. Marrow fat metabolism is linked to the systemic energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the role of bone in the systemic regulation of energy metabolism indicate that bone marrow cells, adipocytes and osteoblasts, are involved in this process. Marrow adipocytes store significant quantities of fat and produce adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, which are known for their role in the regulation of energy metabolism, whereas osteoblasts produce osteocalcin, a bone-specific hormone that has a potential to regulate insulin production in the pancreas and adiponectin production in fat tissue. Both osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes express insulin receptor and respond to insulin-sensitizing anti-diabetic TZDs in a manner, which tightly links bone with the energy metabolism system. Metabolic profile of marrow fat resembles that of both, white and brown fat, which is reflected by its plasticity in acquiring different functions including maintenance of bone micro-environment. Marrow fat responds to physiologic and pathologic changes in energy metabolism status by changing volume and metabolic activity. This review summarizes available information on the metabolic function of marrow fat and provides hypothesis that this fat depot may acquire multiple roles depending on the local and perhaps systemic demands. These functions may include a role in bone energy maintenance and endocrine activities to serve osteogenesis during bone remodeling and bone healing. PMID:21757043

  18. Is nitrous oxide safe for bone marrow harvest?

    PubMed

    Lederhaas, G; Brock-Utne, J G; Negrin, R S; Riley, E; Brodsky, J B

    1995-04-01

    Patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma undergoing autologous bone marrow harvest were studied in a prospective, randomized fashion. All patients received a general anesthetic consisting of intravenous thiopental, fentanyl, and vecuronium and were ventilated with oxygen and isoflurane. Group I (19) patients also were ventilated with nitrous oxide (70%) whereas patients in Group II (19) did not receive nitrous oxide. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the harvest. Viability of bone marrow mononuclear cells was assessed with a colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assay, CFU-GM growth is a marker for myeloid progenitor cells and is dependent on intact deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Rate of neutrophil engraftment after autologous bone marrow transplantation was also studied. Both groups of patients were statistically similar in age, weight, anesthetic duration, CFU-GM counts at both sample draws, and the time for successful engraftment. There appears to be no difference in bone marrow viability as assayed by both CFU-GM colony growth and engraftment in human bone marrow exposed to a general anesthetic with nitrous oxide. PMID:7893033

  19. The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Wheeler, K.T.; Keng, P.C.; Gregory, P.K.; Croizat, H.

    1981-10-01

    KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta and bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Madonia, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The first attempted bone marrow transplant (BMT) dates back to 1896. In the following centuries, the medical community pioneered an ongoing progression of breakthroughs. In 1954 the first successful solid organ transplant, the kidney, was performed. In the 1960s advances led to the first successful lung, pancreas, liver and heart transplant and in 1973 the first successful BMT was achieved. BMT has traditionally been used to treat malignant diseases. However, scientific and technological progress has expanded its scope and today, BMT is used to treat a spectrum of diseases. While BMT is a complex procedure, the medical community expects that it will one day play a role in the treatment of other diseases. As the science evolves, it is essential that nurses educate themselves about these emerging transplant populations, one of which is children with osteogenesis impefecta. This manuscript will provide nurses with a critical background on the disease, a description of the transplant theory, and the implications for the nursing care of these children. PMID:22367768

  1. Bone Marrow-derived Macrophage Production

    PubMed Central

    Trouplin, Virginie; Boucherit, Nicolas; Gorvel, Laurent; Conti, Filippo; Mottola, Giovanna; Ghigo, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critical components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, and they are the first line of defense against foreign invaders because of their powerful microbicidal activities. Macrophages are widely distributed throughout the body and are present in the lymphoid organs, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, bone, and skin. Because of their repartition, they participate in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Macrophages are highly versatile cells that are able to recognize microenvironmental alterations and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Numerous pathogens have evolved mechanisms to use macrophages as Trojan horses to survive, replicate in, and infect both humans and animals and to propagate throughout the body. The recent explosion of interest in evolutionary, genetic, and biochemical aspects of host-pathogen interactions has renewed scientific attention regarding macrophages. Here, we describe a procedure to isolate and cultivate macrophages from murine bone marrow that will provide large numbers of macrophages for studying host-pathogen interactions as well as other processes. PMID:24300014

  2. [Bone marrow transplants--quo vadis?].

    PubMed

    Speck, B; Gratwohl, A; Nissen, C; Osterwalder, B; Signer, E; Corneo, M

    1983-07-23

    Early bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in leukaemia has enormously improved the results. Leukaemic relapse is rare, as is transplant-related mortality from interstitial pneumonia and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In aplastic anaemia the most important development is that treatment with ALG offers a real alternative to BMT which is of crucial importance for all patients without a histo-compatible family donor. The main problems of BMT are the lack of histocompatible donors and GvHD. In leukaemia, relapse is still an additional problem. The new immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin-A (CyA) has made an important contribution to the prophylaxis of severe GvHD. In future the results with CyA are potentially improvable by combination with other immunosuppressive agents. It is important that the use of HLA-semicompatible family donors, unrelated donors or alternative stem cell sources should become feasible. The value of autologous BMT is difficult to judge because in most instances it has been performed in patients with endstage disease. In several congenital diseases there are alternatives to BMT, such as genetic engineering. Although many problems of BMT still have to be solved, this procedure has an important place in modern medicine. PMID:6351242

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  4. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  6. [Diagnosis and management of pure red cell aplasia].

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a type of bone marrow failure syndrome (stem cell failure) and is characterized by severe normocytic, normochromic anemia associated with reticulocytopenia, and the absence of erythroblasts in otherwise normal bone marrow. PRCA may be congenital or acquired, and the acquired form of chronic PRCA may present as a primary hematological disease in the absence of any other diseases or secondary to thymoma, lymphoproliferative disorders, infections, and collagen vascular diseases or after exposure to various drugs or chemicals. The most common types of acquired chronic PRCA in Japan are idiopathic, thymoma-associated and lymphoid neoplasm-associated PRCA. Initial treatment of PRCA includes the cessation of potentially deleterious drugs and careful observation for one month while making efforts to identify the cause of PRCA. Idiopathic PRCA and secondary PRCA refractory to treatment of the underlying diseases are generally treated as immune-mediated disorders. Most chronic PRCA patients successfully treated with immunosuppressants require maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, identifying the cause of PRCA is crucial for the optimal management of this disorder. PMID:26458430

  7. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Daz-Romnn, Amparo; Megas, Alberto; Daz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrs; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  8. Effects of Focused Extracorporeal Shock Waves on Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients with Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lei; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Shui-Tao; Zhao, Zhe; Jin, Hai-Chao; Ma, Xin-Long; Xing, Geng-Yan

    2016-03-01

    To observe the effect of extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, we collected bone marrow donated by patients and then cultivated and passaged MSCs in vitro using density gradient centrifugation combined with adherence screening methods. The P3 generation MSCs were divided into the ESW group and the control group. The cell counting kit for MSCs detected some proliferation differences. Cytochemistry, alkaline phosphatase staining and Alizarin red staining were used to determine alkaline phosphatase content. Simultaneously, real-time polymerase factor α1, osteocalcin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Together, the results of our study first indicate that moderate ESW intensity, which is instrumental in enhancing MSC proliferation, inducing conversion of MSCs into osteoblasts, and inhibiting differentiation of MSCs into adipocytes from MSCs, is one of the effective mechanisms for treating avascular necrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26674675

  9. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

  10. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been subtracted from the 8-micron image to better highlight the dust structures.

    Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 14772 samples x 4953 lines.

  11. Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

    1987-07-01

    The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors.

  12. Biological characteristics of micrometastatic cancer cells in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Braun, S; Pantel, K

    1999-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that epithelial tumor cells are able to disseminate to secondary organs at an early stage of primary tumor development. One of the most prominent secondary organs screened for this type of dissemination is bone marrow. Even in cancer entities where overt skeletal metastases are rare (e.g., colorectal and ovarian cancer), bone marrow is a prognostically relevant indicator organ for the presence of hematogenous micrometastases. The currently available data suggest that bone marrow micrometastases represent a selected population of dormant cancer cells which still express a considerable degree of heterogeneity. The analysis of micrometastatic cells will open a new avenue to assess the molecular determinants of early tumor cell dissemination and subsequent outgrowth into overt metastases. Moreover, monitoring the elimination of bone marrow micrometastases and identification of treatment-resistant tumor cell clones may help to increase the efficacy of adjuvant therapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the biological characteristics of micrometastatic cancer cells in bone marrow of patients with solid epithelial malignancies. PMID:10505547

  13. Cells Derived from Young Bone Marrow Alleviate Renal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney. PMID:21965376

  14. [Marrow donor registration and cord blood banking: current issues].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Minoko

    2016-03-01

    Marrow donor registration and cord blood banking are essential components of the infrastructure required for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations. We now have a new law to support and regulate the Marrow Donor Coordination Agency, Cord Blood Banks and the Haematopoietic Stem Cell Provision Support Organization. We also need to have a specific goal for bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donor registration, a minimum cord blood bank size, and the demographic data to back the medical needs for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations. To improve bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantations, we need to recruit younger adults for marrow registration and make greater efforts to shorten the coordinating period. For cord blood transplantations, uniting and empowering the cord blood collection sites is needed, to encourage and motivate obstetricians and other staff, as the quality of cord blood units is primarily determined during collection. Also, the cord blood banks must work cooperatively to provide cord blood internationally, which includes coordinating with international agencies and their regulations. PMID:27076238

  15. Targeting bone marrow lymphoid niches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Uy, Geoffrey L; Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Schmidt, Amy P; Stock, Wendy; Fletcher, Theresa R; Trinkaus, Kathryn M; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Link, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) the bone marrow microenvironment provides growth and survival signals that may confer resistance to chemotherapy. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) potently inhibits lymphopoiesis by targeting stromal cells that comprise the lymphoid niche in the bone marrow. To determine whether lymphoid niche disruption by G-CSF sensitizes ALL cells to chemotherapy, we conducted a pilot study of G-CSF in combination with chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL. Thirteen patients were treated on study; three patients achieved a complete remission (CR/CRi) for an overall response rate of 23%. In the healthy volunteers, G-CSF treatment disrupted the lymphoid niche, as evidenced by reduced expression of CXCL12, interleukin-7, and osteocalcin. However, in most patients with relapsed/refractory ALL expression of these genes was markedly suppressed at baseline. Thus, although G-CSF treatment was associated with ALL cell mobilization into the blood, and increased apoptosis of bone marrow resident ALL cells, alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment were modest and highly variable. These data suggest that disruption of lymphoid niches by G-CSF to sensitize ALL cells to chemotherapy may be best accomplished in the consolidation where the bone marrow microenvironment is more likely to be normal. PMID:26467815

  16. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  17. Recovery and safety profiles of marrow and PBSC donors: experience of the National Marrow Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Miller, John P; Perry, Elizabeth H; Price, Thomas H; Bolan, Charles D; Karanes, Chatchada; Boyd, Theresa M; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; King, Roberta J

    2008-09-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) has been facilitating hematopoietic cell transplants since 1987. Volunteer donors listed on the NMDP Registry may be asked to donate either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC); however, since 2003, the majority of donors (72% in 2007) have been asked to donate PBSC. From the donor's perspective these stem cell sources carry different recovery and safety profiles. The majority of BM and PBSC donors experienced symptoms during the course of their donation experience. Pain is the number 1 symptom for both groups of donors. BM donors most often reported pain at the collection site (82% back or hip pain) and anesthesia-related pain sites (33% throat pain; 17% post-anesthesia headache), whereas PBSC donors most often reported bone pain (97%) at various sites during filgrastim administration. Fatigue was the second most reported symptom by both BM and PBSC donors (59% and 70%, respectively). PBSC donors reported a median time to recovery of 1 week compared to a median time to recovery of 3 weeks for BM donors. Both BM and PBSC donors experienced transient changes in their WBC, platelet, and hemoglobin counts during the donation process, with most counts returning to baseline values by 1 month post-donation and beyond. Serious adverse events are uncommon, but these events occurred more often in BM donors than PBSC donors (1.34% in BM donors, 0.6% in PBSC donors) and a few BM donors may have long-term complications. NMDP donors are currently participating in a randomized clinical trial that will formally compare the clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of BM and PBSC donors and their graft recipients. PMID:18721778

  18. Putative human male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drusenheimer, Nadja; Wulf, Gerald; Nolte, Jessica; Lee, Jae Ho; Dev, Arvind; Dressel, Ralf; Gromoll, Jörg; Schmidtke, Jörg; Engel, Wolfgang; Nayernia, Karim

    2007-01-01

    Germ cells must develop along distinct male or female paths to produce the spermatozoa or oocyte required for sexual reproduction. Male germline stem cells maintain spermatogenesis in the postnatal human testis. Here we show that a small population of bone marrow cells is able to transdifferentiate to male germ cell-like cells. We show expression of early germ cell markers (Oct4, Fragilis, Stella and Vasa) and male germ cell specific markers (Dazl, TSPY, Piwil2 and Stra8) in these cells. Our preliminary findings provide direct evidence that human bone marrow cells can differentiate to putative male germ cells and identify bone marrow as a potential source of male germ cells that could sustain sperm production. PMID:17566262

  19. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

    1982-04-01

    Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

  20. Modeling Selective Elimination of Quiescent Cancer Cells from Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Stephen P.; Rickelmann, Andrew D.; Meguiar, Kaille F.; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M.; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E.; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer. PMID:26408255

  1. Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J E

    1991-01-01

    As increasing numbers of children are surviving beyond the 1st decade after marrow transplantation and increasing numbers of children are receiving marrow transplants each year, the delayed effects related to the transplant procedure itself, the original disease, and/or the transplant preparative regimen are becoming apparent. Late effects related to the transplant procedure include those of engraftment stability, the chronic immunosuppression of chronic graft-versus-host disease and delayed immunologic recovery. Recurrent disease is the major late effect related to the patient's original disease. The late effects which may be related to previous therapy administered and/or the transplant preparative regimen include abnormalities of neuroendocrine function, ocular problems, dental developmental abnormalities in young children, central nervous system dysfunction and the development of secondary malignancies. To improve the quality of life of marrow transplant recipients and to prevent some of the growth and development abnormalities which may occur, an awareness of the problems encountered to date is needed. PMID:1983865

  2. Biology of the bone marrow microenvironment and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Erinn B; Narla, Anupama; Park, Joseph K; Lin, Shuo; Sakamoto, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by cytopenias resulting from ineffective hematopoiesis with a predisposition to transform to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic stem cell microenvironment contributes to the pathogenesis of MDS. Inflammation and hypoxia within the bone marrow are key regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that can lead to several bone marrow failure syndromes, including MDS. In this brief review, we provide an overview of the clinical and molecular features of MDS, the bone marrow microenvironment, and specific pathways that lead to abnormal blood cell development in MDS. Characterization of key steps in the pathogenesis of MDS will lead to new approaches to treat patients with this disease. PMID:26210353

  3. Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2004-01-10

    Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

  4. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

  5. Hematogones: a multiparameter analysis of bone marrow precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Longacre, T A; Foucar, K; Crago, S; Chen, I M; Griffith, B; Dressler, L; McConnell, T S; Duncan, M; Gribble, J

    1989-02-01

    Morphologically distinct lymphoid cells with homogeneous, condensed chromatin and scant cytoplasm can be observed in large numbers in the bone marrow of children with a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic disorders. In some patients, these cells may account for greater than 50% of the bone marrow cells, creating a picture that can be confused with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or metastatic tumor. Although originally called hematogones (HGs), a variety of other names have been proposed for these unique cells. The clinical significance of expanded HGs has not been resolved, and the biologic features of these cells are incompletely described. In this study, we correlate the clinical, morphologic, cytochemical, flow cytometric, molecular, and cytogenetic properties of bone marrow samples from 12 children with substantial numbers of HGs (range 8% to 55% of bone marrow cells). Diagnoses in these patients included anemia, four; neutropenia, one; anemia and neutropenia, one; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, two; retinoblastoma, two; Ewing's sarcoma, one; and germ cell tumor, one. Flow cytometric analyses of bone marrow cells demonstrated a spectrum extending from early B-cell precursors (CD10+, CD19+, TdT+, HLA-Dr+) to mature surface immunoglobulin-bearing B cells in these patients, corroborating our morphologic impression of HGs, intermediate forms, and mature lymphocytes. DNA content was normal, and no clonal abnormality was identified by either cytogenetic or immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement studies. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3 years. None of the patients has developed acute leukemia or bone marrow involvement by solid tumor. The possible role of HGs in immune recovery and hematopoiesis is presented. PMID:2917189

  6. BONE MARROW, THYMUS AND BLOOD: CHANGES ACROSS THE LIFESPAN

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present age-related changes in the bone marrow and thymus and their effects in later life. Age-related hematologic changes are marked by a decline in marrow cellularity, increased risk of myeloproliferative disorders and anemia, and a decline in adaptive immunity. The exact mechanisms that produce these changes remain undefined. For the most part, the changes in function that are a consequence of aging alone rarely have meaningful clinical consequences. However, in the face of the stresses induced by other illnesses, the decreased physiologic reserve can slow or prevent an appropriate response to the stressors. PMID:20072723

  7. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  8. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  9. Probabilistic Prediction of the Outcome of Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Suermondt, H. Jacques; Amylon, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    Bone-marrow transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for pediatric patients with recurring acute lymphoblastic leukemia, provided that a suitable donor is available. Many prognostic factors are known that help to predict the likely outcome of transplantation. We have implemented a system that applies probabilistic reasoning to the available data about individual patients to help determine the risk of recurrence and morbidity after transplantation, and to predict life expectancy. The resulting predictions can be used to decide whether marrow transplantation is the most desirable treatment modality for the patient.

  10. Purification of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chen; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong production of blood cells is sustained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which reside at a very low frequency within the bone marrow (BM). The use of flow cytometry has been critical in establishing methods to isolate and characterize HSCs and their progenitors. For more than 30 years, researchers have uncovered many novel markers that when used in combination significantly enhance the purification of HSCs from murine and human bone marrow. Here, we review the phenotypic markers and strategies used to purify HSCs. PMID:26858027

  11. Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected children, report of three cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ira; Murthy, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected adults include hypocellularity, myelodysplasia and poor marrow recovery. Data in children is limited. We report a series of three HIV infected with varied bone marrow abnormalities. First child was a 7-year-old boy with pulmonary tuberculosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow examination showed hypoplastic marrow. He succumbed to his disease within seven days of hospitalization. Second child was a three and a half year old girl who had severe anemia and her bone marrow examination showed dyserythropoiesis. Third child was a 7-year-old boy who had splenic abscesses and pancytopenia and bone marrow examination showed myelofibrosis with increased plasma cells. He also succumbed due to a fatal pulmonary bleed. Thus, advanced HIV disease in children can lead to bone marrow suppression in form of hypoplasia or myelofibrosis which can be fatal. PMID:24778674

  12. What to Expect After a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... What To Expect After a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant You’ll stay in the hospital for ... or even months after your blood and marrow stem cell transplant. Your doctors will want to be sure ...

  13. Advancement of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research in North America: Priorities of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Haight, Ann E.; Kadota, Richard; Chen, Allen R.; Frangoul, Haydar; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Jacobsohn, David A.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Mitchell, David; Nieder, Michael L.; Yanik, Gregory; Cowan, Morton J.; Soni, Sandeep; Gardner, Sharon; Shenoy, Shalini; Taylor, Douglas; Cairo, Mitchell; Schultz, Kirk R.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in pediatric blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) are slowed by the small number of patients with a given disease transplanted, a lack of sufficient infrastructure to run early phase oncology protocols and studies of rare non-malignant disorders, and challenges associated with funding multi-institutional trials. Leadership of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC), a large pediatric BMT clinical trials network representing 77 active and 45 affiliated centers worldwide, met in April 2009 to develop strategic plans to address these issues. Key barriers including infrastructure development and funding, along with scientific initiatives in malignant and non-malignant disorders, cellular therapeutics, graft versus host disease, and supportive care were discussed. The PBMTC agenda for approaching these issues will result in infrastructure and trials specific to pediatrics that will run through the PBMTC or its partners, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network and the Children’s Oncology Group. PMID:20079865

  14. Evidence that the expression of transferrin receptor 1 on erythroid marrow cells mediates hepcidin suppression in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Siobn B.; Doty, Raymond; Liu, Li; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Cherian, Sindhu; Ganz, Tomas; Abkowitz, Janis L.

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron absorption and recycling, and its expression is suppressed by red blood cell production. When erythropoiesis is expanded, hepcidin expression decreases. To gain insight into the stage of erythroid differentiation at which the regulation might originate, we measured serum hepcidin levels in archived pure red cell aplasia samples from patients whose block in erythroid differentiation was well defined by hematopoietic colony assays and marrow morphologic review. Hepcidin values are high or high normal in pure red cell aplasia patients in whom erythropoiesis is inhibited prior to the proerythroblast stage, but are suppressed in patients with excess proerythroblasts and few later erythroid cells. These data suggest that the suppressive effect of erythropoietic activity on hepcidin expression can arise from proerythroblasts, the stage at which transferrin receptor 1 expression peaks, prompting the hypothesis that transferrin receptor 1 expression on erythroid precursors is a proximal mediator of the erythroid regulator of hepcidin expression. Our characterization of erythropoiesis, iron status, and hepcidin expression in mice with global or hematopoietic cell-specific haploinsufficiency of transferrin receptor 1 provides initial supporting data for this model. The regulation appears independent of erythroferrone and growth differentiation factor 15, supporting the concept that several mechanisms signal iron need in response to an expanded erythron. PMID:25782630

  15. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  16. Mapping the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Smith, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Since September 1997 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been orbiting the planet Mars and acquiring new data about the red planet that is changing our view of its present state and past history. Except for a few weeks in October 1997 and a few months in the Spring/Summer of 1998 when special science operations were conducted the spacecraft spent the first 18 months if its time at Mars getting to the right orbital geometry for the mapping mission. But on March 1, 1999 the MGS spacecraft trained its instruments onto the planet to begin a full Mars year (684 Earth days) of continuous systematic mapping and observation of the planet. The camera began wide angle and high resolution mapping, the thermal emission spectrometer began sensing the atmosphere and the material properties of the surface, the magnetometer searched out regions of abnormally high magnetism, the altimeter began determining the precise shape of the planet, and the radio science experiment began determining atmospheric pressures, temperatures and mapping the planet's gravity field. In a matter of a month more data was acquired about

  17. Red Ear Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raieli, V; Compagno, A; D'Amelio, M

    2016-03-01

    The Red ear syndrome (RES) is an intriguing syndrome originally described for the first time nearly 20 years ago. RES is characterized by unilateral/bilateral episodes of pain and burning sensation of the ear, associated with ipsilateral erythema. RES episodes are indeed isolated in some patients, but they can occur in association with primary headaches, including in particular migraine in the developmental age. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still uncertain, in the recent years the described comorbidities have aroused increasing interest because of possible clinical implications. Moreover, RES seems to be more often associated with clinical features of migraine partially provoked by the involvement of the parasympathetic system. This clinical association has shed new light on the pathophysiology of RES, supporting the hypothesis of a shared pathophysiological background, for example, through the activation of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. Current therapies of RES will be also discussed. Finally, we will resume the more controversial aspects of this relatively new and probably underestimated neurological syndrome. PMID:26879877

  18. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  19. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  20. The National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants The National Marrow Donor Program and Be The ... of them will die unless they get a bone marrow or cord blood transplant from a matching donor. Seventy percent of people ...

  1. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Zesheng

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice irradiated by a (60)Co gamma (gamma) ray (6.0 Gy, at a dose of 1.5 Gy min(-1)). Mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the control group and four experimental groups which were given one of four concentrations of betalains from red beets (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, equivalent to betanin) for 30 days. The four experimental groups of mice were then exposed to the (60)Co gamma-rays and were given betalains from red beets for a further 3 days. The number of white blood cells, karyota of the femur and the number of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, spleen index and thymus index were also determined. The results indicate that the administration of betalains from red beets is radioprotective in mice irradiated by (60)Co in vivo. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but appears to be mediated by the antioxidant activity of the betalains from red beets and modulation of the immune system. PMID:19446548

  2. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes and radiation dose to active bone marrow in patients treated for cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, R.A.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tarone, R.E.; Machado, S.G.; Blettner, M.; Peters, L.J.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    An international study of cervical cancer patients reported a doubling of the risk for leukemia following radiotherapy. To evaluate the extent of residual chromosome damage in circulating T-cell lymphocytes in this population, approximately 200 metaphases were examined from each of 96 irradiated and 26 nonirradiated cervical cancer patients treated more than 17 years ago (average 23 years). Radiation dose averaged over the total red bone marrow was estimated to be 8.1 Gy. The type and frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations were quantified in 24,117 metaphases. Unstable aberrations did not differ significantly between irradiated and nonirradiated patients (P greater than 0.5). Stable aberrations (i.e., translocations, inversions, or chromosomes with deleted segments), however, were significantly higher among irradiated (2.8 per 100 cells) compared to nonirradiated (0.7 per 100 cells) women (P less than 10(4)). The frequency of these stable aberrations was found to increase significantly with increasing dose to the bone marrow. These data indicate that a direct relationship between radiation dose and extent of damage to somatic cells persists in populations and can be detected many years after partial-body radiation exposure. The stable aberration rate in irradiated cervical cancer patients was 50 to 75% lower than those observed 25 years or more after radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors and in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radiotherapy. The average marrow dose was only 1 Gy in the examined atomic bomb survivors and 3.5 Gy in the ankylosing spondylitis patients. It appears, then, that a very high dose delivered to the pelvic cavity in fractionated doses resulted in far fewer persistent stable aberrations than lower doses delivered either in acute whole-body exposure or in fractionated doses to the spinal column and sacroiliac joints.

  3. Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

  4. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  5. Histochemistry of blood and bone marrow cells in pangolins.

    PubMed

    Caxton-Martins, A E

    1977-04-01

    Blood and bone marrow cells of pangolins have been examined histochemically. Sudanophilia, PAS positivity and acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase reactivity were confined to cells of the granulocytic and monocytic series, while peroxidase reactivity was confined to cells of the erythroid series. In this latter respect the pangolin is unique among mammals so far studied. PMID:858692

  6. Psychodynamic themes of bone marrow transplantation. When I becomes thou.

    PubMed

    Futterman, A D; Wellisch, D K

    1990-06-01

    In-depth psychodynamic factors about bone marrow transplantation are described. These factors are related to the BMT recipient, donor, recipient's family, and hospital staff. The emphasis is on the meaning of the experience emotionally and symbolically for the participants in BMT. PMID:2193020

  7. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  8. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  9. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Benko', Klara; Pintye, Eva; Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona

    2008-12-08

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of {gamma}--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD{sub 50} values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  10. Morphology and cytochemistry of bovine bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Izzi, S A; Maxie, M G; Valli, V E

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow samples were collected from five normal calves and mononuclear cells were separated using Ficoll-Hypaque. Mononuclear cells were cultured on coverslips in Leighton tubes for six hours. The adherent cells were differentiated using Wright's and nonspecific esterase stains. Monoblasts, promonocytes and monocytes were present in the proportion of 1:2.31:4.96. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6178485

  11. A Role For Photodynamic Therapy In Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Fritz

    1988-02-01

    Simultaneous exposure to the amphipathic fluorescent dye merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and light of a suitable wavelength rapidly kills leukemia, lymphoma, and neuroblastoma cells but spares normal pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Tests in several preclinical models and early results of a phase I clinical trial suggest that MC 540-mediated photosensitization may be useful for the extracorporeal purging of autologous remission bone marrow grafts.

  12. Outcome following late marrow relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.

    1984-10-01

    Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.

  13. Therapy Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xinchun; Hu, Jinxia; Cui, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve functional outcome after stroke. In this review, we will focus on the protective effects of BMSCs on ischemic brain and the relative molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs on stroke. PMID:27069533

  14. Anaplasma platys in bone marrow megakaryocytes of young dogs.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, A Sara; Baneth, Gad; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; de Caprariis, Donato

    2014-06-01

    Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. In the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors of two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that A. platys can infect megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes. PMID:24622106

  15. Generation of Eosinophils from Cryopreserved Murine Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schollaert, Kaila L.; Stephens, Michael R.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineagecommitted progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineagecommitted progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineagecommitted progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineagecommitted progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineagecommitted progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5. PMID:25551463

  16. A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayouth, John Ellis

    In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated from the standard and regional technique. The results showed the regional technique values correlated more closely to several clinical response parameters. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. Fullerol antagonizes dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress and adipogenesis while enhancing osteogenesis in a cloned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjian; Yang, Xinlin; Zhang, Yi; Dighe, Abhijit; Li, Xudong; Cui, Quanjun

    2012-07-01

    Increased oxidative stress is currently considered as a crucial cause of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fullerol, a powerful antioxidant, on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of a mouse bone marrow derived multipotent cell line, D1. Upon treatment with dexamethasone, D1 cells containing lipid vesicles were distinguishable from the surrounding cells by Oil Red O staining at day 21. Simultaneous treatment of dexamethasone with antioxidant glutathione or fullerol decreased the number of cells containing lipid vesicles. Treatment with dexamethasone for 7 days resulted in a significant increase in adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte protein 2 gene expression and decrease in expression of osteogenic markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin and antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase as revealed by quantitative real-time PCR. While glutathione and fullerol both were able to antagonize the effects of dexamethasone, fullerol had a greater effect than glutathione. Staining with a fluorescent dye CM-H(2) DCFDA as indicator of cellular reactive oxygen species revealed that the percentage of positively stained cells increased after dexamethasone treatment, and addition of fullerol attenuated this activity. These results indicated that fullerol inhibited adipogenesis and simultaneously enhanced osteogenesis by marrow mesenchymal stem cells possibly through elimination of cellular reactive oxygen species. The results indicated that fullerol can potentially be used for prevention and treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis. PMID:22570221

  18. The osteogenic differentiation stimulating activity of Sea cucumber methanolic crude extraction on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Soltani, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber derived bioactive compound is considered efficient in treatment of bone disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of this extract on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSc) into osteogenic lineage. Materials and Methods: Isolated rBMMSc were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were exposed to different concentration of extract. After 21 days, Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase assay and RT-PCR were performed. The results were analyzed by ANOVA software and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Morphological methods revealed that appropriate concentrations of extract increased osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR revealed that extract without or with osteogenic medium due to osteopontin expression had a potential role in osteogenesis. Conclusion: Based on our data it concluded that S. cucumber extract stimulated Bone marrow mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteogenic lineage without existence of osteogenic medium. PMID:25422758

  19. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red ...

  20. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  1. The use of multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting to characterize native human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Boxall, Sally; Jones, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for identification, phenotypic analysis, and cell sorting of rare mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow (BM) aspirates. The native BM MSC population is identified based on the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) phenotype. The method consists of three related procedures: Procedure 1 involves a microbead-based pre-enrichment step. Two other procedures describe direct flow cytometric analysis of MSCs following the isolation of the mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction (Procedure 2) or more rapidly, following a simple ammonium chloride-based red cell lysis (Procedure 3). Recently described multi-lineage transcript expression in the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) cells suggests that the native BM MSC fraction could be further subdivided into functionally distinct subpopulations. The present protocols are hoped to help MSC biologists to enter this exciting field of research and to take it forward towards a better understanding of MSC biology in vivo. PMID:25388391

  2. Stem cell plasticity in muscle and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Goodell, M A; Jackson, K A; Majka, S M; Mi, T; Wang, H; Pocius, J; Hartley, C J; Majesky, M W; Entman, M L; Michael, L H; Hirschi, K K

    2001-06-01

    Recent discoveries have demonstrated the extraordinary plasticity of tissue-derived stem cells, raising fundamental questions about cell lineage relationships and suggesting the potential for novel cell-based therapies. We have examined this phenomenon in a potential reciprocal relationship between stem cells derived from the skeletal muscle and from the bone marrow. We have discovered that cells derived from the skeletal muscle of adult mice contain a remarkable capacity for hematopoietic differentiation. Cells prepared from muscle by enzymatic digestion and 5 day in vitro culture were harvested and introduced into each of six lethally irradiated recipients together with distinguishable whole bone marrow cells. Six and twelve weeks later, all recipients showed high-level engraftment of muscle-derived cells representing all major adult blood lineages. The mean total contribution of muscle cell progeny to peripheral blood was 56%, indicating that the cultured muscle cells generated approximately 10- to 14-fold more hematopoietic activity than whole bone marrow. Although the identity of the muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells is still unknown, they may be identical to muscle satellite cells, some of which lack myogenic regulators and could respond to hematopoietic signals. We have also found that stem cells in the bone marrow can contribute to cardiac muscle repair and neovascularization after ischemic injury. We transplanted highly purified bone marrow stem cells into lethally irradiated mice that subsequently were rendered ischemic by coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. The engrafted stem cells or their progeny differentiated into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells and contributed to the formation of functional tissue. PMID:11458510

  3. Ischemic Stroke Activates Hematopoietic Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Courties, Gabriel; Herisson, Fanny; Sager, Hendrik B.; Heidt, Timo; Ye, Yuxiang; Wei, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Severe, Nicolas; Dutta, Partha; Scharff, Jennifer; Scadden, David T.; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The mechanisms leading to an expanded neutrophil and monocyte supply after stroke are incompletely understood. Objective To test the hypothesis that transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in mice leads to activation of hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells. Methods and Results Serial in vivo bioluminescence reporter gene imaging in mice with tMCAO revealed that bone marrow cell cycling peaked 4 days after stroke (p<0.05 versus pre tMCAO). FACS and cell cycle analysis showed activation of the entire hematopoietic tree, including myeloid progenitors. The cycling fraction of the most upstream hematopoietic stem cells increased from 3.34%±0.19 to 7.32±0.52 after tMCAO (p<0.05). In vivo microscopy corroborated proliferation of adoptively transferred hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow of mice with stroke. The hematopoietic system’s myeloid bias was reflected by increased expression of myeloid transcription factors, including PU.1 (p<0.05), and by a decline in lymphocyte precursors. In mice after tMCAO, tyrosine hydroxylase levels in sympathetic fibers and bone marrow noradrenaline levels rose (p<0.05, respectively), associated with a decrease of hematopoietic niche factors that promote stem cell quiescence. In mice with genetic deficiency of the β3 adrenergic receptor, hematopoietic stem cells did not enter the cell cycle in increased numbers after tMCAO (naive control, 3.23±0.22; tMCAO, 3.74±0.33, p=0.51). Conclusions Ischemic stroke activates hematopoietic stem cells via increased sympathetic tone, leading to a myeloid bias of hematopoiesis and higher bone marrow output of inflammatory Ly6Chigh monocytes and neutrophils. PMID:25362208

  4. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a patient with DNA ligase IV deficiency and bone marrow failure

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Bernd; Seidel, Joerg; Zintl, Felix; Varon, Raymonda; Tönnies, Holger; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Bechtold, Astrid; Hoehn, Holger; Schindler, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    Background DNA Ligase IV deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4). The clinical phenotype shows overlap with a number of other rare syndromes, including Seckel syndrome, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and Fanconi anemia. Thus the clinical diagnosis is often delayed and established by exclusion. Methods We describe a patient with pre- and postnatal growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features in whom the diagnoses of Seckel-, Dubowitz-, and Nijmegen breakage syndrome were variably considered. Cellular radiosensitivity in the absence of clinical manifestations of Ataxia telangiectasia lead to the diagnosis of DNA ligase IV (LIG4) deficiency syndrome, confirmed by compound heterozygous mutations in the LIG4 gene. At age 11, after a six year history of progressive bone marrow failure and increasing transfusion dependency the patient was treated with matched sibling donor hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen without irradiation. Results The post-transplantation course was uneventful with rapid engraftment leading to complete and stable chimerism. Now at age 16, the patient has gained weight and is in good clinical condition. Conclusion HSCT using mild conditioning without irradiation qualifies as treatment of choice in LIG4-deficient patients who have a matched sibling donor. PMID:17224058

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Red face and fungi infection.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Oliverio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Red face syndrome is characterized by an erythematous dermatitis that is produced by different entities. These include rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, cutaneous lupus, photodermatosis, post-topical steroid dermatosis, demodicosis, borderline borderline (BB) leprosy, mastocytosis, carcinoid, postneoplasia flushing, cutaneous lymphoma, tineas, ulerythema ophryogenes, and psychosomatic flushing. Red face is a relatively common dermatologic manifestation. Our goal is to review tinea corporis and other fungi that affect this region causing facial erythema and its therapeutic management. PMID:25441465

  7. Increased differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aquaporin-5 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao; Ma, Tonghui

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5(+/+) mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) and AQP5(+/+) mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPARγ2, C/EBPα, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5(-/-) mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5(+/+) than AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

  8. Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

  9. Effects of a hybrid micro/nanorod topography-modified titanium implant on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Zihui; Huang, Qingfeng; Xu, Ling; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Yuqin; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin β1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. Results The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. Conclusion This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo. PMID:23345973

  10. Autologous bone marrow transplantation in poor-risk high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in first complete remission. Newcastle and Northern Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G H; Lennard, A L; Taylor, P R; Carey, P; Angus, B; Lucraft, H; Evans, R G; Proctor, S J

    1994-09-01

    We report the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in 30 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in first complete remission (CR1) following remission induction chemotherapy. Two patients relapsed prior to ABMT. All patients were conditioned with high-dose melphalan. In Addition, ten received fractionated total body irradiation, one hemi-body irradiation and four high-dose etoposide. Unmanipulated non-cryopreserved autologous marrow was reinfused within 56 h of harvesting. Engraftment occurred in all patients with a median of 11 days of neutropenia (< 0.5 x 10(9) l-1), a median requirement for platelet transfusion of 3 days and packed red cell transfusion of 2 units, with a median hospital stay of 18 days post transplant. There was no procedure-related mortality and only minor morbidity was observed. Two patients relapsed at 1 and 2 months post transplantation, and one patient died of carcinoma of the lung 33 months after transplantation. The remaining 25 patients remain alive, well and in CR1 with a median follow-up of 44 months. The event-free survival at 3 years for all patients considered for ABMT was 83%. We conclude that ABMT for high-grade NHL in CR1 with non-cryopreserved marrow results in rapid haematological recovery without growth factor support. It is safe and is associated with high survival when used as consolidation of CR in high-risk patients. PMID:7521662

  11. Autologous bone marrow transplantation in poor-risk high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in first complete remission. Newcastle and Northern Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, G. H.; Lennard, A. L.; Taylor, P. R.; Carey, P.; Angus, B.; Lucraft, H.; Evans, R. G.; Proctor, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    We report the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in 30 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in first complete remission (CR1) following remission induction chemotherapy. Two patients relapsed prior to ABMT. All patients were conditioned with high-dose melphalan. In Addition, ten received fractionated total body irradiation, one hemi-body irradiation and four high-dose etoposide. Unmanipulated non-cryopreserved autologous marrow was reinfused within 56 h of harvesting. Engraftment occurred in all patients with a median of 11 days of neutropenia (< 0.5 x 10(9) l-1), a median requirement for platelet transfusion of 3 days and packed red cell transfusion of 2 units, with a median hospital stay of 18 days post transplant. There was no procedure-related mortality and only minor morbidity was observed. Two patients relapsed at 1 and 2 months post transplantation, and one patient died of carcinoma of the lung 33 months after transplantation. The remaining 25 patients remain alive, well and in CR1 with a median follow-up of 44 months. The event-free survival at 3 years for all patients considered for ABMT was 83%. We conclude that ABMT for high-grade NHL in CR1 with non-cryopreserved marrow results in rapid haematological recovery without growth factor support. It is safe and is associated with high survival when used as consolidation of CR in high-risk patients. PMID:7521662

  12. An assessment of bone marrow and bone endosteum dosimetry methods for photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Shah, Amish P.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-11-01

    The rather complex and microscopic histological structure of the skeletal system generally limits one's ability to accurately model this tissue during dosimetric evaluations. Consequently, various assumptions must be made to evaluate the absorbed dose from external and internal photons to the radiosensitive tissues of the red (or haematopoietically active) bone marrow and the osteogenic tissues of the skeletal endosteum. These various methods for photon skeletal dosimetry have not been inter-compared, partly due to the lack of a realistic reference model that can provide a high-resolution three-dimensional geometry for secondary electron particle transport. In the present study, the paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model developed by Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 45 344) was utilized to evaluate the absorbed dose per incident photon fluence to these skeletal regions from idealized parallel beams of monoenergetic photons. The PIRT model results were then used as a local reference against which absorbed doses via other methods were compared. For red bone marrow dosimetry, four approximate techniques were considered: (1) the dose response function method (DRF method) presented in ORNL/TM-8381, (2) the mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio method (two-parameter MEAC method), (3) the MEAC method with the additional use of energy-dependent dose enhancement factors from King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345) (three-parameter MEAC method), and (4) the three-parameter MEAC method applied at the voxel level through the use image-specific CT numbers (CTN method). For the bone endosteum (i.e., bone surfaces), two approximate techniques were compared: (1) the DRF method for bone surfaces and (2) the homogeneous bone approximation (HBA) method. In each case, the local reference standard was assumed to be that of the PIRT model. Four different ex vivo bone specimens with distinctively different internal structures were used in the study: the cranium, the lumbar vertebra, the os coxae and the left middle rib, each excised from a 66 year male cadaver (body mass index, 22.7 kg m-2). High-resolution CT images of these skeletal sites were used to construct computational voxel models for Monte Carlo radiation transport. Study results indicated that skeletal sites with thick cortical regions and thick trabeculae such as in the cranium provide considerable beam attenuation at low photon energies, which is not properly accounted for in methods based on a homogeneous skeletal tissue structure (DRF, MEAC, HBA). For bone marrow dose assessment, the CTN method showed the best agreement with PIRT model results over a broad range of photon energies, while the HBA method showed better agreement with the PIRT model in assessing bone endosteum dose at energies above 100 keV. Bone surface doses were better approximately by the DRF method at energies below 50 keV. Considerable secondary electron escape at photon energies over 1-3 MeV were accounted for in RBM dose assessment only in the PIRT model, as the other methods presume either an infinite expanse of spongiosa (DRF) or the existence of charge-particle equilibrium (MEAC, CTN).

  13. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C.

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Magna-field irradiation and autologous marrow rescue in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, L.L.; Wharam, M.D.; Kaizer, H.; Leventhal, B.G.; Ruymann, R.

    1983-12-01

    Marrow ablative therapy has been given to pediatric patients with a variety of disseminated tumors. Eight patients with advanced neuroblastoma received autologous marrow reinfusion after intensive therapy. Three of eight are in continuous complete remission from 7 to 60 months. An additional four patients received allogeneic marrow transplantation and two remain in continuous complete response at 21 and 39 months. Intensive therapy and autologous marrow reinfusion have been applied to Ewing's sarcoma, but only preliminary results are available. Six patients with disseminated rhabdomyosarcoma and extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma received conventional chemotherapy followed by sequential hemi-body irradiation. Four of six patients received autologous marrow rescue. Their median disease-free survival is 17 months. This preliminary experience demonstrates the feasibility of using marrow ablative therapy with autologous marrow transplantation in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors. Continuing Phase II studies are required to substantiate its efficacy.

  15. Consequences of irradiation on bone and marrow phenotypes, and its relation to disruption of hematopoietic precursors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Danielle E.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2014-01-01

    The rising levels of radiation exposure, specifically for medical treatments and accidental exposures, have added great concern for the long term risks of bone fractures. Both the bone marrow and bone architecture are devastated following radiation exposure. Even sub-lethal doses cause a deficit to the bone marrow microenvironment, including a decline in hematopoietic cells, and this deficit occurs in a dose dependent fashion. Certain cell phenotypes though are more susceptible to radiation damage, with mesenchymal stem cells being more resilient than the hematopoietic stem cells. The decline in total bone marrow hematopoietic cells is accompanied with elevated adipocytes into the marrow cavity, thereby inhibiting hematopoiesis and recovery of the bone marrow microenvironment. Poor bone marrow is also associated with a decline in bone architectural quality. Therefore, the ability to maintain the bone marrow microenvironment would hinder much of the trabecular bone loss caused by radiation exposure, ultimately decreasing some comorbidities in patients exposed to radiation. PMID:24607941

  16. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  17. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  18. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  19. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  20. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  1. Species variation in the spontaneous calcification of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Cai, Jia-Qin; Lv, Feng-Juan; Xie, Hong-Lei; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Yong-Can; Deng, Li

    2013-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) hold great promise for tissue regeneration. With increasing numbers of clinical trials, the safety of BM-MSCs attracts great interest. Previously, we determined that rat BM-MSCs possessed spontaneous calcification without osteogenic induction after continuous culture. However, it is unclear whether BM-MSCs from other species share this characteristic. In this study, spontaneous calcification of BM-MSCs from rat, goat, and human specimens was investigated in vitro. BM-MSCs were cultured in complete medium, and calcification was determined by morphologic observation and alizarin red staining. It was demonstrated that rat BM-MSCs possessed a typically spontaneous calcification, whereas goat and human BM-MSCs under the same system proliferated significantly but did not calcify spontaneously. The significant species variation in spontaneous calcification of BM-MSCs described in this study provides useful information regarding evaluation of numerous BM-MSC-based approaches for bone regeneration and the safety of BM-MSCs. PMID:23312450

  2. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  3. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  4. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.L. )

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereas the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

  6. RED: a red-cell antibody identification expert module.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Svirbely, J R; Evans, C A; Strohm, P; Josephson, J R; Tanner, M

    1985-06-01

    We describe a software module in an expert system RED, which interprets data related to red cell antibody identification. There are three portions to this module: the problem-solving component, which incorporates the knowledge required for antibody identification as a hierarchy of programs. The programs in the hierarchy organize within themselves small pieces of knowledge represented in the form of production rules, which are capable of making judgments concerning a specific hypothesis; an intelligent data base for storage of patient data, red cell attributes, and test results; the "overview critic" portion, which combines the atomic hypotheses judged favorably by the antibody programs into a unified judgment concerning the case. Overview makes the decision to terminate processing with a conclusion about which antibodies are actually present and what specific further tests need to be performed to resolve any remaining ambiguities. PMID:3840517

  7. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  8. Dipyridamole increases red cell deformability.

    PubMed Central

    Sowemimo-Coker, S O; Kovacs, I B; Pickles, H; Hedges, A; Turner, P

    1983-01-01

    The effects of dipyridamole on red cell filterability both in vitro and ex vivo were measured. In a balanced, randomised and double-blind trial, six healthy male and female volunteers (22-37 years) were given dipyridamole 400 mg/day or matching placebo in four divided doses for 3 days, and heparinised venous blood samples were taken 1 h after the ingestion of the last dose. Filterability of red cells was increased significantly (P less than 0.05 paired t-test) when the subjects were on dipyridamole compared with placebo. In separate experiments, 15 min incubation with 2 or 20 micrograms/ml dipyridamole in vitro was found to have no effect on the filterability of freshly prepared red cell suspensions. After 24 h storage at 4 degrees C, the filterability of red cells was significantly decreased (P less than 0.01) and this could be partially prevented by adding dipyridamole to the stored cells (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that dipyridamole has an effect on the behaviour of the red cell membrane to increase the deformability of the cells. This may contribute to its therapeutic effect. PMID:6626435

  9. Chemotherapy-induced bone marrow nerve injury impairs hematopoietic regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Daniel; Scheiermann, Christoph; Chow, Andrew; Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Barrick, Colleen; Tessarollo, Lino; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs challenge hematopoietic tissues to regenerate, but commonly produce long-term sequelae. Deficits in hematopoietic stem or stromal cell function have been described, but the mechanisms mediating chemotherapy-induced hematopoietic dysfunction remain unclear. Administration of multiple cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy causes significant sensory neuropathy. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced nerve injury in the bone marrow is a critical lesion impairing hematopoietic regeneration. We show using various pharmacological and genetic models that the selective loss of adrenergic innervation in the BM alters its regeneration following genotoxic insult. Sympathetic nerves in the marrow promote the survival of stem cell niche constituents that initiate recovery. Neuroprotection by deletion of Trp53 in sympathetic neurons or neuro-regeneration using 4-methylcatechol or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) administration can restore hematopoietic recovery. Thus, these results shed light on the potential benefit of adrenergic nerve protection to shield hematopoietic niches from injury. PMID:23644514

  10. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  11. [Diagnosis and management of inherited bone marrow failure syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa

    2015-10-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are rare disorders in which there is usually some form of bone marrow failure and typical changes in physical appearance, associated with a family history of the same disorder. Patients with IBMFS have a very high risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. The latest technology applied to the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders has led to identification of specific genetic mutations and now facilitates determining the appropriate diagnosis and management of afflicted patients. In this section, we describe physical and laboratory findings and management of the major IBMFS: Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and Diamond Blackfan anemia. We also discuss their possible implications in the clinical features of Japanese patients. PMID:26458429

  12. Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages accumulate in the human bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Joice, Regina; Nilsson, Sandra K.; Montgomery, Jacqui; Dankwa, Selasi; Egan, Elizabeth; Morahan, Belinda; Seydel, Karl B.; Bertuccini, Lucia; Alano, Pietro; Williamson, Kim C.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Taylor, Terrie E.; Milner, Danny A.; Marti, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites requires formation and development of gametocytes, yet all but the most mature of these sexual parasite forms are absent from the blood circulation. We performed a systematic organ survey in pediatric cases of fatal malaria to characterize the spatial dynamics of gametocyte development in the human host. Histological studies revealed a niche in the extravascular space of the human bone marrow where gametocytes formed in erythroid precursor cells and underwent development before reentering the circulation. Accumulation of gametocytes in the hematopoietic system of human bone marrow did not rely on cytoadherence to the vasculature as does sequestration of asexual-stage parasites. This suggests a different mechanism for the sequestration of gametocytes that could potentially be exploited to block malaria transmission. PMID:25009232

  13. Erythropoietin resistance as a result of oxalosis in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Sahin, G; Acikalin, M F; Yalcin, A U

    2005-05-01

    Anemia is an important cause of morbidity in patients suffering from chronic renal failure, and erythropoietin is a milestone of anemia treatment. Various factors may cause erythropoietin resistance. Herein, we describe the case of 32-year-old man who presented with anemia and weakness. He developed progressive renal failure secondary to recurrent kidney stones. One year before admission, he developed anemia for which he had been treated with erythropoietin. However, the anemia persisted. Examination of bone marrow biopsy specimen showed that the marrow was extensively replaced with oxalate crystals and fibrous connective tissue with severe decrease of hematopoietic cells. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the first case in the literature describing the association between the oxalate deposition and EPO resistance. PMID:15909602

  14. Bone marrow examination before steroids in thrombocytopenic purpura or arthritis.

    PubMed

    Reid, M M

    1992-12-01

    Corticosteroids were used to treat two children with presumed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and one with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis without examination of the bone marrow. Of the two with presumed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, one had Fanconi's anaemia and the other may have had aplastic anaemia. The third child had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The diagnosis of Fanconi's anaemia was delayed. A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma was caused in the second case. In the third, delayed diagnosis and, perhaps, compromised outlook resulted. These three cases re-emphasize the well aired caveats about the diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and provide further support for the arguments of those who believe that if corticosteroids are to be used to treat such children, their bone marrow should be examined first. PMID:1290852

  15. Bone marrow hypoplasia associated with fenbendazole administration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gary, Anthony T; Kerl, Marie E; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Turnquist, Susan E; Cohn, Leah A

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old Doberman pinscher was presented with sudden-onset of fever and malaise. Twelve days prior to presentation, fenbendazole therapy was initiated for a suspected lungworm infection. Results of a complete blood count on presentation showed pancytopenia, while histopathological evaluation of a bone marrow core sample revealed bone marrow hypoplasia of undetermined etiology. Bactericidal antibiotics and fluid therapy, as well as discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, led to a complete resolution of clinical and hematological abnormalities within 15 days. An idiosyncratic reaction to fenbendazole was suspected based on the absence of infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, and toxic etiologies, as well as resolution of clinical signs and pancytopenia upon drug withdrawal. PMID:15131104

  16. Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages accumulate in the human bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Joice, Regina; Nilsson, Sandra K; Montgomery, Jacqui; Dankwa, Selasi; Egan, Elizabeth; Morahan, Belinda; Seydel, Karl B; Bertuccini, Lucia; Alano, Pietro; Williamson, Kim C; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Taylor, Terrie E; Milner, Danny A; Marti, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites requires formation and development of gametocytes, yet all but the most mature of these sexual parasite forms are absent from the blood circulation. We performed a systematic organ survey in pediatric cases of fatal malaria to characterize the spatial dynamics of gametocyte development in the human host. Histological studies revealed a niche in the extravascular space of the human bone marrow where gametocytes formed in erythroid precursor cells and underwent development before reentering the circulation. Accumulation of gametocytes in the hematopoietic system of human bone marrow did not rely on cytoadherence to the vasculature as does sequestration of asexual-stage parasites. This suggests a different mechanism for the sequestration of gametocytes that could potentially be exploited to block malaria transmission. PMID:25009232

  17. From evidence to clinical practice in blood and marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khera, Nandita

    2015-11-01

    Clinical practice in the field of blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) has evolved over time, as a result of thousands of basic and clinical research studies. While it appears that scientific discovery and adaptive clinical research may be well integrated in case of BMT, there is lack of sufficient literature to definitively understand the process of translation of evidence to practice and if it may be selective . In this review, examples from BMT and other areas of medicine are used to highlight the state of and potential barriers to evidence uptake. Strategies to help improve knowledge transfer are discussed and the role of existing framework provided by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry (CIBMTR) to monitor uptake and BMT Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) to enhance translation of evidence into practice is highlighted. PMID:25934009

  18. Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Katoh, Youichi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Itoh, Seigo; Iesaki, Takafumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Yuji; Okada, Takao

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca{sup 2+} levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions.

  19. Leukemia prevention and long-term survival of AKR mice transplanted with MHC-matched or MHC-mismatched bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, R.E.; Good, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of marrow transplantation within and outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the long-term survival and occurrence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. AKR mice, which were lethally irradiated and received MHC-matched marrow from CBA/J mice (CBA----AKR), never developed leukemia and were alive and remained healthy for up to 280 days post-transplant. These long-term surviving chimeras possessed substantial immune vigor when both cell-mediated and humoral responses were tested. Lethally irradiated AKR mice, which had received MHC-mismatched marrow (anti-Thy-1.2 treated or nontreated) from C57BL/6J mice (B6----AKR), never developed leukemia and survived up to 170 days post-transplant. However, both groups of these chimeras began dying 180 to 270 days post-transplant due to a disease process which could not be readily identified. Histological analysis of B6----AKR chimeras revealed severe lymphoid cell depletion in thymus and spleen; however, none of these chimeras exhibited classical features of acute graft versus host disease. Concanavalin A mitogenesis, primary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed in B6----AKR chimeras. IL-2 treatment of B6----AKR chimeras was shown to partially correct these deficiencies without stimulating mixed lymphocyte responsiveness to donor or host lymphocytes. These studies indicate that the use of MHC-mismatched marrow for the prevention of spontaneous AKR leukemia may rely on augmentative IL-2 therapy for complete immune reconstitution of leukemia-free chimeras.

  20. Shifts in bone marrow cell phenotypes caused by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M Teresa; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia; Chapes, Stephen K

    2009-02-01

    Bone marrow cells were isolated from the humeri of C57BL/6 mice after a 13-day flight on the space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-118 to determine how spaceflight affects differentiation of cells in the granulocytic lineage. We used flow cytometry to assess the expression of molecules that define the maturation/activation state of cells in the granulocytic lineage on three bone marrow cell subpopulations. These molecules included Ly6C, CD11b, CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), Ly6G (Gr-1), F4/80, CD44, and c-Fos. The three subpopulations were small agranular cells [region (R)1], larger granular cells (R2), which were mostly neutrophils, and very large, very granular cells (R3), which had properties of macrophages. Although there were no composite phenotypic differences between total bone marrow cells isolated from spaceflight and ground-control mice, there were subpopulation differences in Ly6C (R1 and R3), CD11b (R2), CD31 (R1, R2, and R3), Ly6G (R3), F4/80 (R3), CD44(high) (R3), and c-Fos (R1, R2, and R3). In particular, the elevation of CD11b in the R2 subpopulation suggests neutrophil activation in response to landing. In addition, decreases in Ly6C, c-Fos, CD44(high), and Ly6G and an increase in F4/80 suggest that the cells in the bone marrow R3 subpopulation of spaceflight mice were more differentiated compared with ground-control mice. The presence of more differentiated cells may not pose an immediate risk to immune resistance. However, the reduction in less differentiated cells may forebode future consequences for macrophage production and host defenses. This is of particular importance to considerations of future long-term spaceflights. PMID:19056998

  1. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: historical overview and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Charbord, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the historical emergence of the concept of bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), summarizing data on Wolf and Trentin’s hematopoietic inductive microenvironment, Dexter’s hematopoiesis supportive stromal cells, Friedenstein’s osteogenic cells, Pittenger’s trilineal osteoblastic, chondrocytic and adipocytic precursors, to finally introduce the specific bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with differentiation potential to four lineages (mesenchymal and vascular smooth muscle lineages), and stromal and immunomodulatory capacities. Two points are the object of detailed discussion. The first point envisions the stem cell attributes (multipotentiality, self-renewal, tissue regeneration, population heterogeneity, plasticity, lineage priming) compared to that of the paradigmatic hematopoietic stem cell. In the second point, we discuss the possible existence of bone marrow cells with larger differentiation potential, eventually pluripotential cells. The latter point raises the issues of cell fusion, reprogrammation, or selection under non standardized conditions of rare populations of neuroectodermal origin, or of cells that had undergone mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. In the last section, we review data on MSC senescence and possible malignant transformation secondary to extensive culture, gene transfer of telomerase, or mutations such as leading to Ewing’s sarcoma. The set of data leads to the conclusion that bone marrow MSCs constitute a specific adult tissue stem cell population. The multiple characteristics of this stem cell type accounts for the versatility of the mechanisms of injured tissue repair. Although MSC administration may be extremely useful in a number of clinical applications, their transplantation is not without risks that must not be overlooked when developing cell therapy protocols. PMID:20565251

  2. Oerskovia xanthineolytica: a new pathogen in bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, P; Kuipers, S; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Verdonck, L F; Petersen, E J

    1998-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma underwent an autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). Incomplete reconstitution necessitated the use of a long-term central venous catheter. One year after BMT she presented with fever. Echocardiography revealed vegetations on the tricuspid valve. Gram-positive rods grown from blood cultures and catheter tip were identified as Oerskovia xanthineolytica. We report the first case of native valve endocarditis caused by this organism. PMID:9733276

  3. Vitiligo as a post-bone marrow transplantation complication.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Shelley; Morrell, Dean

    2007-07-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune condition in which T cells recognize and destroy melanocytes. We present a case of a 20-year-old male who developed generalized vitiligo 4 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for Fanconi anemia. Although other autoimmune conditions have been well characterized as post-BMT complications, vitiligo is very rare. We review the 9 previously reported cases of post-BMT vitiligo. PMID:17609627

  4. Irradiation alters the differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YU; ZHU, GUOYING; WANG, JIANPING; CHEN, JUNXIANG

    2016-01-01

    Bone injury following radiotherapy has been confirmed by epidemiological and animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated and no preventive or curative solution has been identified for this bone loss. The present study aimed to investigate the irradiation-altered osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were derived and exposed to γ-irradiation at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 Gy. Cell viability was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and clonal expansion in vitro was detected by colony forming unit assessment. The osteogenic differentiation ability was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining and mineralization alizarin red staining, and the adipogenic differentiation ability was determined using Oil O red staining. The osteogenesis-associated genes, RUNX2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and adipogenesis-associated genes, PPAR-γ and C/EBPα, were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The protein expression levels of RUNX2, ALP and PPAR-γ were detected using western blotting. Compared with the control, significant decreases in the proliferation, ALP activity and mineralization ability of the BMSCs were observed in the γ-irradiation group, with a high level of correlation with the exposure dose. However, no significant changes were observed in the area of Oil red O positive staining. The mRNA levels of RUNX2, ALP and OCN were decreased (P<0.05), however, no significant changes were observed in the levels of C/EBPα and PPAR-γ. The protein expression levels of RUNX2 and ALP were decreased in the irradiated BMSCs, however, no significant difference was observed in the protein expression of PPAR-γ. Irradiation inhibited the osteogenic and adipogenic ability of the BMSCs, and the osteogenic differentiation was decreased. The results of the present study provided evidence to assist in further elucidating radiotherapy-associated side effects on the skeleton. PMID:26572960

  5. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  7. L-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester treatment of canine marrow and peripheral blood cells: Inhibition of proliferative responses with maintenance of the capacity for autologous marrow engraftment

    SciTech Connect

    Raff, R.F.; Severns, E.; Storb, R.; Martin, P.; Graham, T.

    1988-11-01

    The success of allogeneic marrow transplantation as treatment for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases has been restricted by the serious complications of graft-versus-host disease. Experiments in a variety of mammalian marrow transplant models have shown that removal of mature T cells from donor marrow permits engraftment without the development of GVHD. Incubation of canine marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester resulted in the inhibition of mitogen-and alloantigen induced blastogenesis, the elimination of allosensitized Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte and Natural Killer activity, and prevented the development of CTL from pCTL. The effects of these incubations were similar to those described in mice and humans. Additionally, in vitro CFU-GM growth from treated canine marrow was reduced, but could be regained when the Leu-Leu-OMe-treated marrow was cocultured with either untreated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte-enriched PBMC but not with untreated monocyte-depleted PBMC. Six of seven dogs conditioned with 920 cGy total-body irradiation engrafted successfully after receiving autologous marrow that was incubated with Leu-Leu-OMe prior to infusion. These cumulative results indicate that incubation with Leu-Leu-OMe is a feasible method to deplete canine marrows of alloreactive and cytotoxic T cells prior to transplantation.

  8. Bone marrow lesions and subchondral bone pathology of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kon, Elizaveta; Ronga, Mario; Filardo, Giuseppe; Farr, Jack; Madry, Henning; Milano, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) around the knee are a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. However, despite the growing interest on BMLs in multiple pathological conditions, they remain controversial not only for the still unknown role in the etiopathological processes, but also in terms of clinical impact and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of conditions: traumatic contusion and fractures, cyst formation and erosions, hematopoietic and infiltrated marrow, developmental chondroses, disuse and overuse, transient bone marrow oedema syndrome and, lastly, subchondral insufficiency fractures and true osteonecrosis. Regardless the heterogeneous spectrum of these pathologies, a key factor for patient management is the distinction between reversible and irreversible conditions. To this regard, MRI plays a major role, leading to the correct diagnosis based on recognizable typical patterns that have to be considered together with coexistent abnormalities, age, and clinical history. Several treatment options have been proposed, from conservative to surgical approaches. In this manuscript the main lesion patterns and their management have been analysed to provide the most updated evidence for the differential diagnosis and the most effective treatment. PMID:27075892

  9. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  10. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, A.; Gale, R.P.; Guskova, A.; Piatkin, E.; Selidovkin, G.; Muravyova, L.; Champlin, R.E.; Danilova, N.; Yevseeva, L.; Petrosyan, L. )

    1989-07-27

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed.

  11. White pulp reconstitution after human bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, A.; Hirabayashi, N.; Ito, M.; Kasai, K.; Fujino, M.; Ohbayashi, M.; Asai, J.

    1993-01-01

    To reveal the reconstitution process of the white pulp after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), spleens of 24 marrow recipients whose survival times ranged from 34 to 303 days after BMT, were analyzed at the histopathological and immunohistochemical level. Up to 3 months after BMT, the white pulp was atrophic and consisted mainly of T cells forming periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths (PALS). Approximately 100 days after BMT, B cells aggregated in some of the white pulp, forming primary follicles, whereas marginal zones could not be detected. Beyond 4 months after BMT, the PALS, the lymphoid follicle, and the marginal zone of the white pulp could be seen in most of the recipients' spleens. However, the recovery of the marginal zone was poor up to 10 months after BMT. Thus, the white pulp was reconstituted sequentially, beginning in the PALS, followed by reconstitution in lymphoid follicles, and finally in the marginal zone. The development of the PALS corresponded well with the appearance of interdigitating dendritic cell, as did the development of lymphoid follicles with the appearance of follicular dendritic cell. The sequential reconstitution of the white pulp demonstrated in this study provides the morphological basis for the functional immune recovery of marrow recipients. In particular, the delay of the marginal zone reconstitution seems to be responsible for the functional asplenia of long-term survivors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8214005

  12. Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Fibroblasts in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jingyin; Zhang, Zhengmao; Jia, Li; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis represents a common pathway leading to progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by extensive fibroblast activation and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to progressive loss of kidney function. There is no effective therapy available clinically to halt or even reverse renal fibrosis. Although activated fibroblasts/myofibroblasts are responsible for the excessive production and deposition of ECM, their origin remains controversial. Recent evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. Understanding the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of the bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors will lead to novel therapy for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the recruitment and activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in the kidney and the development of renal fibrosis and highlights new insights that may lead to novel therapies to prevent or reverse the development of renal fibrosis. PMID:26941655

  13. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Contribution to Pulmonary Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Lindsay T; LaRue, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of bone marrow stem cell plasticity and contribution of bone marrow stem cells to pathophysiology is evolving with the advent of innovative technologies. Recent data has led to new mechanistic insights in the field of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research, and an increased appreciation for the plasticity of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). In this review, we discuss current research examining the origin of pulmonary cell types from endogenous lung stem and progenitor cells as well as bone marrow-derived stem cells (MSCs and HSCs) and their contributions to lung homeostasis and pathology. We specifically highlight recent findings from our laboratory that demonstrate an HSC origin for pulmonary fibroblasts based on transplantation of a clonal population of cells derived from a single HSC. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing an understanding of the sources of effector cells in disease state. Finally, a perspective is given on the potential clinical implications of these studies and others addressing stem cell contributions to lung tissue homeostasis and pathology. PMID:26798846

  14. Bone Marrow Microenvironment Modulation of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Blake S; Slone, William L; Thomas, Patrick; Evans, Rebecca; Piktel, Debbie; Angel, Peggi M; Walsh, Callee M; Cantrell, Pamela S; Rellick, Stephanie L; Martin, Karen H; Simpkins, James W; Gibson, Laura F

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment regimens have dramatically improved the survival of ALL patients. However, chemoresistant minimal residual disease (MRD) that persists following cessation of therapy contributes to aggressive relapse. The bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) is an established “site of sanctuary” for ALL as well as myeloid lineage hematopoietic disease, with signals in this unique anatomical location contributing to drug resistance. Several models have been developed to recapitulate the interactions between the BMM and ALL cells. However, many in vitro models fail to accurately reflect the level of protection afforded to the most resistant sub-set of leukemic cells during co-culture with BMM elements. Pre-clinical in vivo models have advantages, but can be costly, and are often not fully informed by optimal in vitro studies. In the current report we describe an innovative extension of 2D co-culture wherein ALL cells uniquely interact with bone marrow derived stromal cells. Tumor cells in this model bury beneath primary human bone marrow derived stromal cells or osteoblasts, termed “phase dim” (PD) ALL, and exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by altered metabolism, distinct protein expression profiles, increased quiescence, and pronounced chemotherapy resistance. Investigation focused on the PD subpopulation may more efficiently inform pre-clinical design and investigation of MRD and relapse that arises from BMM supported leukemic tumor cells. PMID:26407636

  15. Bone marrow microenvironment modulation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Moses, Blake S; Slone, William L; Thomas, Patrick; Evans, Rebecca; Piktel, Debbie; Angel, Peggi M; Walsh, Callee M; Cantrell, Pamela S; Rellick, Stephanie L; Martin, Karen H; Simpkins, James W; Gibson, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment regimens have dramatically improved the survival of ALL patients. However, chemoresistant minimal residual disease that persists following cessation of therapy contributes to aggressive relapse. The bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) is an established "site of sanctuary" for ALL, as well as myeloid-lineage hematopoietic disease, with signals in this unique anatomic location contributing to drug resistance. Several models have been developed to recapitulate the interactions between the BMM and ALL cells. However, many in vitro models fail to accurately reflect the level of protection afforded to the most resistant subset of leukemic cells during coculture with BMM elements. Preclinical in vivo models have advantages, but can be costly, and are often not fully informed by optimal in vitro studies. We describe an innovative extension of 2-D coculture wherein ALL cells uniquely interact with bone marrow-derived stromal cells. Tumor cells in this model bury beneath primary human bone marrow-derived stromal cells or osteoblasts, termed "phase dim" ALL, and exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by altered metabolism, distinct protein expression profiles, increased quiescence, and pronounced chemotherapy resistance. Investigation focused on the phase dim subpopulation may more efficiently inform preclinical design and investigation of the minimal residual disease and relapse that arise from BMM-supported leukemic tumor cells. PMID:26407636

  16. Nitrergic Response TO Cyclophosphamide Treatment in Blood and Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Kevorkian, G.A; Alchujyan, N.Kh; Movsesyan, N.H; Hayrapetyan, H.L; Guevorkian, A.G; Ohanyan, R.M; Dagbashyan, S.S

    2008-01-01

    Daily intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CPA) (50 mg∙kg-1 of body weight) for 5 days resulted in reduced levels of marrow and blood cellularity, which was most pronounced in 18 days post-treatment (pt). On day 18 after CPA treatment the enhancedlevels of nitric oxide (NO) precursors and metabolites (L-arginine, L-citrulline, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)) of marrow and blood cells (platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte) resulted from up-regulation of Ca(II)/calmodulin(CaM)-independent “inducible” NO synthase (iNOS), with a lessercontribution of Ca(II)/CaM-dependent “constitutive” cNOS isoforms to systemic NO.Biphasic response to CPA of marrow nitrergic system, i.e. both iNOS and cNOS showed significantly depressed activities, as well as diminished levels of NO metabolites on day 9 pt, suggested that signals in addition to NO might be involved in CPA-induced inhibition of hematopoesis, while a gradual increase of neutrophil and platelet NOS activity appeared to be contributed to a CPA-induced development of granulopenia, thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage. PMID:18949079

  17. T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

  18. Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Fibroblasts in Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingyin; Zhang, Zhengmao; Jia, Li; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis represents a common pathway leading to progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by extensive fibroblast activation and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to progressive loss of kidney function. There is no effective therapy available clinically to halt or even reverse renal fibrosis. Although activated fibroblasts/myofibroblasts are responsible for the excessive production and deposition of ECM, their origin remains controversial. Recent evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. Understanding the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of the bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors will lead to novel therapy for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the recruitment and activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in the kidney and the development of renal fibrosis and highlights new insights that may lead to novel therapies to prevent or reverse the development of renal fibrosis. PMID:26941655

  19. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system. PMID:22014727

  20. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

  1. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  2. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  3. Bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic phase using a phenotypically identical unrelated volunteer donor. Nagoya Bone Marrow Transplantation Group (NBMTG), Tokai Marrow Donor Bank (TMDB).

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Y; Kodera, Y; Yamamoto, K; Minami, S; Miyamura, K; Morishita, Y; Morishima, Y; Saitoh, H; Horibe, K; Yamauchi, T

    1992-06-01

    A 26-year-old male with chronic myelogenous leukemia in lymphoid blast crisis received a bone marrow transplant (BMT) from a phenotypically identical, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)-weakly positive unrelated male volunteer donor. The volunteer was obtained from the Tokai Marrow Donor Bank (TMDB), which was established in Japan in 1989. This donor was selected from volunteer donors who were identical with our patient at the HLA-A,B loci, followed by matching at HLA-DQ, DR loci. On MLR testing, the donor's cells showed no response, but the patient's cells showed a low response to the donor's cells (relative response index 0.29). The patient showed rapid hemopoietic engraftment. He developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with vesicle formation on palms and soles and mild liver damage, which were successfully treated with intravenous prednisolone 1 mg/kg per day. Although he also suffered from interstitial pneumonitis on day 64 and localized varicella-zoster infection on day 87, and has suffered from moderate stomatitis and dry skin characteristic of chronic GVHD, he is currently 22 months post-transplant with hematological remission and has a normal daily social life. PMID:1498315

  4. Adoptive transfer of activated marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes induces measurable antitumor immunity in the bone marrow in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kimberly A.; Huff, Carol A.; Davis, Janice; Lemas, M. Victor; Fiorino, Susan; Bitzan, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Anna; Emerling, Amy; Luznik, Leo; Matsui, William; Powell, Jonathan; Fuchs, Ephraim; Rosner, Gary L.; Epstein, Caroline; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Ambinder, Richard F.; Jones, Richard J.; Pardoll, Drew; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Successful adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) requires the ability to activate tumor-specific T cells with the ability to traffic to the tumor site and effectively kill their target as well as persist over time. We hypothesized that ACT using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. We describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. Twenty-five patients with either newly diagnosed or relapsed disease had their MILs harvested, activated and expanded, and subsequently infused on the third day after myeloablative therapy. Cells were obtained and adequately expanded in all patients with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin-2, and a median of 9.5 × 108 MILs were infused. Factors indicative of response to MIL ACT included (i) the presence of measurable myeloma-specific activity of the ex vivo expanded product, (ii) low endogenous bone marrow T cell interferon-γ production at baseline, (iii) a CD8+ central memory phenotype at baseline, and (iv) the generation and persistence of myeloma-specific immunity in the bone marrow at 1 year after ACT. Achieving at least a 90% reduction in disease burden significantly increased the progression-free survival (25.1 months versus 11.8 months; P = 0.01). This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of MILs as a form of ACT with applicability across many hematologic malignancies and possibly solid tumors infiltrating the bone marrow. PMID:25995224

  5. Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stem Cell in Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffold Loaded Various Ratio of Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Hye Min; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Cho Min; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hydroxyapatite has biocompatibility and bioactivity and similar to bone of in human body. The purpose of this study is to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) in PLGA Scaffold added various ratio of hydroxyapatite (HAp). Methods and Results PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold were prepared using solvent casting/salt-leaching method. BMSC was seeded on the PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold and the samples were cultured in 37℃ incubator with 5% CO2 for 28 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was carried out to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days. Alizarin Red S stating was performed to identify calcium in scaffold at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Compressive strength was measured to evaluate mechanical property of scaffold. To confirm cell viability, MTT was carried out at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. RT-PCR was performed to verify specific marker expression of osteoblast and stem cell at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Conclusions Osteogenic differentiation of BMSC was confirmed through ALP, RT-PCR, and alizarin red S staining in this study. These results suggest that HAp helps osteogenic differentiation of BMSC. PMID:24298375

  6. Effect of Increasing Doses of γ-Radiation on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Grown on Smooth and Rough Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Guang, Mengkai; Ye, Jun; Gong, Ping; Tang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for oral and maxillofacial tumors could damage bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in jaw, which caused dental implant failure. However, how radiation affects BMSCs on SLA (sandblasted with large-grits, acid-etched) surfaces is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of γ-radiation on BMSCs on SLA and PT (polished titanium) surfaces. Rat BMSCs were radiated with 2, 4, and 8 Gy γ-radiation and then seeded on both surfaces. Cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation were tested. The osteogenesis and the adipogenesis ability were examined by Alizarin-Red and Oil-Red staining, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to detect osteogenic (osteocalcin, OCN; runt-related transcription factor 2, Runx2) and adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ) gene expression at days 7 and 14 postirradiation. Results showed that γ-radiation reduced cell proliferation, adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. 2 Gy radiation promoted adipogenic differentiation, but it was significantly decreased when dosage reached 4 Gy. In conclusion, results suggest that γ-radiation influenced BMSCs behaviors in a dosage-dependent manner except adipogenic differentiation, low dose promoted it, and high dose inhibited it. This effect was influenced by surface characteristics, which may explain the different failure rate of various implants in patients after radiation. PMID:26257788

  7. Clinical implementation of new region-specific S-values for marrow dosimetry: Dose distribution vs mean marrow dose in radioimmunotherapy of leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sgouros, G.; Stabin, M.G.; Jureidini, I.M.

    1994-05-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies that target hematologic disease often exhibit a highly variable as well as non-uniform spatial distribution within the marrow. Mean marrow absorbed dose estimates obtained using a single S-value to represent the absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity for the whole marrow may not adequately reflect potential normal marrow morbidity or tumor cytotoxicity in different marrow regions. New, region-specific, S-factors for marrow, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were used to calculate the absorbed dose to three different marrow regions in 9 leukemia patients that were administered trace-labeled I-131-HuM195, the humanized version of (anti-CD33) M195 antibody. Time-activity curves for each marrow region were obtained by drawing contours around: the head and neck of both femurs, both humeral heads, and the third and fourth lumbar vertebra, in each of four daily conjugate-view images that were collected starting the day of the infusion. Based on data gathered in the regions over the spine and femur, we predict absorbed doses to the active marrow for various regions of the skeleton ranging from 0.16-0.63 mGy/MBq, with a region-weighted average of 0.46 mGy/MBq. This compares with estimates mGy/MBq, respectively. Analysis of marrow dosimetry by region and in a dose-volume histogram format will provide a more reliable dosimetry picture for the clinician than provided by the single dose estimates available previously.

  8. A Novel Murine Elastase Saccular Aneurysm Model for Studying Bone Marrow Progenitor-Derived Cell–Mediated Processes in Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoh, Brian L.; Velat, Gregory J.; Wilmer, Erin N.; Hosaka, Koji; Fisher, Robert C.; Scott, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although there are several large-species animal models for saccular aneurysms, there is a need for a simple, reproducible saccular aneurysm model in mice. OBJECTIVE To develop a murine saccular aneurysm model, which replicates key characteristics that occur in the formation of human cerebral aneurysms. METHODS Elastase is applied extravascularly to the right common carotid artery. We induced saccular aneurysm formation by our method in C57BL/6 mice (n = 30). Aneurysms and control arteries (left common carotid arteries) were harvested at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks postinjury (n = 10 for each time point), measured, and stained for elastin content. To demonstrate BMP-derived cell recruitment to the aneurysms, bone marrow from UBC-gfp transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated C57BL/6 recipients to create C57BL/6.gfp chimeras. Additionally, bone marrow from DsRed transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated C57BL/6 recipients to create C57BL/6.DsRed chimeras, and bone marrow from B5/EGFP transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated FVB recipients to create FVB.gfp chimeras. The elastase injury or sham operations were performed in the C57BL/6.gfp, C57BL/6.DsRed, and FVB.gfp chimeras. Aneurysms and sham vessels were harvested at 3 weeks and examined for BMP-derived cell recruitment. Additionally, aneurysms were stained for matrix metalloproteinase-9, which is overexpressed in human cerebral aneurysm tissue. RESULTS Aneurysms consistently demonstrated significant loss of elastin in the vessel wall and had significantly larger diameters than control vessels (591 ± 238 µm vs 328 ± 61µm; P = .003 for aneurysms 3 weeks postinjury). Aneurysms from C57BL/6.gfp, FVB.gfp, and C57BL/6.DsRed chimeras consistently revealed significant BMP-derived cell recruitment in the aneurysm wall that was not seen in sham-operated vessels nor in control left common carotid arteries. Aneurysms demonstrated overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. CONCLUSION We describe a novel murine elastase saccular aneurysm model that replicates the histopathology and BMP-derived cell–mediated processes that will be a valuable instrument for studying the cell-mediated processes in cerebral aneurysm formation. PMID:20173550

  9. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  10. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  11. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression

  12. Sunset over Red Rock Canyon

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  13. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  14. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  15. AMERICAN RED CROSS HEALTH CRUSADE

    PubMed Central

    Peters, William H.

    1919-01-01

    Dr. Peters draws attention to the fact that no big work has been generally done to relieve those debilitated by influenza. There is hardship and need and slow recovery. Cincinnati organized relief along these lines, the Red Cross and the Health Department working in coperation. Organization and results are given in some detail. PMID:18010213

  16. Bone marrow granuloma in typhoid Fever: a morphological approach and literature review.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Kavitha; Padhi, Somanath; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Sivakumar, Periyasami; Varghese, Renu G'Boy; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever is one of the few bacterial infections in humans where bone marrow evaluation is routinely recommended. However, the morphological aspect of typhoid fever in bone marrow has been rarely described in the literature. We describe a 25-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged fever suspected to be of tubercular etiology. Bone marrow examination showed well-formed histiocytic and epithelioid granulomas and erythrophagocytosis; and the bone marrow aspirate culture grew Salmonella typhi A. In view of potential clinical implications, typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis to tuberculosis in the evaluation of prolonged fever; especially in high prevalent areas. We suggest that erythrophagocytosis may serve as a morphological marker in typhoid granulomas in the bone marrow; and bone marrow culture should be submitted in every suspected case for appropriate patient management. PMID:25789187

  17. Bone Marrow Granuloma in Typhoid Fever: A Morphological Approach and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Muniraj, Kavitha; Padhi, Somanath; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Sivakumar, Periyasami; Varghese, Renu G'Boy; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever is one of the few bacterial infections in humans where bone marrow evaluation is routinely recommended. However, the morphological aspect of typhoid fever in bone marrow has been rarely described in the literature. We describe a 25-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged fever suspected to be of tubercular etiology. Bone marrow examination showed well-formed histiocytic and epithelioid granulomas and erythrophagocytosis; and the bone marrow aspirate culture grew Salmonella typhi A. In view of potential clinical implications, typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis to tuberculosis in the evaluation of prolonged fever; especially in high prevalent areas. We suggest that erythrophagocytosis may serve as a morphological marker in typhoid granulomas in the bone marrow; and bone marrow culture should be submitted in every suspected case for appropriate patient management. PMID:25789187

  18. The congo red stain revisited.

    PubMed

    Elghetany, M T; Saleem, A; Barr, K

    1989-01-01

    The Congo red stain has undergone several modifications since it was first used by Bennhold in 1922 in order to increase the specificity for staining amyloid. Most of the laboratories in the United States use the method of Puchtler which uses alkaline Congo red solution. Some of the variables associated with the procedure were investigated by us. Our results showed the following: (1) amyloid showed green birefringence at all levels between 4 to 12 mu thick sections with better visualization of small deposits with increased thickness. Best results were obtained with 8 mu thick sections; (2) omission of the pretreatment with alkaline alcoholic solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) did not affect the sensitivity of the method; (3) the use of polar mounting media had no effect on amyloid and collagen birefringence; (4) 50 percent saturation of the Congo red staining solution with NaCl caused strong staining of collagen, elastic fibers and eosinophilic granules. In addition, collagen showed green birefringence and dichroism and its differentiation from amyloid became difficult; and (5) using the staining solution fully saturated with NaCl, no positive staining was seen with tissues other than amyloid. Collagen and elastic fibers showed red fluorescence which was of less intensity than amyloid. It is our conclusion that the method of Puchtler for detecting amyloid gives better results if the staining solution is fully saturated with NaCl. The pretreatment step may be deleted without compromising the quality of staining. Improved staining of amyloid enhances the specificity of green birefringence, dichroism, and red fluorescence. PMID:2471435

  19. PPARγ antagonist attenuates mouse immune-mediated bone marrow failure by inhibition of T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuya; Feng, Xingmin; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jungang; Muranski, Pawel; Desierto, Marie J.; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells target hematopoietic cells; at presentation, the bone marrow is replaced by fat. It was reported that bone marrow adipocytes were negative regulators of hematopoietic microenvironment. To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, we investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. While bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether inhibited adipogenesis as expected, it also suppressed T cell infiltration of bone marrow, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of multiple inflammasome genes, and ameliorated marrow failure. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibiting calcium flux in T cells. The in vivo effect of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether on T cells was confirmed in a second immune-mediated bone marrow failure model, using different strains and non-major histocompatibility antigen mismatched: bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether ameliorated marrow failure by inhibition of T cell infiltration of bone marrow. Our data indicate that peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists may attenuate murine immune-mediated bone marrow failure, at least in part, by suppression of T cell activation, which might hold implications in the application of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists in immune-mediated pathophysiologies, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Genetically “fatless” mice developed bone marrow failure with accumulation of marrow adipocytes in our model, even in the absence of body fat, suggesting different mechanisms of systematic and marrow adipogenesis and physiologic versus pathophysiologic fat accumulation. PMID:26589913

  20. Role of immobilization of irradiated rats in the protective effect of bone marrow shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronskaya, N. F.; Strelin, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were exposed to X-radiation to study the influence of immobilization and shielding of part of bone marrow during exposure on survival. It is concluded that (1) the beneficial effect of the stress factor (created by the immobilization of rats during exposure) can aggregate with the effect of bone marrow shielding and, under certain conditions, imitate the latter; and (2) the probability of the protective effect of immobilization should be taken into account when assessing the influence of bone marrow shielding.

  1. PPARγ antagonist attenuates mouse immune-mediated bone marrow failure by inhibition of T cell function.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuya; Feng, Xingmin; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jungang; Muranski, Pawel; Desierto, Marie J; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells target hematopoietic cells; at presentation, the bone marrow is replaced by fat. It was reported that bone marrow adipocytes were negative regulators of hematopoietic microenvironment. To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, we investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. While bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether inhibited adipogenesis as expected, it also suppressed T cell infiltration of bone marrow, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of multiple inflammasome genes, and ameliorated marrow failure. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibiting calcium flux in T cells. The in vivo effect of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether on T cells was confirmed in a second immune-mediated bone marrow failure model, using different strains and non-major histocompatibility antigen mismatched: bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether ameliorated marrow failure by inhibition of T cell infiltration of bone marrow. Our data indicate that peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists may attenuate murine immune-mediated bone marrow failure, at least in part, by suppression of T cell activation, which might hold implications in the application of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists in immune-mediated pathophysiologies, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Genetically "fatless" mice developed bone marrow failure with accumulation of marrow adipocytes in our model, even in the absence of body fat, suggesting different mechanisms of systematic and marrow adipogenesis and physiologic versus pathophysiologic fat accumulation. PMID:26589913

  2. Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1994-03-01

    Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness by supralethal irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Akiyama, N.; Sato, T.

    1980-09-01

    Supralethally irradiated dogs were reconstituted wth their own stored bone marrow and were challenged at various time intervals with a kidney allograft. The data suggest that transplanted bone marrow cells may participate directly in the events leading to allogenic unresponsiveness. The time interval between marrow cell replacement and kidney allotransplantation required for optimal results suggest that at least one cycle of cell turnover by the replaced stem cells is needed in order to produce unresponsiveness. Host irradiation and reconstitution with stored autologous marrow may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of cancer.

  4. Skeletal cell fate decisions within periosteum and bone marrow during bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colnot, Céline

    2009-02-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results show that periosteal injuries heal by endochondral ossification, whereas bone marrow injuries heal by intramembranous ossification, indicating that distinct cellular responses occur within these tissues during repair. [corrected] Next, lineage analyses were used to track the fate of cells derived from periosteum, bone marrow, and endosteum, a subcompartment of the bone marrow. Skeletal progenitor cells were found to be recruited locally and concurrently from periosteum and/or bone marrow/endosteum during bone repair. Periosteum and bone marrow/endosteum both gave rise to osteoblasts, whereas the periosteum was the major source of chondrocytes. Finally, results show that intrinsic and environmental signals modulate cell fate decisions within these tissues. In conclusion, this study sheds light into the origins of skeletal stem cells/progenitors during bone regeneration and indicates that periosteum, endosteum, and bone marrow contain pools of stem cells/progenitors with distinct osteogenic and chondrogenic potentials that vary with the tissue environment. PMID:18847330

  5. Use of impedance plethysmography to continually monitor bone marrow blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Gerber, R. L.; Cann, C. E.; Morey, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance-plethysmographic technique is described which can be used to quantify temporal bone-marrow blood-flow changes. Results obtained with the impedance technique compare favorably with the data from simultaneously administered microspheres. Injection of sympathomimetic drugs produced measurable responses: isoproterenol caused a significant increase in bone-marrow blood flow within 1 min, and levarterenol decreased bone-marrow blood flow. Data obtained with impedance plethysmography suggest that the technique is feasible for multiple measurements on the same animal and that the technique can be used to study acute or chronic changes in bone-marrow blood flow following various experimental treatments.

  6. Experimental stroke-induced changes in the bone marrow reveal complex regulation of leukocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Denes, Adam; McColl, Barry W; Leow-Dyke, Sophie F; Chapman, Katie Z; Humphreys, Neil E; Grencis, Richard K; Allan, Stuart M; Rothwell, Nancy J

    2011-04-01

    Stroke induces a systemic response that involves rapid activation of inflammatory cascades, followed later by immunodepression. Experimental stroke-induced responses in the bone marrow, which is the primary source of circulating monocytes and granulocytes, have not been investigated previously. We show that cerebral ischaemia induced early (4  hours) release of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow, which was associated with rapid systemic upregulation of CXCL1 (a ligand for CXCR2) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, a key cytokine involved in the mobilisation of bone marrow leukocytes. This process involves rapid activation of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bone marrow myeloid cells. T-cell numbers in the bone marrow increased after stroke, and bone marrow cells did not show suppressed cytokine response to bacterial endotoxin stimulation in vitro. Stroke-induced laterality observed in the brain stem and in the bone marrow indicates direct involvement of the autonomic nervous system in stroke-induced cell mobilisation. We also show that systemic inflammatory changes and leukocyte responses in the bone marrow are profoundly affected by both anaesthetic and surgical stress. We conclude that stroke influences leukocyte responses in the bone marrow through multiple mechanisms and suggest that preclinical studies should take into consideration the effect of surgical manipulation in experimental models of stroke. PMID:21045863

  7. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, C M; Ambrus, J L

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colonyforming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls. PMID:124758

  8. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significantly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells. PMID:25206912

  9. An appraisal of bone marrow biopsy in assessment of sick dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, B; Lumsden, J H; Valli, V E

    1985-01-01

    Dogs were classified into a number of disease categories according to hematological, cytological and serochemical changes. Aspiration and core bone marrow biopsies were examined in 128 dogs in the various disease categories and compared to marrow samples in 36 dogs which appeared clinically normal. Differential cell counts on bone marrow smears were examined in relation to the blood variables in all animals. Blood and bone marrow data (group means) were compared among the normal and disease groups. Anemia, responsive and poorly responsive was the most frequent blood abnormality. Most dogs in the thrombocytopenia group had increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the marrow but two dogs had a marked decrease. The frequency of serious alteration of marrow production of the erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic series was less than anticipated. Marrow hemopoiesis was not significantly compromised in dogs with lymphoma or in dogs with other types of cancer. Bone marrow examination was necessary for the diagnosis of myelofibrosis and pancytopenia and was very helpful in the groups with insufficient change in the blood to permit a definitive diagnosis to be made. The myeloid-erythroid ratio was a useful indicator of marrow response while the erythroid maturation index and the myeloid maturation index were useful for identification of altered patterns of maturation (ineffective hemopoiesis). The reticulocyte response in absolute numbers is the most efficient and clinically relevant measure of erythroid response. PMID:3986679

  10. Bone marrow fibrosis and radiological changes of the long bones in children with acute megakaryocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, J; Swolin, B; Mellander, L

    1998-10-01

    The diagnosis of acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (AMkL) may be difficult to establish owing to difficulties in obtaining adequate bone marrow aspirates secondary to bone marrow fibrosis. We describe three children without Down's syndrome under 2 y of age with AMkL. Although none of the patients had the non-random t(1;22) (p13;q13) translocation, bone marrow cells from all patients exhibited chromosome abnormalities with complex karyotypes, including trisomy 21 in two cases. All patients had profound bone marrow fibrosis and characteristic lamellar diaphyseal radiological changes of the long bones. PMID:9825981

  11. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... lessen redness and bumps. For more serious cases, laser surgery can remove visible blood vessels, reduce redness ... Answers about Rosacea CONTACT US NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room 5B64 Bethesda, ...

  12. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

  13. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re feeling constantly exhausted ... when your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. You may either have too few ...

  14. Pure red cell aplasia secondary to treatment with erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare condition defined as severe anemia secondary to the virtual absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. In the setting of patients treated with rHuEPO, the disease is generated by epoetin-induced antibodies that neutralise all the exogenous rHuEPO and cross-react with endogenous erythropoietin. As a result, serum erythropoietin levels are undetectable and erythropoiesis becomes ineffective. Only 4 cases of PRCA associated with rh-EPO have been reported before 1998. Thereafter, a sharp increase in the incidence of this rare condition has been reported, mainly associated with epoetin alpha use outside the United States. A number of possible mechanisms leading to PRCA development have been identified. Among these, modification of drug formulation and down stream processing probably has had a major role. Indeed, in 1998 the formulation of epoetin alpha in Europe was modified because of the fear of the "mad cow" syndrome. However, differences in molecule structure and glycosylation among different epoetins can not be excluded. It should also be underlined that the rise in the incidence of PRCA cases has been coincident with a major shift from intravenous to subcutaneous administration of rHuEPO. The abrupt rise in the incidence of PRCA cases observed in the last few years, deserves particular attention; however, we have to balance its severity, but extreme rarity, with the high number of chronic kidney disease patients who die each year because of cardiovascular disease that could partially be reduced by anemia treatment. PMID:14696747

  15. Red cell distribution width and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gulcan Kurt, Yasemin; Cayci, Tuncer; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Agilli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Red cell distribution width is a measure of deviation of the volume of red blood cells. It is a marker of anisocytosis and often used to evaluate the possible causes of anemia. Elevated red cell distribution width levels are also associated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation is accompanied with steatosis. For assuming red cell distribution width as a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, intervening factors such as levels of inflammatory markers should also be evaluated. PMID:25473202

  16. [Bone marrow transplantation from donors other than HLA matched siblings for hematological malignancies. Nagoya Bone Marrow Transplantation Group and Tokai Marrow Donor Bank].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Horibe, K; Akatsuka, Y; Minami, S; Matsuyama, T; Hirabayashi, N; Tanimoto, M; Yamada, H; Sobue, R; Morishima, Y

    1994-08-01

    One hundred and fourteen patients with hematological malignancies received bone marrow transplantation from donors other than HLA-identical siblings. Sixty-three patients received transplantations from related donors; 20 were phenotypically identical for HLA-A, B, D/DR (RM0). 32 differed at one locus (RM1) and 11 differed at more than one loci (RM2). Fifty-one transplantations were from unrelated donors; 37 were phenotypically identical and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) negative (UR0) and 14 were MLC positive (UR1). One hundred and four patients had durable engraftment. Four (RM1(1), RM2(2), UR0(1)) failed to achieve engraftment. In terms of the probability of > or = Grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), there was no significant difference among the groups according to HLA disparity (RM0:25%, UR0:33%, UR1:39%, RM1:47%, and RM2:50%). The probability of chronic GVHD was significantly higher in UR0 and UR1 than RM0 (71%, 75% vs 28%, p < 0.05). The disease-free survival at 3 years was 45% (RM0), 50% (RM1) and 42% (UR0). More than 50% of patients other than RM0 died of fatal complications including GVHD within 60 days after grafting. In conclusion, unrelated donor and related donor mismatched at one locus could be selected for marrow graft in the case of the absence of an HLA-matched related donor. However, more advances in post-transplant management and in histocompatibility testing should be required. PMID:7933558

  17. Red Discoloration of Fully Cooked Poultry Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a quality defect perceived as a food safety issue. Experiments were conducted to determine incidence rate, cause, and control methods for red discoloration. Breasts, thighs, and legs from four commercial products were evaluated for red disco...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  4. Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

  5. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  6. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded Woodpecker"; (2)…

  7. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

    Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early osteogenic potency of stromal cells. These results indicate that spaceflight factors had no significant damaging effects on the murine bone marrow mononuclears. These observations are consistent with previously made assumption of moderate and reversible stress reaction of mammals on spaceflight conditions. This work was supported by Program of Basic Research of IMBP RAS

  17. Multiorgan WU Polyomavirus Infection in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Siebrasse, Erica A.; Nguyen, Nang L.; Willby, Melisa J.; Erdman, Dean D.; Menegus, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was detected in a bone marrow transplant recipient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who died in 2001. Crystalline lattices of polyomavirus-like particles were observed in the patient’s lung by electron microscopy. WUPyV was detected in the lung and other tissues by real-time quantitative PCR and identified in the lung and trachea by immunohistochemistry. A subset of WUPyV-positive cells in the lung had morphologic features of macrophages. Although the role of WUPyV as a human pathogen remains unclear, these results clearly demonstrate evidence for infection of respiratory tract tissues in this patient. PMID:26691850

  18. Bone marrow amyloid spherulites in a case of AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bommannan B K, Karthik; Sonai, Mukinkumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh

    2016-05-01

    Parallel arrangement of β-pleated sheets by amyloidogenic proteins is a well known phenomenon. Rarely, amyloid fibrils undergo radial orientation to form globular structures called spherulites. These amyloid spherulites show Maltese cross pattern under polarized microscopy. The clinical significance of amyloid spherulites is undetermined. Amyloidogenic proteins like insulin and β-lactoglobulin form spherulites in vitro. The senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease rarely form in vivo spherulites. Amyloid spherulites have been described in the liver and small intestine. For the first time, we document amyloid spherulite formation in the bone marrow biopsy of an AL amyloidosis patient. PMID:27067483

  19. [Graves-Basedow disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Jakubas, Beata; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Darczuk, Andrzej; Gil, Justyna

    2006-01-01

    One severe aplastic anaemia case who presented autoimmune thyroid disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is described. A 19 year old Polish girl developed Graves' hyperthyroidisms 19 months after allogeneic BMT for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) donated from her brother. Her serum was positive for thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (aTPO) while her brother remained euthyroid, seronegative for TSAb, and showed no clinical signs of thyroid pathology. The genetic studies of lymphocytes FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and analysis of STR (short tandem repeated) fragments suggested, that lymphocytes responsible for hyperthyroidisms were of donor origin. PMID:17133320

  20. An epidemiological study of listeriosis complicating a bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Want, S V; Lacey, S L; Ward, L; Buckingham, S

    1993-04-01

    Following an unrelated-donor bone marrow transplant a six-year-old child with severe aplastic anaemia developed Listeria monocytogenes septicaemia and meningitis. Cook-chill foods consumed during his stay in hospital were found to contain strains of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Whole cell protein SDS-PAGE was performed on all isolates. No food isolates were found that were identical to the patient's strain by this technique or by serotyping. The usefulness of whole cell protein SDS electrophoresis for listeria strain differentiation is discussed. PMID:8099929

  1. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  2. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a) Location. The following area is...

  3. Red Nodule on the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Roberta; Galeone, Massimiliano; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Pinzi, Cinzia; Bellandi, Serena; Moretti, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola. PMID:23112361

  4. The bone marrow microenvironment contributes to type I diabetes induced osteoblast death.

    PubMed

    Coe, Lindsay M; Irwin, Regina; Lippner, Dennean; McCabe, Laura R

    2011-02-01

    Type I diabetes increases an individual's risk for bone loss and fracture, predominantly through suppression of osteoblast activity (bone formation). During diabetes onset, levels of blood glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)) increased. At the same time, levels of osteoblast markers are rapidly decreased and stay decreased chronically (i.e., 40 days later) at which point bone loss is clearly evident. We hypothesized that early bone marrow inflammation can promote osteoblast death and hence reduced osteoblast markers. Indeed, examination of type I diabetic mouse bones demonstrates a greater than twofold increase in osteoblast TUNEL staining and increased expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Osteoblast death was amplified in both pharmacologic and spontaneous diabetic mouse models. Given the known signaling and inter-relationships between marrow cells and osteoblasts, we examined the role of diabetic marrow in causing the osteoblast death. Co-culture studies demonstrate that compared to control marrow cells, diabetic bone marrow cells increase osteoblast (MC3T3 and bone marrow derived) caspase 3 activity and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. Mouse blood glucose levels positively correlated with bone marrow induced osteoblast death and negatively correlated with osteocalcin expression in bone, suggesting a relationship between type I diabetes, bone marrow and osteoblast death. TNF expression was elevated in diabetic marrow (but not co-cultured osteoblasts); therefore, we treated co-cultures with TNFα neutralizing antibodies. The antibody protected osteoblasts from bone marrow induced death. Taken together, our findings implicate the bone marrow microenvironment and TNFα in mediating osteoblast death and contributing to type I diabetic bone loss. PMID:20677222

  5. Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy of mutants of the Discosoma red fluorescent protein DsRed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Stracke, Frank; Angres, Brigitte; Terskikh, Alexey; Meixner, A. J.

    2002-08-01

    We studied the emission of mutants of the red fluorescent protein DsRed by room temperature single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Bulk samples of the DsRed variant E8 show mixed green and red fluorescence of equivalent intensities individually spectrally similar to arrested green and mature red fluorescent forms of DsRed. Investigations at the single molecule level indicate that, like DsRed, E8 is not monomeric at single molecule concentrations. The entities visualized are composed of green and red emitting proteins without a fixed ratio of green to red fluorescing units. We find indications for only weak, if any, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between red and green chromophores within one E8 entity.

  6. Increased expression of TIGIT on CD4+ T cells ameliorates immune-mediated bone marrow failure of aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jianhong; Zhou, Xingchun; Liang, Rong; Bai, Qingxian; Yang, Lan; Gu, Hongtao; Gao, Guangxun; Dong, Baoxia; Zhu, Huafeng; Chen, Xiequn

    2014-11-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cell activation is suspected to play an important role. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor, which exhibits inhibitory functions on the immune response. However, its role in AA has not been clearly determined. In the current study, we showed that the frequency of TIGIT-positive CD4(+) T cells was reduced in the vast majority of AA patients (85%, 17/20). In TIGIT-silenced human CD4(+) T cells, stimulation of agonistic anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody significantly facilitated cell proliferation, increased production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and inhibited production of IL-10. However, in TIGIT-overexpressed human CD4(+) T cells, cell proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were significantly hindered; in contrast, the secretion of IL-10 was improved. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that T-bet expression in human CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased by TIGIT overexpression, but only slightly altered by TIGIT knockdown. In mouse models, lentivirus-mediated TIGIT-overexpressed CD4(+) T cell transfer significantly rescued the decreased red blood cell count, attenuated the increase in serum INF-γ and TNF-α levels, and lengthened the median survival time. The mRNA levels of CD34, stem cell factor (SCF), and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in bone marrow mononuclear cells were also up-regulated. In conclusion, increased expression of TIGIT could inhibit the function of CD4(+) T cells in vitro and ameliorate immune-mediated bone marrow failure of AA in vivo providing a new potential strategy for the treatment of AA. PMID:24905442

  7. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25 µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5 µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5 µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15 µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15 µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

  8. Orai1 mediates osteogenic differentiation via BMP signaling pathway in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Yongtae; Song, Minju; Srikanth, Sonal; Kim, Sol; Kang, Mo K; Gwack, Yousang; Park, No-Hee; Kim, Reuben H; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2016-05-13

    Orai1 is a pore-subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel that mediates Ca(2+) influx in most non-excitable cells via store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. We previously demonstrated that Orai1 is involved in mediating osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the underlying mechanism of this function remains unknown. Here, we report that Orai1 mediates osteogenic differentiation via bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). In osteogenic conditions, BMSCs derived from wild-type mice underwent osteoblastic differentiation and induced mineralization as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red S staining, respectively. The expression of Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation, and osteogenic differentiation markers were markedly increased in wild-type BMSCs under osteogenic conditions. In contrast, osteogenic conditions failed to induce such effects in BMSCs derived from Orai1-deficient (Orai1(-/-)) mice, indicating that Orai1 is, in part, necessary for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We also found that BMP2 successfully induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, the immediate effector molecules of BMP signaling, in wild-type BMSCs, but failed to do so in Orai1(-/-) BMSCs. Downstream target genes of BMP signaling pathway were consistently increased by osteogenic conditions in wild-type BMSCs, but not in Orai1(-/-) BMSCs, suggesting a novel molecular link between Orai1 and BMP signaling pathway in the osteogenic differentiation process. Further functional studies demonstrated that activation of BMP signaling rescues osteogenic differentiation capacity of Orai1(-/-) BMSCs. In conclusion, Orai1 regulates osteogenic differentiation through BMP signaling, and the Orai1-BMP signaling may be a possible therapeutic target for treating bone-related diseases. PMID:27086849

  9. Puerarin enhances bone mass by promoting osteoblastogenesis and slightly lowering bone marrow adiposity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin; Liu, Hao; Jia, Shengnan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of puerarin on bone mass and marrow adiposity in ovariectomy (OVX)- induced osteoporosis. The rats were divided into four groups: control; OVX; OVX+estradiol (OVX-E); and OVX+puerarin treatment (OVX-GE). In vivo, bone mineral density (BMD) and histomorphometry were measured under microCT. The mechanical properties of tibia were obtained in 3-point bending test. Plasma osteocalcin and adiponectin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured using biochemical methods. In vitro, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Oil Red O staining were used to compare osteoblast proliferation and adipocyte differentiation, respectively. Osteocalcin and adiponectin in culture supernatants were determined using ELISA. The results showed that puerarin significantly enhanced bone volume density and trabecular number compared with OVX and OVX-E groups (p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). Puerarin increased energy to ultimate load, plasma osteocalcin and ALP (p<0.01). However, BMD in OVX-GE group was less than that in control (p<0.01) and OVX-E groups (p<0.05). The culture supernatants from OVX-GE group showed increased osteocalcin compared with those from OVX (p<0.01) and OVX-E groups (p<0.05). Puerarin lowered adiponectin in culture supernatant compared with supernatant from OVX group and inhibited the increase in adipocytes caused by OVX (p<0.01). However, the amount of lipids did not differ between OVX-GE and OVX groups. These findings suggest that puerarin likely enhances bone formation by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts while slightly inhibiting the adipotic differentiation. PMID:25590084

  10. Bone marrow-derived cell concentrates have limited effects on osteochondral reconstructions in the mini pig.

    PubMed

    Jagodzinski, Michael; Liu, Chaoxu; Guenther, Daniel; Burssens, Arne; Petri, Maximilian; Abedian, Reza; Willbold, Elmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl; Witte, Frank

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of seeding a chondrogenic and osteogenic scaffold with a bone marrow-derived cell concentrate (BMCC) and reports the histological and mechanical properties 3 months after implantation in the miniature pig. Twenty defects (7×10 mm) were created in the femoral condyles of 10 miniature pigs. The defects were left empty (E), filled with the grafted cylinder upside down (U) or with a combined scaffold (S) containing a spongious bone cylinder (Tutobone®) covered with a collagen membrane (Chondrogide®). In a fourth group, the same scaffolds were implanted but seeded with a stem cell concentrate (S+ BMCC). The animals were stained with calcein green after 2 weeks and xylenol orange after 4 weeks. After 3 months, the animals were sacrificed, and a mechanical analysis (Young's modulus), macroscopic, and histologic (ICRS Score) examination of the specimens was conducted. Young's modulus in the periphery was significantly lower for group E (67.5±15.3 kPa) compared with untreated controls (171.7±21.6 kPa, p<0.04). Bone defects were smaller in group S (10%±8%) compared with E (27%±7%; p<0.05). There was a trend toward smaller bony defects on comparing groups E and S+ BMCC (11%±8%; p=0.07). More red fluorescence was detected in group S+ BMCC (2.3%±1.1%) compared with groups E (0.4%±0.2%) and U (0.5%±0.2%, p<0.03). ICRS scores were higher for groups S (25.3±3.8) and S+ BMCC (26.2±5.2, p<0.01). In this animal model of osteochondral defects, stem cell concentrates enhance new bone apposition but fail to improve mechanical properties or histological appearance of cartilage regenerates in critical-sized defects. PMID:23815398

  11. Effects of intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation plus adult thymus transplantation on survival of mice bearing leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Hosaka, Naoki; Cui, Yunze; Shi, Ming; Li, Ming; Li, Qing; Ikehara, Susumu

    2012-06-10

    We recently found that allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) plus adult thymus transplantation (ATT) from the same donor is effective in mice bearing solid tumors. In the current study, we examined the effects of this strategy on the survival of mice with leukemia. One week after intravenous injection of 1×10(6) leukemic cells (EL-4, H-2(b)) into 8-week-old B6 (H-2(b)) mice, the mice were 8 Gy irradiated and transplanted with 1×10(7) bone marrow cells (BMCs) from 8-week-old BALB/c mice (H-2(d)) by IBM-BMT with or without donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or ATT. All the mice without treatment died within 70 days after injection of EL-4. About 40% of those treated with IBM-BMT alone died within 100 days due to tumor relapse. In contrast, those treated with IBM-BMT+DLI or ATT showed the longest survival rate without relapse of leukemia. In addition, the former showed less graft versus host disease (GVHD) than the latter. The mice treated with IBM-BMT+ATT also showed an intermediate percentage of effector memory (EM) and central memory (CM) cells between those treated with BMT alone and those treated with IBM-BMT+DLI. The numbers and functions of T cells increased in those treated with IBM-BMT+ATT with interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production. These results suggest that IBM-BMT+ATT is effective in the treatment of leukemia with strong graft versus leukemia without increased risk of GVHD. PMID:21861761

  12. Further studies on the effect of red and far red light on rat retinal development.

    PubMed

    Wong, T; Yew, D T; Bau, Y S

    1978-04-15

    The influence on the development of the outer segments of the rat retina of far red and red light in different sequences was investigated. The far red treatment appeared to be dominating, and for animals treated with far red light first, further treatment of red light could not bring the outer segment growth back to normal. The treatments also initiated different dopamine uptakes in the retinas. PMID:639953

  13. Current insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kim, Myungshin

    2014-08-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) encompasses a heterogeneous and complex group of genetic disorders characterized by physical malformations, insufficient blood cell production, and increased risk of malignancies. They often have substantial phenotype overlap, and therefore, genotyping is often a critical means of establishing a diagnosis. Current advances in the field of IBMFSs have identified multiple genes associated with IBMFSs and their pathways: genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, such as those associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; genes involved in telomere maintenance, such as dyskeratosis congenita genes; genes encoding neutrophil elastase or neutrophil adhesion and mobility associated with severe congenital neutropenia; and genes involved in DNA recombination repair, such as those associated with Fanconi anemia. Early and adequate genetic diagnosis is required for proper management and follow-up in clinical practice. Recent advances using new molecular technologies, including next generation sequencing (NGS), have helped identify new candidate genes associated with the development of bone marrow failure. Targeted NGS using panels of large numbers of genes is rapidly gaining potential for use as a cost-effective diagnostic tool for the identification of mutations in newly diagnosed patients. In this review, we have described recent insights into IBMFS and how they are advancing our understanding of the disease's pathophysiology; we have also discussed the possible implications they will have in clinical practice for Korean patients. PMID:25210520

  14. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  15. The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Desales

    1989-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

  16. Multiple myeloma in the marrow: pathogenesis and treatments.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Heather; Falank, Carolyne; Avery, Lindsey; Reagan, Michaela R

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy resulting in osteolytic lesions and fractures. In the disease state, bone healing is limited owing to increased osteoclastic and decreased osteoblastic activity, as well as an MM-induced forward-feedback cycle where bone-embedded growth factors further enhance tumor progression as bone is resorbed. Recent work on somatic mutation in MM tumors has provided insight into cytogenetic changes associated with this disease; the initiating driver mutations causing MM are diverse because of the complexity and multitude of mutations inherent in MM tumor cells. This manuscript provides an overview of MM pathogenesis by summarizing cytogenic changes related to oncogenes and tumor suppressors associated with MM, reviewing risk factors, and describing the disease progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to overt MM. It also highlights the importance of the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) in the establishment and progression of MM, as well as associated MM-induced bone disease, and the relationship of the bone marrow to current and future therapeutics. This review highlights why understanding the basic biology of the healthy and diseased BMM is crucial in the quest for better treatments and work toward a cure for genetically diverse diseases such as MM. PMID:27002787

  17. Venous drainage through bone marrow after replantation: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Murakami, R; Tasaki, Y; Fujii, T; Mukae, N

    1998-12-01

    Venous drainage is vital for successful replantation, but it is not always possible to reconstruct because of missing or damaged veins. We devised an experimental model to study venous drainage through bone marrow while the new subcutaneous venous system regenerated. Adult male Wistar rats were placed into three groups. Group A rats had their hindlimbs amputated at the lower leg, but the tibia and sural and saphenous artery connections were preserved. Group B rats were prepared the same as Group A, except that a step-cut osteotomy was performed in the tibia. The bone ends were then realigned and kept in place with stainless steel wire. Group C rats were prepared the same as Group B, except that the ends of the bone were not aligned. All unoperated limbs served as controls for evaluations of blood flow. Experimental limbs were evaluated for skin colour and viability, blood flow and dye injection. Skin colour was investigated daily. Blood flow was measured postoperatively during three phases: immediate (up to 1 h), early (from 1 h to 24 h), and late (from 1 day to 7 days after operation). Survival of limbs varied in Groups A and B, while all limbs in Group C necrosed by day 7. Blood flow was returning to near control (normal) levels by day 7 in Group A and B limbs. India ink was observed in the medullary cavity at day 7. After replantation, bone marrow plays a critical role in venous drainage until the subcutaneous venous drainage system regenerates. PMID:10209468

  18. Bone Marrow Gene Therapy for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Bone marrow gene therapy remains an attractive option for treating chronic immunological diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This technology combines the differentiation and expansion capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes using integrating vectors. In this review we summarize the potential of bone marrow gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. A broad range of antiviral strategies are discussed, with a particular focus on RNA-based therapies. The idea is to develop a durable gene therapy that lasts the life span of the infected individual, thus contrasting with daily drug regimens to suppress the virus. Different approaches have been proposed to target either the virus or cellular genes encoding co-factors that support virus replication. Some of these therapies have been tested in clinical trials, providing proof of principle that gene therapy is a safe option for treating HIV/AIDS. In this review several topics are discussed, ranging from the selection of the antiviral molecule and the viral target to the optimal vector system for gene delivery and the setup of appropriate preclinical test systems. The molecular mechanisms used to formulate a cure for HIV infection are described, including the latest antiviral strategies and their therapeutic applications. Finally, a potent combination of anti-HIV genes based on our own research program is described. PMID:26193303

  19. Bone Marrow Gene Therapy for HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow gene therapy remains an attractive option for treating chronic immunological diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This technology combines the differentiation and expansion capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes using integrating vectors. In this review we summarize the potential of bone marrow gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. A broad range of antiviral strategies are discussed, with a particular focus on RNA-based therapies. The idea is to develop a durable gene therapy that lasts the life span of the infected individual, thus contrasting with daily drug regimens to suppress the virus. Different approaches have been proposed to target either the virus or cellular genes encoding co-factors that support virus replication. Some of these therapies have been tested in clinical trials, providing proof of principle that gene therapy is a safe option for treating HIV/AIDS. In this review several topics are discussed, ranging from the selection of the antiviral molecule and the viral target to the optimal vector system for gene delivery and the setup of appropriate preclinical test systems. The molecular mechanisms used to formulate a cure for HIV infection are described, including the latest antiviral strategies and their therapeutic applications. Finally, a potent combination of anti-HIV genes based on our own research program is described. PMID:26193303

  20. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells As Immunomodulators. A Primer For Dermatologists

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Mezey, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs) represent a unique cell population in the bone marrow with a long-known function to support hematopoiesis and replace skeletal tissues. The recent discovery that BMSCs also possess potent immunoregulatory features attracted a great deal of attention from stem cell biologists, immunologists and clinicians of different specialties worldwide. Initial clinical experience along with several animal models suggested that intravenously delivered BMSCs are able to regulate a wide variety of host immune cells and act in a way that is beneficial for the recipient in a variety of diseases. The role of the present review is to give a short introduction to the biology of BMSCs and to summarize our current understanding of how BMSCs modulate the immune system with special emphasis on available clinical data. Considering the audience of this journal we will also attempt to guide dermatologists in choosing the right skin conditions where BMSCs might be considered as a therapeutic alternative. PMID:25476233

  1. Shaking improves the whole bone marrow adherent method of purification.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guoying; Wang, Weiheng; Yang, Chengwei; Gao, Rui; Yang, Xiangqun; Ye, Xiaojian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of mechanical shaking on the purity, activity, differentiation and possible apoptosis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Based on the whole bone marrow adhesion method, different durations and frequencies of mechanical shaking were used on primary cells. The biomarkers, CD29, CD90, CD45 and CD31, in addition to the apoptosis labels, annexin V‑FITC and PI, were investigated using flow‑cytometric analysis. The differentiation capability following purification was evaluated. Following shaking treatment, the purity of adherent cells increased, in particular there was an increase in CD29 and CD90 positive cells, with the majority of the detached cells negative for these two markers. In addition, the apoptotic rates increased with the increasing shaking duration and frequency. Furthermore, cells following shaking were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. The shaking method allows for mesenchymal stem cells at to be obtained with higher positive rates of CD29 and CD90. In addition, horizontal shaking has little influence on cell activity or differentiation, with low levels of apoptosis occurring as a result of shaking. PMID:26936221

  2. ICSH guidelines for the standardization of bone marrow immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E E; Brynes, R K; Hyjek, E; Lee, S-H; Kreipe, H; Kremer, M; McKenna, R; Sadahira, Y; Tzankov, A; Reis, M; Porwit, A

    2015-08-01

    Bone marrow (BM) tissue biopsy evaluation, including trephine biopsy and clot section, is an integral part of BM investigation and is often followed by ancillary studies, in particular immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC provides in situ coupling of morphological assessment and immunophenotype. The number of different IHC tests that can be applied to BM trephine biopsies and the number of indications for IHC testing is increasing concurrently with the development of flow cytometry and molecular diagnostic methods. An international Working Party for the Standardization of Bone Marrow IHC was formed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) to prepare a set of guidelines for the standardization of BM IHC based on currently available published evidence and modern understanding of quality assurance principles as applied to IHC in general. The guidelines were discussed at the ICSH General Assemblies and reviewed by an international panel of experts to achieve further consensus and represent further development of the previously published ICSH guidelines for the standardization of BM specimens handling and reports. PMID:25977137

  3. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity. PMID:21660964

  4. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors i.e. RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity. PMID:21660964

  5. The Role of Bone Marrow Cells in the Phenotypic Changes Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Cheng, Qingli; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jiahui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of bone marrow cells in the phenotypic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy. Bone marrow cells were obtained from either streptozotocin-induced diabetic or untreated control C3H/He mice and transplanted into control C3H/He mice. Eight weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, renal morphologic changes and clinical parameters of diabetic nephropathy, including the urine albumin/creatinine ratio and glucose tolerance, were measured in vivo. Expression levels of the genes encoding α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 in the kidney were assayed. Our results demonstrated that glucose tolerance was normal in the recipients of bone marrow transplants from both diabetic and control donors. However, compared with recipients of the control bone marrow transplant, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, glomerular size, and the mesangial/glomerular area ratio increased 3.3-fold (p < 0.01), 1.23-fold (p < 0.01), and 2.13-fold (p < 0.001), respectively, in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Expression levels of the genes encoding glomerular α1 type IV collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 were also significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the recipients of the diabetic bone marrow transplant. Our data suggest that bone marrow cells from the STZ-induced diabetic mice can confer a diabetic phenotype to recipient control mice without the presence of hyperglycemia. PMID:26340671

  6. A Novel Approach for Performing Bone Marrow Aspiration at the Time of Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Reyes, Diane K.; Gorin, Michael A.; Hortopan, Steven; Partin, Alan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Ross, Ashley E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment represents a “metastatic niche” in which prostate cancer cells may persist and evade cytotoxic therapy. In order to study the biology of prostate cancer dissemination, we have established a safe and efficient method for performing pubic bone marrow aspiration at the time of radical prostatectomy. We herein describe our experience with this technique. PMID:27175343

  7. What Happens During a Bone Marrow Transplant? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy Illustration: Fotosearch CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE A bone marrow transplant is a blood and marrow stem cell transplant. This replaces a person’s abnormal stem cells with healthy ones from another person (a donor). This procedure allows the recipient to get new stem cells ...

  8. Differential adhesiveness between blood and marrow leukemic cells having similar pattern of VLA adhesion molecule expression.

    PubMed

    Thomas, X; Anglaret, B; Bailly, M; Maritaz, O; Magaud, J P; Archimbaud, E

    1998-10-01

    Functional adhesion of blood and marrow leukemic cells from 14 acute myeloid leukemia patients presenting with hyperleukocytosis was evaluated by performing cytoadhesion assays on purified (extracellular matrix proteins) and non-purified supports (MRC5 fibroblastic cell line). Results, in 30-min chromium release assay, show a mean +/- S.D. adhesion to fibronectin, collagen, and laminin respectively of 30 +/- 17%, 20 +/- 13%, 25 +/- 17% for blood leukemic cells and 18 +/- 11%, 11 +/- 10%, 11 +/- 8% for marrow leukemic cells. These differences between blood and marrow cells were statistically significant (respectively P = 0.005, P = 0.01 and P = 0.002), while no difference was noted regarding adhesion to non-purified supports. The higher adhesion of blood blast cells to purified supports was observed regardless of CD34 expression. No significant difference was observed in the expression of cell surface VLA-molecules (CD29, CD49b, CD49d, CD49e, CD49f) between blood and marrow blast cells. The addition of GM-CSF or G-CSF induced increased adhesion of marrow blasts and decreased adhesion of blood blasts leading to a loss of the difference between blood and marrow cells. In a 60-min chromium release assay, marrow blasts adhered even more than blood leukemic cells to fibronectin. In contrast, marrow blasts from 'aleukemic' acute myeloid leukemia patients did not show any modification regarding their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins when co-cultured with growth factors. PMID:9766756

  9. Recovery of hair coat color in Gray Collie (cyclic neutropenia)-normal bone marrow transplant chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Gray Collie-normal bone marrow transplantation chimeras showed normal coloration of the hair coat on tails and several other areas 2 years after successful transplantation of bone marrow to correct cyclic neutropenia of the Gray Collie syndrome. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:347941

  10. DIRECT AND INDIRECT CONTRIBUTION OF BONE MARROW DERIVED CELLS TO CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Ian; Ilic, Zoran; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Glinsky, Gennadi; Sell, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Summary Stromal-epithelial interactions may control the growth and initiation of cancers. Here we not only test the hypothesis that bone marrow derived cells may effect development of cancers arising from other tissue cells by forming tumor stroma, but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of stem cells from the bone marrow and epithelial cancers may arise by transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells to epithelial cancers. Lethally irradiated female FVB/N mice were restored with bone marrow (BM) transplants from a male transgenic mouse carrying the polyoma middle T-oncoprotein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV-PyMT) and followed for development of lesions. Eight of 8 lethally irradiated female FVB/N recipient mice, restored with BM transplants from a male MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse, developed Ychromosome negative (Y−) cancers of various organs surrounded by Y+ stroma. One of the female FVB/N recipient mice also developed fibrosarcoma and one a diploid breast adenocarcinoma (BCA) containing Ychromosomes. In contrast, only 1 of 12 control female mice restored with normal male bone marrow developed a tumor (lymphoma) during the same time period.. These results indicate not only that the transgenic bone marrow derived stromal cells may indirectly contribute to development of tumors in recipient mice, but also that sarcomas may arise by transformation of bone marrow stem cells and that breast cancers arise by transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells, presumably by mesenchymal-epithelial transition. PMID:19816927

  11. Knowledge and attitude of Lublin universities students' toward the opportunity of becoming unrelated bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Agnieszka; Wiorkowski, Krzysztof; Szara, Paulina; Drabko, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a very important life-saving procedure to treat many disorders. In August 2014, there were more than 24.5 million donor registered in the Worldwide Bone Marrow Donor Register. In the Polish Register of Unrelated Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Blood Donors at the end of 2013 there were almost 540 thousand registered bone marrow donors. Despite increasing numbers of registered donors, the amount of requests also increased. It shows that the number of donors is still insufficient. The analysis of knowledge and attitude of Lublin universities students' toward the opportunity to become an unrelated bone marrow donor was the aim of our study. 1609 Lublin students from non-medical universities from different years and specializations of study, of both sexes, aged 19-35 took part in the survey. It consisted of 16 questions. There were knowledge-testing questions, and also personal ones. Among interviewees, 16% were registered as potential bone marrow donors. The reason for not being registered registration chosen most often was that the surveyed did not take this into consideration. Correct answers to all of the questions were given by 21% of students. The biggest number of incorrect answers was given to the question about a place from bone marrow is harvested - nearly 49%. Registered students showed a better level of knowledge than the unregistered. We noted a low level of knowledge about bone marrow donation and possibility of becoming potential bone marrow donor among Lublin universities students. PMID:25648307

  12. Canine bone marrow cytological examination, classification and reference values: A retrospective study of 295 cases.

    PubMed

    Turinelli, Vanessa; Gavazza, Alessandra; Stock, Graham; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne

    2015-12-01

    Cytologic assessment of bone marrow with knowledge of the hemogram represents an effective method to investigate hemic tissue and its function. To determine the spectrum and prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders over a 2 year period in a diagnostic laboratory setting achieved through a standard approach to cytologic bone marrow assessment. A retrospective study of bone marrow fine needle aspirates sample preparations, blood smears, hemogram data and case records. Of the 295 bone marrow samples evaluated, 90 (30.5%) were nondiagnostic samples. Of the remaining samples, 25.1% were classified as hyperplasia of which most were granulocytic hyperplasia (58.1% of the total hyperplasia), 19.3% had no cytological abnormalities, 12.9% had malignant hemopathy and 7.8% had hypo-aplastic conditions. Only a small proportion of cases involved dysplasia (1.7%) and metastatic disease was detected in only one case (0.3%). Reference values of nucleated cells and the M/E ratio were calculated for normal and erythroid and granulocytic hyperplastic bone marrow. This study provides the spectrum and the prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders as well as a differential bone marrow cell counting and determination of reference intervals for diseases. PMID:26679822

  13. Rare Bone Marrow Biopsy Complication: A Challenging Case of Sacroiliitis and Staphilococcus Aureus Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Morotti, Alessandro; Barozzino, Maria Consiglio; Guerrasio, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsy is a mandatory procedure to diagnose several hematological disorders. This invasive analysis is generally safe and the procedure-related risks are rare and include bleeding at the site of puncture and, very occasionally, local infections. Here, we describe a case of sacroiliitis that occurred as a consequence of bone marrow biopsy. PMID:27162606

  14. National Marrow Donor Program and be the Match Key Messages, Facts & Figures

    MedlinePlus

    National Marrow Donor Program ® and Be The Match ® Key Messages, Facts & Figures About Us For people with life-threatening blood cancers - like leukemia ... Match is operated by the National Marrow Donor Program ® (NMDP), a nonprofit organization that matches patients with ...

  15. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) colitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Naik, H R; Chandrasekar, P H

    1996-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common in bone marrow transplantation patients. Unusual sites may be involved, however colonic disease with HSV is rare. We report a successfully treated case of colitis due to HSV, cytomegalovirus, Clostridium difficile and graft-versus-host disease in an allogeneic marrow recipient. PMID:8640181

  16. Plastic embedded core biopsy: a complementary approach to bone marrow aspiration for diagnosing acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A; Frisch, B; Henderson, E S

    1989-01-01

    Bone marrow aspirates and biopsy specimens were taken at diagnosis from 51 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The diagnosis was based on morphological and cytochemical analyses, and the leukaemias were classified by FAB criteria. A considerable difference was observed between the results of bone marrow aspirates and the findings of plastic-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens, particularly in marrow cellularity, extent of blast cell infiltration, and cell type involved in the leukaemic process. The myelomonocytic cell type seemed to predominate in the sections. In four cases there was considerable marrow infiltration with maturing, but dysplastic, granulocytic cells in the sections, but not in the aspirate smears. Features of potential prognostic importance, such as bone marrow infiltration with inflammatory cells, were easily recognised and quantified in the sections. These results indicate that plastic embedded bone marrow biopsy sections complement the findings of bone marrow aspiration in the diagnosis of AML and may also provide information of independent prognostic importance that cannot be obtained by other means. Images Fig 2 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:2649520

  17. Multiple Myeloma Impairs Bone Marrow Localization of Effector Natural Killer Cells by Altering the Chemokine Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ponzetta, Andrea; Benigni, Giorgia; Antonangeli, Fabrizio; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Sanseviero, Emilio; Zingoni, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Santoni, Angela; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2015-11-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key innate immune effectors against multiple myeloma, their activity declining in multiple myeloma patients with disease progression. To identify the mechanisms underlying NK cell functional impairment, we characterized the distribution of functionally distinct NK cell subsets in the bone marrow of multiple myeloma-bearing mice. Herein we report that the number of KLRG1(-) NK cells endowed with potent effector function rapidly and selectively decreases in bone marrow during multiple myeloma growth, this correlating with decreased bone marrow NK cell degranulation in vivo. Altered NK cell subset distribution was dependent on skewed chemokine/chemokine receptor axes in the multiple myeloma microenvironment, with rapid downmodulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 on NK cells, increased CXCL9 and CXCL10, and decreased CXCL12 expression in bone marrow. Similar alterations in chemokine receptor/chemokine axes were observed in patients with multiple myeloma. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that KLRG1(-) NK cell migration to the bone marrow was more efficient in healthy than multiple myeloma-bearing mice. Furthermore, bone marrow localization of transferred CXCR3-deficient NK cells with respect to wild type was enhanced in healthy and multiple myeloma-bearing mice, suggesting that CXCR3 restrains bone marrow NK cell trafficking. Our results indicate that multiple myeloma-promoted CXCR3 ligand upregulation together with CXCL12 downmodulation act as exit signals driving effector NK cells outside the bone marrow, thus weakening the antitumor immune response at the primary site of tumor growth. PMID:26438594

  18. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate route. They are sacrificed, the bone marrow extracted and smear preparations made and stained... shall neither interfere with the test compound nor produce toxic effects. Fresh preparations of the test... the assay which varies with the test substance. Therefore, using the highest dose, bone marrow...

  19. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate route. They are sacrificed, the bone marrow extracted and smear preparations made and stained... shall neither interfere with the test compound nor produce toxic effects. Fresh preparations of the test... the assay which varies with the test substance. Therefore, using the highest dose, bone marrow...

  20. Marrow adipocyte-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2 contribute to osteolysis in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Aimalie L; Herroon, Mackenzie K; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Podgorski, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Increased bone marrow adiposity is a common feature of advanced age, obesity and associated metabolic pathologies. Augmented numbers of marrow adipocytes positively correlate with dysregulated bone remodeling, also a well-established complication of metastatic disease. We have shown previously that marrow adiposity accelerates prostate tumor progression in the skeleton and promotes extensive destruction of the bone; however, the factors behind adipocyte-driven osteolysis in the skeletal tumor microenvironment are not currently known. In this study, utilizing in vivo diet-induced models of bone marrow adiposity, we reveal evidence for positive correlation between increased marrow fat content, bone degradation by ARCaP(M) and PC3 prostate tumors, and augmented levels of host-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2, ligands of CXCR2 receptor. We show by in vitro osteoclastogenesis assays that media conditioned by bone marrow adipocytes is a significant source of CXCL1 and CXCL2 proteins. We also demonstrate that both the adipocyte-conditioned media and the recombinant CXCL1 and CXCL2 ligands efficiently accelerate osteoclast maturation, a process that can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies to each of the chemokines. We further confirm the contribution of CXCR2 signaling axis to adiposity-driven osteoclastogenesis by blocking fat cell-induced osteoclast differentiation with CXCR2 antagonist or neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results link CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines with bone marrow adiposity and implicate CXCR2 signaling in promoting effects of marrow fat on progression of skeletal tumors in bone. PMID:25802102

  1. Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells Repair Heart Tissue and Reduce Myocarditis in Chronic Chagasic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Milena B. P.; Lima, Ricardo S.; Rocha, Leonardo L.; Takyia, Christina M.; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    A progressive destruction of the myocardium occurs in ∼30% of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, causing chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, a disease so far without effective treatment. Syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation has been shown to cause repair and improvement of heart function in a number of studies in patients and animal models of ischemic cardiopathy. The effects of bone marrow transplant in a mouse model of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, in the presence of the disease causal agent, ie, the T. cruzi, are described herein. Bone marrow cells injected intravenously into chronic chagasic mice migrated to the heart and caused a significant reduction in the inflammatory infiltrates and in the interstitial fibrosis characteristics of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. The beneficial effects were observed up to 6 months after bone marrow cell transplantation. A massive apoptosis of myocardial inflammatory cells was observed after the therapy with bone marrow cells. Transplanted bone marrow cells obtained from chagasic mice and from normal mice had similar effects in terms of mediating chagasic heart repair. These results show that bone marrow cell transplantation is effective for treatment of chronic chagasic myocarditis and indicate that autologous bone marrow transplant may be used as an efficient therapy for patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:14742250

  2. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil causes trabecular bone loss, bone marrow cell depletion and marrow adiposity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chiaming; Georgiou, Kristen R; McKinnon, Ross A; Keefe, Dorothy M K; Howe, Peter R C; Xian, Cory J

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of anthracyclines to adjuvant chemotherapy has increased survival rates among breast cancer patients. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil (CEF) combination therapy is now one of the preferred regimens for treating node-positive breast cancer due to better survival with less toxicity involved. Despite the increasing use of CEF, its potential in causing adverse skeletal effects remains unclear. Using a mature female rat model mimicking the clinical setting, this study examined the effects of CEF treatment on bone and bone marrow in long bones. Following six cycles of CEF treatment (weekly intravenous injections of cyclophosphamide at 10 mg/kg, epirubicin at 2.5 mg/kg and 5-flurouracil at 10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume was observed at the metaphysis, which was associated with a reduced serum level of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), increased trends of osteoclast density and osteoclast area at the metaphysis, as well as an increased size of osteoclasts being formed from the bone marrow cells ex vivo. Moreover, a severe reduction of bone marrow cellularity was observed following CEF treatment, which was accompanied by an increase in marrow adipose tissue volume. This increase in marrow adiposity was associated with an expansion in adipocyte size but not in marrow adipocyte density. Overall, this study indicates that six cycles of CEF chemotherapy may induce some bone loss and severe bone marrow damage. Mechanisms for CEF-induced bone/bone marrow pathologies and potential preventive strategies warrant further investigation. PMID:26056019

  3. Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

    2015-05-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ± SD decline 19.1 ± 6.1 kg or 36.5% ± 10.9%, p<0.001). Areal bone mineral density (BMD) decreased by 5.2% ± 3.5% and 4.1% ± 2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4% ± 2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  4. Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat and Bone Mass After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, AL; Li, X; Schwartz, AV; Tufts, LS; Wheeler, AL; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, SJ; Carter, JT; Posselt, AM; Black, DM; Shoback, DM

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ±SD decline 19.1 ±6.1 kg or 36.5 ±10.9%, p<0.001). Areal bone mineral density (BMD) decreased by 5.2 ±3.5% and 4.1 ±2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4 ±2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (−7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=−0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  5. Role of marrow architecture and stromal cells in the recovery process of aplastic marrow of lethally irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy litter mates

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Awai, M.; Irino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow aplasia was induced in rats by whole body lethal irradiation (1,000 rads by x-ray), and rats died of irradiation injury within 7 days. Correlative studies at light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated swelling of endothelial and reticular cells and hemorrhage due to detachment of sinus endothelial cells on days 1 and 2. With time, structural recovery occurred without hemopoietic recovery. Reticular cells developed small intracytoplasmic lipid droplets on days 3 and 4. This resulted in fatty aplastic marrow within 7 days. On the other hand, in the marrow of irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy mates by aortic anastomosis, hemopoiesis was initiated by adhesion of nucleated blood cells to fine cytoplasmic pseudopods of fat-stored cells on days 1 and 2 after parabiosis. On days 3 to 5, reticular cells with large lipid droplets and fine pseudopods increased, then hemopoietic foci became clear and extensive. On day 8 after parabiosis, the aplastic bone marrow recovered completely both its structure and hemopoietic activity. Thus, hemopoietic recovery in lethally irradiated marrow begins with recovery of vascular endothelial cells, re-establishment of sinusoidal structure, and morphological and functional recoveries of reticular cells from fat-storage cells by releasing intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. Marrow stromal cells, namely reticular, fat-storage and fibroblastoid cells, share a common cellular origin, and regain their structure and function when fat-storage cells and fibroid cells are placed in contact with hemopoietic precursor cells.

  6. Direct comparison of steady-state marrow, primed marrow, and mobilized peripheral blood for transduction of hematopoietic stem cells in dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, Bobbie; Peterson, Laura; Thompson, Jesse; Goerner, Martin; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2003-11-20

    The optimal stem cell source for stem cell gene therapy has not been defined. Most gene transfer studies have used peripheral blood or marrow repopulating cells collected after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor (G-CSF/SCF). For clinical applications, however, growth factor administration may not be feasible. Thus, in the current study we used a competitive repopulation assay in the dog to directly compare transduction efficiency of steady-state marrow, G-CSF/SCF-primed marrow, and G-CSF/SCF-mobilized peripheral blood. Cells from all three sources were transduced, cryopreserved, and thawed together before infusion into myeloablated dogs. Gene marking in hematopoietic repopulating cells was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. While primed marrow resulted in the highest long-term marking levels, steady-state marrow was transduced at least as efficiently as mobilized peripheral blood in all three dogs. These results suggest that steady-state marrow may be an appropriate source for genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:14633410

  7. [Method for concentrating marrow stem cells using the IBM 2991 washer. Necessary preparation before in vitro treatment of bone marrow by pharmacologic or immunologic means].

    PubMed

    Hervé, P; Coffe, C; Peters, A

    1983-04-01

    The technique using the IBM 2991 blood cell processor is an effective technique for the concentration of mononuclear cells from large volumes of bone marrow. The marrow cells are layered on to Ficoll Metrizoate using the IBM processing set. The mononuclear cells and CFU-GM recoveries are in close relationship with the hematocrit of the cell suspension processed. Twenty two bone marrows have been collected and purified according to this protocol. The mononuclear cell recovery is an average of 78,3% (range: 44-92%) and the CFU-GM recovery is in average of 67,5% (range: 40-89%). At the end of the procedure the cell viability is satisfying (97,1% +/- 1,7 are trypan blue negatives). When it is necessary to remove from the bone marrow collected either malignant cells prior autologous bone marrow graft or T lymphocytes in an attempt to prevent GVHD in allogeneic BMT, the purity of marrow cell suspension become a fundamental parameter. PMID:6348924

  8. Qualitative assessment of red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nubesh S.; Luke, Roji; Soman, Rino Roopak; Krishna, Praveen M.; Safar, Iqbal P.; Swaminathan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions that is not caused by marrow deficiencies or other diseases and in the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. The present case control study was aimed to assess the red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with mild, moderate, and severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A simple random sampling method was used to select 80 healthy male patients, who were divided into four groups based on full mouth periodontal examination as follows: group I patients comprised the control group (n = 20), which included patients with a clinically healthy periodontium, group II patients (n = 20) were diagnosed with mild chronic periodontitis, group III (n = 20) included moderate chronic periodontitis patients, and patients with severe chronic periodontitis formed group IV (n = 20). Laboratory blood investigations included total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in different grades of periodontitis. Conclusion: Results of the present study show a substantial decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in the severity of periodontal destruction. PMID:26759801

  9. Suppression of marrow stromal cells and microenvironmental damage following sequential radiation and cyclophosphamide. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wathen, L.M.; Knapp, S.A.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    Persistent defects in marrow stroma may contribute to hemopoietic insufficiency in patients treated with combined modality therapy for malignancy. To assess the bone marrow failure following combined therapy, mice received intraperitoneal administration of four weekly doses of cyclophosphamide, 160 mg/kg (CY) one week after 1500 rad at one, two, four and six months post-irradiation. Leg irradiation alone suppressed the repopulation to about 75% of normal and cyclophosphamide alone suppressed to 80% of normal. To directly assess the damage of sequential 1500 rad LI + CY on the microenvironment, marrow stromal cells were flushed from the femoral marrow and cultured as adherent cell colonies. They were suppressed to less than 30% of normal for three months following combined modality treatment. We conclude that multiple courses of cyclophosphamide starting one week after 1500 rad LI produced persistent damage to the microenvironment reflected by decreased marrow stromal cells and faile fraction of pions.

  10. Marrow Fat and the Bone Microenvironment: Developmental, Functional, and Pathological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Clifford J.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Pino, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow adipogenesis is a normal physiologic process in all mammals. However, its function is unknown. The mesenchymal stem cell is the marrow precursor for adipocytes as well as osteoblasts, and PPARγ is an essential differentiation factor for entrance into the fat lineage. Mouse models have provided significant insight into the molecular cues that define stromal cell fate. In humans, accelerated marrow adipogenesis has been associated with aging and several chronic conditions including diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Newer imaging techniques have been used to determine the developmental time course of fat generation in bone marrow. However, more studies are needed to understand the interrelationship among hematopoietic, osteoblastic, and adipogenic cells within the marrow niche. PMID:19392647

  11. Effects of OK-432 on murine bone marrow and the production of natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.B.; Rosse, C.

    1985-01-01

    The streptococcal preparation, OK-432, which augments anti-tumor responses in humans and mice, has been shown to be a potent immunomodulator. Among its effects is a pronounced augmentation of natural killer (NK) activity. The hypothesis that OK-432 alters the rates of production and maturation of NK cells in the bone marrow was tested. Studies to determine the kinetic parameters of NK cell production in normal C57BL/6J mice using tritiated thymidine, /sup 3/H-TdR, as a DNA marker are described. We are now extending those studies to determine the effect of OK-432 on the bone marrow and on the production of NK cells in the marrow. Initial observations are reported which indicate that OK-432 has profound effects on the cellularity and mitotic activity of the bone marrow, and in particular, on cells with the characteristics of natural killer cells within the marrow. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Bone and bone-marrow blood flow in chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, R.; Lahtinen, T.; Romppanen, T.

    1982-03-01

    Blood flow in hematopoietic bone marrow and in nonhematopoietic bone has been measured with a Xe-133 washout method in 20 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and in seven with primary myelofibrosis. Age-matched healthy persons served as controls. Bone-marrow blood flow in CGL was dependent upon the phase of the disease. In the metamorphosis phase, bone-marrow blood flow was high compared with that in the well-controlled phase. Apart from the initial phase, the mean values for bone blood flow in CGL were increased compared with the values of the healthy controls. In myelofibrosis the bone blood flow was also increased. Bone-marrow blood flow in these diseases was dependent upon the cellularity of bone marrow as measured morphometrically.

  13. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells: a Mixed Blessing in the Multifaceted World of Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the main economic burdens in health care, which threatens to worsen dramatically if prevalence forecasts are correct. What makes diabetes harmful is the multi-organ distribution of its microvascular and macrovascular complications. Regenerative medicine with cellular therapy could be the dam against life-threatening or life-altering complications. Bone marrow-derived stem cells are putative candidates to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, the bone marrow itself is affected by diabetes, as it can develop a microangiopathy and neuropathy similar to other body tissues. Neuropathy leads to impaired stem cell mobilization from marrow, the so-called mobilopathy. Here, we review the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in diabetes: how they are affected by compromised bone marrow integrity, how they contribute to other diabetic complications, and how they can be used as a treatment for these. Eventually, we suggest new tactics to optimize stem cell therapy. PMID:27025211

  14. Burkitt leukemia limited to the bone marrow has a better prognosis than Burkitt lymphoma with bone marrow involvement in adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Y; Venkataraman, Girish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Herrera, Alex F; Siddiqi, Tanya; Alikhan, Mir B; Kim, Young S; Murata-Collins, Joyce; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Liu, Xueli; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma patients with bulky disease often have bone marrow involvement. However, leukemic presentation of Burkitt lymphoma in the absence of a mass (pure Burkitt leukemia; PBL) is uncommon. Both PBL and Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, presenting with a tumor mass and marrow involvement (BLL), are considered stage IV disease, which is associated with a poor prognosis. However, there is limited information on the prognosis in adults with PBL because they have typically been included in cohorts of patients with BLL. This study identified 23 patients, which included 10 PBL and 13 BLL cases. Complex karyotypes (100%) were seen in all BLL cases compared to the PBL group (40%; p = 0.061). Patients with PBL had a significantly better 5-year overall survival of 87.5% vs only 24.3% in the BLL group (p = 0.005). The 5-year overall survival of patients with PBL treated with intensive chemotherapy is superior to those with BLL who are similarly treated. PMID:26450341

  15. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and ρsh·ρolinec prove to be important self-consistently derived quantities. I present some striking, explicit, asymptotic analytical theorems and results involving these quantities. Perhaps the most astonishingly unexpected and gratifying single result is this: for the very value Nature gives us for the relevant temperature exponent (η=15; CNO cycle) for nuclear-energy generation, ρsh and ρolinec behave in a well defined, precisely inverse manner for a given value of core-mass, Mc. This emphasizes that the internal behaviour of such stars is definitely anti-homologous rather than homologous: dense cores physically promote diffuse surrounding envelopes. I also extend the ideas yet further in a way which (I) links the structural and evolutionary behaviour of stars from the main sequence through horizontal-branch phases of evolution, and (II) also has implications for post-main-sequence developments in more massive stars. The end results is that the post-main-sequence developments of all stars - low-mass, intermediate-mass, and high-mass - as they expand to become giants, are finally seen to be examples of one underpinning fact: that dense cores with this surrounding shells naturally follow hydrogen exhaustion. While "this has been know all along" from oft-repeated computer calculations, we now know why analytically. That matters to true theorists. What follows is a requested, much expanded version of my Cambridge talk.

  16. Not just a red eye

    PubMed Central

    Juniat, Valerie; Andrew, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented to the Eye Casualty department with a 10-day history of worsening pain and redness in her right eye, associated with progressively reduced vision. History revealed that the patient had recently completed a course of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Anterior examination of the right eye revealed a vascularised iris mass causing pupillary distortion, intraocular inflammation and raised intraocular pressure. She was diagnosed with a right iris metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Ocular management consisted of topical steroids and intraocular pressure-lowering agents, which improved her ocular symptoms. She subsequently received primary radiotherapy, which has successfully reduced the size of the tumour. PMID:24700045

  17. Crosstalk between CXCR4/SDF-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathways regulates neutrophil retention in the bone marrow 1

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Joseph M.; Lenox, Christopher C.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil retention in and release from the bone marrow is a critical process that remains incompletely understood. Previous work has implicated the CXCR4/SDF-1 chemokine axis in the marrow retention of neutrophils, yet the adhesion pathways responsible for this retention are unknown. Since α4β1 integrin (VLA-4) and its ligand VCAM-1 play a central role in the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, and developing neutrophils in the marrow, we investigated whether this integrin might be involved in marrow neutrophil retention and release. Here we show that VLA-4 is expressed on murine marrow neutrophils and decreases with maturation, while blockade of this integrin leads to the release of marrow neutrophils. Marrow neutrophils adhere via VLA-4 to VCAM-1, which is expressed on marrow endothelium and stroma, and inhibition of VCAM-1 causes release of marrow neutrophils. Furthermore, SDF-1 (CXCL12) signaling through neutrophil CXCR4 augments VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 in vitro, an effect that is blocked by pre-incubation with pertussis toxin. In vivo blockade of both CXCR4 and α4 causes synergistic release of marrow neutrophils, showing that crosstalk between CXCR4 and VLA-4 modulates marrow retention of these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the VLA-4/VCAM adhesion pathway is critical in the retention and maturation-controlled release of neutrophils from the marrow, while providing an important link between the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling axis and the adhesion events that govern this process. PMID:19109194

  18. Malignant transformation of host stromal ?broblasts derived from the bone marrow traced in a dual-color fluorescence xenograft tumor model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingliang; Chen, Hua; Chen, Yanming; Wu, Jinding; Wang, Haiyang; Shi, Jia; Fei, Xifeng; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Aidong; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Solid tumors are abnormal tissues containing tumor and non-tumor cells, also known as tumor stromal cells. However, the malignant potential of tumor stromal cells remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the malignant potential of host bone marrow?derived stroma cells in transplanted subcutaneous tumors of the glioma stem/progenitor cells (GSPCs) labeled using the dual-color fluorescent tracer technique. The previously established human glioma stem/progenitor cell line SU3 was transfected with red fluorescence protein (SU3-RFP) and transplanted subcutaneously into green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic nude mice and chimeric mice in which GFP was only expressed by bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). The xenograft tumors were subcultured in vitro and two immortalized GFP-expressing stromal cell lines were cloned from the transplanted tumors. The two cloned cell lines showed an accelerated growth rate, loss of cell contact inhibition, high cloning efficiency, and high DNA content and telocentric (murine) chromosomes with heteroploid characteristics. The tumorigenesis rate (10/10, 1x10(6)) of these host stromal cells was further evidence of malignant transformation. Immunofluorescence assay of the two host cell lines showed that they expressed fibroblast markers such as FAP, S100A4 and ?-SMA, as well as mesenchymal cell markers such as CD44 and CD105. In conclusion, bone marrow-derived stromal ?broblasts recruited to tumors have the potential for malignant transformation induced by the tumor microenvironment, which provides new evidence for the role of the stroma in malignant transformation. PMID:26397840

  19. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed. PMID:25300050

  20. What is red cell deformability?

    PubMed

    Schmid-Schönbein, H; Gaehtgens, P

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic flow visualization of the process of red cell adaptation to flow shows that red cell deformation in flow is the consequence of a continuous viscous rather than an elastic deformation. This fluid drop-like adaptation primarily depends on: (a) the fluidity of the cytoplasm and (b) the favourable surface-area-to-volume ratio, with an excess of surface area allowing strong deformations without an increase in surface area (a real strain). (c) In contrast to previous notions, the modulus of shear elasticity of the membrane is probably less significant. After many attempts to differentiate the contribution of bending and shear stiffness to the elastic recovery of the normal biconcave cell shape have not produced equivocal results, we have changed the elastic shear modulus experimentally by cross-linking the spectrin using the membrane-permeant, bifunctional SH-reagent DIAMIDE, which allows to increase the elastic shear modulus in a dose-dependent manner. Despite a 25-fold decrease in compliance the DIAMIDE-treated cells have normal shape and show remarkably small changes in the rheological behaviour when tested in vitro and in vivo. PMID:6948373

  1. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  2. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited. PMID:15685919

  3. Neonatal manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Khincha, Payal P; Savage, Sharon A

    2016-02-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are a rare yet clinically important cause of neonatal hematological and non-hematological manifestations. Many of these syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita and Diamond-Blackfan anemia, confer risks of multiple medical complications later in life, including an increased risk of cancer. Some IBMFS may present with cytopenias in the neonatal period whereas others may present only with congenital physical abnormalities and progress to pancytopenia later in life. A thorough family history and detailed physical examination are integral to the work-up of any neonate in whom there is a high index of suspicion for an IBMFS. Correct detection and diagnosis of these disorders is important for appropriate long-term medical surveillance and counseling not only for the patient but also for appropriate genetic counselling of their families regarding recurrence risks in future children and generations. PMID:26724991

  4. Local Bone Marrow Renin-Angiotensin System and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Purnak, Tugrul; Guven, Gulay Sain; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C.

    2011-01-01

    Local hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects the growth, production, proliferation differentiation, and function of hematopoietic cells. Angiotensin II (Ang II), the dominant effector peptide of the RAS, regulates cellular growth in a wide variety of tissues in pathobiological states. RAS, especially Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), has considerable proinflammatory and proatherogenic effects on the vessel wall, causing progression of atherosclerosis. Recent investigations, by analyzing several BM chimeric mice whose BM cells were positive or negative for AT1R, disclosed that AT1R in BM cells participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, AT1R blocking not only in vascular cells but also in the BM could be an important therapeutic approach to prevent atherosclerosis. The aim of this paper is to review the function of local BM RAS in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:21234405

  5. Evaluation of Toxicity in Mouse Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Peace C; Xu, Huan; Wang, Shu Chun; Medina, Sebastian; Burchiel, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Development of blood cells through hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM), and can be adversely impacted by various substances and/or conditions ranging from known therapeutic, intentionally administered xenobiotics to unintentional food additives and exposure to environmental chemicals. The principles underlying the techniques for evaluating toxicity to BM progenitors (erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid) exploit changes in the normal hematopoietic process, biochemical cell surface and intracellular markers, as well as components of the BM microenvironment. Toxicological investigations following in vivo exposures of mice or in vitro exposures of mouse primary BM cell cultures allow the assessment of the developmental and functional integrity of BM cells, cell population shifts, and adverse biochemical effects due to toxicity. Colony forming unit (CFU) assays and flow cytometry are indispensable techniques in these toxicity studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26828331

  6. Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Therapy in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Nandhagopal, Vijayaraghavan; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Thiruvoth, Friji Meethale; Sivakumar, Dinesh Kumar; Asokan, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of autologous bone marrow aspirate therapy (ABMAT) in wound healing. Approach: This is a retrospective analysis of 9 patients (11 chronic nonhealing wounds) in whom ABMAT was used. Patients (wounds) were grouped into two groups. Group 1 included 4 patients (5 wounds) refusing/unfit for reconstruction and managed only with ABMAT. Group 2 included 5 patients (6 wounds) who agreed/fit for reconstruction after wound bed preparation with ABMAT. End point of the study was complete wound healing. Results: ABMAT helped in complete healing of chronic nonhealing wounds by secondary intention in group 1 patients and enhanced process of wound bed preparation for reconstruction in group 2 patients. Innovation: This study highlights the importance of ABMAT in the management of chronic nonhealing wounds. Conclusion: ABMAT helps in wound bed preparation to allow the wound to heal completely or cover by skin graft/flap. PMID:26989576

  7. Bone marrow adipose tissue: formation, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Suchacki, Karla J; Cawthorn, William P; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-06-01

    The human body requires an uninterrupted supply of energy to maintain metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. To sustain energy balance, excess consumed calories are stored as glycogen, triglycerides and protein, allowing the body to continue to function in states of starvation and increased energy expenditure. Adipose tissue provides the largest natural store of excess calories as triglycerides and plays an important role as an endocrine organ in energy homeostasis and beyond. This short review is intended to detail the current knowledge of the formation and role of bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT), a largely ignored adipose depot, focussing on the role of MAT as an endocrine organ and highlighting the pharmacological agents that regulate MAT. PMID:27022859

  8. Bone marrow mononuclear cells and acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is emerging as a potential therapy to treat heart diseases. Promising results from early animal studies led to an explosion of small, non-controlled clinical trials that created even further excitement by showing that stem cell transplantation improved left ventricular systolic function and enhanced remodelling. However, the specific mechanisms by which these cells improve heart function remain largely unknown. A large variety of cell types have been considered to possess the regenerative ability needed to repair the damaged heart. One of the most studied cell types is the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and these form the focus of this review. This review article aims to provide an overview of their use in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, the challenges it faces and the future of stem cell therapy in heart disease. PMID:22264393

  9. Pericardial Tamponade: a Rare Complication of Sternal Bone Marrow Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Santavy, Petr; Troubil, Martin; Lonsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Injury of the heart with concomitant pericardial tamponade as a result of sternal bone marrow biopsy is rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted with dehydration and non-specified abdominal pain to the regional hospital. Sternal aspiration biopsy was performed because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Later on, because of the back pain, general weakness and blood pressure drop, an echocardiography examination was indicated. Pericardial fluid collection was found. Anticipated ascending aortic dissection was excluded on computed tomography scan, but pericardial fluid collection was confirmed. Transfer to our cardiac surgical facility ensued. Limited heart tamponade was affirmed on echocardiography and surgery was immediately indicated. Blood effusion was found in upper mediastinal fat tissue and 300 mL of blood were evacuated from opened pericardial space. Stab wound by sternal biopsy needle at the upper part of ascending aorta was repaired by pledgeted suture. Postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:24179668

  10. CNS Inflammation and Bone Marrow Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A.; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M.; McGorray, Susan P.; Saban, Daniel R.; Boulton, Michael E.; Busik, Julia V.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B.

    2014-01-01

    By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow–neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow–derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45+/CCR2+/GR-1+/Iba-1+ bone marrow–derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

  11. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C injection in combination with ascorbic acid promotes the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Cui-Ping; Li, Meng; Hong, Dun; Li, Dong-Mei; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2008-09-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin C injection is established as a clinical therapy for delayed healing or disunion of bone fractures. In the present study, the effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin C injection in combination with ascorbic acid (SEC-AA) on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their influences on the mineralization of osteoblasts were investigated. SEC-AA treatment induced increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in MSCs and increased numbers of alizarin red-stained calcified nodules, indicating enhanced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. The findings demonstrated that SEC-AA promoted the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts and accelerated the cytopoiesis of osteoblasts. Our data provide a cytological model for bone fracture therapy aimed at shortening the time required for healing and improving the clinical outcome, and also provide a theoretical basis for inducible differentiation of MSCs, mineralization of osteoblasts and reconstruction of bone tissues. PMID:18572015

  12. Micrometastatic bone marrow involvement: detection and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Braun, S; Pantel, K

    1999-09-01

    The present review focuses on the methodology and clinical significance of new diagnostic approaches to identify individual cancer cells present in bone marrow, both as a frequent site of metastasis formation and an indicator organ for hematogenous tumor cell dissemination. The steadily increasing number of studies on this issue is characterized by considerable methodological variations of important variables, such as the size of the study population, and the reliability of monoclonal antibodies used for tumor cell detection. Emerging data indicate that this disturbing heterogeneity might be overcome by the use of reliable and specific anti-cytokeratin antibodies (for example, A45-B/B3) as, for the time, standard markers for the detection of micrometastatic tumor cells in bone marrow. Prospective clinical studies have shown that immunoassays based on anti-CK antibodies identify patients' subgroups with a poor clinical prognosis with regard to early metastasis manifestation and reduced overall survival in various epithelial tumor entities, including breast, colon, rectum, stomach, esophagus, prostate, renal, bladder, and non-small cell lung cancer. The immunocytochemical assays may be therefore used to improve tumor staging with potential consequences for adjuvant therapy, because disseminated cells appeared to be dormant, non-cycling (for example Ki-67 antigen-negative) cells, suggesting a resistance to cell-cycle dependent therapy, such as chemotherapy. Therefore, cell-cycle independent antibody-based immunotherapy might be an interesting option to complement chemotherapy. Another promising clinical application is monitoring the response of micrometastatic cells to adjuvant therapies, which, at present, can only be assessed retrospectively after an extended period of clinical follow-up. The outlined current strategies for detection and characterization of cancer micrometastasis might help to design and control new therapeutic strategies for secondary prevention of metastatic relapse in patients with operable primary carcinomas. PMID:10523795

  13. MSC Therapy Attenuates Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Murine Bone Marrow Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Kashif; Price, Andrew P.; Meyer, Carolyn; Matson, Amy; Ehrhardt, Michael J.; Fogas, Samuel; Tolar, Jakub; Hertz, Marshall I.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in chronic inflammatory disease. Objective Administration of MSCs was evaluated for the ability to ameliorate OB in mice using our established allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Methods Mice were lethally conditioned and received allogeneic bone marrow without (BM) or with spleen cells (BMS), as a source of OB-causing T-cells. Cell therapy was started at 2 weeks post-transplant, or delayed to 4 weeks when mice developed airway injury, defined as increased airway resistance measured by pulmonary function test (PFT). BM-derived MSC or control cells [mouse pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) or lung fibroblasts (LFs)] were administered. Route of administration [intratracheally (IT) and IV] and frequency (every 1, 2 or 3 weeks) were compared. Mice were evaluated at 3 months post-BMT. Measurements and Main Results No ectopic tissue formation was identified in any mice. When compared to BMS mice receiving control cells or no cells, those receiving MSCs showed improved resistance, compliance and inspiratory capacity. Interim PFT analysis showed no difference in route of administration. Improvements in PFTs were found regardless of dose frequency; but once per week worked best even when administration began late. Mice given MSC also had decreased peribronchiolar inflammation, lower levels of hydroxyproline (collagen) and higher frequencies of macrophages staining for the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) marker CD206. Conclusions These results warrant study of MSCs as a potential management option for OB in lung transplant and BMT recipients. PMID:25272285

  14. Interleukin-10 inhibits the osteogenic activity of mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Van Vlasselaer, P; Borremans, B; Van Den Heuvel, R; Van Gorp, U; de Waal Malefyt, R

    1993-10-15

    Murine bone marrow cells synthesize bone proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I, and osteocalcin, and form a mineralized extracellular matrix when cultured in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and vitamin C. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppressed the synthesis of these bone proteins and mineralization without affecting cell proliferation. In addition, mRNA levels for the latter proteins were reduced in IL-10-treated cultures. This inhibitory effect was most outspoken when IL-10 was added before ALP activity peaked, eg, day 15 of culture. No significant effect was observed when IL-10 was added at later time points. This finding suggests that IL-10 acts at osteogenic differentiation stages that precede ALP expression but is ineffective on cells that progressed beyond this maturation stage. Likewise, IL-10 appeared to be unable to block both ALP activity and collagen synthesis in the preosteosteoblastic cell lines MN7 and MC3T3 that constitutively synthesize these proteins. Whereas IL-10 did not alter the number of fibroblast colony-forming cells of the marrow, it significantly reduced their osteogenic differentiation potential. In contrast to control cultures, IL-10-treated stroma was unable to either synthesize osteocalcin or to mineralize when subcultured over a 25-day period in the absence of IL-10. The inhibitory activity of IL-10 coincided with significant changes in stroma morphology. Whereas control cultures contained mainly flat adherent polygonal cells, significant numbers of rounded semiadherent to nonadherent cells were observed in the presence of IL-10. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that, in contrast to control cultures, IL-10-treated stromas completely lacked a mineralized extracellular matrix. Collectively, these data suggest that IL-10 may have important regulatory effects on bone biology because of its capacity to downregulate early steps of osteogenic differentiation. PMID:8400287

  15. Supplementation with antioxidants prior to bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Clemens, M R; Waladkhani, A R; Bublitz, K; Ehninger, G; Gey, K F

    1997-10-17

    Conditioning therapy preceding bone marrow transplantation (BMT) usually consists of high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI). It has acute and delayed toxic effects on several tissues, possibly related to peroxidation processes and exhaustion of antioxidants. Early studies indicated an increase of peroxide processes and a decrease of antioxidants during conditioning therapy. Hence, we investigated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on peroxidation processes and antioxidant status. We supplemented a patient group (N = 16) [BMT (+)], with oral 45 mg beta-carotene, 825 mg alpha-tocopherol and 450 mg ascorbic acid daily for three weeks before conditioning therapy. Another patient group (N = 10), BMT(-), was not supplemented with antioxidants before conditioning therapy. In order to investigate the physiologic effect of supplement antioxidants a healthy control group (N = 10) was supplemented with the same doses as BMT(+). Peroxide concentrations in plasma were measured by using the cholesterol oxidase (CHOD)-iodide method and antioxidants were measured by HPLC. Before supplementation the beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were comparable in both patient groups. After supplementation significantly higher beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured in the supplemented patients, BMT(+), than in the unsupplemented patients, BMT(-). After conditioning therapy, BMT(+) patients showed a significantly higher beta-carotene concentration (p < 0.05) than before supplementation. In BMT(-) patients the beta-carotene (p < 0.05) and alpha-tocopherol concentrations (p < 0.01) decreased significantly and the lipid peroxide concentration increased significantly following conditioning therapy. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation prior to conditioning therapy reduces peroxidation processes induced by conditioning therapy in bone marrow recipients. PMID:9370141

  16. Histological Development of the Immune Tissues of a Marsupial, the Red-Tailed Phascogale (Phascogale calura).

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Casey R; Old, Julie M

    2016-02-01

    Red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura) pouch young at birth were relatively underdeveloped in comparison with their eutherian counterparts, and the lymphoid tissues of the immune system were found to be histologically immature. The phascogale thymus rapidly developed in the first few days of pouch life and was quickly populated with lymphocytes. By the end of pouch life, involution of the thymus was underway. The bone marrow started to develop in the early stage of pouch life, although adipocytes and megakaryocytes were not observed until slightly later. The liver was hematopoietic from birth and reached histological maturity toward the end of pouch life. The lymph nodes were difficult to detect macroscopically because of their small size, but were easily identified microscopically later in pouch life, particularly in the mesentery, and these lymph nodes exhibited germinal centers by the end of pouch life. The early spleen was predominately mesenchymal, but exhibited some erythropoiesis. Follicles with well-developed germinal centers were not observed until the latest stage of pouch life. Although intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected in the intestines early in pouch life, the discrete lymphoid aggregates and Peyer's patches characteristic of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were not detected until later in pouch life. This is the first report of histological development in phascogale pouch young, as well as the first report of the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes in this dasyurid species at any age. Anat Rec, 299:207-219, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26599205

  17. [Pure red cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia after administration of Dioscorea rhizome and Poria cocos].

    PubMed

    Sato, Takayuki; Ueda, Yasunori

    2015-11-01

    A 56-year-old woman was referred to our department for detailed examination of anemia. She was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) associated with severe reticulocytopenia based on blood testing and severe erythroblastopenia based on bone marrow aspiration. Blood tests revealed severe hypogammaglobulinemia, but monoclonal protein was not detected in either serum or urine by immunoelectrophoresis. Plasma cells were not increased in bone marrow aspirates or the biopsy specimen. Neither osteolytic lesions nor plasmacytoma was detected by computed tomography. We thus ruled out multiple myeloma. She had been treated with various Chinese herbal medicines prescribed at the referring hospital. We suspected PRCA induced by one of the Chinese herbal medicines and completely discontinued all of these herbal preparations. Hematologic testing revealed that the reticulocyte count and hemoglobin concentration began to recover on day 7 and the hemoglobin concentration and IgG levels had reached reference ranges on day 73 after discontinuation of the Chinese herbal medicines. We suspected Sanyaku (Dioscorea rhizome) or Bukuryou (Poria cocos) to have induced PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia in this patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia induced by a Chinese herbal medicine. Clinicians must consider the possibility of drug-induced PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia in patients taking Chinese herbal preparations. PMID:26666719

  18. The second transferrin receptor regulates red blood cell production in mice.

    PubMed

    Nai, Antonella; Lidonnici, Maria Rosa; Rausa, Marco; Mandelli, Giacomo; Pagani, Alessia; Silvestri, Laura; Ferrari, Giuliana; Camaschella, Clara

    2015-02-12

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) contributes to hepcidin regulation in the liver and associates with erythropoietin receptor in erythroid cells. Nevertheless, TFR2 mutations cause iron overload (hemochromatosis type 3) without overt erythroid abnormalities. To clarify TFR2 erythroid function, we generated a mouse lacking Tfr2 exclusively in the bone marrow (Tfr2(BMKO)). Tfr2(BMKO) mice have normal iron parameters, reduced hepcidin levels, higher hemoglobin and red blood cell counts, and lower mean corpuscular volume than normal control mice, a phenotype that becomes more evident in iron deficiency. In Tfr2(BMKO) mice, the proportion of nucleated erythroid cells in the bone marrow is higher and the apoptosis lower than in controls, irrespective of comparable erythropoietin levels. Induction of moderate iron deficiency increases erythroblasts number, reduces apoptosis, and enhances erythropoietin (Epo) levels in controls, but not in Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Epo-target genes such as Bcl-xL and Epor are highly expressed in the spleen and in isolated erythroblasts from Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Low hepcidin expression in Tfr2(BMKO) is accounted for by erythroid expansion and production of the erythroid regulator erythroferrone. We suggest that Tfr2 is a component of a novel iron-sensing mechanism that adjusts erythrocyte production according to iron availability, likely by modulating the erythroblast Epo sensitivity. PMID:25499454

  19. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  20. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  1. Role of T cells in sex differences in syngeneic bone marrow transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Raveche, E.S.; Santoro, T.; Brecher, G.; Tjio, J.H.

    1985-11-01

    Transferred marrow cells will proliferate in normal mice not exposed to irradiation or any other type of stem cell depletion when five consecutive transfers of 40 million cells are given. Approximately 25% of the mitotic cells are of male donor origin observed cytogenetically in all of the female recipient spleens and marrow analyzed from two weeks to one and one-half years after transfusions. Male donor stem cells are accepted and form a stable component of the self-renewing stem cell pool. In contrast, only 5% female cells are found in male recipients. This sex difference in engraftment is not hormonal since castration of recipients does not alter the percentage of donor cells. Rigorous T depletion of female donor bone marrow, however, increases the percentage of donor engraftment to the level observed when male marrow, either whole or T depleted, is transferred to female recipients. The success of T-depleted female stem cells to seed male recipients is observed in both C57BL/6 and CBA/J. In addition, recipient nude BALB/c males, which lack a thymus, fail to accept whole bone marrow from BALB/c females. However, male bone marrow cells seed BALB/c nude females. These studies demonstrate that the poor engraftment of female cells in transfused male recipients is abrogated by the removal of T cells from the donor female marrow.

  2. In vivo cell kinetics of the bone marrow transplantation using dual colored transgenic rat system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Kotaro; Teraoka, Satoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Ikehara, Susumu; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    Because bone marrow is an adequate site for bone marrow stem cells, intra-bone marrow - bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is an efficient strategy for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the fate of the transplanted cells remains unclear. Herein, we established a dual-colored transgenic rat system utilizing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a luciferase (luc) marker. We then utilized this system to investigate the in vivo kinetics of transplanted bone marrow cells (BMCs) after authentic intravenous (IV)-BMT or IBM-BMT. The in vivo fate of the transplanted cells was tracked using an in vivo luminescent imaging technique; alterations in peripheral blood chimerism were also followed using flow cytometry. IBM-BMT and IV-BMT were performed using syngeneic and allogeneic rat combinations. While no difference in the proliferation pattern was observed between the two treatment groups at 7 days after BMT, different distribution patterns were clearly observed during the early phase. In the IBM-BMT-treated rats, the transplanted BMCs were engrafted immediately at the site of the injected bone marrow and expanded more rapidly than in the IV-BMT-treated rats during this phase. Graft-versus-host disease was also visualized. Our bio-imaging system using dual-colored transgenic rats is a powerful tool for performing quantitative and morphological assessments in vivo.

  3. Quantitative observations on iliac bone marrow mast cells in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, K M; Ellis, H A

    1975-01-01

    Mast cells have been counted in sections of iliac bone from 61 control subjects at necropsy. Mast cells were found in all but three, and the range was 0-33-7, median 1-95 per mm2 marrow. The majority (82%) had less than 4-99 mast cells per mm2 marrow; in 37-7% there was less than 1 mast cell per mm2 marrow. In a group of 45 patients with chronic renal failure there was a significant increase in the numbers of mast cells (P less than 0-001) with a range of 0-96-55-63, median 9-55 per mm2 marrow. Mast cells were common in the areas of marrow fibrosis associated with osteitis fibrosa but this was not the sole cause of the increase since there was also an excess of mast cells in the non-fibrous parts of the marrow. There was a tendency towards greater numbers of mast cells in those cases with most marked osteitis fibrosa in association with the prominent marrow fibrosis, but there was no significant relationship between mast cell numbers and other features of oesteitis fibrosa such as the number of osteoclasts and the amount of woven bone formation. There was no relationship between the numbers of mast cells and the amounts of total bone, ostoid, percentage mineralization of cancellous bone, or the presence of osteomalacia. PMID:1206118

  4. Age-related Marrow Adipogenesis Is Linked to Increased Expression of RANKL*

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Sunao; Fumoto, Toshio; Naoe, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-01-01

    With advancing age bone marrow is progressively replaced with adipose tissue, accompanied by a concomitant decline in bone mass and strength. The mechanism underlying the increase in marrow fat and bone destruction remains elusive. We found that on the way of adipogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells, receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (Rankl) expression was induced, concomitantly with a down-regulation of osteoprotegerin, which prompted us to hypothesize that cells at a preadipocyte stage express RANKL. This concept was supported by the findings that the early adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, but not the late factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, bind to the Rankl promoter and stimulate Rankl gene transcription. In fact, when cells isolated from the bone marrow of aging mice were analyzed by flow cytometry, we found that cells expressing the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1 were RANKL-positive, and the number of these cells was increased with aging, with concomitant down-regulation of osteoprotegerin, and most importantly, that these RANKL+/Pref-1+ marrow cells were capable of generating osteoclasts from bone marrow macrophages. Thus, the capacity of cells at a pre-adipocyte stage to express RANKL via C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ and to support osteoclastogenesis may account partly for the co-progression of fatty marrow and bone destruction with aging. PMID:24753250

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. PMID:26453633

  6. Isolation of adipose and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using CD29 and CD90 modifies their capacity for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Paul R; Shelton, Richard M; Smith, Anthony J; Scheven, Ben A

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from rats are frequently used for tissue engineering research. However, considerable differences have been identified between rat mesenchymal stem cells and those derived from humans, and no defined panel of markers currently exists for the isolation of these cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cell sorting for CD29+/CD90+ cells from rat adipose and bone marrow tissues on their differentiation and expression of stem cell–associated genes. Flow cytometry showed 66% and 78% CD29+/CD90+ positivity within passage 1 of adipose and bone marrow cultures, respectively. CD29+/CD90+ cells showed a reduction in both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation when compared with unsorted cells, as determined by alizarin red and Oil Red-O staining, respectively. These findings could not entirely be explained by fluorescence-activated cell sorting–induced cell injury as sort recovery was only modestly affected in adipose-derived cells. Maintaining cells in fluorescence-activated cell sorting buffer did not affect adipose-derived cell viability, but a significant (p < 0.05) reduction was found in bone marrow–derived cell viability. Additionally, CD29+/CD90+ selection was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of Lin28, Sox2, Nanog and CD73 in adipose-derived cell cultures, whereas differences in stem cell–associated gene expression were not observed in sorted bone marrow–derived cell cultures. In summary, this study demonstrated that fluorescence-activated cell sorting had differential effects on adipose-derived cells and bone marrow–derived cells, and both CD29+/CD90+ cells displayed a significantly reduced capacity for osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion, we identify that maintaining heterogeneity within the mesenchymal stem cell population may be important for optimal differentiation. PMID:26380065

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells effectively regenerate fibrotic liver in bile duct ligation rat model.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; Elswefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Laila A; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Ghanim, Amal Mh

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted lots of attention for the treatment of acute liver failure and end-stage liver diseases. This study aimed at investigating the fundamental mechanism by which bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) induce liver regeneration of fibrotic liver in rats. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery and four weeks later they were treated with either BM-MSCs (3 × 10(6) cells /rat, once, tail vein injection) or silymarin (100 mg/kg, daily, orally) for four weeks. Liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress were determined. Hepatic injury and fibrosis were assessed by H and E, Sirus red staining and immunohistochemical expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the gene expression of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in liver tissue were determined. BDL induced cholestatic liver injury characterized by elevated ALT and AST activities, bilirubin and decreased albumin. The architecture damage was staged as Metavir score: F3, A3. Fibrosis increased around proliferating bile duct as indicated by sirus red staining and α-SMA immunostaining. Fibrogenesis was favored over fibrolysis and confirmed by decreased HGF with increased expression of CK-19, but decreased MMP-2 expression. BM-MSCs treatment restored deteriorated liver functions and restored the histological changes, resolved fibrosis by improving liver regenerative capabilities (P < 0.001), increases in HGF and MMP-2 mRNA and downregulating CK-19 mRNA. Sliymarin, however, induced similar but less prominent effects compared to BM-MSCs. In conclusion, liver regenerative capabilities can be stimulated by BM-MSCs via augmentation of HGF that subsequently up-regulate MMP-2 mRNA while downregulating CK-19 mRNA. PMID:26811102

  8. Anticonvulsant activity of bone marrow cells in electroconvulsive seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow is an accessible source of progenitor cells, which have been investigated as treatment for neurological diseases in a number of clinical trials. Here we evaluated the potential benefit of bone marrow cells in protecting against convulsive seizures induced by maximum electroconvulsive shock (MES), a widely used model for screening of anti-epileptic drugs. Behavioral and inflammatory responses were measured after MES induction in order to verify the effects promoted by transplantation of bone marrow cells. To assess the anticonvulsant effects of bone marrow cell transplantation, we measured the frequency and duration of tonic seizure, the mortality rate, the microglial expression and the blood levels of cytokine IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α after MES induction. We hypothesized that these behavioral and inflammatory responses to a strong stimulus such as a convulsive seizure could be modified by the transplantation of bone marrow cells. Results Bone marrow transplanted cells altered the convulsive threshold and showed anticonvulsant effect by protecting from tonic seizures. Bone marrow cells modified the microglial expression in the analyzed brain areas, increased the IL-10 and attenuate IL-6 levels. Conclusions Bone marrow cells exert protective effects by blocking the course of electroconvulsive seizures. Additionally, electroconvulsive seizures induced acute inflammatory responses by altering the pattern of microglia expression, as well as in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Our findings also indicated that the anticonvulsant effects of these cells can be tested with the MES model following the same paradigm used for drug testing in pharmacological screening. Studies on the inflammatory reaction in response to acute seizures in the presence of transplanted bone marrow cells might open a wide range of discussions on the mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of epilepsies. PMID:24011127

  9. The possible role of anemia in bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzynski, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Karlmeddini, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Entry of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid into bone marrow is a frequent observation and possible causes have been discussed in the literature. Using a present formulation of the radiocolloid (Medi+Physics), the authors sought to define the distribution patterns of bone marrow uptake, and relate these back to the primary diagnosis. Three hundred consecutive cases (with spleen present) were analyzed. Only 18% of the patients were under age 29 years and 62% were age 50 or older. Posterior images were evaluated so that liver, spleen and bone marrow could be compared visually. Twelve % of the studies were within normal limits. In 33% of the patients, the liver or spleen showed a defect without a radiocolloid shift. In 41% of the cases, there was a shift of radioactivity to the spleen (spleen/liver greater than 1), but not to the bone marrow. In 12% of the patients, there was both a radiocolloid shift to the spleen and visible uptake in the bone marrow. Least common was uptake of radiocolloid in the vertebral bone marrow without a splenic radiocolloid shift: this occurred in only 5 cases (under 2% of the total). Looked at another way the authors can normalize the cases with radiocolloid shift to the spleen (but not elsewhere) to 100%. Then radiocolloid shift to both spleen and bone marrow occurred only 29% as frequently. Radicolloid in the bone marrow, but not shifted to the spleen, was unusual (5% as frequent). These 5 patients were analyzed; all had anemia. The Hb ranged from 7.9 - 10.6 gm/dl, and hematocrits from 23 - 30. Several etiologies were involved. Anemia may be a stimulus to bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid without major splenic accumulation.

  10. Influence of early zoledronic acid administration on bone marrow fat in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Wu; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Nian, Hua; Shi, Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Although the primary target cell of bisphosphonates is the osteoclast, increasing attention is being given to other effector cells influenced by bisphosphonates, such as osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes. Early zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment to ovariectomized (OVX) rats has been found to fully preserve bone microarchitecture over time. However, little is known regarding the influence of ZA on marrow adipogenesis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the ability of early administration of ZA in restoring marrow adiposity in an estrogen-deficient rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SHAM), OVX + vehicle, and OVX + ZA groups (n=10/group). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and water/fat magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment to assess bone mineral density and marrow fat fraction. Serum biochemical markers, bone remodeling, and marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The expression levels of osteoblast, adipocyte, and osteoclast-related genes in bone marrow were assessed using RT-PCR. The OVX rats showed marked bone loss, first detected at 12 weeks, but estrogen deficiency resulted in a remarked increase in marrow fat fraction, first detected at 6 weeks compared with the SHAM rats (all P < .001). Similarly, the OVX rats had a substantially larger percent adipocyte area (+163.0%), mean diameter (+29.5%), and higher density (+57.3%) relative to the SHAM rats. Bone histomorphometry, levels of osteoclast-related gene expression, and a serum resorption marker confirmed that ZA significantly suppressed bone resorption activities. Furthermore, ZA treatment returned adipocyte-related gene expression and marrow adipocyte parameters toward SHAM levels. These data suggest that a single dose of early ZA treatment acts to reverse marrow adipogenesis occurring during estrogen deficiency, which may contribute to its capacity to reduce bone loss. PMID:25243855

  11. Bone marrow infiltration by multiple myeloma causes anemia by reversible disruption of erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Bouchnita, Anass; Eymard, Nathalie; Moyo, Tamara K; Koury, Mark J; Volpert, Vitaly

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) infiltrates bone marrow and causes anemia by disrupting erythropoiesis, but the effects of marrow infiltration on anemia are difficult to quantify. Marrow biopsies of newly diagnosed MM patients were analyzed before and after four 28-day cycles of nonerythrotoxic remission induction chemotherapy. Complete blood cell counts and serum paraprotein concentrations were measured at diagnosis and before each chemotherapy cycle. At diagnosis, marrow area infiltrated by myeloma correlated negatively with hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and marrow erythroid cells. After successful chemotherapy, patients with less than 30% myeloma infiltration at diagnosis had no change in these parameters, whereas patients with more than 30% myeloma infiltration at diagnosis increased all three parameters. Clinical data were used to develop mathematical models of the effects of myeloma infiltration on the marrow niches of terminal erythropoiesis, the erythroblastic islands (EBIs). A hybrid discrete-continuous model of erythropoiesis based on EBI structure/function was extended to sections of marrow containing multiple EBIs. In the model, myeloma cells can kill erythroid cells by physically destroying EBIs and by producing proapoptotic cytokines. Following chemotherapy, changes in serum paraproteins as measures of myeloma cells and changes in erythrocyte numbers as measures of marrow erythroid cells allowed modeling of myeloma cell death and erythroid cell recovery, respectively. Simulations of marrow infiltration by myeloma and treatment with nonerythrotoxic chemotherapy demonstrate that myeloma-mediated destruction and subsequent reestablishment of EBIs and expansion of erythroid cell populations in EBIs following chemotherapy provide explanations for anemia development and its therapy-mediated recovery in MM patients. Am. J. Hematol. 91:371-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749142

  12. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  13. Bone marrow stromal cell assays – in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Pamela Gehron; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Populations of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived “mesenchymal stem cells”) contain a a subset of cells that are able to recapitulate the formation of a bone/marrow organ (skeletal stem cells, SSCs). The biological properties of BMSC cultures are assessed by a variety of assays, both in vitro and in vivo. Application of these assays in an appropriate fashion provide a great deal of information on the role of BMSCs, and the subset of SSCs, in health and in disease. PMID:24482181

  14. Marrow-thymus interactions during radiation leukemogenesis in C57BL/Ka mice

    SciTech Connect

    Boniver, J.; Decl'eve, A.; Lieberman, M.; Honsik, C.; Travis, M.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-02-01

    Transplantation of thymus and bone marrow cells from irradiated C57BL/Ka mice demonstrated the presence of potentially neoplastic cells in the thymus at 30 to 60 days postirradiation. During the same interval, no such cells could be detected in the bone marow; moreover, the capacity of bone marrow cells to repopulate the thymus was impaired severely. These observations suggest that the primary site of neoplastic transformation in irradiated C57BL/Ka mice is the thymus rather than the bone marrow and that impaired thymic regeneration is a critical step in radiation leukemogenesis in mice.

  15. Methyl-substitution of benzene and toluene in preparations of human bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Flesher, J.W.; Myers, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The metabolism of benzene and toluene was investigated in preparations of human bone marrow incubated with S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Benzene undergoes a methyl-substitution reaction to yield toluene as a metabolite. Furthermore, toluene undergoes methyl-substitution in preparations of human bone marrow incubated with S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene. Metabolites were detected by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. No metabolism of either benzene or toluene was detected when a boiled bone marrow preparation was used in the incubation, demonstrating the enzymatic nature of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent methylation of both benzene and toluene.

  16. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention. PMID:1757445

  17. Unusual massive bone marrow fibrosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia following arsenic trioxide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.; Purohit, Abhishek; Ahuja, Ankur; Chandra, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Mukul; Amrita, R.; Kumar, Ravi; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Pati, Hara P.; Tyagi, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis has been associated with different types of non-neoplastic conditions like granulomatous and autoimmune diseases and a variety of neoplastic disorders such as acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloproliferative neoplsms. Therapy induced fibrosis is a rare phenomenon. Here we report a case of an incidentally diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(11;17) which was treated with arsenic trioxide (ATO) for 45 days. However, the patient did not go into remission and developed massive fibrosis of bone marrow. Literature search does not reveal such documented marrow fibrosis following therapy with ATO in a case of APL. PMID:26716080

  18. Computational method for realistic estimates of the dose to active marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1984-05-11

    Calculation of absorbed dose to active marrow from photon radiation is a complex problem because electronic equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interfaces. Snyder et al. recognized the intractable geometry of trabecular bone in their studies of photon transport in the body and formulated marrow dose estimates in a conservative manner. Other investigators have noted that this approach leads to overestimate by factors of 3 or more at low photon energy. In this paper the absorbed dose is formulated in terms of physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition in the marrow space. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Selective resistance of bone marrow-derived hemopoietic progenitor cells to gliotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Muellbacher, A.; Hume, D.; Braithwaite, A.W.; Waring, P.; Eichner, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    The fungal metabolite gliotoxin at low concentrations prevents mitogen stimulation of mature lymphocytes as a result of gliotoxin-induced genomic DNA degradation. Bone marrow, on the other hand, contains a subpopulation of cells resistant to gliotoxin at similar concentrations. This population includes the hemopoietic progenitor cells that grow in vitro in response to appropriate colony-stimulating factors and cells that form colonies in the spleens of lethally irradiated recipients. Gliotoxin treatment of lymph node cell-enriched bone marrow significantly delayed the onset of graft-versus-host disease in fully allogeneic bone marrow chimeras.

  20. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  1. Enhanced Homing Ability and Retention of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Diabetic Nephropathy by Microbubble-Mediated Diagnostic Ultrasound Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Yang, Bin; Wu, Shengzheng; Xu, Yali; Liu, Zheng; Tan, Kaibin; Xia, Hongmei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zou, Linru; Gan, Ling; Gao, Yunhua

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation can successfully treat diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the lack of a specific homing place for intravenously injected cells limits the effective implementation of stem cell therapies. The migration and survival of transplanted BMSCs are determined by inflammatory reactions in the local kidney micro-environment. We tested the hypothesis that microbubble-mediated diagnostic ultrasound irradiation could provide a suitable micro-environment for BMSC delivery and retention in DN therapy. In this study, red fluorescent protein-labeled BMSCs were administered combined with microbubbles to streptozotocin-induced DN rats 4 wk after diabetes onset. We observed enhanced BMSC homing and retention in microbubble-mediated diagnostic ultrasound-irradiated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys on days 1 and 3 post-treatment. The results from immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the local and transient expression of various chemo-attractants (i.e., cytokines, integrins and trophic factors) found to promote BMSC homing was much higher than observed in non-treated kidneys. The local capillary endothelium rupture observed by transmission electron microscopy may account for local micro-environment changes. Histopathologic analysis revealed no signs of kidney damage. These results confirmed that renal micro-environment changes caused by appropriate microbubble-mediated diagnostic ultrasound irradiation may promote BMSC homing ability to the diabetic kidney without renal toxicity and cell damage. This non-invasive and effective technique may be a promising method for BMSC transplantation therapy. PMID:26318561

  2. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  3. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Huang, Y X; Zhang, C; Chai, M X; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) of 20 Hz/2 mT on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Sprague Dawley rat BMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. The BMSCs of the third passage were obtained and stimulated by PEMFs of 20 Hz/2 mT. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured according to the ALP assay kit manufacturer instructions, the BMSC osteogenic and adipogenic indicators were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and oil red O staining was used to observe the adipose-induced adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PEMFs of 20 Hz/2 mT significantly promoted the activity of ALP in the BMSCs (P < 0.01) and mRNA expression of osteogenic proteins (osteocalcin and osteopontin). The PEMFs inhibited the expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as adipokines and adipocyte-binding protein-2, and the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PEMFs of 20 Hz/2 mT can promote osteogenic differentiation and inhibit adipogenic differentiation in BMSCs. PMID:26436394

  4. Histopathological Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Periodontium-derived Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration in Rabbit Calvaria

    PubMed Central

    Kadkhoda, Z.; Safarpour, A.; Azmoodeh, F.; Adibi, S.; Khoshzaban, A.; Bahrami, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an important oral disease. Stem cell therapy has found its way in treatment of many diseases. Objective: To evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) and osteoblast differentiated from PDLSC in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and pre-osteoblasts in calvarial defects. Methods: After proving the existence of surface markers by flow cytometry, BM-MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts. 5 defects were made on rabbit calvaria. 3 of them were first covered with collagen membrane and then with BM-MSCs, PDLSCs, and pre-osteoblasts. The 4th defect was filled with collagen membrane and the 5th one was served as control. After 4 weeks, histological (quantitative) and histomorphological (qualitative) surveys were performed. Results: Both cell lineages were positive for CD-90 cell marker, which was specifically related to stem cells. Alizarin red staining was done for showing mineral material. RT-PCR set up for the expression of Cbfa1 gene, BMP4 gene, and PGLAP gene, confirmed osteoblast differentiation. The findings indicated that although PDLSCs and pre-osteoblasts could be used for bone regeneration, the rate of regeneration in BM-MSCs-treated cavities was more significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The obtained results are probably attributable to the effective micro-environmental signals caused by different bone types and the rate of cell maturation. PMID:26889369

  5. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  6. Detection of organic nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells using ToF-SIMS and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kokesch-Himmelreich, Julia; Woltmann, Beatrice; Torger, Bernhard; Rohnke, Marcus; Arnhold, Stefan; Hempel, Ute; Müller, Martin; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The detection and localization of polymer-based nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is reported as an example for the mass spectrometry imaging of organic nanoparticles in cell environments. Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP) made of polyethylenimine (PEI) and cellulose sulfate (CS), which were developed as potential drug carrier and coatings for implant materials, were chosen for the imaging experiments. To investigate whether the PEI/CS-NP were taken up by the hBMSC ToF-SIMS measurements on cross sections of the cells and depth profiling of whole, single cells were carried out. Since the mass spectra of the PEI/CS nanoparticles are close to the mass spectra of the cells principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to get specific masses of the PEI/CS-NP. Mass fragments originating from the NP compounds especially from cellulose sulfate could be used to unequivocally detect and image the PEI/CS-NP inside the hBMSC. The findings were confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Graphical Abstract During ToF-SIMS analysis Bi3 (+) primary ions hit the sample surface and so called secondary ions (SI) are emitted and detected in the mass analyser. Exemplary mass images of cross sections of human mesenchymal stromal cells (red; m/z = 86.1 u) cultured with organic nanoparticles (green; m/z = 143.0 u) were obtained. PMID:25869483

  7. Salvage bone marrow harvest in patients failing plerixafor-based stem cell mobilization attempt: feasibility and autologous transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kanate, Abraham S; Watkins, Kathy; Cumpston, Aaron; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Inadequate mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) is sometimes a limiting factor to proceed with an autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT), in an otherwise eligible patient. In such situations, a bone marrow harvest (BMH) procedure may be considered to achieve the CD34+ target dose for an autograft. Plerixafor-based mobilization has recently been shown to improve PBPC collection yields. However, the feasibility and outcomes of BMH in patients failing plerixafor-based mobilization is not known. We report here, 6 patients who underwent BMH after PBPC mobilization failure with plerixafor. The median CD34+ yield with plerixafor mobilization and BMH were 1.15 x 10^6/Kg (range, 0.2-1.7 × 10^6/Kg) and 0.32 (range, 0.12-0.38 × 10^6/Kg), respectively. Three patients proceeded to an auto-HCT, with only 1 patient receiving CD34+ cell dose of at least 2 × 10^6/Kg. While neutrophil recovery was seen, platelet recovery and red cell transfusion independence were delayed. All 3 autografted patients experienced disease progression by day +100. These data suggest, limited incremental benefit of a salvage BMH after plerixafor mobilization failure, cautioning against routine use of this strategy. PMID:23635452

  8. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yong; Zheng, Gui-Zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-Xiao; Lin, Fei-Xiang; Liu, De-Zhong; Wu, Chu-Cheng; Du, Shi-Xin; Li, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  9. Amelioration of murine sickle cell disease by nonablative conditioning and γ-globin gene-corrected bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Pestina, Tamara I; Hargrove, Phillip W; Zhao, Huifen; Mead, Paul E; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Weiss, Mitchell J; Wilber, Andrew; Persons, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) are candidates for gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but concomitant multi-organ disease may contraindicate pretransplant conditioning with full myeloablation. We tested whether nonmyeloablative conditioning, a regimen used successfully for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of adult SCD patients, allows engraftment of γ-globin gene-corrected cells to a therapeutic level in the Berkeley mouse model of SCD. Animals transplanted according to this regimen averaged 35% engraftment of transduced hematopoietic stem cells with an average vector copy < 2.0. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels ranged from 20 to 44% of total hemoglobin and approximately two-thirds of circulating red blood cells expressed HbF detected by immunofluorescence (F-cells). Gene therapy treatment of SCD mice ameliorated anemia, reduced hyperleukocytosis, improved renal function, and reduced iron accumulation in liver, spleen, and kidneys. Thus, modest levels of chimerism with donor cells expressing high levels of HbF from an insulated γ-globin lentiviral vector can improve the pathology of SCD in mice, thereby illustrating a potentially safe and effective strategy for gene therapy in humans. PMID:26665131

  10. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guo-yong; Zheng, Gui-zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-xiao; Lin, Fei-xiang; Liu, De-zhong; Wu, Chu-cheng; Du, Shi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  11. Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

  12. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  13. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT - 2001 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory evaluated 16 cultivars of hard red spring (HRS) wheat from the 2001 crop for kernel and milling properties, and subsequently shipped flour (and/or wheat) to overseas cooperators through arrangements made by US Wheat Associates (USW) for...

  14. Pure red cell hypoplasia secondary to isoniazid.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C. R.; Manoharan, A.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a 77 year old man who developed pure red cell aplasia while receiving antituberculous therapy including isoniazid. Prompt recovery occurred following cessation of isoniazid. In this paper we also review previously described case reports of isoniazid-induced pure red cell aplasia. PMID:3120168

  15. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  16. Preparation of special cements from red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Upadhayay, S.N.; Prasad, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    Red mud from HINDALCO (Hindustan Aluminium Corporation) Industries Limited, Renukoot, India, contains significant quantities of alumina, iron oxide and silica. Presence of the said constituents makes it a suitable ingredient for the preparation of special cements. Preparation of three varieties of cements was investigated, namely: (a) aluminoferrite (C{sub 4}AF)-belite ({beta}-C{sub 2}S) using lime + red mud + fly ash; (b) aluminoferrite-ferrite (C{sub 2}F)-aluminates (C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) utilizing lime + red mud + bauxite; and (c) sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S})-aluminoferrite-ferrite using lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum. The effects of composition (proportions of lime, red mud, fly ash, bauxite and gypsum), firing temperature and duration on the properties of cements produced were studied in detail. Cements made from lime + red mud + bauxite or lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum exhibit strengths comparable or superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). On the other hand, those prepared using lime + red mud + fly ash did not have sufficient strength. Moreover, it was not possible to replace bauxite by fly ash (as a source of alumina) in any significant quantity.

  17. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  18. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  19. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...