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1

Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction.

Wilderman, S. J.; Roberson, P. L.; Bolch, W. E.; Dewaraja, Y. K.

2013-07-01

2

Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy.  

PubMed

A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction. PMID:23780474

Wilderman, S J; Roberson, P L; Bolch, W E; Dewaraja, Y K

2013-07-21

3

Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose-rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Results: Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Conclusions: Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction.

Wilderman, S J; Roberson, P L; Bolch, W E; Dewaraja, Y K

2013-01-01

4

Rh antibodies against the pretransplant red cells following Rh-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old, blood group O, Rh-positive (R2r) man received bone marrow from his blood group A, Rh-negative (rr), HLA-identical sister for treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient's pretransplantation serum contained anti-A in a low concentration; therefore, plasmapheresis was not done prior to transfusion of bone marrow. To prevent graft-versus-host disease, bone marrow was incubated with absorbed rabbit antithymocyte globulin prior to infusion, and the patient was treated with methotrexate in the posttransplantation period. After transplantation, the patient received 6 units of group O, Rh-negative (rr) packed red cells from random donors and 6 units of platelets from the marrow donor. Three months after transplantation, 0.5 percent of his red cells were still of the host's type (group O, Rh-positive), as detected by immunofluorescence technique in blood smears. Four months after transplantation, three different Rh antibodies--anti-D, -E, and -G--were detected. Since the patient received only Rh-negative red cell transfusions, it is concluded that he was immunized to his original red cells. PMID:3130695

Heim, M U; Schleuning, M; Eckstein, R; Huhn, D; Siegert, W; Clemm, C; Ledderose, G; Kolb, H J; Wilmanns, W; Mempel, W

1988-01-01

5

Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people

G M Kendall; T P Fell

2011-01-01

6

Idiopathic pure red cell aplasia: first report on CD8 positive lymphocytosis in bone marrow biopsy sections  

PubMed Central

There is no information in the literature regarding the lymphocyte content or type in bone marrow biopsies from patients with “idiopathic” pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). This report describes the bone marrow biopsy sections of a patient with PRCA. A diffuse CD3 positive (CD8 positive, granzyme B negative) lymphocytosis of approximately 1500/mm3 was revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the T cell increase was not evident from morphological examination of the bone marrow aspirate or biopsy, from flow cytometric analysis of the aspirate, or from the peripheral blood lymphocyte count. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis should be performed routinely in this rare disease and the data acquired may help to inform the choice of treatment.

Ramadan, K M A; Anderson, J A M; McMullin, M F; Markey, G M

2005-01-01

7

Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent.

A C Traino; M Ferrari; M Cremonesi; M G Stabin

2007-01-01

8

Minor histocompatibility antigens on transfused leukoreduced units of red blood cells induce bone marrow transplant rejection in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

When successful, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–matched bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning is a cure for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders that require chronic transfusion, such as sickle cell disease and aplastic anemia. However, there are unusually high bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection rates in these patients. Rejection correlates with the number of transfusions before bone marrow transplantation, and it has been hypothesized that preimmunization to antigens on transfused blood may prime BMT rejection. Using a novel mouse model of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and major histocompatibility complex–matched bone marrow transplantation, we report that transfusion of RBC products induced BMT rejection across minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) barriers. It has been proposed that contaminating leukocytes are responsible for transfusion-induced BMT rejection; however, filter leukoreduction did not prevent rejection in the current studies. Moreover, we generated a novel transgenic mouse with RBC-specific expression of a model mHA and demonstrated that transfusion of RBCs induced a CD8+ T-cell response. Together, these data suggest that mHAs on RBCs themselves are capable of inducing BMT rejection. Cellular immunization to mHAs is neither monitored nor managed by current transfusion medicine practice; however, the current data suggest that mHAs on RBCs may represent an unappreciated and significant consequence of RBC transfusion.

Desmarets, Maxime; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Neades, Renee

2009-01-01

9

In vivo Cytogenetic Investigation of Amaranth (FD and C Red No. 2) and Its R-Salt and Metabolites in Rat Bone Marrow. Cytogenetic Evaluation of Amaranth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The red dye, amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2), two of its metabolites (sodium naphthionate and the R-amino salt) and one intermediate in its synthesis (the R-salt) were investigated in an in vivo cytogenetic study in the bone marrow cells of rats.

F. M. Moreland D. I. Ruggles S. Green

1977-01-01

10

Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (?3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

2014-04-01

11

The relative roles of MHC and non-MHC antigens in bone marrow transplantation in rats. Graft acceptance and antigenic expression on donor red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the influence of MHC and non-MHC genes in bone marrow transplantation, various combinations of congenic and inbred strains of rats were used as donors and recipients. A standard regimen of busulfan and cyclophosphamide treatment was used to condition the recipients. The resultant survival patterns of the animals indicated that: (1) a difference across the entire RT1 (MHC) complex is sufficient for the induction of fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in 100% of the engrafted animals; and (2) the blood group antigens RT2 and RT3, which are controlled by non-MHC genes, do not cause bone marrow graft rejection or GVHD. There were sequential changes of expression in surface alloantigens on the red cells in different donor-recipient combinations without other hematologic changes in the busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioned bone marrow chimeras.

Pinto, M.; Gill, T.J.; Kunz, H.W.; Dixon-McCarthy, B.D.

1983-06-01

12

Placental/umbilical cord blood for unrelated-donor bone marrow reconstitution: relevance of nucleated red blood cells.  

PubMed

Placental/umbilical cord blood (PCB) is a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow reconstitution. Engraftment speed and survival are related to the total nucleated cell (TNC) dose of the graft. This study explored the possible influence on engraftment of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the graft. Automated hematology analyzers were used to enumerate TNCs. NRBCs were counted by visual examination or by using an automated analyzer. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were enumerated as either colony-forming cells or CD34(+) cells. Transplant centers reported on transplant outcome in 1112 patients given PCB grafts through September 2001. NRBCs correlated with progenitor cell numbers. Both white blood cell and NRBC dose were independently predictive of myeloid engraftment speed. Because NRBC dose predicted engraftment speed, inclusion of NRBCs in the TNC count does not reduce the effectiveness of the prefreezing TNC count as an index of the quality of a PCB unit as a graft. The correlation between the number of NRBCs and the number of hematopoietic progenitor cells probably reflects the involvement of early stem cells in erythroid responses. PMID:12239183

Stevens, Cladd E; Gladstone, Jessica; Taylor, Patricia E; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Visser, Jan; Dobrila, N Ludy; Carrier, Carmelita; Cabbad, Michael; Wernet, Peter; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Rubinstein, Pablo

2002-10-01

13

Red blood cells derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow CD34+ human haematopoietic stem cells are permissive to Plasmodium parasites infection  

PubMed Central

The production of fully functional human red cells in vitro from haematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) has been successfully achieved. Recently, the use of hHSCs from cord blood represented a major improvement to develop the continuous culture system for Plasmodium vivax. Here, we demonstrated that CD34+hHSCs from peripheral blood and bone marrow can be expanded and differentiated to reticulocytes using a novel stromal cell. Moreover, these reticulocytes and mature red blood cells express surface markers for entrance of malaria parasites contain adult haemoglobin and are also permissive to invasion by P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Lelievre, Joel; Ferrer, Mireia; Anton, Nuria; Thomson, Richard; Peligero, Cristina; Almela, Maria Jesus; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Herreros, Esperanza; del Portillo, Hernando A

2013-01-01

14

Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.

2007-09-01

15

Bee venom induced in vivo ultrastructural reactions of cells involved in the bone marrow erythropoiesis and of circulating red blood cells.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural answer of bone marrow erythroid series and of red blood cells (RBCs) in Wistar rats to bee venom (BV) was analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and corroborated with hematological data. A 5-day and a 30-day treatment with daily doses of 700 ?g BV/kg and an acute-lethal treatment with a single dose of 62 mg BV/kg were performed. The 5-day treatment resulted in a reduced cellularity of the bone marrow, with necrosed proerythroblasts, polymorphous erythroblasts, and reticulocytes with cytoplasmic extensions, and a lower number of larger RBCs, with poikilocytosis (acanthocytosis) and anisocytosis, and reduced concentrations of hemoglobin. After the 30-day treatment, the bone marrow architecture was restored, but polymorphous erythroblasts and reticulocytes with thin extensions could still be observed, while the RBCs in higher number were smaller, many with abnormal shapes, especially acanthocytes. The acute treatment produced a partial depopulation of the bone marrow and ultrastructural changes of erythroblasts including abnormal mitochondrial cristae. The RBCs in lower number were bigger and crenated, with reduced concentrations of hemoglobin. Overall, BV was able to promote stress erythropoiesis in a time- and dose-related manner, mitochondrial cristae modification being a critical factor involved in the toxicity of the BV high doses. PMID:23375112

Florea, Adrian; Cr?ciun, Constantin

2013-04-01

16

Survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells labelled with red fluorescent protein in an ovine model of collagenase-induced tendinitis.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was to track the survival and efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) marked with red fluorescent protein (BM-MSCRFP) in an ovine model of collagenase-induced tendinopathy. Methods: Bone marrow was harvested from one donor sheep and BM-MSC were isolated, cultivated and transfected with red fluorescent protein (BM-MSCRFP). Collagenase was injected into both Achilles tendons in the remaining nine sheep. After two weeks the left tendon was injected with a solution of 6 x 10? BM-MSCRFP and fibrin glue, while only fibrin glue was administered to the contra-lateral tendon in each sheep. After three, four and six weeks the tendons were harvested and evaluated for morphology, collagen I deposition, presence of CD34+ cells, and fluorescent labelled BM-MSC. Results: We demonstrated that delivery of BM-MSC into tendon lesions had positive effects on the injured tendons. The BM-MSCRFP survived at three, four and six weeks after treatment, leading to better quality healing of tendons as compared to the controls, where no labelled cells were detected. Interestingly, we demonstrated high expression of CD34+ cells in tendons that had been treated with BM-MSCRFP. Clinical relevance: Mesenchymal stem cell allografts have a positive effect on tendon healing and local injection of BM-MSC directly into the tendon allows the homing of BM-MSC for good efficiency of engraftment. PMID:24764044

Lacitignola, L; Staffieri, F; Rossi, G; Francioso, E; Crovace, A

2014-05-19

17

Clinical assessment of CD4/8 ratio of bone marrow lymphocytes in acquired pure red cell aplasia.  

PubMed

We have reviewed 6 patients with acquired PRCA and investigated CD4/8 ratio in the bone marrow lymphocytes prior to treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA). CsA, as a remission induction therapy, produced CR in 3/6 patients, and PR+NR in 3/6 patients. CD4/8 ratio in CR group was high compared to PR+NR group. Moreover, the number of reticulocyte and hemoglobin concentration in CR group was high in comparison with PR+NR group. In acquired PRCA, CD4/8 ratio in the bone marrow lymphocytes may correlate with the disease status and the outcome of CsA treatment. PMID:24975341

Tsuji, Takahiro; Hirano, Taichi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

18

Bone marrow MRI in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Normal bone marrow MRI has a distinct pattern with STIR pulse sequence MRI. The central low signal intensity area corresponds to fatty marrow. The red marrow is distributed in the peripheral portion of the vertebrae and shows a high signal intensity. Prostatic cancer metastases to the bone marrow revealed a high signal intensity with STIR. Prior to the appearance of an abnormal scintigram and radiograph, MRI was able to depict an abnormality. PMID:1492618

Heshiki, A

1992-01-01

19

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

20

Enhancement of the repair of meniscal wounds in the red-white zone (middle third) by the injection of bone marrow cells in canine animal model  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into several cells that participate in the healing of meniscal wounds. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of injected BMSCs on the healing of meniscal wounds. Autologous BMSCs from eight adult dogs were injected into meniscal wounds (knee joints). After 12 weeks, the healing process was clinically and immunomorphologically evaluated using: (i) histochemical stains (haematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome and periodic acid–Schiff) and (ii) immunoperoxidase staining methods (CD3, CD79a, CD68, CD31 and alpha smooth-muscle actin for T, B lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth-muscle lineage). Complete (six vs. three), partial (one vs. one) and no healing (one vs. four animals) of the meniscal wounds were observed in the injected and noninjected menisci. As compared with the noninjected menisci, examination of the tissues from the injected ones revealed: (i) marked angiogenesis (microvessel density: 3.22 ± 0.66 vs. 6.50 ± 2.10); (ii) chondrogenesis; (iii) prominent immune cell infiltrate (4.07 ± 0.78 vs. 9.56 ± 1.69, 8.33 ± 0.77 vs. 3.67 ± 1.00 and 4.38 ± 0.62 vs. 11.1 ± 1.43 for the total numbers of immune cells, lymphocytes and macrophages, respectively); and (iv) proliferation of the fibroblasts with marked deposition of collagen fibres (2.0 ± 0.84 vs. 2.66 ± 0.48). These values were statistically significantly higher for the injected menisci as compared with the noninjected ones (P ? 0.05). Autologous BMSCs can improve meniscal wound healing. Whether this improvement occurs through BMSC differentiation into cells operational in the repair process, the release of certain mediator or other unknown mechanisms mandates further investigations.

Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed; Hussein, Mahmoud R; Ahmad, Ahmad F; Elgezawi, Ebtisma M

2005-01-01

21

Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

2012-07-01

22

Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children. PMID:22750636

Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

2012-07-21

23

Reconstitution capacity of bone marrow cells from nude mice in radiation chimeras.  

PubMed

Lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with bone marrow cells from 'nude' or normal mice. It was found that the radioprotective capacity of bone marrow cells from normal and thymusless 'nude' mice is similar and that the immune responses to sheep red cells in radiation chimeras reconstituted with normal and nude bone marrow cells are also similar. Bone marrow cells from nude mice, in spite of the lack of the thymus, develop into hematopoietic cells and contain also T-precursor cells. PMID:820154

Tao, T W; Floersheim, G L

1976-01-01

24

[Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

2012-01-01

25

Bone marrow biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... the bone. This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are removed. Pressure and a bandage are applied to the biopsy site. A bone marrow aspirate may also be ...

26

Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

Control, U. S.

27

Bone marrow involvement and obstructive jaundice in Farber lipogranulomatosis: clinical and autopsy report of a new case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We report a case of Farber lipogranulomatosis in a girl with hepatosplenomegaly, macular cherry-red spot, and subcutaneous nodules who developed liver dysfunction with jaundice and ascites, and myelophthisic anaemia because of infiltration of bone marrow with storage cells. Acid ceramidase assay confirmed the diagnosis. We conclude that the bone marrow dysfunction and cherry-red spot are features of type IV

M. J. M. Nowaczyk; A. Feigenbaum; M. M. Silver; J. Callahan; A. Levin; V. Jay

1996-01-01

28

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

29

Red clover  

MedlinePLUS

Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

30

Birthmarks - red  

MedlinePLUS

Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. They ... There are two main categories of birthmarks. Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

31

Marrow transplantation for leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Marrow transplantation for selected patients with leukemia, as for patients with severe combined immunologic deficiency or severe aplastic anemia, has now become an accepted clinical procedure. For patients with acute leukemia who have relapsed after achieving a remission of chemotherapy, marrow grafting from an identical twin or an HLA-identical sibling has now been demonstrated to produce median remissions as long as or longer than any reported for combination chemotherapy. In contrast to chemotherapy, marrow transplantation offers the possibility of cure for a small but significant fraction of these patients. Marrow transplantation for patients with ANL in first remission has now resulted in median survivals much longer than any reported with chemotherapy. Although it now appears that more than 50% of these patients can be cured with marrow transplantation, a much longer follow-up is indicated since some patients who achieve a complete remission with combination chemotherapy are now living for a long time, and some of these patients (less than 20%) may also be cured. Current intensive research with new modalities such as interferon, Acyclovir, Cyclosporin A, and monoclonal antibodies can reasonably be expected to improve the overall results of marrow transplantation.

Thomas, E.D.

1981-07-01

32

Red Sea  

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

2013-04-16

33

[Modified method for whole bone marrow adherent culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate a more convenient and efficient method to cultivate the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by means of natural erythrocyte sedimentation principle, based on the whole bone marrow adherent method. The bone marrow was cultured with a six-well plate instead of the flasks.Firsly, the bone marrow specimen was cultivated with the MSC complete medium for 48 h, then the upper RBC-free supernatant layer was drawn and placed into the new wells to isolate MSC. Inverted microscope was used to observe the cell morphology and to record the adherent time of first cell passage, first passaging time. The traditional whole bone marrow adherent method was used as the control. The cell cycle and cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry,and the differentiative capacity of MSC into osteocyte and adipocyte was identified by alkaline phosphatase kit and oil red O, respectively. Besides, the proliferative curve of P1,P3,P5 of BMSC was depicted by counting method. The results showed that MSC cultured by the modified method highly expressed CD90, CD105, CD13, CD44 and lowly expressed CD14, CD45, CD34. Concerning the cell cycle feature, it was found that most of the cells were in G0/G1 phase (88.76%) , followed by G2/M phase (3.04%) and S phase (8.2%), which was in accordance with stem cell cycle characteristics. The proliferative curve showed a typical "S" type, and both the oil red O and alkaline phosphatase staining of MSC were positive. Compared with the traditional method, the modified method had the advantage of high adherence rate (P = 0.0001) and shorter passaging time for the first passage (P = 0.001), with the statistically significant difference. It is concluded that there is a large number of adherent, active and suspended MSC in the RBC-free supernatant layer after the culture of bone marrow for 48 h. Isolating MSC by the modified method is more convenient and efficient than the traditional whole bone marrow adherent method. PMID:24763030

Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhong, Zhao-Dong; Chen, Zhi-Chao; Zou, Ping

2014-04-01

34

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

35

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Child If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

36

Overview of marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references.

Thomas, E.D.

1985-12-01

37

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department O.

38

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

39

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2013-05-29

40

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2011-04-14

41

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2011-01-01

42

Phase I/II study of Holmium-166-DOTMP for bone marrow ablation in multiple myeloma prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT)  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated a bone seeking radionuclide, Ho-166 DOTMP (which has both beta and gamma energies) as an agent for bone marrow ablation prior to bone marrow transplant. Six men and 1 woman in the age range 42-59 yrs. who had previously failed conventional chemotherapy using VAD (Vincristine, Adriamycin, Dexamethasone) were treated. Each patient received a diagnostic dose (Dx) of 30 mCi of Ho-166 DOTMP and underwent serial total body images using photopeak and scatter windows. Transmission images were obtained on day O. Transmission, scatter and photopeak images were used to calculate marrow dose and skeletal uptake. Therapy dose (Tx) was established to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to the marrow. Bone marrow biopsy samples from lilac crest were obtained to determine activity concentration and to calculate marrow dose. The Dx was followed by a Tx of 25 Gy (3 pts.), 40 Gy (3 pts.) and 50 Gy (1 pt.). Additional total body imaging was accomplished prior to each Tx and SPECT after the final Tx. Bone retention varied from 26-33%. The calculated red marrow dose varied from 11 to 48 Gy. Toxicity was minimal and included: myalgia (1), nausea (2), increased BUN (1), sore throat (1), fever (1x1 day). Bone marrow ablation was achieved in 3/7 pts. The last pt. treated at the highest dose level had greater than 75% reduction in myeloma protein. We conclude that at doses as high as 31.8 mCi/Kg no significant toxicity has been observed. Diagnostic pretherapy imaging and derived dosimetry is helpful in prescribing a red marrow dose prior to radionuclide therapy. The MTD has not yet been reached. However, thus far Ho-166 DOTMP has safely ablated bone marrow prior to BMT.

Podoloff, D.A.; Bhadkamkar, V.H.; Kasi, L.P. [Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

43

Red blood cell decreases of microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

Johnson, P. C.

1985-01-01

44

Effects of spaceflight on cells of bone marrow origin.  

PubMed

Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385745

Ozçivici, Engin

2013-03-01

45

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Red yeast might affect the muscles. Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might also affect the muscles. Taking ...

46

[Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy].  

PubMed

The definitive diagnosis of several hematological diseases, as for instance leukaemias, unexplained pancytopenias and other bone marrow disorders, requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Not only haematologists, but also internists, need to master this rather invasive procedure. The knowledge of indications, contra-indications, potential complications and their prevention of its complications is of utmost importance. This article reviews these topics about bone marrow biopsy, giving some practical advices on this procedure. PMID:19055151

Moix, Paul-André; Favre, Lucie; Rosselet, Anne; Monti, Matteo

2008-10-29

47

High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

2006-08-01

48

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy have a central place in the diagnosis of haematological disorders. Marrow procedures have a reputation for being unpleasant and painful but when performed carefully, with appropriate use of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, they should hold no fears for the patient. PMID:1958933

Williamson, P J; Smith, A G

1991-11-01

49

Medulloblastoma metastatic to the marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medulloblastoma is a malignant cerebellar tumor seen primarily in the pediatric age group that has a known ability to metastasize extraneurally. The skeleton is the most common site of extraneural metastases, but metastases to the bone marrow can also occur. Four cases of medulloblastoma metastatic to the marrow are reported. In addition, 31 cases from the medical literature are reviewed.

Cory D Spencer; Raymond B Weiss; Jan Van Eys; Philip Cohen; Brenda Edwards

1984-01-01

50

Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

1997-01-01

51

Elucidating Bone Marrow Edema and Myelopoiesis in Murine Arthritis Using Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective While bone marrow edema (BME) detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a biomarker of arthritis, its nature remains poorly understood due to the limitations of clinical studies. In this study, MRI of murine arthritis was used to elucidate its cellular composition and vascular involvement. Methods BME was quantified using normalized bone marrow intensity (NBMI) from precontrast MRI and normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. Wild-type (WT) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-transgenic mice were scanned from 2 to 5 months of age, followed by histologic or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of marrow. In efficacy studies, TNF-transgenic mice were treated with anti-TNF or placebo for 8 weeks, and then were studied using bimonthly MRI and histologic analysis. Results NBMI values were similar in WT and TNF-transgenic mice at 2 months. The values in WT mice steadily decreased thereafter, with mean values becoming significantly different from those of TNF-transgenic mice at 3.5 months (mean ± SD 0.29 ± 0.08 versus 0.46 ± 0.13; P < 0.05). Red to yellow marrow transformation occurred in WT but not TNF-transgenic mice, as observed histologically at 5 months. The marrow of TNF-transgenic mice that received anti-TNF therapy converted to yellow marrow, with lower NBMI values versus placebo at 6 weeks (mean ± SD 0.26 ± 0.07 versus 0.61 ± 0.22; P < 0.05). FACS analysis of bone marrow revealed a significant correlation between NBMI values and CD11b+ monocytes (R2 = 0.91, P = 0.0028). Thresholds for “normal” red marrow versus pathologic BME were established, and it was also found that inflammatory marrow is highly permeable to contrast agent. Conclusion BME signals in TNF-transgenic mice are caused by yellow to red marrow conversion, with increased myelopoiesis and increased marrow permeability. The factors that mediate these changes warrant further investigation.

Proulx, Steven T.; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Papuga, M. Owen; Beck, Christopher A.; Shealy, David J.; Calvi, Laura M.; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Awad, Hani A.; Boyce, Brendan F.; Xing, Lianping; Schwarz, Edward M.

2008-01-01

52

Fragment filtration: a method for the accurate determination of flow cytometric kinetic data from bone marrow aspirates  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which bone marrow obtained by conventional aspiration is contaminated by peripheral blood has been confirmed and quantitated. In marrow aspirates from normal subjects the median percentage of nucleated cells that had originated from the peripheral blood was 32% (range 2.5%-64%), in patients with acute leukemia 23% (range 0.5%-96.5%), in patients with chronic leukemia 59% (range 17%-76%), and in patients with lymphoma 31% (range 0.5%-74%). Flow cytometric (FCM) DNA analysis of conventional marrow aspirates from a range of subjects significantly underestimated the proportions of S-phase cells present, when compared with results from trephines obtained at the same time. Having shown, using 51Cr-labeled red cells in mice, that circulating red cells do not reenter the marrow parenchyma, a mathematical correction for contaminating blood similar to that described by Holdrinet et al. was devised. This correction improved the S-phase cell estimate from aspirated marrows, and the corrected values were not significantly different from values from paired trephine samples. A previously described technique for collecting fragments by filtration of aspirated marrow has been adapted for FCM analysis as a more direct way of overcoming problems due to blood contamination. This method was shown to yield estimates of S-phase cells not significantly different from those in paired marrow trephines and offers an alternative to routine trephine biopsies for FCM analysis of marrow cell kinetics.

Zbroja, R.A.; Wass, J.; Vincent, P.C.; Young, G.A.

1986-02-01

53

The role of the laboratory in marrow manipulation.  

PubMed

A variety of manipulations are performed on marrow for transplantation. Allogeneic transplantation may require red blood cell or plasma removal if the transplant is ABO incompatible, or T-cell depletion if there is a high risk of graft-vs-host disease. Autologous marrow must be preserved, either in the liquid or frozen state. If there is a chance of neoplastic cell involvement, these cells need to be killed or removed. Initial processing generally involves production of a buffy coat. Automated means using blood cell processors are available. Further purification of the desired progenitor cells may include discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. Depletion techniques can be physical (eg, elutriation or sheep red blood cell rosette removal) or chemical (eg, treatment with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide). Monoclonal antibodies can be used covalently bound to toxin molecules, attached to magnetic beads, or with an exogenous source of complement. Antibodies to the CD34 human hematopoietic marker allow positive selection of desired progenitor cells. Quality control of marrow processing involves measurement of various hematologic parameters, careful process monitoring, bacterial/fungal and hematopoietic progenitor cultures, quantification of residual contaminating cells, and observation of clinical effect. Alternate sources of progenitors for transplant include peripheral blood, cord blood, fetal liver, and cadavers. PMID:2001171

Lasky, L C

1991-03-01

54

Culture and characterization of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells capable of generating colonies of plastic-adherent marrow mesenchymal cells, each derived from a single cell termed a colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs). In addition to their role in establishing the marrow microenvironment, these cells have been shown to differentiate into several types of mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages. Because of their multipotency, MSCs represent an attractive cellular source in the promising field of cellular therapy. In this chapter, we will focus on culture conditions for human BM MSC expansion and CFU-F assays. We also describe the methodologies to analyze the primary cultures obtained, both at the phenotypic and at the functional levels. Phenotypically, MSCs can be defined with a minimal set of markers as CD31-, CD34-, and CD45-negative cells and CD13-, CD29-, CD73-, CD90-, CD105-, and CD166-positive cells. Functionally, we describe the culture conditions (specific media and cellular preparations) for in vitro differentiation of MSCs into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. The corresponding colorimetric assays (oil red O, Von Kossa and alizarin red S, and safranin O and alcian blue stains, respectively) are also described. PMID:18085203

Delorme, Bruno; Charbord, Pierre

2007-01-01

55

BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE LEUKEMIAS IN CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on 18 patients with acute myeloid leukemia led to the ; conclusion that treatment with bone marrow transfusions combined with 6-; mercaptopurine, corticosteroid hormones, and packed red cell transfusions has a ; favorable effect on remission and the course of leukemia in children. No cures ; resulted from this treatment. Best results were obtained when 6-merciptopurine ; treatment was

V. I. Kalinicheva; L. M. Rozanova; D. I. Rafalson; L. K. Nikolayeva

1961-01-01

56

Successful autologous bone marrow transplant without the use of blood product support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a successful autologous bone marrow transplant without the use of any blood products. The patient had relapsed large cell lymphoma. He was a Jehovah's Witness and would not accept transfusions of red blood cells or platelets. He enrolled in our Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program and was maintained on a regimen of erythropoietin, iron, Amicar, and G-CSF throughout

KK Ballen; PA Ford; H Waitkus; RVB Emmons; W Levy; P Doyle; FM Stewart; PJ Quesenberry; PS Becker

2000-01-01

57

Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes.

Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

2011-01-01

58

Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.  

PubMed

Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena

2013-02-01

59

The distribution of Thorotrast in human bone marrow: a case report.  

PubMed

Samples of bone containing cellular and fatty bone marrow were removed at autopsy from the body of a woman who, following an automobile accident, had been injected with approximately 25 mL of the radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast. The woman survived for 36 y after the accident and died at age 72 y following bone marrow failure. The samples were analyzed to determine their thorium content by x-ray fluorescence and by image analysis. In addition, Thorotrast was visualized in the different bones examined by light microscopy and by backscattered electron imaging with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed Thorotrast to be largely restricted to areas of cellular bone marrow. In such regions, Thorotrast was present throughout the marrow tissue and was also concentrated within cells that were commonly aggregated within focalized areas of the marrow. Overall the results suggest a rather uniform pattern of Thorotrast uptake by the red bone marrow at different skeletal sites. Significant deposits of Thorotrast were not found in fatty yellow marrow. We conclude that Thorotrast-derived risk estimates for human leukemia following high LET, alpha irradiation may be used for calculating the risks of alpha exposure, but with caution. PMID:1522010

Priest, N D; Humphreys, J A; Kathren, R L; Mays, C W

1992-07-01

60

Purification and functional evaluation of mature neutrophils from human bone marrow.  

PubMed

Human myeloid maturation proceeds within the bone marrow and results in a mature neutrophil that is released into the peripheral circulation. Previous reports have indicated that neutrophils from bone marrow demonstrate decreased adherence, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction when stimulated. Due to lack of a suitable method for isolating purified bone marrow neutrophils, these studies have been performed by microscopic techniques. We now report a method for isolating 1 X 10(8) neutrophils [bands plus polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)] from 10 mL of bone marrow aspirate sample. By means of a discontinuous Percoll-gradient centrifugation through densities of 1.085, 1.095, and 1.10 g/mL a leukocyte-rich suspension of bone marrow can be separated into three leukocyte layers. By combining the lower two leukocyte layers (M2/3), a population of neutrophils consisting of 26% bands and 63% PMNs is seen. When compared with peripheral blood PMNs, these bone marrow neutrophils had a lower alkaline phosphatase activity, decreased ingestion of Oil Red O-coated particles, impaired superoxide release on stimulation with the chemotactic peptide Fmet-leu-phe (FMLP) or the tumor promotor phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and less activity of the NADPH-dependent oxidase. These results indicate that morphologically mature neutrophilic cells within the bone marrow exist in a still functionally immature state. PMID:3019453

Berkow, R L; Dodson, R W

1986-10-01

61

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2012-07-12

62

Seeing Red  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

2008-01-01

63

[Bone marrow hematopoiesis in epileptics].  

PubMed

In 72 epileptic patients the bone marrow was examined in various periods of epileptic paroxysms. It was found that the morphological composition of the medullary hemopoiesis was characterized by a myeloid reaction and a lowered mitotic activity of the bone marrow elements. All the shifts in the functional state of the medullary hemopoiesis correlated with the paroxysm periods and were reflected adequately in the peripheral blood picture. The states described differed sharply from the anomalous medullary hemopoiesis observed in epileptic patients having hematological complications, e.g. pernicious anemia caused by phenobarbital, hexamidine and diphenin. PMID:7293582

Shapiro, Iu L; Va?ntrub, M Ia; Levina, L F

1981-01-01

64

Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

1982-11-01

65

Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ... the missing white blood cells. Types of Stem Cell Transplants The two main types of stem cell ...

66

Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt

2000-01-01

67

[Osteogenic differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of bone marrow and adipose tissue].  

PubMed

Cellular populations with phenotype similar to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from two different sources: a human bone marrow and adipose tissue. The comparative analysis of differentiation efficiency of these cells in the direction of osteogenesis revealed morphological changes confirmed by Alizarin red and von Kossa staining in bone marrow cells on the 14th day, and in adipose tissue cells on the 28th day of culturing in the medium with inductors. The analysis of osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein gene expression in RT-PCR reactions detected essential distinctions in the potency of these cells to differentiate into bone tissue cells. PMID:19062517

Savchenkova, I P; Rostovskaia, M S; Chupikova, N I; Sharifullina, S Z; Tepliashin, A S

2008-01-01

68

Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients often develop nausea, vomiting and bloating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These symptoms may interfere with nutrition and the ability to take oral medications. Gastroparesis is a recognized cause of these symptoms in non-transplant patients but less is known about patients who undergo BMT. Between January 1996 and March 1997, a total of 151 patients underwent BMT. Eighteen patients

DA Eagle; V Gian; GY Lauwers; JC Manivel; JS Moreb; S Mastin; JR Wingard

2001-01-01

69

Successful Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found that a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction exists between pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (P-HSCs) and stromal cells. Based on this finding, we have recently found using chimerism-resistant mouse combinations that successful allogeneic (allo) BMT can be executed by recruiting donor bone marrow stromal cells. The strategies include donor bone grafts under the skin, injection of whole

Susumu Ikehara

2001-01-01

70

Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs  

SciTech Connect

Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.

Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

1986-07-01

71

Primary bone marrow oedema syndromes.  

PubMed

MRI scanning in patients with rheumatological conditions often shows bone marrow oedema, which can be secondary to inflammatory, degenerative, infective or malignant conditions but can also be primary. The latter condition is of uncertain aetiology and it is also uncertain whether it represents a stage in the progression to osteonecrosis in some patients. Patients with primary bone marrow oedema usually have lower limb pain, commonly the hip, knee, ankle or feet. The diagnosis is one of exclusion with the presence of typical MRI findings. Treatment is usually conservative and includes analgesics and staying off the affected limb. The natural history is that of gradual resolution of symptoms over a number of months. Evidence for medical treatment is limited, but open-label studies suggest bisphosphonates may help in the resolution of pain and improve radiological findings. Surgical decompression is usually used as a last resort. PMID:24080251

Patel, Sanjeev

2014-05-01

72

Chronic axial compression of the mouse tail segment induces MRI bone marrow edema changes that correlate with increased marrow vasculature and cellularity  

PubMed Central

MRI of bone marrow edema (BME) has been found to be helpful in the diagnosis of back pain attributed to degenerative disk disease (DDD) and spondyloarthropathy (SA), but its interpretation is limited by a lack of knowledge of its nature and natural history. To address this, we assessed effects of compressive forces to mouse tail segments of WT and TNF-Tg mice with SA, via contrast enhanced MRI and histology. Normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) of uninstrumented WT vertebrae significantly decrease 3-fold (p<0.01) from 8 to 12 weeks of age, consistent with red to yellow marrow conversion, while the NMCE of TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated. Chronic compressive loading 6X body weight to WT tails increased NMCE 2-fold (p<0.02) within 2-weeks, which was equal to 6X loaded TNF-Tg tails within 4-weeks. Histology confirmed degenerative changes and that load-induced NMCE corresponded to increased vascular sinus tissue (35± 3% vs. 19± 3%; p<0.01) and cellularity (4,235± 886 vs.1,468± 320 cells/mm2; p<0.01) for the loaded vs. unloaded WT respectively. However, micro-CT analyses failed to detect significant load-induced changes to bone. While the bone marrow of loaded WT and TNF-Tg vertebrae were similar, histology demonstrated mild cellular infiltrate and increased osteoclastic resorption in the WT tails versus severe inflammatory-erosive arthritis in TNF-Tg joints. Significant (p<0.05) decreases in cortical and trabecular bone volume in uninstrumented TNF-Tg vs. WT vertebrae were confirmed by micro-CT. Thus, chronic load-induced DDD causes BME signals in vertebrae similar to those observed from Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), and both DDD and AS signals correlate with a conversion from yellow to red marrow, with increased vascularity.

Papuga, M. Owen; Proulx, Steven T.; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T.; Dougherty, Paul E.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.

2010-01-01

73

Cure of murine thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation without eradication of endogenous stem cells  

SciTech Connect

alpha-Thalassemic heterozygous (Hbath/+) mice were used to investigate the possible selective advantage of transplanted normal (+/+) hemopoietic cells. Without conditioning by total-body irradiation (TBI), infusion of large numbers of normal bone marrow cells failed to correct the thalassemic peripheral blood phenotype. Since the recipients' stem cells are normal with respect to number and differentiation capacity, it was thought that the transplanted stem cells were not able to lodge, or that they were not stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, a nonlethal dose of TBI was given to temporarily reduce endogenous stem cell numbers and hemopoiesis. TBI doses of 2 or 3 Gy followed by infusion of normal bone marrow cells proved to be effective in replacing the thalassemic red cells by normal red cells, whereas a dose of 1 Gy was ineffective. It is concluded that cure of thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation does not necessarily require eradication of thalassemic stem cells. Consequently, the objectives of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation of thalassemic patients (and possibly other nonmalignant hemopoietic disorders) should be reconsidered.

Wagemaker, G.; Visser, T.P.; van Bekkum, D.W.

1986-09-01

74

Prediction of bone marrow iron findings from tests performed on peripheral blood.  

PubMed

After evaluating multiple tests, the authors have devised a scheme to predict bone marrow iron findings from tests performed on peripheral blood. They examined bone marrows from 97 consecutive patients with anemia who were divided into five marrow morphologic groups: (1) iron deficiency; (2) anemia of chronic disease; (3) abnormal sideroblasts; (4) ring sideroblasts; and (5) other. Tests of peripheral blood included hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and red blood cell indices, reticulocyte count, sedimentation rate or zetacrit, ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and tests of hepatic and renal function. Cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, and logistic discriminant analysis were used to derive a graph of serum ferritin with the sedimentation rate, allowing accurate confirmation or exclusion of iron deficiency in most patients. Percent saturation of serum transferrin and serum ferritin allowed identification of only 50 percent of patients with abnormal or ring sideroblasts while excluding 100 percent of patients without abnormal or ring sideroblasts. In three years of follow-up, two of 19 patients with abnormal or ring sideroblast have developed the dysmyelopoietic syndrome or ANLL, respectively. With the aid of the two parameter graphs described, the authors believe the differential diagnosis of the hypoproliferative anemias relating to iron metabolism can frequently be made without examination of the bone marrow. PMID:3946303

Witte, D L; Kraemer, D F; Johnson, G F; Dick, F R; Hamilton, H

1986-02-01

75

Alcohol-induced bone marrow damage. A bone marrow study in alcohol-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Bone marrow biopsies from 30 alcohol-dependent individuals hospitalized for detoxification were investigated. Typical alcohol-induced bone marrow changes were found and served to define alcohol-induced bone marrow damage as a nosological entity. The findings took the form of heightened ineffective erythropoiesis associated with impaired iron utilization, vacuolated proerythroblasts, multinuclear erythroblasts, megaloblasts and iron-containing plasma cells as well as vacuolated precursor cells of the granulocytopoietic series. In the differential diagnosis, alcohol-induced bone marrow damage is to be distinguished from the myelodysplastic syndrome of the RA and RARS form. Alcohol-induced bone marrow damage is reversible. Bone marrow cell cultures performed in our cases are normal, showing that the toxic defect probably does not reside in the stem cell but is more peripheral. Normal bone marrow cell culture may be a typical feature of alcohol-induced bone marrow damage. PMID:3122492

Michot, F; Gut, J

1987-01-01

76

Porcine Bone Marrow: Extraction Procedure and Characterization by Bone Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on porcine and bovine bone marrow composition indicate high calcium content, which may be erroneously elevated owing to the marrow recovery process. A method of bone marrow recovery was developed that involved passing marrow extracted from bone through a filter-press mechanism to remove very fine bone particles and dust, allowing a more accurate analysis of marrow. Calcium values were

C. M. Calhoun; T. D. Schnell; R. W. Mandigo

1998-01-01

77

Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow constitutes an unique microenvironment for cancer cells in three specific aspects. First, the bone marrow\\u000a actively recruits circulating tumor cells where they find a sanctuary rich in growth factors and cytokines that promote their\\u000a proliferation and survival. When in the bone marrow, tumor cells profoundly affect the homeostasis of the bone and the balance\\u000a between osteogenesis and

Christophe F. Chantrain; Olivier Feron; Etienne Marbaix; Yves A. DeClerck

2008-01-01

78

Mariculture of Red Seaweeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As new applications for using red seaweed have developed, the demand for red seaweed has increased, to the point where commercial harvesting techniques now need to be developed to lessen dependence on wild seaweed stocks. The history of red seaweed use as...

J. E. Hansen J. E. Packard W. T. Doyle

1981-01-01

79

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) is a small bird measuring about 7 inches in length. Identifiable by its white cheek patch and black and white barred back, the males have a few red feathers, or cockade. These red feathers usually remain hidden underneath...

2002-01-01

80

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

81

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

82

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

2008-06-13

83

Bone marrow and bone: a functional unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone and bone marrow, although often regarded as separate systems, function as a single unit. Cells in the bone marrow are the precursors of bone remodelling cells and exert an important regulatory role both on their own development and the remodelling process, acting as me- diators for the effects of systemic and local factors. Other cells, such as immune cells

J E Compston

2002-01-01

84

Bone marrow necrosis complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Two women with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase were found to have bone marrow necrosis when severe bone pains and falling blood counts prompted a marrow examination to exclude blast transformation. One patient survived for 12 months following the event without transforming. The second patient died soon after and was found to have widespread extramedullary disease. PMID:1934927

Macheta, A T; Cinkotai, K I; Love, E M; Geary, C G; Liu Yin, J A

1991-01-01

85

Bone Marrow Transplantation for Fanconi Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is a genetic disorder associated with diverse congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and increased risk of leukemia and other cancers. Affected persons often die before 30 years of age. Bone marrow trans- plantation is an effective treatment, but there are few data regarding factors associated with transplant outcome. We analyzed outcomes of HLA-identical sibling (N = 151)

Eliane Gluckrnan; Arleen D. Auerbach; Mary M. Horowitz; Kathleen A. Sobocinski; Robert C. Ash; Mortimer M. Bortin; Anna Butturini; Bruce M. Carnitta; Richard E. Charnplin; Wilhelrn Friedrich; Robert A. Good; Edward C. Gordon-Smith; Richard E. Harris; John P. Klein; Juan J. Ortega; Ricardo Pasquini; Norma K. C. Rarnsay; Bruno Speck; Marcus R. Vowels; Mei-Jie Zhang; Robert Peter Gale

1995-01-01

86

Liver from Bone Marrow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. We have investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical

Neil D. Theise; Manjunath Nimmakayalu; Rebekah Gardner; Peter B. Illei; Glyn Morgan; Lewis Teperman; Octavian Henegariu; Diane S. Krause

2000-01-01

87

Differential diagnoses of bone marrow granuloma.  

PubMed Central

The finding of a granuloma on a bone marrow biopsy is not common. The etiologic spectrum encompasses a wide variety of disorders. We present the case of a young woman with a bone marrow granuloma and discuss the differential diagnosis, emphasizing the most common causes. This disorder can be associated with serious diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Eid, A; Carion, W; Nystrom, J S

1996-01-01

88

Androgen, Estrogen, and the Bone Marrow Microenvironment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project we plan to analyze andron-and estrogen-responsive gene expression in the bone marrow. We plan to work to: determine if castration- induced gene expression changes in mouse bone marrow are cause by the deficiency of testosterone or estrogen...

B. Knudsen

2006-01-01

89

A pathologist's perspective on bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: I. Performing a bone marrow examination.  

PubMed

The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy is an important medical procedure for the diagnosis of hematologic malignancies and other diseases, and for the follow-up evaluation of patients undergoing chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, and other forms of medical therapy. During the procedure, liquid bone marrow is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest or sternum with a special needle, smeared on glass microscope slides by one of several techniques, and stained by the Wright-Giemsa or other techniques for micro-scopic examination. The bone marrow core biopsy is obtained from the posterior iliac crest with a Jamshidi or similar needle and processed in the same manner as other surgical specimens. Flow cytometric examination, cytochemical stains, cytogenetic and molecular analysis, and other diagnostic procedures can be performed on bone marrow aspirate material, while sections prepared from the bone marrow biopsy can be stained by the immunoperoxidase or other techniques. The bone marrow procedure can be performed with a minimum of discomfort to the patient if adequate local anesthesia is utilized. Pain, bleeding, and infection are rare complications of the bone marrow procedure performed at the posterior iliac crest, while death from cardiac tamponade has rarely occurred from the sternal bone marrow aspiration. The recent development of bone marrow biopsy needles with specially sharpened cutting edges and core-securing devices has reduced the discomfort of the procedure and improved the quality of the specimens obtained. PMID:15065211

Riley, Roger S; Hogan, Thomas F; Pavot, Dawn R; Forysthe, Robert; Massey, Davis; Smith, Eileen; Wright, Lou; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M

2004-01-01

90

Megakaryocytes, Malignancy and Bone Marrow Vascular Niches  

PubMed Central

Summary Dynamic interactions between haematopoietic cells and their specialised bone marrow microenvironments, namely the vascular and osteoblastic ‘niches’ regulate haematopoiesis. The vascular niche is conducive for thrombopoiesis, and megakaryocytes may, in turn, regulate the vascular niche, especially in supporting vascular and haematopoietic regeneration following irradiation or chemotherapy. A role for platelets in tumour growth and metastasis is well established and, more recently, the vascular niche has also been implicated as an area for preferential homing and engraftment of malignant cells. This article aims to provide an overview of the dynamic interactions between cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow vascular niche and the potential role of megakaryocytes in bone marrow malignancy.

Psaila, Bethan; Lyden, David; Roberts, Irene

2011-01-01

91

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs, including weight loss, fever, chills, anemia, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The histological features of AITL are also distinctive. Pure red cell aplasia is a bone marrow failure characterized by progressive normocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia without leucopenia or thrombocytopenia. However, AITL with abdominal pain and pure red cell aplasia has rarely been reported. Here, we report a rare case of AITL-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominal pain. The diagnosis was verified by a biopsy of the enlarged abdominal lymph nodes with immunohistochemical staining.

Tao, Jin; Zheng, Feng-Ping; Tian, Hong; Lin, Ying; Li, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Jian-Ning; Shao, Chun-Kui; Wu, Bin

2013-01-01

92

Repair of orbital bone defects in canines using grafts of enriched autologous bone marrow stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Bone tissue engineering is a new approach for the repair of orbital defects. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that were rapidly isolated and concentrated from bone marrow (BM) by the red cell lysis method, then combined with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) to create grafts used to restore orbital bone defects in canines. Methods In the experimental group, grafts were constructed using BMSCs obtained by red cell lysis from 20 ml bone marrow, combined with ?-TCP and BM via the custom-made stem cell-scaffold device, then used to repair 10 mm diameter medial orbital wall bony defects in canines. Results were compared with those in groups grafted with BM/?-TCP or ?-TCP alone, or with defects left untreated as controls. The enrichment of BMSCs and nucleated cells (NCs) in the graft was calculated from the number in untreated bone marrow and in suspensions after red cell lysis. Spiral computed tomography (CT) scans were performed 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation in all groups. Gross examination, micro-CT and histological measurements were performed 24 weeks after surgery. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of bone repair. Results The number of NCs and of colony-forming units within the scaffolds were increased 54.8 times and 53.4 times, respectively, compared with untreated bone marrow. In the BMSC-BM/?-TCP group, CT examination revealed that the scaffolds were gradually absorbed and the bony defects were restored. Micro-CT and histological examination confirmed that the implantations led to good repair of the defects, with 6 out 8 orbital defects completely restored in the experimental group, while by contrast, the grafts in the control groups did not fully repair the bony defects, a difference which was statistically significant (p?red cell lysis of BM, can restore critical-sized orbital wall defects in canines.

2014-01-01

93

Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

Cobb, Vicki

1998-01-01

94

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  

MedlinePLUS

... people were forced to leave their houses; Iraqi Red Crescent is responding The escalation of violence and ... of fraudulent web sites which are using the Red Cross Red Crescent emblems to request donations for ...

95

Erythropoietin stimulation decreases hepcidin expression through hematopoietic activity on bone marrow cells in mice.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are now central to the treatment of renal anemia and are associated with improved clinical outcomes. It is well known that erythropoietin (EPO) is a key regulator of erythropoiesis through its promotion of red blood cell production. In order to investigate the role of ESA on iron metabolism, we analyzed the regulation of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by ESA treatment in a bone marrow transplant model in mouse. After treating C57BL/6 mice with continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.), recombinant human epoetin-? (rhEPO), or recombinant human carbamylated epoetin-? (rhCEPO), we investigated serum hepcidin concentrations and parameters of erythropoiesis. Serum hepcidin concentrations after rhEPO treatment were analyzed in mice subjected to total body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. C.E.R.A. administration caused long-term downregulation of serum hepcidin levels. Serum hepcidin levels in rhEPO-treated mice decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in rhCEPO-treated mice. The reduction in circulating hepcidin levels after rhEPO administration was not observed in irradiated mice. Finally, bone marrow transplantation recovered the response to rhEPO administration that downregulates hepcidin concentration in irradiated mice. These results indicate that ESA treatment downregulates serum hepcidin concentrations, mainly by indirect mechanisms affecting hematopoietic activity in bone marrow cells. PMID:23160767

Sasaki, Yusuke; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Yasuno, Hideyuki; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

2012-12-01

96

Immunoperoxidase staining of bone marrow sections.  

PubMed

Paraffin-embedded sections of bone marrow from 131 patients were studied. The specificity of the immunoperoxidase technique for detecting intracellular kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulin was first evaluated in 34 cases of typical multiple myeloma or macroglobulinemia. The monoclonal light chain detected in the bone marrow myeloma was identical to the result of immunoelectrophoresis of serum or urine. By use of the same method, 97 cases in which the diagnosis was difficult were examined; cases included those of bone marrow plasmacytosis, lymphocytosis, and morphologically unusual cells. All marrow cells with monoclonal immunoglobulin detected by immunoperoxidase stain eventually proved to be a B-cell neoplastic or potentially neoplastic process. This study confirms the specificity of the immunoperoxidase stain and demonstrates its value in solving clinical diagnostic problems, that is, the diagnosis of nonsecretory myeloma and unusual morphology, differentiating the monoclonal plasmaproliferative disorders from reactive plasmacytosis or lymphoma from lymphocytosis. PMID:6794902

Hitzman, J L; Li, C Y; Kyle, R A

1981-12-01

97

Transplantations of Bone Marrow in Pediatrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of literature data and personal observations concerning the bone marrow transplantation in the complex treatment of children with hyperplastic and aplastic processes of hemopoiesis is described, as well as the problem of the mechanism of myelothe...

V. I. Kalinicheva

1970-01-01

98

Targeting the bone marrow in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Waldesntrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade B cell lymphoma characterized by widespread involvement of the bone marrow with lymphoplasmacytic cells. In about 20% of patients, the malignant clone also involves the lymph nodes and induces hepatosplenomegaly. The mechanisms by which the tumor cells home to the bone marrow and preferentially reside in the marrow niches are not fully elucidated. In this review, we examine the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in the regulation of cell growth, survival and cell dissemination in WM. We also summarize specific regulators of niche-dependent tumor proliferation in WM. These include chemokines, adhesion molecules, Src/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, NF-kB activation, and miRNA regulation in WM. Targeting these pathways in clinical trials could lead to significant responses in this rare disease.

Ghobrial, Irene M.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Ngo, Hai; Azab, Feda; Sacco, Antonio; Azab, Abdelkareem; Maiso, Patricia; Morgan, Brittany; Quang, Phong; Issa, Ghayas; Leleu, Xavier; Roccaro, Aldo

2011-01-01

99

Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)  

Cancer.gov

A study of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), a group of rare genetic blood disorders that include Fanconi Anemia, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia, and Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii.

100

PD-RED: to improve the performance of red  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new active queue management (AQM) scheme to improve the performance of the well-known random early detection (RED) AQM. The new AQM is based on the proportional derivative (PD) control principle, and we call it PD-RED. In PD-RED we introduce minimal changes to RED. We demonstrate the improvement in performance of PD-RED over adaptive RED AQM by simulations.

Jinsheng Sun; King-Tim Ko; Guanrong Chen; Sammy Chan; Moshe Zukerman

2003-01-01

101

Bone marrow cytological storage phenomena in lipidoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow cytological storage phenomena in generalized lysosomal lipid storage disorders (Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, GM1-gangliosidosis, cholesterol ester storage diseases) are reviewed. The value of bone marrow cytology as a pre-screening method in the diagnostic strategy for the different diseases depends on the disease type suspected and the availability of biochemical screening methods. While cytological screening is not necessary

Sargon Ziyeh; Klaus Harzer

1994-01-01

102

Bone marrow lymphocyte subsets in myelodysplastic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To examine lymphocyte subsets in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); and to correlate immunohistological variables with prognosis. METHODS--Bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens from 65 patients with MDS were immunophenotyped using a panel of antibodies. A minimum of 1000 cells from representative areas of marrow sections were counted at light microscopy. The association between immunohistological variables and prognosis was assessed. RESULTS--Compared

W Hilbe; W Eisterer; C Schmid; I Starz; H Silly; C Duba; C Ludescher; J Thaler

1994-01-01

103

Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease. PMID:23525059

Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P

2013-01-01

104

The effect of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells on production of transgenic cloned embryos.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a method for the in vitro separation and culture of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs). Arbas Cashmere gBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and cell surface markers were identified immunohistochemically. The gBMSCs were differentiated into neurocytes and osteoblasts, and the expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin was identified by immunohistochemistry. The gBMSCs and goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) were compared for transient transfection efficiency and fluorescent colony-forming efficiency with Arbas Cashmere gFFCs as a control. pDsRed2-1 encodes DsRed2, a variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed). In addition, the coding sequence for DsRed2 contains a series of silent base-pair changes for higher expression in mammalian cells. Of the gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1, one fraction was tested for pluripotency, whereas the other fraction was manipulated using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the in vitro growth status of transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 was compared. The findings showed that gBMSCs were isolated and amplified to express CD29, CD44, and CD90 through adherent culture, with no marked signs of aging after multiple passages. Expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin by gBMSCs and gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was strongly induced by neuronal and osteogenic differentiation, whereas the integrated exogenous genes did not influence pluripotency (P > 0.05). The transient transfection efficiencies of gBMSCs and gFFCs after 48 hours were not significantly different; however, the fluorescent colony-forming efficiency of gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 after G418 screening was approximately 13% higher than that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1. The convergence and cleavage rates of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 were higher than those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1, whereas their eight-cell and blastocyst rates were similar. The red fluorescent protein expression levels were higher in transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 compared with those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (48.8% vs. 31.1%, respectively) (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that DsRed2-1 messenger RNA expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs was 2.24 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). Similarly, Western blot analysis showed that DsRed2 protein expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was 1.29 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). In this study, gBMSCs were also used for somatic cell nuclear transfer and shown to provide effective nuclear donor cells for breeding new genetically modified varieties of livestock. PMID:24679907

Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Wang, Hefei; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-06-01

105

Bone Marrow Abnormalities in HIV Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4 counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AIDS and those without AIDS according to NACO criteria. Bone marrow examination was performed for indication of anemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Results As per CDC criteria 59.81% patients had AIDS in 107 patients. The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 93.12% patients. Bone marrow was normocellular in 79.06% of non-AIDS and 79.68% of AIDS, hypocellular in 13.95% of non-AIDS and 12.5% of AIDS, hypercellular in 06.97% of non-AIDS and 07.81 % of AIDS patients. Dysplasia was statistically and significantly associated with anemia. For myelodysplasia in bone marrow in HIV patients we noted granulocytic dysplasia in 4.65% in Non – AIDS and 14.06% AIDS patients. Erythroid dysplasia was found in 9.30% in Non – AIDS, 12.5% in AIDS group. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 4 cases of ART (4.93%) and 3 cases (4.68%) of AIDS group. Abnormal cells like plasma cell, histiocyte and toxic granule were found in bone marrow. Conclusions Myelodysplasia was more common in AIDS than in non AIDS patients. Granulocytic series is most commonly associated with evidence of dysplasia. Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Thus bone marrow study is imperative to methodically observe and follow clinical and laboratory aberration in such patients in order to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic skills pertinent to HIV/AIDS.

Dhurve, Sharad A.; Dhurve, Alka S.

2013-01-01

106

Red Language Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RED is a programmed language designed, in accordance with the DOD Steelman requirements, for DoD embedded computer applications. The language combines features common to most existing high level languages with new capabilities for abstract data types, exc...

J. Nestor M. V. Deusen

1979-01-01

107

RED Facts: Zinc Phosphide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0026, zinc phosphide. Zinc phosphide is a rodenticide used to control gophers, mice, rats, lagomorphs (e.g. jack rabbits), prairie dogs, and squirrels.

1998-01-01

108

Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

109

RED Facts: Diphenylamine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2210, dipheylamine. Diphenylamine (DPA) is a plant growth regulatory used post-harvest to control storage scald in apples.

1998-01-01

110

RED Facts: Bentazon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0182, bentazon, which includes bentazon technical and sodium bentazon, the active ingredient in end-use pesticide products. Bentazon, also known by its trade name Basag...

1994-01-01

111

RED Facts: Rodenticide Cluster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2755, brodifacoum; case 2760, bromadiolone; case 2765, bromethalin; case 2100, chlorophacinone and its sodium salt, and, case 2810, pival and its sodium salt. These che...

1998-01-01

112

RED Facts: Metolachlor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0001, metolachlor. Metolachlor is a broad spectrum herbicide used for general weed control in many agricultural food and feed crops (primarily corn, soybeans and sorghum...

1995-01-01

113

RED Facts: Piperalin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3114, piperalin. Piperalin is a fungicide used to control powdery mildew on ornamental plants, shrubs, vines and trees grown in commercial green houses. Use practice lim...

1994-01-01

114

RED Facts: Dichlobenil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0263, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (commonly referred to as dichlobenil). Dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) is a herbicide used to control weeds, and grasses in agricu...

1998-01-01

115

Red Stele of Strawberry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report states that the Red stele disease forms a serious threat to cultivating strawberries under Soviet conditions. It is therefore necessary to carefully select healthy planting material, avoid importing strawberry seedlings from infected areas, an...

V. V. Kotova

1968-01-01

116

RED Facts: Hexazinone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0266, hexazinone. Hexazinone is a herbicide used to control a broad spectrum of weeds including undesirable woody plants in alfalfa, rangeland and pasture, woodland, pi...

1994-01-01

117

RED Facts: Butylate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED for butylate. Butylate is a selective herbicide registered solely for use on corn crops including field corn, sweet corn and popcorn, to control grassy and broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. Formulations inc...

1993-01-01

118

The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

119

RED Facts: Propoxur.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2555, propoxur. Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide used to control ants, roaches and hornets in and around residences and commercial food handling establishments. The ...

1997-01-01

120

RED Facts: Hydramethylnon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2585, hydroamethylnon. Hydramethylnon is an insecticide used to control ants, cockroaches, crickets, and termites. There are 28 end use product formulations that are ei...

1998-01-01

121

RED Facts: Chlorpropham.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0271, chlorpropham. Chlorpropham is a herbicide and plant growth inhibitor used to control mouseear chickweed in spinach and fruiting in ginkgo trees, reduce Botrytis i...

1996-01-01

122

RED Facts: Dicofol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0021, dicofol. Dicofol is an organochlorine miticide/pesticide used for foliar applications, mostly on cotton, apples, and citrus crops. Other crops include: strawberri...

1998-01-01

123

RED Facts: Chlorhexidine Diacetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3038, chlorhexidine diacetate. Chlorhexidine diacetate is a disinfectant used to control bacteria on agricultural premises, egg handling and packing equipment, and meat ...

1996-01-01

124

RED Facts: Fenitrothion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the Red document for reregistration case 0445, fenitrothion. Fenitrothion is an organophosphate insecticide used for commercial greenhouse and outdoor use on ornamentals, including trees, to control a variety ...

1995-01-01

125

Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Patients often develop nausea, vomiting and bloating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These symptoms may interfere with nutrition and the ability to take oral medications. Gastroparesis is a recognized cause of these symptoms in non-transplant patients but less is known about patients who undergo BMT. Between January 1996 and March 1997, a total of 151 patients underwent BMT. Eighteen patients (12%) developed persistent symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis (persistent nausea, vomiting or bloating). Scintigraphic gastric emptying studies were performed to assess for gastroparesis. Prokinetic agents were administered at the time of study. The records on these patients were compared with those of all other patients undergoing BMT during the same time period without these symptoms. Nine patients who demonstrated delayed gastric emptying were further evaluated with esophagastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Biopsy samples were reviewed for evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Fourteen of 18 patients demonstrated delayed gastric emptying and most responded to prokinetic agents given at the time of study. Age, conditioning regimen, cytomegalovirus antigenemia and acute GVHD did not appear to be associated with the development of gastroparesis. Allogeneic BMT recipients were at higher risk than autologous BMT patients (26% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). of allogeneic bmt recipients, there was a nonsignificant trend of patients receiving tacrolimus to be less likely to experience gastroparesis than those receiving cyclosporine (27% vs 48%, P = 0.08). For the nine patients undergoing upper endoscopy, GVHD on gastric biopsy was an uncommon finding and was mild when present. Gastroparesis appears to be a common cause of nausea, vomiting and bloating following allogeneic BMT. This may occur less often with tacrolimus than cyclosporine because of the former agent's prokinetic properties. Patients usually respond to prokinetic drugs at the time of scintigraphy. GVHD and CMV infection do not appear to be major contributing factors. PMID:11498745

Eagle, D A; Gian, V; Lauwers, G Y; Manivel, J C; Moreb, J S; Mastin, S; Wingard, J R

2001-07-01

126

Role of bone marrow trephine biopsy in the diagnosis of marrow involvement in Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

Bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's disease alters the stage and hence the prognosis and treatment modality. Seventy-six patients of biopsy proven Hodgkin's disease in whom a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were done simultaneously at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. Bone marrow involvement was seen in 14 (18%) cases. All 14 cases were diagnosed on biopsy. Only one aspirate was suspicious of involvement. Rest was either diluted (28%) or was normal (64%). Eleven patients were upstaged from stage I, II and III to stage IV. All patients had cytopenia of one or more cell line. Increased fibrosis, necrosis and a polymorphic cellular infiltrate were associated findings in the marrow. We wish to highlight the importance of bone marrow trephine biopsy over aspirate in staging even clinically early stage Hodgkin's disease. PMID:17883170

Subramanian, Rajiv; Basu, Debdatta; Badhe, Bhawana; Dutta, Tarun K

2007-07-01

127

Whence the red panda?  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous (based on prior modeling, as well as conflict between the results of our analyses of less and more complete data sets) conclusions about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. PMID:11083933

Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

2000-11-01

128

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

129

Romantic Red: Red Enhances Men's Attraction to Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness

Andrew J. Elliot; Daniela Niesta

2008-01-01

130

Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.  

PubMed

Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6month; n=8) and old (22-24month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via ?CT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p<0.05) in the old vs. young rats. Calcified and ossified vessel volumes per tissue volume and calcified vessel volume per patent vessel volume were augmented (p<0.05) 262%, 375% and 263%, respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Ossified and patent vessel number was higher (171%) and lower (40%), respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Finally, adipocyte volume per patent vessel volume was higher (86%) with age. This study is the first to report ossification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in "microvascular dead space" in regard to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

Prisby, Rhonda D

2014-07-01

131

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed.

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

132

Compromised bone marrow perfusion in osteoporosis.  

PubMed

A link between bone blood flow and osteoporosis may exist. Outside of the spine, the proximal femur is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture and is also an area prone to avascular necrosis and fracture nonunion. This study of the proximal femur investigates the relationship between BMD, bone marrow fat content, bone perfusion, and muscle perfusion. One hundred twenty healthy female subjects (mean age, 74 yr; age range, 67-89 yr) underwent DXA examination of the hip, proton MR spectroscopy, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the right proximal femur, acetabulum, and adductor thigh muscle. In all bone areas examined (femoral head, femoral neck, femoral shaft, acetabulum), perfusion indices (maximum enhancement, enhancement slope) were significantly reduced in subjects with osteoporosis compared with subjects with osteopenia or normal BMD. Adductor muscle perfusion was not affected by change in BMD. As marrow perfusion decreased in the proximal femur, marrow fat increased (r = 0.827). This increase in fat content seemed to account for the decrease in marrow perfusion more than a reduction in BMD. For normal BMD subjects, perfusion parameters in the femoral head were one third of those in the femoral neck or shaft and one fifth of those in the acetabulum. Perfusion throughout the proximal femur is reduced in osteoporotic subjects compared with osteopenic and normal subjects. This reduction in perfusion only affects bone and not those tissues outside of bone with the same blood supply. As bone perfusion decreased, there was a corresponding increase in marrow fat. PMID:18302498

Griffith, James F; Yeung, David K W; Tsang, Polly H; Choi, Kai C; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ahuja, Anil T; Leung, Kwok S; Leung, Ping C

2008-07-01

133

Zidovudine-induced reversible pure red cell aplasia  

PubMed Central

Hematological abnormalities are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and may be directly attributable to the virus or may be caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms or drugs that cause bone marrow suppression or hemolysis. Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon hematological disorder that causes anemia. We report a 37-year-old male with HIV infection who developed PRCA 6 weeks after commencing Zidovudine and recovered following cessation of the drug. This is the first case of Zidovudine-induced PRCA reported from the Indian subcontinent.

Balakrishnan, Anuja; Valsalan, Rohith; Sheshadri, Shubha; Pandit, Vinay R.; Medep, Vikas; Agrawal, Ravindra Kumar

2010-01-01

134

Chronic axial compression of the mouse tail segment induces MRI bone marrow edema changes that correlate with increased marrow vasculature and cellularity.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone marrow edema (BME) has been found to be helpful in the diagnosis of back pain attributed to degenerative disk disease (DDD) and spondyloarthropathy (SA), but its interpretation is limited by a lack of knowledge of its nature and natural history. We assessed effects of compressive forces to mouse tail segments of WT and TNF-Tg mice with SA, via contrast enhanced-MRI and histology. Normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) of uninstrumented WT vertebrae significantly decrease, threefold (p < 0.01) from 8 to 12 weeks of age, while the NMCE of TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated. Compressive loading (6x body weight) increased NMCE twofold (p < 0.02) within 2 weeks in WT tails, which was equal to 6x loaded TNF-Tg tails within 4 weeks. Histology confirmed degenerative changes and that load-induced NMCE corresponded to increased vascular sinus tissue (35 +/- 3% vs. 19 +/- 3%; p < 0.01) and cellularity (4,235 +/- 886 vs.1,468 +/- 320 cells/mm(2); p < 0.01) for the loaded versus unloaded WT, respectively. However, micro-computed tomography (CT) analyses failed to detect significant load-induced changes to bone. While the bone marrow of loaded WT and TNF-Tg vertebrae were similar, histology demonstrated mild cellular infiltrate and increased osteoclastic resorption in the WT tails versus severe inflammatory-erosive arthritis in TNF-Tg joints. Significant (p < 0.05) decreases in cortical and trabecular bone volume in uninstrumented TNF-Tg versus WT vertebrae were confirmed by micro-CT. Thus, chronic load-induced DDD causes BME signals in vertebrae similar to those observed from SA, and both DDD and SA signals correlate with a conversion from yellow to red marrow, with increased vascularity. PMID:20187115

Papuga, M Owen; Proulx, Steven T; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T; Dougherty, Paul E; Hilton, Matthew J; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

2010-09-01

135

Donor lymphocyte infusions for refractory pure red cell aplasia relapsing after both autologous and nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is characterized by a selective marrow aplasia of the erythroid compartment. Immunosuppressive therapy achieves good results in about 25% of cases, but relapses are frequent. Autologous or allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be valuable in selected patients. Here, we report details of a 29-year-old woman treated successfully by donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) following

M Musso; F Porretto; A Crescimanno; V Polizzi; R Scalone

2004-01-01

136

[Bone marrow aspiration. Use and benefits].  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration is an old and well-established test procedure, the use of which may rest more on diagnostic tradition than on scientific documentation. Its use was evaluated in a Norwegian regional hospital by registering indication, presence of pathology and clinical "utility" judged from a given definition, in 200 reports on bone marrow aspiration. The result was pathological in 53%, and judged to be clinically useful in 61% of the tests. The diagnostic yield was highest for indications related to bone marrow function, and low for unspecific indications such as fever of unknown origin and elevated SR without M-component. The large number of results with pathological findings that are judged to be clinically useful raise the question of whether use of this test should be increased. PMID:1557761

Hammerstrøm, J

1992-03-10

137

Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.

1983-11-01

138

Pathology of bone marrow in transplant recipients.  

PubMed

This article has outlined the special problems associated with evaluation of bone marrow before and after BMT. Marrow grafting has become a major form of therapy in oncology and hematology whose potential is only beginning to be fully realized. The transplantation of healthy hematopoietic and lymphoid cells has made possible the use of otherwise superlethal doses of radiation and chemotherapy in preparing the patient for engraftment. In the case of tumors, this allows massive doses of tumorocidal therapy prior to rescue with a BMT. In the case of aplastic anemia, it allows massive immunosuppression and ablation of the residual host marrow in preparation for replacement by the healthy donor marrow. The complications of this procedure include the toxicity of chemotherapy and irradiation upon the liver, lung, and gut as well as less serious toxicity to skin and other organs. The double barrier associated with marrow transplantation consists of rejection and GVHD. Marrow graft failure occurs by two distinct mechanisms, graft resistance and graft rejection. The former is marked by a total failure of any evidence of engraftment and the latter by engraftment followed by disappearance of the graft. GVHD is the immunologic attack upon host tissues by donor lymphoid cells (predominantly mature T cells). In the acute phase, it attacks liver, skin, and gut, with the latter producing the most life-threatening syndrome. Chronic GVHD resembles scleroderma. Treatment of GVHD includes the use of prednisone, cyclosporin A, ATG, and monoclonal antilymphoid antibodies. Prevention includes the attempt to remove T cells from the donor marrow with monoclonal antibodies using complement-mediated cytolysis and other approaches such as conjugation of antibodies to ricin and other toxins. GVHD also produces severe immunosuppression in and of itself added to that produced by chemoirradiation therapy. As a result, the marrow transplant recipient is extremely susceptible to infections. During the early period, the patient is granulocytopenic and susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections, which are dealt with by antibiotics and isolation procedures. Later, viral infections become very important, particularly CMV and other herpes viruses. The relative success in dealing with bacterial and, to some extent, viral infections has brought fungal infections to the fore as major causes of death, especially in higher risk categories of patients. Hemorrhage is a frequent complication owing to delayed megakaryocyte engraftment and thrombocytopenia during the early period and is a serious problem in patients with GVHD of the gut. PMID:3065326

Sale, G E; Buckner, C D

1988-12-01

139

[Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

2008-04-01

140

Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

Rosse, C

1980-01-01

141

Bone Marrow Microenvironmental Control of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Localization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prostate carcinoma metastasizes to skeletal sites where bone remodeling is active and engages the bone marrow niche in an unstable cascade with dysregulated bone resorption and formation. Numerous factors in the bone marrow niche have been implicated that...

L. McCauley

2011-01-01

142

[Bone marrow fibrosis in neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system].  

PubMed

Bone marrow fibrosis appears with diverse extension in most neoplastic diseases of blood. It may cause difficulties in establishing a firm diagnosis. In some cases bone marrow fibrosis has a prognostic value. PMID:8209609

Komarnicki, M; Rasi?ska, M

1994-01-01

143

Tumor seeding associated with bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.  

PubMed

A 53-year-old man with small-cell lung carcinoma underwent bone marrow aspirations and biopsies for tumor staging and harvest for autologous bone marrow infusion. Fourteen months after bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, a subcutaneous lesion grew over the posterior iliac crest, and a biopsy specimen disclosed small-cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tumor seeding associated with bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. PMID:6318678

Citron, M L; Krasnow, S H; Grant, C; Cohen, M H

1984-01-01

144

Characterization of Human Bone Marrow Long-Term Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to more closely simulate the native hematopoietic environment, human bone marrow bony matrix was cultivated in long-term human bone marrow cultures. Sternal bone marrow curettings (i.e., ‘bony matrix’) were cultured with and without autologous bone marrow single cell suspensions. Fresh media were provided at weekly intervals and the ‘harvested’ cells were assayed for CFU-gm (i.e., the granulocyte-macrophage

Akira Horikoshi

1984-01-01

145

Red Cabbage Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students take advantage of the natural ability of red cabbage juice to perform as a pH indicator to test the pH of seven common household liquids. Then they evaluate the accuracy of the red cabbage indicator, by testing the pH of the liquids using an engineer-designed tool, pH indicator strips. Like environmental engineers working on water remediation or water treatment projects, understanding the chemical properties (including pH) of contaminants is important for safeguarding the health of environmental water sources and systems.

GK-12 Program,

146

Understanding donors' motivations: A study of unrelated bone marrow donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical advances in bone marrow transplantation techniques and immunosuppressive medications have dramatically increased the number of such transplants performed each year, and consequently, the demand for bone marrow from unrelated donors. Although physiological aspects of bone marrow donation have been thoroughly investigated, very few studies have examined psychosocial factors that may impact individuals' donation decisions and outcomes. To examine one

Galen E. Switzer; Mary Amanda Dew; Victoria A. Butterworth; Roberta G. Simmons; Mindy Schimmel

1997-01-01

147

Esophageal aspergillosis after bone marrow transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolonged immune suppression associated with bone marrow transplants predisposes to fungal infections including Aspergillus. Disseminated aspergillosis occurs in up to 60% of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; sites of involvement include the brain, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, liver, thyroid, heart, and spleen. There is only one report of isolated esophageal aspergillosis. A recent acute myelogenous leukemia patient had isolated esophageal

JH Choi; JH Yoo; IJ Chung; DW Kim; CW Han; WS Shin; WS Min; CC Kim; DJ Kim

1997-01-01

148

Cost analysis of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this economic evaluation was to assess the costs of the first year of genotypically identical HLA allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for the treatment of adults patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). During the first year of follow-up the following were assessed 1) variable direct medical (VDM) cost (drugs, blood products, lab

F. Schwarzenbach; M. C. Woronoff-Lemsi; E. Deconinck; M. Jacquet; P. Herve; J. Y. Cahn

2000-01-01

149

Bone marrow metastasis in astrocytic gliomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing survival time of many pediatric patients with malignancies, unexpected symptoms or signs require diligent search for rare complications or second cancers related to the disease or treatment. We recently encountered a patient with extensive glioblastoma multiforme who developed pancytopenia six months after completion of treatment with craniospinal radiation and chemotherapy with etoposide and cyclophosphamide. Bone marrow aspirate

E. Hsu; D. Keene; E. Ventureyra; M. A. Matzinger; C. Jimenez; H. S. Wang; L. Grimard

1998-01-01

150

Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction leads to loss of tissue and impairment of cardiac performance. The remaining myocytes are unable to reconstitute the necrotic tissue, and the post-infarcted heart deteriorates with time. Injury to a target organ is sensed by distant stem cells, which migrate to the site of damage and undergo alternate stem cell differentiation; these events promote structural and functional repair. This high degree of stem cell plasticity prompted us to test whether dead myocardium could be restored by transplanting bone marrow cells in infarcted mice. We sorted lineage-negative (Lin-) bone marrow cells from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of c-kit expression. Shortly after coronary ligation, Lin- c-kitPOS cells were injected in the contracting wall bordering the infarct. Here we report that newly formed myocardium occupied 68% of the infarcted portion of the ventricle 9 days after transplanting the bone marrow cells. The developing tissue comprised proliferating myocytes and vascular structures. Our studies indicate that locally delivered bone marrow cells can generate de novo myocardium, ameliorating the outcome of coronary artery disease. PMID:11287958

Orlic, D; Kajstura, J; Chimenti, S; Jakoniuk, I; Anderson, S M; Li, B; Pickel, J; McKay, R; Nadal-Ginard, B; Bodine, D M; Leri, A; Anversa, P

2001-04-01

151

NK cells in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

NK cells, until recently an ignored subset of lymphocytes, have begun to emerge as important cytotoxic effectors. It is now accepted that NK cells together with T cells constitute major actors in graft-versus-leukemia reaction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Over the last several years the mechanisms regulating the activation of NK cells have been the subject of intense investigations

Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

2003-01-01

152

Bone Reconstruction with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal\\/stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells and have become the important cell source for cell therapy and engineered tissue repair. Their osteogenic differentiation potential has been well characterized in many in vitro studies. In addition, small animal model–based studies also reveal their capability of bone formation in vivo when implanted with biodegradable scaffold, indicating the great

Wei Liu; Lei Cui; Yilin Cao

2006-01-01

153

Autologous bone marrow mixed with HLA-haploidentical allogeneic marrow transplantation for treatment of patients with malignant blood diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that syngeneic marrow mixed with H-2 haploidentical marrow transplantation could provide not only protection against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but also anti-leukemic (GVL) effects in mice. In the present studies, we report clinical observations using autologous marrow mixed with HLA-haploidentical allogeneic marrow transplantation for treatment of patients with malignant blood diseases. Sixteen cases, including 12 with acute

WM Da; Y Liu; JT Zhong; H Bai; MJ Ji; CB Wang; JZ Lu; JM Chen; YL Wang; XX Wu; SF Xu; Q Zhang; YM Wei

1997-01-01

154

Frequency of Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Rat Bone Marrow Exposed to 2.45 GHz Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wistar rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous, radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) field 2 hours daily, 7 days weekly, at power density 5 10 mW/cm2. Four subgroups were created in order to be irradiated 4, 16, 30 and 60 hours. Sham-exposed controls were included in the study. Animals were euthanized on the final irradiation day of each treated subgroup. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine the extent of genotoxicity after the particular treatment time. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical evaluation of data. In comparison to the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MW irradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells.

Trosic, I.; Busljeta, I.

2005-01-01

155

Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin  

SciTech Connect

Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice.

Xie, S.S.; Inazawa, M.; Sinha, N.; Sawada, S.; Vergidis, R.; Diener, E.

1987-12-01

156

Bone marrow stem cells and biological scaffold for bone repair in aging and disease.  

PubMed

The loss of bone mass observed in aging enhances the risk of fractures. The process of bone repair in aging is slow and limited due to reduced activity of the osteoblasts. Bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) residing in the bone marrow are the progenitors for osteoblasts. The ability to enhance healing of bone defect in aging by MSCs can contribute in the prevention of the complications resulting from long-term immobilization that are especially fatal in old age. Our aim was to test the ability of MSCs inserted into a biological scaffold to enhance bone defect repair. Osteoprogenitor cells were selected from rat bone marrow stem cells cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with FCS, antibiotics, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone. The selected osteogenic subpopulation was identified by osteocalcin immunohistochemistry as well as Alizarin red S and von Kossa staining which are specific for bone matrix and mineral deposition. Committed osteoprogenitor cells cultured on the hydrogel scaffold were transplanted into the area of a rat tibia segmental bone defect and examined after 6 weeks. Radiology images revealed that 6 weeks post-implantaion, calcified material was present in the site of the defect, indicating new bone formation. It is concluded that committed osteogenic MSCs contained in a biocompatible scaffold can provide a promising surgical tool for enhancement of bone defect healing that will minimize the complications of bone repair in aging and disease. PMID:15621208

Srouji, S; Livne, E

2005-02-01

157

Red sea drillings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

Ross, D. A.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Ali, S. A.; Boudreaux, J. E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R. L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P. R.

1973-01-01

158

Red and Black Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the student to play the game of red and black, by betting on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until either a target is reached or the player is ruined. The target, initial fortune, and trial win probability can be varied.

Siegrist, Kyle

159

Red Emitting VCSEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({?} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

160

Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CDEE PORTON have produced a Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade for AFV local smoke protection, with the object of combining the rapid screening qualities of the No 80 White Phosphorus with the quicker loading and reduced fire hazard of the L5 and L7 Jack Grenade...

C. A. Robinson P. A. Nelson P. G. Bartholomew

1968-01-01

161

Red meat plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A postal survey of a representative sample of UK red meat plants was undertaken during 1992 to collect data on average energy consumption and production. The survey covered sites that produced beef, pig meat and lamb products. The survey has shown that if...

1993-01-01

162

Nectarine tree, "Kam Red"  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A new and distinct nectarine tree denominated varietally as "Kam Red" and generally resembling the Flamekist nectarine tree (unpatented) but bearing a freestone fruit which is mature for harvesting and shipment approximately five to six days earlier than that of the Flamekist nectarine tree in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California.

1989-06-20

163

Florida's Red Tide Infestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Florida's west coast in 2001, threatening the wildlife of Tampa Bay's estuary. The article briefly discusses the cause of the red tide and its affect on the shellfish industry.

News, Cbs

164

Extremely red radio galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least half the radio galaxies at z > 1 in the 7C Redshift Survey have extremely red colours (R-K > 5), consistent with stellar populations which formed at high redshift (z >~eq 5). We discuss the implications of this for the evolution of massive galaxies in general and for the fraction of near-IR-selected EROs which host AGN, a result

C. J. Willott; S. Rawlings; K. M. Blundell

2001-01-01

165

RED Facts: Triphenyltin Hydroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0099, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH). TPTH is a non-systemic foliar fungicide used to control early and late blight on potatoes; leaf spot on sugar beets; and scab, brow...

1999-01-01

166

Red Cross Swimming Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

Vlasich, Cynthia

1989-01-01

167

RED Facts: Methylisothiazolinone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3092, methylisothiazolinone. The Reregistration Eligibility Decision covers the two active ingredients 5-chloro-2-methyl-3 (2H)-isothiazolone and 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothia...

1998-01-01

168

RED Facts: Furanone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3138, furanone. Dihydro-5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone and dihydro-5-heptyl-2(3H)-furanone (also known as gamma-nonalactone and gamma-undeccalactone, respectively) are also ref...

1996-01-01

169

Red child syndrome.  

PubMed Central

An acute overdose of rifampicin in an 18 month old white infant is described. The characteristic signs of the syndrome: orange-red discolouration of the skin, urine, and tears, facial pruritus, and periorbital oedema were present and the outcome was uneventful. Paediatricians should be aware of this peculiar yet easily identifiable syndrome.

Salazar de Sousa, J; Almeida, V; Bray Pinheiro, J

1987-01-01

170

Canadian Red Cross.  

PubMed

The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

Lavender, Colleen

2008-01-01

171

RED Facts: Bromacil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0041, bromacil and salts, which includes bromacil per se and the lithium salt of bromacil. Bromacil is a broad spectrum herbicide used to control weeds in the agricultu...

1996-01-01

172

Human Red Cell Peptidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for characterizing peptidases in terms of electrophoretic behaviour in starch gel and of substrate specificity is described. A survey of red cells from a large number of people has revealed genetically determined variants of two of these enzymes. Separate loci appear to be involved.

W. H. P. Lewis; Harry Harris

1967-01-01

173

SRED: Stabilized RED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mechanism we call "SRED" (Stabilized Random Early Drop). Like RED (Random Early Detection) SRED pre-emptively discards packets with a load-dependent probability when a buffer in a router in the Internet or an Intranet seems congested. SRED has an additional feature that over a wide range of load levels helps it stabilize its buffer occupation at a

Teunis J. Ott; T. V. Lakshman; Larry H. Wong

1999-01-01

174

Participation of bone marrow derived cells in cutaneous wound healing.  

PubMed

Bone marrow has long been known to be a source of stem cells capable of regeneration of the hematopoeitic system. Recent reports, however, have indicated that bone marrow might also contain early stem cells that can differentiate into other organ tissues such as skin. While these studies have illustrated that bone marrow stem cells could find their way to the skin, they have not addressed the dynamics of how bone marrow stem cells might participate in the homeostatis and regeneration of skin. In this report we followed green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone marrow transplanted into non-GFP mice in order to determine the participation of bone marrow stem cells in cutaneous wounds. Our results indicate that there are a significant number of bone marrow cells that traffic through both wounded and non-wounded skin. Wounding stimulated the engraftment of bone marrow cells to the skin and induced bone marrow derived cells to incorporate into and differentiate into non-hematopoietic skin structures. This report thus illustrates that bone marrow might be a valuable source of stem cells for the skin and possibly other organs. Wounding could be a stimulus for bone marrow derived stem cells to travel to organs and aid in the regeneration of damaged tissue. PMID:12811816

Badiavas, Evangelos V; Abedi, Mehrdad; Butmarc, Janet; Falanga, Vincent; Quesenberry, Peter

2003-08-01

175

Future Proofing Computational Red Teaming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational Red Teaming describes the application of new and innovative analytic techniques, tools and methodologies in support of Red Teaming Activities. This report documents the formal design of such a tool, to inform the future direction of the DSTO...

S. Wheeler

2012-01-01

176

Weather sends red tide packing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mobile Register newspaper article provides general information about the impact of a cold front on red tide in Alabama. Red tide in the area had been rising until the front passed through, killing most of the phytoplankton bloom.

Finch, Bill; Register, Mobile

177

Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification  

MedlinePLUS

... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Red blood cell antibodies are proteins produced by the ...

178

Performing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in children: Recommended guidelines  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and bone marrow trephine biopsy are important procedures for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases in children. During BMA, bone marrow particles are obtained for analysis including microscopic morphologic evaluations and differential counts. During a trephine biopsy, a core of bone marrow is obtained and processed for the evaluation of marrow cellularity and to rule out marrow involvement by solid tumours, lymphomas or other processes. These invasive procedures should only be performed by a trained individual following a standard operating technique. There are no clear published guidelines in the paediatric literature. Hence, the purpose of the present article is to provide guidelines for the performance of BMAs and bone marrow trephine biopsies in children that will be useful for both general paediatricians and paediatric hematologists and oncologists.

Abla, Oussama; Friedman, Jeremy; Doyle, John

2008-01-01

179

Performing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in children: Recommended guidelines.  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and bone marrow trephine biopsy are important procedures for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases in children. During BMA, bone marrow particles are obtained for analysis including microscopic morphologic evaluations and differential counts. During a trephine biopsy, a core of bone marrow is obtained and processed for the evaluation of marrow cellularity and to rule out marrow involvement by solid tumours, lymphomas or other processes. These invasive procedures should only be performed by a trained individual following a standard operating technique. There are no clear published guidelines in the paediatric literature. Hence, the purpose of the present article is to provide guidelines for the performance of BMAs and bone marrow trephine biopsies in children that will be useful for both general paediatricians and paediatric hematologists and oncologists. PMID:19436420

Abla, Oussama; Friedman, Jeremy; Doyle, John

2008-07-01

180

Persistent genetic damage in blood and bone marrow cells following radioiodine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Patients treated with medical isotopes provide opportunity for prospective study of radiation effects induced by internally-deposited radionuclides. We analyzed serial blood samples of a thyroid cancer patient treated with {sup 131}I for changes in micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes and glycophorin A (GPA) locus mutations in erythrocytes. Initial treatment (48 mCi) induced a 6-fold increase in MN frequency (from 6 to 36/1000). Dose response studies of the patient`s lymphocytes X-irradiated in vitro before diagnosis of cancer showed the increase corresponds to an in vivo blood dose of 11.4 cGy compared to an NCRP red marrow dose estimate of 9.6 cGy (0.2 cGy/mCi {sup 131}I). A second treatment (390 mCi), given 26 months after the first, further increased the MN frequency to 17-fold over background (101/1000). Analysis of 80 MN for kinetochores using the CREST anti-kinetochore antibody showed that 90% contained acentric chromosomal fragments. Analysis of 100 G-banded metaphases revealed 20 with structural CAs including rings, deletions, translocations and a dicentric. The frequency of GPA allele-loss variant erythrocytes increased from 11.4 to 10.8 and 17.8 x 10{sup {minus}6} in samples obtained at 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, after the second treatment. This response is consistent with radiation-induced GPA mutations in long-lived erythroid marrow stem cells as previously reported for A-bomb survivors. The induced frequency of GPA variant cells corresponds to a red marrow dose of 60 cGy based on the persistent linear dose response of 25 x 10{sup {minus}6} per Gy from previous studies. We conclude that exposure to {sup 131}I induces persistent genetic damage and that these biodosimetric methods are useful in reconstructing radiation doses in exposed individuals.

Livingston, G.K.; Schumfann, B.L. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bigbee, W.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

181

Florida Red Tide Current Status  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Fish and Wildlife Research Institute website provides links to several Florida-based red tide sites. These sites include the current status of Florida's red tide, a photo gallery of red tide distribution maps, and regional Florida red tide statuses. The site expands further on its research and contains information on the Florida manatee, Florida panther, freshwater, geographic information systems/mapping, habitat, saltwater and wildlife. This is a nice resource for a broad overview of Florida ecosystems and natural resources.

2009-09-18

182

Colour of Red Blood Corpuscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent communication1, Dr. J. R. Baker has asked why a single red blood corpuscle looks yellow instead of pink. Whether a thinned-out red colour is pink or yellow depends on the extent of its absorption in the blue end of the spectrum. Let us for simplicity regard white light as composed of equal parts of red, green and

E. J. Bowen

1943-01-01

183

Reasons not to deploy RED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the benefits of random early detection (RED) by using a testbed made of two commercially available routers and up to 16 PCs to observe RED performance under a traffic load made of FTP transfers, together with HTTP traffic and non-responsive UDP flows. The main results we found were, first, that RED with small buffers does

Martin May; Jean Bolot; Christophe Diot; Bryan Lyles

1999-01-01

184

The great red flashlight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

Halbach, Edward A.

185

The Red Brush  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of Washington University's Digital Gateway initiative, The Red Brush project is a collection of texts in Chinese from a wide range of writings from Imperial China, by and about women writers. The materials here are available in both Chinese and English, and the project was designed to complete a narrative anthology entitled "Red Brush: Women Writers of Imperial China". The site makes the original Chinese version of over 500 poems available, along with English language translations. Visitors can use the advanced search feature here, or they can also just browse around at their leisure. The materials are divided into sixteen sections, and some of the highlights include "The full elder brother" by Ban Zhao and "The color of the water" by Hai Yin.

186

Red and Black Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the red and black experiment in which a player bets on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until a target fortune is reached or the player is ruined. The initial fortune, target fortune, and trial win probability can be varied, and the user can select either of two basic strategies: timid play or bold play.

Siegrist, Kyle

187

Extremely red radio galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least half the radio galaxies at z>1 in the 7C Redshift Survey have\\u000aextremely red colours (R-K>5), consistent with stellar populations which formed\\u000aat high redshift (z>5). We discuss the implications of this for the evolution\\u000aof massive galaxies in general and for the fraction of near-IR-selected EROs\\u000awhich host AGN, a result which is now being tested by

Chris J. Willott; Steve Rawlings; Katherine M. Blundell

2001-01-01

188

Religious red herrings.  

PubMed

Brierley et al take big polarised political debates deep into the context of paediatric intensive care. They are concerned that 'deeply held belief in religion leads to children being potentially subjected to burdensome care'. However, it can be argued that they make a mistake in categorising this as a problem derived from religion, religious belief or the depth of religious conviction. Religion here is a red herring. PMID:22893531

Sheehan, Mark

2013-09-01

189

The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

190

How to exhaust your bone marrow.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of oedema and 8 kg of gained weight. The oedema decreased spontaneously over weeks and there was no evidence for a nephrotic syndrome; however, the blood tests revealed a moderate pancytopenia. The patient practiced excessive physical activity at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen in critically ill patients or those with severe malnutrition. In this case, the cause is presumed to be excessive physical activity/overtraining in combination with relatively insufficient nutrition. PMID:23813507

Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W; Kamper, Anne-Lise

2013-01-01

191

[Bone marrow autograft and cancer in children].  

PubMed

Since about 15 years intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation has been used on the basis of "dose-response" principle to treat certain children with tumours of sombre prognosis. At present, the main indications for this method are metastatif neuroblastoma in less than one-year old children, non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas in partial remission or relapse, refractory or recurrent Hodgkin's disease and some peculiar forms of Wilms' tumour. In other tumours, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma or brain tumours, the indications have not yet been clearly determined. The treatment must be administered as part of multicentre French or European trials conducted in specialized centres. The practice and application of autologous bone marrow transplantation are being revolutionized by the availability of haematopoietic growth factors and the development of the peripheral blood stem cells reinjection technique. Genic therapy will soon have major repercussions in this field. PMID:8146539

Gentet, J C; Plouvier, E; Coze, C

1993-11-01

192

[One-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy applied in diagnosis of the bone marrow metastatic cancer].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to explore the value of one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy applied in diagnosis of the bone marrow metastatic cancer. The total of 46 cases of bone marrow metastatic cancer were analyzed retrospectively, and the results of the bone marrow smear and the bone marrow biopsies were compared. The results indicated that the success rate of one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was 95.7%. Metastatic carcinoma cells in clumps or clusters with morphological changes were observed in the bone marrow biopsies of the 45 patients (97.8%), but the metastatic carcinoma cell clusters were observed only in bone marrow smears of the 25 patients (54.3%). There were mild to moderate hyperplasia of fibrous tissue in the patients with metastatic cancer. In addition to the 83.3% diagnostic rate of esophageal cancer, the rest diagnostic rate of bone marrow biopsy for metastatic carcinoma was 100%. The diagnostic rate of bone marrow smear for ovarian cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, thoracic tumor, sigmoid colon cancer, esophageal cancer and metastatic cancer of unknown primary cancers were 33.3%, 50%, 72.2%, 60%, 50%, 33.3% and 25%, respectively. The diagnostic rate of bone marrow biopsy was higher than that of bone marrow smear. It is concluded that the success rate of drawing specimen by one-step method of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy is high. The bone marrow biopsy is better than that of aspiration in diagnosis of metastatic cancer. Combining biopsy with aspiration can improve the accuracy of diagnosis. PMID:23998611

Guan, Jian-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Kai

2013-08-01

193

Red Tide in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

Ely, Elenor; Ross, Neil W.; Island, Sea G.

194

Blood and marrow transplantation in mainland China.  

PubMed

As of 1981, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) was applied in an acute leukaemia patient with success. Since then, the number of BMT has been increasing gradually, especially since the 1990s. Approximately 2000 BMTs per year have been performed in recent years in more than 100 BMT units in mainland China. A recent survey of 12 major BMT units indicates that the predominant types of transplantation performed are identical sibling (38.6%), related mismatched/haploidentical (19.4%), unrelated (17.2%), and autologous (24.5%). The indications of major disease entities are acute myeloid leukaemia (32.8%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (20%), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) [18.9%], and lymphoid malignancy (13.5%). The number of transplants from unrelated donor or related mismatched/haploidentical donor has been increasing significantly in recent 6 years. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilised bone marrow plus peripheral blood are routinely used as a source of stem cells for haploidentical BMT. Umbilical cord blood is used less often. Although the total number of patients who received allo-BMT continues to increase, the increase in BMT for CML has been flattened since 2004. By the end of 2008, more than 960 000 volunteer's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data are available in Chinese Marrow Donor Program (CMDP), and more than 1100 stem cell donations have been performed from it. Stem cells for unrelated BMT in mainland China are mainly from Taiwan Tzu Chi Stem Cell Center and CMDP. Related HLA-mismatched/haploidentical BMT has reached fairly good outcomes in terms of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, relapse, treatment-related mortality, disease-free survival, and overall survival, which are comparable with HLA-identical-sibling BMT in the author's BMT units. Syngeneic BMT started successfully in 1964 and has still very good outcomes in more than 23 BMT units from the statistics of Chinese Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. PMID:19494389

Lu, D P

2009-06-01

195

Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3–24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or

GA Hale; HE Heslop; RA Krance; MA Brenner; D Jayawardene; DK Srivastava; CC Patrick

1999-01-01

196

The bone marrow lesion in osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a multifactorial disease whose development and progression may include several structural\\u000a abnormalities aside from cartilage destruction. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) have been reported to be associated with OA pathology,\\u000a and several studies have advocated its close connection to the severity of joint structural alterations and pain, the main\\u000a OA clinical manifestation. Hence, BMLs may not only

Massoud Daheshia; Jian Q. Yao

2011-01-01

197

Pain and anxiety during bone marrow biopsy.  

PubMed

A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed bone marrow aspirates and biopsies from the posterior iliac crest. Demographics, disease category, performance score, source of information, number of previous biopsies, experience of the hematologist, and length and quality of the biopsy were recorded. Pain and anxiety were measured using a visual analog scale and verbal rating score. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate regression. The median pain score was 1.9 (range 0-10); 21% did not experience any pain. Anxiety scored 1.8 (range 0-10), and correlated positively with pain (p = .000). By univariate analysis, young age, poor performance, the physician as source of information, and prolonged procedures were associated with more pain. In multivariate analysis, anxiety, information from the physician, and a prolonged procedure persisted. Length or artifacts of the core biopsy did not correlate with pain. In conclusion, bone marrow biopsies performed in an optimal setting by experienced hematologists cause only mild pain, with, however, some patients experienced serious problems. To reduce pain, not only careful local anesthesia, but also the addition of systemic analgesics and especially anxiety reduction seems to be useful. PMID:24315253

Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

2013-12-01

198

The mechanical environment of bone marrow: a review.  

PubMed

Bone marrow is a viscous tissue that resides in the confines of bones and houses the vitally important pluripotent stem cells. Due to its confinement by bones, the marrow has a unique mechanical environment which has been shown to be affected from external factors, such as physiological activity and disuse. The mechanical environment of bone marrow can be defined by determining hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow induced shear stress, and viscosity. The hydrostatic pressure values of bone marrow reported in the literature vary in the range of 10.7-120 mmHg for mammals, which is generally accepted to be around one fourth of the systemic blood pressure. Viscosity values of bone marrow have been reported to be between 37.5 and 400 cP for mammals, which is dependent on the marrow composition and temperature. Marrow's mechanical and compositional properties have been implicated to be changing during common bone diseases, aging or disuse. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that the resident mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells in adult marrow are responsive to hydrostatic pressure, fluid shear or to local compositional factors such as medium viscosity. Therefore, the changes in the mechanical and compositional microenvironment of marrow may affect the fate of resident stem cells in vivo as well, which in turn may alter the homeostasis of bone. The aim of this review is to highlight the marrow tissue within the context of its mechanical environment during normal physiology and underline perturbations during disease. PMID:18855142

Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Akkus, Ozan

2008-12-01

199

Inhibition of vection by red.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of colors on vection induction. Expanding optical flows during one's forward self-motion were simulated by moving dots. The dots and the background were painted in equiluminant red and green. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that vection was weaker when the background was red than when the background was green. In addition, Experiment 3 showed that vection was weaker when the moving dots were red than when the dots were green. Experiment 4 demonstrated that red dots on a red background induced very weak vection, as compared with green dots on a green background. In Experiments 5 and 6, we showed that the present results could not be explained by a luminance artifact. Furthermore, Experiment 7 showed that a moving red grating induced weaker vection than did a green one. We concluded that a red visual stimulus inhibits vection. PMID:20675807

Seno, Takeharu; Sunaga, Shoji; Ito, Hiroyuki

2010-08-01

200

Red Spot Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

201

PLANT BIOLOGY: Seeing Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Although flavonoids contribute to the red, violet, and blue pigmentation of many flowers and seeds, their biosynthetic pathway is still being elucidated. In their Perspective, Bartel and Matsuda discuss new work (Xie et al.) revealing that the biosynthetic enzyme BANYULS is important for regulating the relative amounts of two types of flavonoids, the anthocyanins and the condensed tannins, both of which are powerful antioxidants that confer health benefits on humans when eaten.

Bonnie Bartel (Rice University;Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology); Seiichi P. T. Matsuda (Rice University;Department of Chemistry and the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)

2003-01-17

202

Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. III. Characterization of allogeneic bone marrow cell populations that increase allogeneic chimerism independently of graft-vs-host disease in mixed marrow recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease vs failure of alloengraftment severely limit the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a therapeutic modality. We have recently used a murine bone marrow transplantation model involving reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with mixtures of allogeneic and syngeneic marrow to demonstrate that an allogeneic bone marrow subpopulation, removed by T cell depletion with

M. Sykes; C. H. Chester; T. M. Sundt; M. L. Romick; K. A. Hoyles; D. H. Sachs

1989-01-01

203

Human bone marrow adiposity is linked with serum lipid levels not T1-diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased marrow adiposity is often associated with bone loss. Little is known about the regulation of marrow adiposity in humans. Marrow adiposity is increased in several mouse models including T1-diabetic mice, which also display bone loss. However, the impact of metabolic disease on marrow adiposity in humans has yet to be examined. This study measured bone marrow adiposity levels with

Jill M. Slade; Lindsay M. Coe; Ron A. Meyer; Laura R. McCabe

204

Melatonin as a principal component of red light therapy.  

PubMed

Melatonin is well recognized for its role as a potent antioxidant and is directly implicated in the free radical theory of aging [1] [Reiter RJ, Pablos MI, Agapito TT, Guerrero JM. Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996;786:362-78]. Moreover, melatonin has been shown to retard age-related increases in lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage [2] [Okatani Y, Wakatsuki A, Reiter RJ. Melatonin protects hepatic mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in senescence-accelerated mice. J Pineal Res 2002;32:143-8] and to act directly upon the immune system [3] [Poon AM, Liu ZM, Pang CS, Brown GM, Pang SF. Evidence for a direct action of melatonin on the immune system. Biol Signals 1994;3:107-17]. This report focuses on characterizing documented functions of melatonin in the context of red light therapy and proposes that melatonin is a potential mediator of red light's therapeutic effects, a hypothesis that is as yet untested. Red light therapy (670 nm, 4J/cm(2)) has been shown to restore glutathione redox balance upon toxicological insult and enhance both cytochrome c oxidase and energy production, all of which may be affected by melatonin. The red light treatment has also been successfully implemented in the clinical setting for its effectiveness in reducing both the number of incidences and severity of oral mucositis resulting in part from the chemotherapy and/or radiation administered prior to bone marrow transplants. Moreover, red light therapy improves wound healing and is being further tested for its ability to ameliorate toxicant-induced retinal and visual cortical neuron damage. Researchers in the growing field of light therapy may be in a position to draw from and collaborate with melatonin researchers to better characterize this alternative treatment. PMID:17321060

Yeager, Ronnie L; Oleske, Deanna A; Sanders, Ruth A; Watkins, John B; Eells, Janis T; Henshel, Diane S

2007-01-01

205

The red ear syndrome.  

PubMed

Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

Lambru, Giorgio; Miller, Sarah; Matharu, Manjit S

2013-01-01

206

The red ear syndrome  

PubMed Central

Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed.

2013-01-01

207

Reversal of acute (''malignant'') myelosclerosis by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

A 28-yr-old woman with acute malignant myelosclerosis received, as primary treatment, ablative chemotherapy and total body radiation therapy followed by bone marrow transplantation from her histocompatible brother. The patient is now well more than 15 mo after bone marrow transplantation, with normal peripheral blood counts, a normal bone marrow, no evidence of graft-versus-host disease, and is on no therapy. In light of the poor results obtained with conventional chemotherapy in this disease, bone marrow transplantation may represent the treatment of choice for patients who have an appropriate donor.

Wolf, J.L.; Spruce, W.E.; Bearman, R.M.; Forman, S.J.; Scott, E.P.; Fahey, J. L.; Farbstein, M.J.; Rappaport, H.; Blume, K.G.

1982-01-01

208

Dietary Pseudopurpurin Improves Bone Geometry Architecture and Metabolism in Red-Bone Guishan Goats  

PubMed Central

Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone.

Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng

2012-01-01

209

Red meat in global nutrition.  

PubMed

The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E

2012-11-01

210

Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

2003-09-01

211

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children failing prior autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three children with de novo acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (n= 20), secondary AML (n = 1), or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 2) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) for graft failure (n = 1) or recurrent malignancy (n = 22) between February 1992 and August 1999 following autologous BMT (ABMT). Induction chemotherapy was given to 14 patients and nine

GA Hale; Xin Tong; E Benaim; JM Cunningham; HE Heslop; EM Horwitz; W Leung; RJ Rochester; PD Shearer; DK Srivastava; JP Woodard; LC Bowman

2001-01-01

212

Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology.  

PubMed

The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant change, and several publications address the redefinition of the cut off points between malignancy, benign, and normal. Lastly, current scientific research is presented where it is relevant to the understanding of BMB pathobiology. PMID:20309423

van der Walt, Jon

2009-01-01

213

Infections after bone marrow transplantation using cyclosporine.  

PubMed

The incidence of infection in 86 consecutive patients having bone marrow transplantation for acute or chronic myeloid leukemia, in a protocol in which cyclosporine was the main immunosuppressant, was low. Severe bacterial infections were infrequent and mostly caused by gram-positive cocci but early bacterial infection was often associated with severe graft-versus-host disease. Fungal infections were prevented by nystatin and amphotericin thus avoiding the difficult combination of cyclosporine and ketaconazole. Viral infections were no more common than in other series but, in patients with mismatched grafts, they tended to be associated with neurological complications clinically diagnosed as encephalitis. PMID:6314614

Kay, H E; Watson, J G; Jameson, B; Morgenstern, G R; Powles, R L

1983-11-01

214

Fade to Red  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been subtracted from the 8-micron image to better highlight the dust structures.

Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 14772 samples x 4953 lines.

2006-01-01

215

Red Alert: diagnosis and management of the acute red eye.  

PubMed

The acute red eye represents a broad spectrum of disease encompassing benign self-limiting conditions to potentially vision-threatening ophthalmic or system disease. This article will review clinical principles essential for the diagnosis and treatment of red eye relevant to all Armed Forces primary care and emergency medicine practitioners. PMID:24881426

Welch, J F; Dickie, A K

2014-01-01

216

40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test... § 799.9538 TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test...section 4 of TSCA. The mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test...

2009-07-01

217

40 CFR 798.5385 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal...798.5385 In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal...a) Purpose. The in vivo bone marrow cytogenetic test is a...

2009-07-01

218

40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus...798.5395 In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus...Polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of rodents are used in...

2009-07-01

219

40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test... § 799.9538 TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test...section 4 of TSCA. The mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test...

2010-07-01

220

40 CFR 798.5385 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal...798.5385 In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal...a) Purpose. The in vivo bone marrow cytogenetic test is a...

2010-07-01

221

40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus...798.5395 In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus...Polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of rodents are used in...

2010-07-01

222

Ambiguous red shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bia?ynicki-Birula.

Wulfman, Carl E.

2010-12-01

223

Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund;Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

2000-12-15

224

Classification of red variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red variables are traditionally classified into Mira, semiregular (SR), and slow irregular (L) variables. The Mira variables are the best defined subgroup, whereas SR and L stars are more numerous. The SR subgroup is additionally subdivided into: SRa variables, which feature regular variability with smaller pulsation amplitudes than Miras; SRb variables, which are less regular; SRc variables, which are more luminous; and SRd variables, which are warmer. Relationships within each group are not clear. An analysis of long-term American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSP) light curves is reported on. It is found that Mira-type variables are clearly different and distinguishable from SR variables. Similarly, M-type Miras and C-type Miras feature different light curve properties. The M-Miras form a homogeneous group. The pulsations of SR variables are unstable.

Mattei, Janet A.; Foster, Grant; Hurwitz, Leora A.; Malatesta, Kerriann H.; Willson, Lee Anne; Mennessier, Marie-Odile

1997-01-01

225

Obliterative bronchiolitis complicating bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Respiratory complications of bone marrow transplantation comprise the majority of its morbidity and mortality. Obstructive airways disease is the most common noninfectious respiratory complication, usually indicative of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), which occurs in 9% of allogeneic marrow transplant patients. OB is rarely seen after autologous transplant because chronic graft versus host disease (GVH), the most commonly identified risk factor, does not occur in this setting. Alloreactive immunity is likely the cause, with donor type 2 T-helper (TH2) lymphocytes the primary mediators. OB presents at 6 to 12 months post-transplant with cough and dyspnea. Results of investigations include relatively normal or hyperinflated chest radiographs; thickened, dilated airways; and mosaic attenuation on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and fixed airflow obstruction, hyperinflation, and gas trapping on physiological testing. Bronchoscopy and lavage are performed primarily to exclude infections. Transbronchial biopsy is often nondiagnostic, but because the clinical diagnosis is generally sufficient, surgical biopsy is not usually recommended. Histology reveals lymphocytic bronchiolitis, concentric bronchiolar fibrosis, and bronchiolar obliteration. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment, which is usually required for 3 to 9 months. Response is generally poor, with mortality between 40 and 100%, and lung function infrequently improves. Stabilization with permanent respiratory impairment is common. Early detection and prompt immunosuppression may improve outcomes. PMID:16088571

Marras, Theodore K; Chan, Charles K N

2003-10-01

226

Osteonecrosis after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Osteonecrosis after bone marrow transplantation is usually severe. Most patients develop acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring a high dose of steroids for a long period of time. Generally ineffective nonoperative treatment in the past has resulted in treatment primarily with total hip arthroplasty (THA). We asked whether THA (1) reliably improved functional status, (2) led to more complications, and (3) THA after bone marrow transplantation was as durable as THA for idiopathic ON. We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients (123 hips) with osteonecrosis. The mean age at surgery was 33 years (range, 15.7–56 years). We performed all arthroplasties with an alumina ceramic bearing coupled with an alumina head 32 mm in diameter. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 9.2 years; range, 2–26 years). We documented seven revisions: three for late septic loosening, four for late aseptic loosening. Considering loosening of any component as the end point, the survivorship was 74.8% (range, 58.7%–90.9%) at 10 years. In this difficult situation, we believe the results acceptable. Septic loosening affecting this specific population has to be considered a serious event. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Raould, Agnes; Bizot, Pascal; Nizard, Remy; Sedel, Laurent

2008-01-01

227

Classification and detection of bone marrow lesions with magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical approach to bone marrow alterations is proposed that takes into account the high sensitivity and specificity of\\u000a MR imaging for the detection of marrow fat. Marrow signal intensity on T1-weighted images is assumed to reflect the balance\\u000a between fat and nonfat marrow components. Elementary patterns of marrow change include marrow depletion, infiltration, replacement\\u000a and signal void. These patterns

Bruno C. Vande Berg; Jacques Malghem; Frederic E. Lecouvet; Baudouin Maldague

1998-01-01

228

Open lung biopsy in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of open lung biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infiltrates in children who have undergone bone marrow transplantation. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients in whom pulmonary infiltrates developed within 6 months after bone marrow transplantation. Of 528 patients who received

Andrea Hayes-Jordan; Ely Benaim; Stacye Richardson; Javier Joglar; D. Kumar Srivastava; Laura Bowman; Stephen J. Shochat

2002-01-01

229

Bone marrow transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between February 1981 and December 1984 we treated 52 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase and 18 patients with more advanced disease by high-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation using marrow cells from HLA-identical sibling donors. In addition, the 40 patients who had not previously undergone splenectomy received radiotherapy to the spleen. To prevent graft

John M. Goldman; Jane F. Apperley; Lydia Jones; Robert Marcus; Alan W. G. Goolden; Richard Batchelor; Geoffrey Hale; Herman Waldmann; Cecil D. Reid; Jill Hows; Edward Gordon-Smith; Daniel Catovsky; David A. G. Galton

1986-01-01

230

Notch signaling during chondrogenesis of human bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notch signaling is an important mechanism involved in early development which helps to determine the differentiation and fate of cells destined to form different tissues in the body. Its role in the differentiation of adult stem cells, such as those found in bone marrow is much less clear. As there is great interest in the potential of human bone marrow

Rachel A. Oldershaw; Tim E. Hardingham

2010-01-01

231

Leukodystrophy and Bone Marrow Transplantation: Role of Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is currently the most physiologic treatment for some types of leukodystrophies. In enzyme deficiency states, replacement of defective genes with cells carrying “normal” copies of these genes offers a natural form of gene therapy. This review will cover the various disease states which may be treated using bone marrow transplantation as well as the obstacles and

Christina L. Kaufman; Suzanne T. Ildstad

1999-01-01

232

Tuning RED for Web traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web browsing with a novel aspect of our work being the use of a user-centric measure of performance: response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter settings and offered loads. Our results show that: 1) contrary to expectations, compared to a FIFO queue,

Mikkel Christiansen; Kevin Jeffay; David Ott; F. Donelson Smith

2001-01-01

233

Tide pushing shellfishers into red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

Hampson, Rick; Today, Usa

234

Tuning RED for web traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web brows- ing with a novel aspect of our work being the use of a user- centric measure of performance — response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter settings and offered loads. Our results show that: (1) contrary to expectations, compared to

Mikkel Christiansen; Kevin Jeffay; David Ott; F. Donelson Smith

2000-01-01

235

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

236

Oxygen delivery from red cells.  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the unloading of oxygen from a red cell. A scale analysis of the governing transport equations shows that the solutions have a boundary layer structure near the red-cell membrane. The boundary layer is a region of chemical nonequilibrium, and it owes its existence to the fact that the kinetic time scales are shorter than the diffusion time scales in the red cell. The presence of the boundary layer allows an analytical solution to be obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A very useful result from the analysis is a simple, lumped-parameter description of the oxygen delivery from a red cell. The accuracy of the lumped-parameter description has been verified by comparing its predictions with results obtained by numerical integration of the full equations for a one-dimensional slab. As an application, we calculate minimum oxygen unloading times for red cells.

Clark, A; Federspiel, W J; Clark, P A; Cokelet, G R

1985-01-01

237

[Use of cytokines in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation].  

PubMed

Presently the following cytokines are applied in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor), G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon-alfa (IFN-alfa). GM-CSF and G-CSF applied after bone marrow transplantation accelerate the granulopoietic reconstitution, whereas IL-3 in addition exerts an effect on platelet recovery. These growth factors show also high efficiency in the therapy of graft failure. INF-alfa is used early after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with hig risk for relapse. This cytokin is also very effective as single therapy or together with marrow donor leukocyte infusions for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. PMID:8067213

Hansz, J

1994-01-01

238

Complete response in severe thrombotic microangiopathy post bone marrow transplantation (BMT-TM) after multiple plasmaphereses.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old male with Ph+ chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) underwent histoidentical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation 18 months after initial diagnosis. He received pretransplant conditioning with busulphan and cyclophosphamide (Bucy). GVHD prophylaxis consisted of methotrexate, cyclosporine (CsA) and methylprednisolone. On day +50, he developed a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia with indirect bilirubinaemia, 10% fragmented red cells (FC) and an elevated LDH (1213 U/l: normal range 100-185 U/l). Clinical symptoms consisted of edema and hypertension. The patient was not febrile and had no neurological changes. A clinical diagnosis of severe (grade 4) multifactorial (acute GVHD, CMV infection and cyclosporine) BMT-TM was made. He responded following 19 plasma exchanges with replacement with fresh frozen plasma. PMID:9849701

Milone, J; Napal, J; Bordone, J; Etchegoyen, O; Morales, V

1998-11-01

239

Comparisons of Rabbit Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation and Culture Methods In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical therapy, and various methods for isolation and cultivation of BMSCs have been reported. However, the best techniques are still uncertain. Therefore, we sought the most suitable among the four most common methods for BMSC separation from rabbits. BMSCs were obtained from untreated whole bone marrow (BM) adherent cultures, 3 volumes of red blood cells (RBC) lysed with ammonium chloride, 6 volumes of RBC lysed with ammonium chloride, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Then, isolated BMSCs were evaluated with respect to primary cell yield, number of CFU-F colonies, proliferative capacity, cell phenotype, and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Our data show that BMSCs were successfully isolated by all four methods, and each method was similar with regard to cell morphology, phenotype, and differentiation potential. However, BMSCs from untreated whole BM adherent cultures had greater primary cell yields, larger colonies, and the shortest primary culture time (P<0.05). Moreover, the 4th generation of cultured cells had the strongest proliferative activity, the fastest growth rate and the most numerous cells compared with other cell passage generations (P<0.05). In conclusion, untreated whole BM adherent cultures are best for rabbit BMSC isolation and the 4th generation of cells has the strongest proliferation capacity.

Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Shi, Hongcan; Tan, Rongbang; Han, Shi; Ye, Gang; Pan, Shu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xingchen

2014-01-01

240

Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night.

Tabatabai, R.N.

1984-01-01

241

Comparisons of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell isolation and culture methods in vitro.  

PubMed

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical therapy, and various methods for isolation and cultivation of BMSCs have been reported. However, the best techniques are still uncertain. Therefore, we sought the most suitable among the four most common methods for BMSC separation from rabbits. BMSCs were obtained from untreated whole bone marrow (BM) adherent cultures, 3 volumes of red blood cells (RBC) lysed with ammonium chloride, 6 volumes of RBC lysed with ammonium chloride, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Then, isolated BMSCs were evaluated with respect to primary cell yield, number of CFU-F colonies, proliferative capacity, cell phenotype, and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Our data show that BMSCs were successfully isolated by all four methods, and each method was similar with regard to cell morphology, phenotype, and differentiation potential. However, BMSCs from untreated whole BM adherent cultures had greater primary cell yields, larger colonies, and the shortest primary culture time (P<0.05). Moreover, the 4(th) generation of cultured cells had the strongest proliferative activity, the fastest growth rate and the most numerous cells compared with other cell passage generations (P<0.05). In conclusion, untreated whole BM adherent cultures are best for rabbit BMSC isolation and the 4(th) generation of cells has the strongest proliferation capacity. PMID:24558428

Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Shi, Hongcan; Tan, Rongbang; Han, Shi; Ye, Gang; Pan, Shu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xingchen

2014-01-01

242

Bone marrow atrophy induced by murine cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed Central

Acute, sublethal infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) resulted in up to 80% decreases in the number of cells recoverable from the bone marrow, and a decrease in peripheral blood leucocyte counts during the first week of infection. Depopulation of the leucopoietic areas of the marrow was evident from examination of histological sections. The severity of bone marrow atrophy in MCMV-infected mice of different strains correlated with previously described genetically determined sensitivity to MCMV disease. Although the phenomenon only occurred when mice were inoculated with infectious virus preparations, fewer than one in 10(5) marrow cells were productively infected, suggesting that atrophy was not due to lytic infection of large numbers of bone marrow cells. Interestingly, increases in serum colony-stimulating activity were observed and these were proportional to the severity of bone marrow atrophy. After MCMV infection, we observed increases in the proportions of cells expressing some B-cell and myeloid cell markers and a decrease in the proportion of cells expressing an erythroid cell marker. There was no change in the frequency of marrow cells expressing mature T-cell markers. The numbers of myeloid lineage-committed progenitor cells (GM-CFU) in the marrow decreased 10- to 20-fold in BALB/c nu/+ mice, while there was a threefold decrease in their numbers in BALB/c nu/nu mice. In addition, increases in serum colony-stimulating activity were greater in BALB/c nu/+ mice than in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Our results suggest that growth factors produced after MCMV infection may accelerate the maturation and migration of cells from the marrow to sites of virus replication and inflammation, thus accounting for the depletion in numbers of marrow cells observed soon after MCMV infection. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Gibbons, A E; Price, P; Shellam, G R

1994-01-01

243

Red Marks the Spot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the image.

JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2004-01-01

244

Treatment of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice by Intra-Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Transplantation plus Portal Vein Injection of ? Cells Induced from Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curative therapy for diabetes mellitus mainly involves pancreas or islet transplantation to recruit insulin-producing cells. This approach is limited, however, because of both the shortage of donor organs and allograft rejection. Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) has recently been shown to be effective in inducing donor-specific tolerance in mice and rats without the use of immunosuppressants. After induction of

M. Li; M. Inaba; K. Q. Guo; H. Hisha; N. G. Abraham; S. Ikehara

2007-01-01

245

A second unrelated bone marrow transplant with an unrelated donor marrow: treatment of a patient with relapsed leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second bone marrow transplant might be considered as an option in patients with leukemia relapsing after bone marrow transplantation. We report the successful treatment of a patient with relapsed ALL with a second BMT from the same unrelated donor. We evaluated the usefulness of an unrelated donor as the source of the second BMT in this clinical setting. The

N Basara; M Bischoff; IW Blau; D Hermann; E Römer; M Rudolphi; D Kirsten; H Sanchez; AA Fauser

1998-01-01

246

Bone marrow cell transplant does not prevent or reverse murine liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

We tested the effect of bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation in either preventing or reversing cirrhosis on an experimental model of chronic liver disease. Female Wistar rats were fed a liquid alcohol diet and received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) over 15 weeks. Ten animals (cell-treated group) received five injections of BMCs during the cirrhosis induction protocol (on the 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th weeks) and four animals received the cells after liver injury was established through tail vein. Nine animals (nontreated group) were submitted to the previously described protocols; however, they received vehicle injections. Analyses were performed to verify whether the infusion of cells was effective in preventing the development of cirrhosis in our model of induction, and if the cells could reverse cirrhosis once it was established. Hepatic architecture and fibrotic septa were analyzed in liver slices stained with hematoxilin & eosin and Sirius red, respectively. Fibrosis quantification was measured by Sirius red histomorphometry. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed to detect the amount of tissue transglutaminase 2. Blood analyses were performed to assess liver injury and function by the assessment of alanine aminotransferase and albumin. Ultrasound was performed to analyze the portal vein caliber and presence of ascitis. Cirrhosis features (regenerative nodules and fibrous septa) were observed in histopathology after 15 weeks of continuous hepatic injury in nontreated and cell-treated groups. Collagen content, immunofluorescence analysis, and biochemical and ultrasound parameters were similar in nontreated and cell-treated groups; however, both groups showed significant differences compared to a normal control group. Cell infusions with bone marrow-derived cells seem to be ineffective in improving morphofunctional parameters of the liver when applied to chronic cases either during or after establishment of the hepatic lesion. PMID:19069636

Quintanilha, L F; Mannheimer, E G; Carvalho, A B; Paredes, B D; Dias, J V; Almeida, A S; Gutfilen, B; Barbosa da Fonseca, L M; Resende, C M C; Rezende, G F M; Campos de Carvalho, A C; Goldenberg, R C S

2008-01-01

247

Predicting the effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy against micrometastases: Kinetic modeling, marrow dosimetry and tumor control probability  

SciTech Connect

We have used tumor control probability (TCP) to assess mathematically the effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) directed against blood-borne micrometastases. The differential equations governing antibody (Ab) diffusion and binding to antigen sites within a spherical micrometastases are solved, and the internal distribution of cumulated activity computed. This distribution is convolved with an electron dose kernel to yield the dose at any desired point. A two-compartment model of whole-body Ab kinetics is used to evaluate the red-marrow dose. The cluster dose is then resealed to correspond to a red-marrow dose of 2.5 Gray. The linear-quadratic model of call survival is employed to transform the resealed duster dose to TCP. Clusters from 20 to 200 {mu}m in radius, and 16 radionuclides of varying decay properties, are included in the study. The salient result is that intermediate-range beta emitters give TCP near 100% for most or all cluster radii examined. For example, I-131 delivers TCP > 99.999% for all cluster sizes. Short-range Auger emitters (e.g., I-125) are found to be ineffectual against the larger clusters (R > 150 {mu}m). The longer-range emitters, e.g., Y-90, are also found to be suboptimal Y-90 generally gives a TCP << 1, but there is a sharp peak (TCP = 75%) near R = 75 {mu}m. No such peak is seen in the corresponding plot of dose vs. R. This work illustrates quantitatively the potential of RIT to deliver a highly tumoricidal dose to blood-borne micrometastases. Further, it indicates which radionuclides may be optimal for this purpose and to what degree the choice is critical. Finally, it demonstrates the value of using tumor control, Instead of dose, in assessing therapeutic effectiveness. The clinical relevance of this work will depend in part upon the tendency of malignant cells to form blood-borne clusters as one step in the metastatic cascade.

Willins, J.D.; Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

1994-05-01

248

Red cloud: A dark red-skinned potato cultivar which holds color in storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red Cloud is a midseason potato comparable in maturity to Red LaSoda and later than Red Norland. It is characterized by a\\u000a thick, dark red skin and white flesh. The red skin coloring holds well in storage, longer than either Red LaSoda or Dark Red\\u000a Norland. Red Cloud produced above average yields in trials conducted in Nebraska, Colorado, Arizona, and

Robert B. O’Keefe; Alexander D. Pavlista; Emery Dempsey

1993-01-01

249

Red urine from red deer grazed on pure red clover swards.  

PubMed

Twenty-four red deer hinds with their calves were released on to a newly established pure red clover sward and, 2 days later, red staining of the tail, perineum and hocks was observed. This was presumed to be of urinary origin. Observation of micturition showed that when urine was passed, it was a normal straw colour but it turned scarlet-red about 1 hour after exposure to air. Midstream urine remained the normal colour when held under a pure nitrogen atmosphere immediately after micturition, but it turned red when held in air in the dark, suggesting that the colour change was due to an oxidative rather than a photosensitive reaction. All deer grazing red clover were affected but this did not occur in deer grazing ryegrass/white clover swards. No adverse effects were observed in the deer grazing the red clover, and calf growth was significantly higher than on ryegrass/white clover, suggesting that the red urine had no effect on health or productivity. Blood and urine analyses showed no signs of haemolysis, haematuria or haemoglobinuria. Preliminary chemical analyses suggest that the compounds involved are not those found in the urine of sheep grazing oestrogenic clover. The nature of the compounds have yet to be determined. PMID:16031683

Niezen, J H; Barry, T N; Wilson, P R; Lane, G

1992-12-01

250

Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs.

2014-01-01

251

The role of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in detecting marrow involvement by nonhematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

A review of the records of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center identified 291 adult patients with nonhematologic malignancies who had undergone simultaneous bone marrow aspiration and biopsy from the same anatomic site. In 236 cases both samples were negative for tumor whereas in 39 both were positive. The biopsy was positive in three patients with a negative aspirate whereas in three others to aspirate was positive with a negative biopsy. The higher rate of tumor detection on aspirate in comparison with previous reports may be due to a thorough initial screening provided by technologists. Both aspiration and biopsy appear to be indicated for full evaluation of bone marrow in cancer patients. PMID:1000472

Garrett, T J; Gee, T S; Lieberman, P H; McKenzie, S; Clarkson, B D

1976-12-01

252

Recovery of Blood and Bone Marrow Stem Cells Following Intense Chemotherapy and Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen patients with advanced (stage III) malignant melanoma were treated with escalating doses of intravenous BCNU and melphalan starting at 400 and 35 mg\\/m2, respectively, and escalating to 1,000 and 110 mg\\/m2, respectively, combined with autologous marrow transplantation. The duration of granulocytopenia and time to granulocyte recovery was similar in all groups regardless of chemotherapy dose. Platelet recovery was delayed

M. R. Thomas; W. A. Robinson; T. I. Mughal; N. Morton; L. M. Glode

1986-01-01

253

Ancillary techniques in bone marrow pathology: molecular diagnostics on bone marrow trephine biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic examination of trephine bone marrow (BM) biopsies plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of haematological\\u000a neoplasms and other disorders affecting haematopoiesis. Haematopathology has been profoundly influenced by the advent of molecular\\u000a genetic techniques suitable for paraffin-embedded tissues, and certain applications, such as the determination of B- and T-cell\\u000a clonality, belong to its standard diagnostic repertoire. Many

Falko Fend; Oliver Bock; Markus Kremer; Katja Specht; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez

2005-01-01

254

Structural characterization and radioprotection of bone marrow hematopoiesis of two novel polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.  

PubMed

Two novel homogeneous polysaccharides, APS-1a and APS-3a were successfully isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis. APS-1a was composed of galactose, arabinose and glucose in a relatively molar percentage of 57.34%, 27.67% and 14.98%, and had a molecular weight of 49.0kDa, whereas APS-3a was composed of galactose, arabinose and glucose in a relatively molar percentage of 84.54%, 6.50%, and 8.96%, and had a molecular weight of 65.4kDa. APS-1a and APS-3a mainly consisted of 1,4-linked galactose, 1,3,6-linked galactose, T-galactose and T-arabinose, and the molar ratio of each linkage was different between APS-1a and APS-3a. The bioactivity analysis showed that APS-1a and APS-3a increased the thymus and spleen index, the number of red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) in peripheral blood and the cellularity of bone marrow cell numbers in irradiated mice, protected mice against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in bone marrow, suggesting that polysaccharides could be used as radioprotective agents, especially for promoting bone marrow hematopoiesis. PMID:23063893

Zhao, Lu; Wang, Yin; Shen, Han-lin; Shen, Xu-dong; Nie, Yan; Wang, Ying; Han, Ting; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Qiao-yan

2012-12-01

255

[Pure red cell aplasia and neutropenia associated with chronic monoclonal T-lymphocytosis].  

PubMed

We report a patient with nonregenerative anemia and neutropenia associated with an increment of circulating large granular lymphocytes (LGL). The anemia was secondary to the absence of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow or pure red blood cell aplasia associated with moderate lymphoid infiltration by LGL. Myeloid (CFU-GM) or erythroid (CFU-E, BFU-E) precursors were not detected by bone marrow culture. A high number of T colonies was found. The lymphoid population had a cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype (CD2+, CD4-, CD8+). Virologic studies (including search for HTLV1) were carried out with negative results. A clonal origin was demonstrated by DNA analysis with probes of those genes encoding T receptor (TRc). After cytostatic therapy with cyclophosphamide and low doses of prednisone a clinical and laboratory remission was achieved. We review the literature, with a discussion of the clinical, phenotypic and molecular features of this disease as well as its response to therapy. PMID:2109163

Palomera Bernal, L; García Díez, I

1990-02-24

256

Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.  

PubMed

In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

2008-11-01

257

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a broad mission, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies are involved in everything from disaster response and management to capacity building all over the globe. As one might expect, visitors to the site can learn about some of their more well-known programs in the "Get Involved" area on the homepage. Their homepage is also an excellent place to learn about some of their research publications, which include their annual "World Disasters Report" and their in-house magazine, "Red Cross, Red Crescent". For more nuts-and-bolts type information on the organization, visitors should browse through the "Who We Are", "What We Do", and "Where We Work" sections. Additionally, visitors can enter the "Our Programmes" section to learn about their various outreach efforts in different regions of the world.

258

Influenza virus infects bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro: implications for bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have differentiation, immunomodulatory, and self-renewal properties and are, therefore, an attractive tool for regenerative medicine and autoimmune diseases. MSCs may be of great value to treat graft-versus-host disease. Influenza virus causes highly contagious seasonal infection and occasional pandemics. The infection is severe in children, elderly, and immunocompromised hosts including hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine if MSCs are permissive to influenza virus replication. We isolated MSCs from the bone marrow of 4- to 6-week-old germ-free pigs. Swine and human influenza virus strains were used to infect MSCs in vitro. MSCs expressed known influenza virus ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 sialic acid receptors and supported replication of swine and human influenza viruses. Viral infection of MSCs resulted in cell lysis and proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings demonstrate that bone marrow-derived MSCs are susceptible to influenza virus. The data also suggest that transplantation of bone marrow MSCs from influenza virus-infected donors may transmit infection to recipients. Also, MSCs may get infected if infused into a patient with an ongoing influenza virus infection. PMID:23006541

Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M

2013-01-01

259

Simultaneous bone marrow and intestine transplantation promotes marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and chimerism  

PubMed Central

Organ allografts have been shown to provide a syngeneic microenvironment for organ-based donor hematopoietic stem cells to maintain long-lasting chimerism after transplantation. We hypothesized that organ allografts would also support engraftment and hematopoiesis of adjunctively infused donor marrow stem cells, syngeneic to organ grafts, in nonmyeloablated recipients. In BN-to-LEW and GFP-to-ACI rat combinations, donor bone marrow (BM) infusion together with small intestine transplantation (SITx) under short-course tacrolimus immunosuppression resulted in persistent macrochimerism (more than 5%) for 150 days. In contrast, after BM infusion or SITx alone, chimerism was temporary and disappeared by day 100. Y-chromosome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sex-mismatched male BM plus female intestine or female BM plus male intestine transplantation into female recipients suggested that persistent macrochimerism was derived from infused BM. BM infusion together with lymphoid-depleted intestine grafts also supported macrochimerism development; however, third-party intestine grafts did not. After GFP-positive BM plus wild-type (WT) SITx into ACI, large numbers of GFP-positive leukocytes were found in WT intestine grafts. Isolated cells from WT intestine grafts developed GFP-positive CFU-Cs and propagated multilineage GFP-positive leukocytes when adoptively transferred into lethally irradiated WT recipients. These findings suggest that intestine allograft supports simultaneously infused donor (syngeneic to organ grafts) marrow stem cell engraftment, differentiation, and persistence of chimerism.

Nakao, Atsunori; Toyokawa, Hideyoshi; Kimizuka, Kei; Nalesnik, Michael A.; Nozaki, Isao; Bailey, Robert J.; Demetris, Anthony J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Murase, Noriko

2006-01-01

260

In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10?mm in diameter and 15?mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells. These data suggest that MS processing may be used to enhance the performance of marrow-derived CTPs in clinical bone regeneration procedures. Further assessment in a more stringent bone defect model is proposed.

Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej

2013-01-01

261

PRIMARY MARROW DERIVED STROMAL CELLS: ISOLATION AND MANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) are relatively rare cells difficult to visualize in marrow biopsies or detect in aspirated marrow. Under specific conditions MSC can be expanded in vitro and the population can give rise to several mesenchymal lineages. “MSC” also refers to mesenchymal stem cells which implies that all cells in the population are multipotent. It is generally agreed that while there may be a few multipotent stem cells in an MSC population the majority are not stem cells. In either case MSC do not produce hematopoietic cells. Although MSCs have been isolated and characterized from several tissues, bone marrow is their most common source for research and clinical use. Primary MSC populations can be derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells with relative ease, but it is important to recognize the cellular heterogeneity within a culture and how this may vary from donor to donor. In this chapter, we will describe methodology to derive primary MSCs from bone marrow screens, an otherwise discarded byproduct of bone marrow harvests used for clinical transplantation. We will also describe some useful techniques to characterize and manipulate MSCs – both primary and immortalized cell lines.

Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Pillai, Manoj M

2013-01-01

262

Tenascin immunoreactivity in normal and pathological bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the distribution of tenascin in normal and pathological bone marrow. METHODS: 48 different bone marrow lesions were studied immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody to tenascin. RESULTS: Tenascin immunoreactivity was found in lesions with increased fibrosis and high numbers of reticular fibres. The strongest immunoreactivity was found in myelofibrosis. Bone marrow from acute and chronic myeloid and lymphatic leukaemias showed weak or moderate immunoreactivity. In hyperplasias inconsistent reticular tenascin immunoreactivity was found; in normal bone marrow, only a few scattered positive fibres were occasionally seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tenascin was generally observed in conditions in which megakaryocytic hyperplasia was a feature. This is in line with the notion that tenascin synthesis in bone marrow fibroblasts is stimulated by TGF-beta which is synthesised by the megakaryocytic lineage. Tenascin also contains EGF-like repeats. It might therefore function as a growth promoter and in this way could also stimulate synthesis of other matrix components. On the other hand, tenascin could function as an adhesive molecule to some cells of the bone marrow. The presence of tenascin in many pathological states of the bone marrow suggests that it may have a role in their pathogenesis and that it also could be a potential marker of disease. Images

Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Apaja-Sarkkinen, M; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

1993-01-01

263

Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers ...

264

Alternate Red Meat Production Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress on a project designed to maximize the quantity of acceptable red meat per unit of land area with minimum expenditure of cultural energy is presented. The two interacting factors investigated were breed types of cattle and forage production system...

C. W. Cook

1978-01-01

265

Evaluation of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for photodynamic bone marrow purging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 was tested as a photosensitizer for the selective photoinactivation of malignant cells in bone marrow transplantation samples. Using a murine model system, incubation of 1.5 X 107 cells/mL with 15 nM Pc 4 followed by exposure to red light ((lambda) > 600 nm, fluence of 18 J/cm2) was shown to result in a greater than 6 log10 reduction of the clonogenic growth for the murine cell lines ABE-8.1/2, BC3A and L1210. The clonogenic growth of WEHI-3 and P815 cells was reduced by more than 5 log10 and more than 3 log10, respectively. Late murine hematopoietic progenitor cells were less sensitive than cancer cells; the surviving fractions were 0.084 for the colony forming unit, megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk); 0.038 for the colony forming unit, granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM); 0.0018 for the colony forming unit, mix (CFU-mix) and < 0.003 for burst forming units, erythroid (BFU-E). Early hematopoietic progenitor cells, assayed in the in vitro cobble stone area forming cell assay, were not affected by the photodynamic treatment. Likewise, in vivo assays of early hematopoietic progenitor cells showed no reduction of their ability to repopulate the bone marrow. Irradiation of the samples following incubation of 1.5 X 106 cells/mL with Pc 4 resulted in increased photosensitivity of all cell types, including the early and late hematopoietic progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of Pc 4 uptake by the cells revealed that the increased photosensitivity could be traced to increased Pc 4 uptake; however, Pc 4 uptake among cell types did not correlate with photosensitivity. When mixed with bone marrow (BM) cells, Pc 4 uptake in the cell lines increased as the fraction of BM increased from 0.5 to 0.95. These observations suggest that Pc 4 may be a suitable photosensitizer for bone marrow purging.

Keij, Jan F.; Jiang, Yajuan; Sotiropoulos, Damianos A.; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Visser, Jan W.

1998-07-01

266

Mechanism of antitumor activity of bone marrow natural suppressor cells.  

PubMed

Co-culturing of P-815 tumor cell strain and intact mouse bone marrow cells nonadherent to plastic resulted in the appearance of soluble mediators with antitumor activity. Bone marrow cells start releasing these antiproliferative factors only after signal exchange with the target tumor cells. The cell-cell contact is an important factor for the induction of antitumor activity. Antitumor activity of bone marrow cells (similarly as immunosuppressive activity) is realized through suppressor factors; the appearance of these factors is induced by target tumor cells. PMID:16027817

Bel'skii, Yu P; Patrushev, V K; Bel'skaya, N V; Danilets, M G; Trofimova, E S; Agafonov, V I

2005-02-01

267

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

268

Look beyond the red eyes!  

PubMed Central

This is a case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with persistent red eyes to the eye clinic for several months. He had been seen in the eye department on several visits when he was noted to have red ears too. This led to further review in the rheumatology and ear, nose and throat clinic to confirm the diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis. He was treated successfully with systemic steroids.

Kumar, Anupma

2011-01-01

269

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

270

Analytic Evaluation of RED Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-to-end congestion control mechanisms such as those inTCP are not enough to prevent congestion collapse in the Internet (forstarters, not all applications might be willing to use them), and they mustbe supplemented by control mechanisms inside the network. The IRTFhas singled out Random Early Detection (RED) as one queue managementscheme recommended for rapid deployment throughout the Internet. However,RED is not

Thomas Bonald; Martin May; Jean-chrysostome Bolot

2000-01-01

271

[Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia after thymectomy in a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with thymoma].  

PubMed

The association of thymoma with pure red cell aplasia has been well documented, but amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is not a recognized paraneoplastic syndrome complicating thymoma. We report a case of thymoma-complicated pure red cell aplasia and amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a 73-yr-old woman. Pure red cell aplasia was diagnosed seven months after the detection of thymoma. One year after the diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia and seven months after thymectomy, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed an absence of megakaryocytes, marked erythroid hypoplasia with normal myeloid series. A diagnosis of amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia was made. Oral steroid maintenance therapy resulted in recovery of platelet count. She has still transfusion-dependent anemia but platelet and neutrophil counts had been maintained in normal range for more than five months, until the last follow-up. We think that autoreactive T cells may induce a clinical autoimmune response even after eradication of thymoma, and aplastic anemia as a late complication following thymectomy was described in previous cases. This patient also has to be under a close observation because of the possibility to evolve into aplastic anemia. PMID:20603583

Cho, Ah Ra; Cha, Young Joo; Kim, Hye Ryoun; Park, Eun Kyung; Cha, Eun Jong

2010-06-01

272

When Should Bone Marrow Be Taken for Transplantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is concerned with the study of the rate of autolytic processes in the bone marrow cells of the sternum, ribs and vertebrae undergoing various influence of the surrounding medium temperature. The studies have demonstrated a more intensive process...

T. E. Gnilorybov I. S. Asaenok I. P. Danylov

1970-01-01

273

CNS inflammation and bone marrow neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow-neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow-derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45(+)/CCR2(+)/GR-1(+)/Iba-1(+) bone marrow-derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M; McGorray, Susan P; Saban, Daniel R; Boulton, Michael E; Busik, Julia V; Raizada, Mohan K; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B

2013-11-01

274

Factors Related to Survival and Function of Bone Marrow Transplants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies were designed to investigate the effect of Cyclophosphamide (CY) and Busulfan (BU) pretreatment in rats as preparation for syngeneic and allogeneic marrow grafts. The histocompatibility relationships of the rat strains was clarified by studies...

G. W. Santos A. H. Owens

1967-01-01

275

Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Mitochondrial DNA Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Additional NIH Resources National Institutes of Health Educational resources Information ...

276

Histoincompatibility Reactions in Bone Marrow Transplantation and their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope and efficacy of bone marrow therapy in the treatment of aplastic and genetically determined anemias, leukemias, and certain congenital and acquired immunologic deficiency states would be greatly enhanced if a method could be found that would eli...

M. L. Tyan

1973-01-01

277

Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Bone Marrow Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanisms responsible for both acquired and inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) are not yet understood. Although most inherited BMF syndromes can be linked to specific genetic defects, these defects do not fully explain the range of physical characte...

J. Cancelas

2012-01-01

278

[Bone and Stem Cells. Intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment].  

PubMed

Various kinds of cell types, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic cells, and mesenchymal cells, have been reported to exist in the bone marrow and communicate with each other. Although there have been many previous studies about bone marrow microenvironment, most of them were analyzed by conventional methods such as histological analysis and flow cytometry. These methods could not observe the dynamic cell movement in living bone marrow. Recently rapid development of fluorescent imaging techniques enables us to understand the cellular dynamics in vivo . That's why we have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital two-photon microscopy. Here we show the latest data and the detailed methodology of intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment, and also discuss its further application. PMID:24681500

Mizuno, Hiroki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

2014-04-01

279

Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

1980-11-01

280

Bone marrow transplantation after lethal chemotherapy in "nude" mice.  

PubMed

Isogenic bone marrow transplantation was performed in "nude" and normal C3H mice after lethal doses of dimethylmyleran (DMM), meso-DMM, and (+/-) DMM were given. Nude mice were not more sensitive to DMM or its isomers than normal mice. With adequate cell doses in the range of 3 X 10(6) to 30 X 10(6) bone marrow cells or 10 X 10(6) to 30 X 10(6) spleen cels, the survival rate after lethal chemotherapy was not significantly different between nude mice reconstituted with a graft from nude donors and normal mice reconstituted with a graft from normal donors. Only with suboptimal cell dose (1 X 10(6) bone marrow cells) was survival superior in normal mice. Thinsic factor. Nude mice accepted also bone marrow grafts from allogeneic nude donors. PMID:339432

Stinner, G; Floersheim, G L

1977-09-01

281

Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-06-01

282

Inadvertent Red Light Violations: An Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years, several public policy initiatives have aimed at the increasingly common red light violation. Policies ranging from public service announcements, increased penalties for red light violations and, most strongly debated, the use of red light cameras to ensure near perfect enforcement of red light violations have been employed across the country. However, these initiatives have failed to

Craig A. Depken; Robert J. Sonora

283

Evaluation of the Left Turn Red Arrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the question whether the use of red turn arrows in lieu of red balls can create a safety hazard because of motorists' misinterpretation of the device. Traffic violations of the red arrow and red ball indications were observed at 15 ...

E. C. Noel J. Gerbig M. Lakew

1982-01-01

284

Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male  

PubMed Central

Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration.

Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P

2013-01-01

285

Immune Cell Redistribution After Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of a limb transplant lies in its anatomy. It is a graft of an organ, in analogy to the kidney or heart transplant,\\u000a but in addition, it is a graft of bone marrow (BM) whose cells (BMC) do not only proliferate and mature in the graft but also\\u000a migrate to the recipient bone marrow cavities and lymphoid organs

Waldemar L. Olszewski; Marek Durlik

286

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several reports suggest a relationship between bone marrow transplantation and pancreatic damage. The authors describe two\\u000a patients with pancreatic insufficiency after bone marrow transplantation. The first patient had weight loss arising from steatorrhea\\u000a secondary to severe pancreatic insufficiency (lipase output result<3% of normal) due to pancreatic atrophy. The second patient\\u000a had steatorrhea secondary to intestinal bacterial overgrowth, but moderate pancreatic

Alberto Maringhini; Morie A. Gertz; Eugene P. DiMagno

1995-01-01

287

New Strategies for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation and Organ Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, the success rate of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers is not high due to: (1) graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR); (2) graft rejection, and (3) incomplete T cell recovery. In mice, GvHR can be prevented if T cell- depleted bone marrow cells (BMCs; <2% T cells) are used. Graft rejection can be prevented by either

Susumu Ikehara

1999-01-01

288

Bone Marrow and Nonbone Marrow Toll Like Receptor 4 Regulate Acute Hepatic Injury Induced by Endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in immune cells and hepatocytes. We examined whether hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in the acute hepatic injury caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (septic shock model). Methods Wild type (WT), TLR4-deficient and chimera mice underwent myeloablative bone marrow transplantation to dissociate between TLR4 expression in the liver or in the immune-hematopoietic system. Mice were injected with LPS and sacrificed 4 hours later. Results Compared to TLR4 deficient mice, WT mice challenged with LPS displayed increased serum liver enzymes and hepatic cellular inflammatory infiltrate together with increased serum and hepatic levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) ,Up-regulation of hepatic mRNA encoding TLR4, I?B and c-jun expressions. TLR4 mutant mice transplanted with WT bone marrow were more protected than WT chimeric mice bearing TLR4 mutant hemopoietic cells from LPS, as seen by IL-1? and TNF? levels. We then used hepatocytes (Huh7) and macrophages from monocytic cell lines to detect TLR mRNA expression. Macrophages expressed a significantly higher level of TLR4 mRNA and TLR2 (more than 3000- and 8000-fold respectively) compared with the hepatocyte cell line. LPS administration induced TLR4 activation in a hepatocyte cell line in a dose dependent manner while TLR2 mRNA hardly changed. Conclusions These results suggest that TLR4 activation of hepatocytes participate in the immediate response to LPS induced hepatic injury. However, in this response, the contribution of TLR4 on bone marrow derived cells is more significant than those of the hepatocytes. The absence of the TLR4 gene plays a pivotal role in reducing hepatic LPS induced injury.

Hochhauser, Edith; Avlas, Orna; Fallach, Reut; Bachmetov, Larissa; Zemel, Romy; Pappo, Orit; Shainberg, Asher; Ben Ari, Ziv

2013-01-01

289

Benzene toxicokinetics in humans: exposure of bone marrow to metabolites.  

PubMed Central

A three compartment physiologically based toxicokinetic model was fitted to human data on benzene disposition. Two separate groups of model parameter derivations were obtained, depending on which data sets were being fitted. The model was then used to simulate five environmental or occupational exposures. Predicted values of the total bone marrow exposure to benzene and cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow were generated for each scenario. The relation between cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and continuous benzene exposure was also investigated in detail for simulated inhalation exposure concentrations ranging from 0.0039 ppm to 150 ppm. At the level of environmental exposures, no dose rate effect was found for either model. The occupational exposures led to only slight dose rate effects. A 32 ppm exposure for 15 minutes predicted consistently higher values than a 1 ppm exposure for eight hours for the total exposure of bone marrow to benzene and the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow. The general relation between the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and the inhalation concentration of benzene is not linear. An inflection point exists in some cases leading to a slightly S shaped curve. At environmental levels (0.0039-10 ppm) the curve bends upward, and it saturates at high experimental exposures (greater than 100 ppm).

Watanabe, K H; Bois, F Y; Daisey, J M; Auslander, D M; Spear, R C

1994-01-01

290

[Immunologic monitoring of bone marrow transplantation. Experience with 16 cases].  

PubMed

HLA-A, B antigens and the ABO group were examined in 184 patients with aplasia of bone marrow and leukaemia and in 373 of their relatives, mostly siblings. A HLA-A, B donor, identical or compatible, was found for 35.87% patients, a HLA-DR identical for 84.21% of 38 patients who had a HLA-A, B identical relative. Bone marrow was transplanted to 16 patients (10 with bone marrow aplasia, 6 with acute or chronic leukaemia), with one exception bone marrow from a sibling. The bone marrow was accepted in all patients but two where the transplantation was made despite MLC positivity. From the results ensues that it is essential for successful transplantation of bone marrow to ensure maximal identity between donor and recipient as regards the ABO group, HLA antigens and negativity of the MLC reaction. The negativity of the MLC reaction is more important than HLA-DR identity; when assessing only one HLA-DR antigen in a donor identical with the patient, it cannot be ruled out that on the lymphocytes of the donor there exists another one which was not detected. The authors discuss the causes of different results of the MLC reaction and HLA-A, B, DR typing. PMID:2141442

Májský, A; Soucek, J; Herzog, P; Korínková, P; Prazák, J

1990-04-01

291

Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice  

SciTech Connect

Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol, resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, the authors quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2{prime},7{prime}-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. They found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene.

Laskin, D.L.; MacEachern, L.; Snyder, R. (Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

1989-07-01

292

Autologous bone marrow transplantation in Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed

The outcome of advanced Hodgkin's disease has improved since the use of MOPP and ABVD. However 50% of these patients will relapse. Conventional salvage therapy can yield a complete response rate of 50%. However, only 5 to 30 percent can expect to be cured. Autologous bone marrow (ABMT) in reported publications can reach 50 to 80% remission rate in refractory patients with a disease free survival of 40 to 80%. Adverse prognostic factors are: tumor burden, number of prior chemotherapies, response to latest therapy and performance status. At the present time, ABMT is discussed in relapse of poor prognosis with initially stage I to IIIA. Twenty-six patients underwent ABMT at Saint-Louis Hospital. Fifteen were sensitive relapses of poor prognosis, 11 initially refractory disease. After ABMT, 19 were in complete remission including 14 relapses. Disease free survival was 80% for relapsing patients, again 50% for refractory patients (P = 0.001). ABMT should be a tool for refractory patients and relapses of poor prognosis. PMID:2190180

Gisselbrecht, C; Brice, P; Lepage, E; Brichon, P; Gerota, J; Boiron, M

1990-01-01

293

CD38 and bone marrow microenvironment.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the events ruled by CD38 shaping the bone marrow environment, recapitulating old and new aspects derived from the body of knowledge on the molecule. The disease models considered were myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CD38 has been analyzed considering its twin function as receptor and enzyme, roles usually not considered in clinics, where it is used as a routine marker. Another aspect pertaining basic science concerns the role of the molecule as a member of an ectoenzyme network, potentially metabolizing soluble factors not yet analyzed (e.g., NAD+, ATP, NAM) or influencing hormone secretion (e.g., oxytocin). The last point is focused on the use of CD38 as a target of an antibody-mediated therapeutic approach in myeloma and CLL. A recent observation is that CD38 may run an escape circuit leading to the production of adenosine. The generation of local anergy may be blocked by using anti-CD38 antibodies. Consequently, not only might CD38 be a prime target for mAb-mediated therapy, but its functional block may contribute to general improvement in cancer immunotherapy and outcomes. PMID:24389178

Chillemi, Antonella; Zaccarello, Gianluca; Quarona, Valeria; Lazzaretti, Mirca; Martella, Eugenia; Giuliani, Nicola; Ferracini, Riccardo; Pistoia, Vito; Horenstein, Alberto L; Malavasi, Fabio

2014-01-01

294

Telomere maintenance and human bone marrow failure  

PubMed Central

Acquired and congenital aplastic anemias recently have been linked molecularly and pathophysiologically by abnormal telomere maintenance. Telomeres are repeated nucleotide sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes and protect them from damage. Telomeres are eroded with cell division, but in hematopoietic stem cells, maintenance of their length is mediated by telomerase. Accelerated telomere shortening is virtually universal in dyskeratosis congenita, caused by mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase or telomere-binding protein (TERT, TERC, DKC1, NOP10, or TINF2). About one-third of patients with acquired aplastic anemia also have short telomeres, which in some cases associate with TERT or TERC mutations. These mutations cause low telomerase activity, accelerated telomere shortening, and diminished proliferative capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. As in other genetic diseases, additional environmental, genetic, and epigenetic modifiers must contribute to telomere erosion and ultimately to disease phenotype. Short telomeres also may cause genomic instability and malignant progression in these marrow failure syndromes. Identification of short telomeres has potential clinical implications: it may be useful in dyskeratosis congenita diagnosis, in suggesting mutations in patients with acquired aplastic anemia, and for selection of suitable hematopoietic stem cell family donors for transplantation in telomerase-deficient patients.

Young, Neal S.

2008-01-01

295

Transplantation immunology: Solid Organ and bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Development of the field of organ and tissue transplantation has accelerated remarkably since the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was discovered in 1967. Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. The roles of the different components of the immune system involved in the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host disease have been clarified. These components include: antibodies, antigen presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, signaling mechanisms and cytokines that they release. The development of pharmacologic and biological agents that interfere with the alloimmune response and graft rejection has had a crucial role in the success of organ transplantation. Combinations of these agents work synergistically, leading to lower doses of immunosuppressive drugs and reduced toxicity. Reports of significant numbers of successful solid organ transplants include those of the kidneys, liver, heart and lung. The use of bone marrow transplantation for hematological diseases, particularly hematological malignancies and primary immunodeficiencies, has become the treatment of choice in many of these conditions. Other sources of hematopoietic stem cells are also being used, and diverse immunosuppressive drug regimens of reduced intensity are being proposed to circumvent the mortality associated with the toxicity of these drugs. Gene therapy to correct inherited diseases by infusion of gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells has shown efficacy in two forms of severe combined immunodeficiency, providing an alternative to allogeneic tissue transplantation.

Chinen, Javier; Buckley, Rebecca H.

2010-01-01

296

Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

Mengel, C. E.

1977-01-01

297

Solutions to Avoid Red Tide, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Solutions to Avoid Red Tide" (START) webpage offers basic information and videos about red tide, effects of red tide, and research being done regarding red tide. START is a grassroots, non-profit organization based in Florida. Their mission is to keep federal, state, and local officials aware of red tide and to get these officials to fund projects to remediate and/or prevent the problem. Information on how to join or help START is also provided.

Solutions To Avoid Red Tide, Inc.

298

Accurate quantitation of residual tumor burden at bone marrow harvest predicts timing of subsequent relapse in patients with common ALL treated by autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated whether the extent of residual leukemia at bone marrow harvest can predict subsequent relapse after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A total of 29 pre- and post-purged marrow samples from 15 patients with high-risk common acute lymphoblastic leukemia were examined. An accurate quantitation of residual disease was achieved by phage library assay using polymerase chain reaction to

S Mizuta; Y Ito; A Kohno; H Kiyoi; K Miyamura; M Tanimoto; J Takamatsu; T Naoe; Y Morishima; R Ueda; H Saito

1999-01-01

299

Early experience with red storm.  

SciTech Connect

Red Storm is a massively parallel processor. The Red Storm design goals are: (1) Balanced system performance - CPU, memory, interconnect, and I/O; (2) Usability - functionality of hardware and software meets needs of users for Massively Parallel Computing; (3)S calability - system hardware and software scale, single cabinet system to {approx} 30,000 processor system; (4) reliability - machines tays up long enough between interrupts to make real progress on completing application run (at least 50 hours MTBI), requires full system RAS capability; (5) Upgradability - system can be upgraded with a processor swap and additional cabinets to 100T or greater; (6) red/black switching - capability to switch major portions of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments; (7) space, power, cooling - high density, low power system; and (8) price/performance - excellent performance per dollar, use high volume commodity parts where feasible.

Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Ballance, Robert A.

2005-04-01

300

Red Algal Genomics: A Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The red algae (or Rhodophyta) are an ancient and diversified group of photoautotrophic organisms. A 1,200-million-year-old\\u000a fossil has been assigned to Bangiomorpha pubescens, a Bangia-like fossil suggesting sexual differentiation (Butterfield, 2000). Most rhodophytes inhabit marine environments (98%), but\\u000a many well-known taxa are from freshwater habitats and acidic hot springs. Red algae have also been reported from tropical\\u000a rainforests as members

Juan M. Lopez-Bautista

301

Jupiter's White Oval turns red  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter's remaining White Oval changed color in late 2005 and became noticeably red in early 2006, as reported by amateur observers. We present wind and color analyses from high spatial resolution images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys in April 2006. These images suggest that the recent color change was tied to a strengthening of this storm, as implied by increased vorticity, causing it to become more like the Great Red Spot. From a historical perspective, the current activity may be consistent with the generation of new anticyclones at this latitude in the coming months and years.

Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Sussman, Michael; Tsavaris, Irene G.; Karkoschka, Erich

2006-12-01

302

Betelgeuse and the Red Supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Betelgeuse is one of the most magnificent stars in the sky, and one of the nearest red supergiants. Astronomers gathered in Paris in the Autumn of 2012 to decide what we know about its structure, behaviour, and past and future evolution, and how to place this in the general context of the class of red supergiants. Here I reflect on the discussions and propose a synthesis of the presented evidence. I believe that, in those four days, we have achieved to solve a few riddles.

van Loon, J. Th.

2013-05-01

303

Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

Cooke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

304

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

2011-04-20

305

The use of photodynamic therapy in bone marrow purging.  

PubMed

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation are an effective combination for treating a number of malignant disorders. Clinical trials have demonstrated a potential role for this regimen in the management of acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Autologous bone marrow transplantation continues to be limited by high relapse rates, as compared with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Two factors are thought to account for this observation. First, autologous transplants lack the immunologic "graft-versus-host" advantage of allogeneic transplants. Second, autologous grafts have the possibility of tumor cell contamination. Methods to reduce tumor cell contamination in autografts include exposure to chemical agents or monoclonal antibodies; long-term marrow cultures; and immunologic manipulation, either with immunomagnetic devices or antibody/complement combinations. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with porfimer sodium (Photofrin; manufactured by Lederle Parenterals, Carolina, Puerto Rico, under license from Quadra Logic Technologies, Inc, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) or benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD verteporfin; BPD-MA; BPD-Quadra Logic Technologies, Inc, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) may be an effective means of purging bone marrow. The ability of malignant cells to selectively accumulate photosensitizing agents may account for efficacy of PDT in bone marrow purging. The efficacy of porfimer sodium and BPD has been evaluated in cell lines known to express multidrug resistance (MDR), and the results compared with corresponding MDR-negative cell lines. Multidrug resistance-positive cell lines appear relatively resistant to BPD; porfimer sodium remains active. The reason for the differential effect of MDR positivity on the cytotoxicity of porfimer sodium and BPD is unclear, but is believed to be related to the larger size of the porfimer sodium molecule. Clinical trials evaluating PDT in bone marrow transplantation are under way. PMID:7992104

Mulroney, C M; Glück, S; Ho, A D

1994-12-01

306

Red Light Running Camera Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was identified...

J. Ross M. Sperley

2011-01-01

307

Eccentric Ellipsoidal Red Giant Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ellipsoidal variables are binaries in which the primary star is distorted by the influence of its small, close companion. By modelling ellipsoidal variables at known distances, it is possible to determine the exact masses of both components, despite the absence of eclipses. We study a sample of red giant ellipsoidal variables, also known as sequence E stars, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Roughly 10% of these ellipsoidal red giants have light curves with non-sinusoidal shapes, suggestive of eccentric orbits. We recently presented the first radial velocity curves confirming the eccentricity of these variables. Significant eccentricities in evolved binaries are not unknown, but remain unexplained by classical tidal theory. Using both light and radial velocity curves of these eccentric ellipsoidal red giant binaries, we modelled the systems using the Wilson-Devinney code, to obtain the system parameters including exact masses. We also find evidence that the shape of the red giant changes throughout the orbit due to the high eccentricity and the varying influence of the companion. Defining the parameters of these systems paves the way for modelling to determine by what mechanism eccentricity is maintained in evolved binaries.

Nicholls, Christine; Wood, P.

2012-05-01

308

Erythropoietin is involved in the angiogenic potential of bone marrow macrophages in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (Epo) is the crucial cytokine regulator of red blood cell production, and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of anemia, primarily in kidney disease and in cancer. Increasing evidence suggests several biological roles for Epo and its receptor, Epo-R, unrelated to erythropoiesis, including angiogenesis. Epo-R has been found expressed in various non-haematopoietic cells and tissues, and in cancer cells. Here, we detected the expression of Epo-R in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMAs) from multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients and assessed whether Epo/Epo-R axis plays a role in MM macrophage-mediated angiogenesis. We found that Epo-R is over-expressed in BMMAs from MM patients with active disease compared to MGUS patients. The treatment of BMMAs with rHuEpo significantly increased the expression and secretion of key pro-angiogenic mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1/CCL-2), through activation of JAK2/STAT5 and PI3 K/Akt pathways. In addition, the conditioned media harvested from rHuEpo-treated BMMAs enhanced bone marrow-derived endothelial cell migration and capillary morphogenesis in vitro, and induced angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos in vivo. Furthermore, we found an increase in the circulating levels of several pro-angiogenic cytokines in serum of MM patients with anemia under treatment with Epo. Our findings highlight the direct effect of rHuEpo on macrophage-mediated production of pro-angiogenic factors, suggesting that Epo/Epo-R pathway may be involved in the regulation of angiogenic response occurring in MM. PMID:23881169

De Luisi, Annunziata; Binetti, Laura; Ria, Roberto; Ruggieri, Simona; Berardi, Simona; Catacchio, Ivana; Racanelli, Vito; Pavone, Vincenzo; Rossini, Bernardo; Vacca, Angelo; Ribatti, Domenico

2013-10-01

309

Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide  

SciTech Connect

The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors.

Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

1987-07-01

310

Bone marrow necrosis preceding infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.  

PubMed

We report a case of bone marrow necrosis preceding infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Bone marrow necrosis is a rare antemortem event and has been known to be present in many conditions, notably in haematological malignancies like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This case was a 6-month-old Chinese boy who was referred to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for further investigation of pancytopaenia, high-grade fever, bloody diarrhoea and petechial rashes for one week. His first bone marrow aspirate revealed bone marrow necrosis. His clinical condition improved after ten days. However, his full blood picture then revealed the presence of 5% blast cells. His subsequent marrow 2 weeks later revealed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (FAB-L1) and immunophenotyping showed precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-null type. He was started on United Kingdom Acute Lymphoblastic leukaemia (UK ALL) Infantile Leukaemia protocol, however, he defaulted treatment after 3 days. Mode of presentation, mechanism of disease and laboratory investigations and outline of treatment will be discussed. PMID:19108404

Eusni, Rahayu Mohd Tohit; Hamidah Hussin, Noor; Zarina, Abd Latiff; Rahman, Jamal

2007-12-01

311

Hematopoietic bone marrow recovery after radiation therapy: MRI evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to detect the increase of adipocytes in the hematopoietic bone marrow that occurs as a consequence of radiotherapy and is indicative of the loss of myeloid tissue. By monitoring this process, it is also possible to determine the recovery of the bone marrow. The amount of viable hematopoietic tissue plays a fundamental role in determining whether the patient is able to undergo further antineoplastic therapy, particularly chemotherapy. We examined 35 patients who had been treated with radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (12), uterine cervix carcinoma (nine), ovarian dysgerminoma (six), testicular seminoma (four), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (four). We observed that radiation-induced modifications of the MRI pattern in the bone marrow are tightly linked to two parameters; the administered radiation dose and the length of time passed after the treatment. Bone marrow recovery was observed only when patients were treated with doses lower than 50 Gy. The earlier radiation-induced modifications of the bone marrow MRI pattern occurred 6 to 12 months after irradiation, and they were most evident 5 to 6 years after the treatment. From 2 to 9 years after radiotherapy, we observed partial recovery. Complete recovery, when it occurred, was observed only 10 to 23 years after the treatment. Our results indicate that MRI studies are likely to be useful in the assessment of radiation-induced injuries.

Casamassima, F.; Ruggiero, C.; Caramella, D.; Tinacci, E.; Villari, N.; Ruggiero, M. (Univ. of Firenze (Italy))

1989-05-01

312

Cells Derived from Young Bone Marrow Alleviate Renal Aging  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less ?-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show ?-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor ?. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji

2011-01-01

313

Communication between bone marrow niches in normal bone marrow function and during hemopathies progression  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation, quiescence and differentiation are regulated by interactions with bone marrow (BM) niches. Two niches have been identified in the adult BM: the endosteal (close to the bone) and the perivascular niche (close to blood vessels). A vast body of literature has revealed the molecular basis for the interaction of HSCs with the two niches. However, the signals that regulate the communication between the two niches have not been well defined. Taking in consideration several clinical and experimental arguments this review highlights the molecular cues, involved in the communication between the BM niches, which regulate the basic properties of HSCs in physiological and malignant conditions. As such, it aims at clarifying the most important advances in basic and clinical research focusing on the role of different factors in the regulation of the BM microenvironment.

Lamorte, Sara; Remedio, Leonor; Dias, Sergio

2009-01-01

314

Recovery and safety profiles of marrow and PBSC donors: experience of the National Marrow Donor Program.  

PubMed

The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) has been facilitating hematopoietic cell transplants since 1987. Volunteer donors listed on the NMDP Registry may be asked to donate either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC); however, since 2003, the majority of donors (72% in 2007) have been asked to donate PBSC. From the donor's perspective these stem cell sources carry different recovery and safety profiles. The majority of BM and PBSC donors experienced symptoms during the course of their donation experience. Pain is the number 1 symptom for both groups of donors. BM donors most often reported pain at the collection site (82% back or hip pain) and anesthesia-related pain sites (33% throat pain; 17% post-anesthesia headache), whereas PBSC donors most often reported bone pain (97%) at various sites during filgrastim administration. Fatigue was the second most reported symptom by both BM and PBSC donors (59% and 70%, respectively). PBSC donors reported a median time to recovery of 1 week compared to a median time to recovery of 3 weeks for BM donors. Both BM and PBSC donors experienced transient changes in their WBC, platelet, and hemoglobin counts during the donation process, with most counts returning to baseline values by 1 month post-donation and beyond. Serious adverse events are uncommon, but these events occurred more often in BM donors than PBSC donors (1.34% in BM donors, 0.6% in PBSC donors) and a few BM donors may have long-term complications. NMDP donors are currently participating in a randomized clinical trial that will formally compare the clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of BM and PBSC donors and their graft recipients. PMID:18721778

Miller, John P; Perry, Elizabeth H; Price, Thomas H; Bolan, Charles D; Karanes, Chatchada; Boyd, Theresa M; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; King, Roberta J

2008-09-01

315

The homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow.  

PubMed

In this article, the author discusses some of the most notable aspects of the work of Mehdi Tavassoli and others on the homing of intravenously transplanted hematopoietic stem cells to the marrow. It is well-recognized that homing of stem cells is a highly selective process, perhaps similar to the homing of lymphocytes to lymphoid tissues. The nature of the selectivity of stem cell homing is unclear, however, and may be mediated through a specific homing receptor or through a method of selective capture, retainment, or survival advantage afforded by the marrow. In this article, the focus is on current research in the identification of a specific homing receptor, the potential regulation of such a receptor by cytokines, the homing phenomenon as a multi-step process, and secondary adhesive interactions mediated by known adhesive molecules. These interactions may serve to strengthen the initial recognition and engraftment of stem cells within the hematopoietic compartment of the marrow. PMID:7733141

Hardy, C L

1995-05-01

316

Gastric carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis: a case series.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality. At the time of diagnosis, majority of the patients usually have unresectable or metastatic disease. The most common sites of metastases are the liver and the peritoneum, but in the advanced stages, there may be metastases to any region of the body. Bone marrow is an important metastatic site for solid tumors, and the prognosis in such cases is poor. In gastric cancer cases, bone marrow metastasis is usually observed in younger patients and in those with poorly differentiated tumors. Prognosis is worsened owing to the poor histomorphology as well as the occurrence of pancytopenia. The effect of standard chemotherapy is unknown, as survival is limited to a few weeks. This report aimed to evaluate 5 gastric cancer patients with bone marrow metastases to emphasize the importance of this condition. PMID:24765538

Ekinci, Ahmet ?iyar; Bal, Oznur; Ozatl?, Tahsin; Türker, Ibrahim; E?bah, Onur; Demirci, Ay?e; Budako?lu, Burçin; Arslan, Ulkü Yalç?nta?; Eraslan, Emrah; Oksüzo?lu, Berna

2014-03-01

317

The bone marrow at the crossroads of blood and immunity  

PubMed Central

Progenitor cells that are the basis for all blood cell production share the bone marrow with more mature elements of the adaptive immune system. Specialized niches within the bone marrow guide and, at times, constrain the development of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and lineage-restricted immune progenitor cells. Specific niche components are organized into distinct domains to create a diversified landscape in which specialized cell differentiation or population expansion programmes proceed. Local cues that reflect the tissue and organismal state affect cellular interactions to alter the production of a range of cell types. Here, we review the organization of regulatory elements in the bone marrow and discuss how these elements provide a dynamic means for the host to modulate stem cell and adaptive immune cell responses to physiological challenges.

Scadden, David T.

2014-01-01

318

Gastric Carcinoma with Bone Marrow Metastasis: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality. At the time of diagnosis, majority of the patients usually have unresectable or metastatic disease. The most common sites of metastases are the liver and the peritoneum, but in the advanced stages, there may be metastases to any region of the body. Bone marrow is an important metastatic site for solid tumors, and the prognosis in such cases is poor. In gastric cancer cases, bone marrow metastasis is usually observed in younger patients and in those with poorly differentiated tumors. Prognosis is worsened owing to the poor histomorphology as well as the occurrence of pancytopenia. The effect of standard chemotherapy is unknown, as survival is limited to a few weeks. This report aimed to evaluate 5 gastric cancer patients with bone marrow metastases to emphasize the importance of this condition.

Bal, Oznur; Ozatl?, Tahsin; Turker, Ibrahim; Esbah, Onur; Demirci, Ayse; Budakoglu, Burcin; Arslan, Ulku Yalc?ntas; Eraslan, Emrah; Oksuzoglu, Berna

2014-01-01

319

Scar sarcoidosis with bone marrow involvement and associated musculoskeletal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis affects the lungs most commonly and can present with cutaneous lesions. It can also involve the bone marrow in rare instances, often presenting with non-specific symptoms such as fever and malaise, with occasional haematological abnormalities. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old caucasian female who was diagnosed with scar sarcoidosis, but who also reported fatigue, night sweats and polyarthralgia. No haematological abnormalities or lung involvement were detected. A magnetic resonance scan of the spine, performed due to disc prolapses, demonstrated areas of bone oedema and stress response that were reported as a possible sarcoid infiltration of the bone marrow. An improvement occurred after 8 weeks, despite conservative treatment. Bone marrow involvement in sarcoidosis is rarely reported, and was an accidental finding here. Due to the non-specific presentation, cases such as this are potentially underdiagnosed and should be considered in patients with systemic symptoms, regardless of their haematological status.

Hameed, Omair Akhtar; Skibinska, Malgorzata

2011-01-01

320

Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process  

SciTech Connect

Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.

2004-01-10

321

Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various in vitro manipulations of red cells produce a so-called 'preservation injury' that manifests itself in the form of severely and irreversibly damaged red cells that are removed from the recipient's circulation at an accelerated rate usually during ...

C. R. Valeri

1970-01-01

322

Evaluation on the Flashing Red Strobe Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental Red Strobe Traffic Signal device in reducing motor vehicle accidents at some signalized intersections. The red strobe signal indication is expected to attract driver attention to ...

W. J. Styles

1982-01-01

323

Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial red cells were prepared with polyhemoglobin membranes. Red-cell-size microdroplets containing 30% of hemoglobin were held in liquid membrane capsules and treated with glutaraldehyde that cross linked the hemoglobin at the surface of each microd...

T. A. Davis W. J. Asher G. T. Quinlan

1981-01-01

324

Method for Disposing of Red Phosphorus Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for disposing of a pyrotechnic composition comprised of red phosphorus, manganese dioxide, magnesium, zinc oxide, and linseed oil, with at least fifty percent of the composition being red phosphorus. The composition is burned in a fi...

F. E. Montgomery

1978-01-01

325

Ironclad Findings about Red Meat's Harms?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Ironclad Findings About Red Meat's Harms? Analysis of 21 studies may bolster ... News) -- A type of iron found only in red meat is associated with an increase in the ...

326

Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re feeling constantly exhausted ... when your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. You may either have too few ...

327

Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea  

MedlinePLUS

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think ... complexion as a sign of good health. But red patches on the face may point to something ...

328

Red Grooms: Selections from the Graphic Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the life and career of Charles Rogers Grooms, better known as Red Grooms. Describes the art exhibit, "Red Grooms: Selections from the Graphic Work," presented by the Tennessee State Museum (Nashville, Tennessee). (CMK)

Johnson, Mark M.

2002-01-01

329

Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

330

Jaw and Long Bone Marrows Have a Different Osteoclastogenic Potential  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts, the multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, arise through fusion of precursors from the myeloid lineage. However, not all osteoclasts are alike; osteoclasts at different bone sites appear to differ in numerous respects. We investigated whether bone marrow cells obtained from jaw and long bone differed in their osteoclastogenic potential. Bone marrow cells from murine mandible and tibiae were isolated and cultured for 4 and 6 days on plastic or 6 and 10 days on dentin. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed by counting the number of TRAP+ multinucleated cells. Bone marrow cell composition was analyzed by FACS. The expression of osteoclast- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes was studied by qPCR. TRAP activity and resorptive activity of osteoclasts were measured by absorbance and morphometric analyses, respectively. At day 4 more osteoclasts were formed in long bone cultures than in jaw cultures. At day 6 the difference in number was no longer observed. The jaw cultures, however, contained more large osteoclasts on plastic and on dentin. Long bone marrow contained more osteoclast precursors, in particular the myeloid blasts, and qPCR revealed that the RANKL:OPG ratio was higher in long bone cultures. TRAP expression was higher for the long bone cultures on dentin. Although jaw osteoclasts were larger than long bone osteoclasts, no differences were found between their resorptive activities. In conclusion, bone marrow cells from different skeletal locations (jaw and long bone) have different dynamics of osteoclastogenesis. We propose that this is primarily due to differences in the cellular composition of the bone site-specific marrow.

de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Schoenmaker, Ton; Azari, Azin; Katchburian, Eduardo; Cerri, Paulo S.; de Vries, Teun J.

2010-01-01

331

Diverse osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow from mandible versus long bone.  

PubMed

Background: Mandibles (MB) and maxillae possess unique metabolic and functional properties and demonstrate discrete responses to homeostatic, mechanical, hormonal, and developmental stimuli. Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differs between MB versus long bones (LB). Furthermore, MB- versus LB-derived osteoclasts (OCs) have disparate functional properties. This study explores the osteoclastogenic potential of rat MB versus LB marrow in vitro and in vivo under basal and stimulated conditions. Methods: Bone marrow from rat MB and LB was cultured in osteoblastic or osteoclastic differentiation media. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, resorption pit assays, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed. Additionally, osmotic mini-pumps were implanted in animals, mandibles and tibiae were isolated, and multinucleated cells (MNCs) were measured. Results: MB versus LB marrow cultures that were differentiated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced more TRAP(+) MNCs and greater resorptive area. To explore MB versus LB BMSC-supported osteoclastogenesis, confluent BMSCs were cultured with parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), or PTH+1,25D3. 1,25D3- or PTH+1,25D3-treated LB BMSCs expressed significantly higher RANKL and lower osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA and increased RANKL:OPG ratio. When whole marrow was cultured with PTH+1,25D3, more TRAP(+) MNCs were seen in LB versus MB cultures. Ultimately, rats were infused with PTH+1,25D3, and MB versus tibia MNCs were measured. Hormonal stimulation increased osteoclastogenesis in both MB and tibiae. However, higher TRAP(+) MNC numbers were observed in tibiae versus MB under basal and hormonal stimulation. Conclusion: Collectively, these data illustrate differences of both osteoclastogenic potential and OC numbers of MB versus LB marrow. PMID:24003963

Chaichanasakul, Thawinee; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

2014-06-01

332

Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

Adams, L.

2003-01-01

333

[Whole-body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation].  

PubMed

High dose total body irradiation is widely used in conditioning regimens to treat patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Radiation-related complications observed in 67 patients who received total body irradiation and their correlation with physiopathological mechanism of clinical manifestations are discussed. Interstitial pneumonitis occurred in 9 patients in our study (14%); the relationship between the incidence of interstitial pneumonitis and many factors such as irradiation treatment techniques, pre-graft chemotherapy, bone marrow malignant as well hereditary diseases, are discussed and related to a detailed literature review. Radiation techniques are different in leukemic and thalassemic patients. PMID:6398469

Di Pietrantonj, F; Proietti, A; Capirci, C

1984-06-01

334

Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxygen transport function is maintained better in CPD red cells than in ACD red cells. After storage at 4 C in CPD for 2 to 4 days, red cells can be rejuvenated with a solution containing pyruvate, inosine, glucose, phosphate, and adenine, and frozen usin...

C. R. Valeri

1975-01-01

335

RED TEAM PERFORMANCE FOR IMPROVED COMPUTER SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempts to develop a human factors understanding of red team assessment strategies in computer and information security. Red teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of security systems. The purpose of this research is to identify and define the various dimensions of red team effectiveness with the aim

Sara Kraemer; Pascale Carayon; Ruth Duggan

336

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2010-01-01

337

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2009-04-01

338

NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website offers a brief explanation of red tide and a large bloom that spread from the Gulf of Maine to the Massachusetts Bay in 2005. The site explains NOAA's efforts to remediate red tide in New England as well as prevent new occurrences. The site features hyperlinks to research funding, legislation, and other NOAA sites that feature red tide.

339

76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including...associated with flooding occurring on the Red River. Entry into this zone is...

2011-04-27

340

Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2002-01-01

341

Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected children, report of three cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected adults include hypocellularity, myelodysplasia and poor marrow recovery. Data in children is limited. We report a series of three HIV infected with varied bone marrow abnormalities. First child was a 7-year-old boy with pulmonary tuberculosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow examination showed hypoplastic marrow. He succumbed to his disease within seven days of hospitalization. Second child was a three and a half year old girl who had severe anemia and her bone marrow examination showed dyserythropoiesis. Third child was a 7-year-old boy who had splenic abscesses and pancytopenia and bone marrow examination showed myelofibrosis with increased plasma cells. He also succumbed due to a fatal pulmonary bleed. Thus, advanced HIV disease in children can lead to bone marrow suppression in form of hypoplasia or myelofibrosis which can be fatal.

Shah, Ira; Murthy, Anuradha

2014-01-01

342

Bone Marrow Stem Cell Origin of Human Breast Cancer Using Transgenic Mouse Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is emerging evidence that transformed stem cells may be the source of human cancers. We felt that transgenic mouse models were ideally suited to examine this question and proposed to conduct marrow transplant experiments to test whether marrow stem ...

S. H. Barsky

2008-01-01

343

New approaches in bone marrow transplantation: the utilization of hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

A detailed review of various methods of bone marrow transplantation is presented. Special emphasis is placed on the newest reports of fetal bone marrow transplantation in utero and stem cell reconstitution. PMID:1983166

Michejda, M; Peters, S; De Vleeschouwer, M H; Bellanti, J A

1990-01-01

344

Good Odds for Those Who Need Bone Marrow Donor, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... donations, said senior author Martin Maiers, director of bioinformatics research at the National Marrow Donor Program. All ... European community," Lichtenfeld said. SOURCES: Martin Maiers, director, bioinformatics research, National Marrow Donor Program; Len Lichtenfeld, M. ...

345

Chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes and radiation dose to active bone marrow in patients treated for cancer of the cervix  

SciTech Connect

An international study of cervical cancer patients reported a doubling of the risk for leukemia following radiotherapy. To evaluate the extent of residual chromosome damage in circulating T-cell lymphocytes in this population, approximately 200 metaphases were examined from each of 96 irradiated and 26 nonirradiated cervical cancer patients treated more than 17 years ago (average 23 years). Radiation dose averaged over the total red bone marrow was estimated to be 8.1 Gy. The type and frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations were quantified in 24,117 metaphases. Unstable aberrations did not differ significantly between irradiated and nonirradiated patients (P greater than 0.5). Stable aberrations (i.e., translocations, inversions, or chromosomes with deleted segments), however, were significantly higher among irradiated (2.8 per 100 cells) compared to nonirradiated (0.7 per 100 cells) women (P less than 10(4)). The frequency of these stable aberrations was found to increase significantly with increasing dose to the bone marrow. These data indicate that a direct relationship between radiation dose and extent of damage to somatic cells persists in populations and can be detected many years after partial-body radiation exposure. The stable aberration rate in irradiated cervical cancer patients was 50 to 75% lower than those observed 25 years or more after radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors and in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radiotherapy. The average marrow dose was only 1 Gy in the examined atomic bomb survivors and 3.5 Gy in the ankylosing spondylitis patients. It appears, then, that a very high dose delivered to the pelvic cavity in fractionated doses resulted in far fewer persistent stable aberrations than lower doses delivered either in acute whole-body exposure or in fractionated doses to the spinal column and sacroiliac joints.

Kleinerman, R.A.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tarone, R.E.; Machado, S.G.; Blettner, M.; Peters, L.J.; Boice, J.D. Jr. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-07-01

346

JGR-Red Deputy Editor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William M. Kaula, of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, has been appointed deputy editor of the red section of the Journal of Geophysical Research—to serve from October 1, 1982, to June 30, 1983. He will handle special editorial problems that require immediate attention while the new editor, Gerald Schubert (Eos, September 7, 1982), is on sabbatical. Schubert will handle the standard editorial and review process.

347

Toxic Blooms: Understanding Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online seminar reviews the topic of red tides in four sessions, which review the effect HABs have on public health, wildlife and the economy; describe common harmful algal species and their toxins; identify poisoning symptoms; compare methods of treatment if poisoned; describe some potential methods to control HABs; and identify research areas where information on HABs is still inadequate. After completing the sessions, an optional knowledge test is provided based on the seminar material.

Anderson, Don; The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Fathom

348

Why Owens Lake is Red!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains the biological phenomena of reddish-colored salt lakes, such as Lake Owens, and playas. Applying colorful images and geological history, the author describes the processes by which astronomical numbers of microscopic, unicellular organisms living in the water and salt crust can cause the red coloration. Descriptions also include the ability of halophilic microbes to withstand high salt concentrations and other extreme conditions.

Armstrong, Wayne; Department, Palomar C.

349

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

350

Red Scare: An Image Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The William & Anita Newman Library at Baruch College (The City University of New York) has recently added this exhibit to its digital collection. Red Scare is an image database created by Leo Robert Klein, Web Coordinator and Digital Resources Developer for Newman Library. The database contains 137 photographs and political cartoons that illustrate US political history from 1918 to 1920. The images are arranged chronologically and by subject. A list of subject headings are provided.

351

Establishment of bone marrow and hematopoietic niches in vivo by reversion of chondrocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived "mesenchymal stem cells") can establish the hematopoietic microenvironment within heterotopic ossicles generated by transplantation at non-skeletal sites. Here we show that non-mineralized cartilage pellets formed by hBMSCs ex vivo generate complete ossicles upon heterotopic transplantation in the absence of exogenous scaffolds. These ossicles display a remarkable degree of architectural fidelity, showing that an exogenous conductive scaffold is not an absolute requirement for bone formation by transplanted BMSCs. Marrow cavities within the ossicles include erythroid, myeloid and granulopoietic lineages, clonogenic hematopoietic progenitors and phenotypic HSCs, indicating that complete stem cell niches and hematopoiesis are established. hBMSCs (CD146(+) adventitial reticular cells) are established in the heterotopic chimeric bone marrow through a unique process of endochondral bone marrow formation, distinct from physiological endochondral bone formation. In this process, chondrocytes remain viable and proliferate within the pellet, are released from cartilage, and convert into bone marrow stromal cells. Once explanted in secondary culture, these cells retain phenotype and properties of skeletal stem cells ("MSCs"), including the ability to form secondary cartilage pellets and secondary ossicles upon serial transplantation. Ex vivo, hBMSCs initially induced to form cartilage pellets can be reestablished in adherent culture and can modulate gene expression between cartilage and stromal cell phenotypes. These data show that so-called "cartilage differentiation" of BMSCs in vitro is a reversible phenomenon, which is actually reverted, in vivo, to the effect of generating stromal cells supporting the homing of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. PMID:24675053

Serafini, Marta; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Pievani, Alice; Redaelli, Daniela; Remoli, Cristina; Biondi, Andrea; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

2014-05-01

352

Red Studio - MoMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By collaborating with high school students, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) put together Red Studio, a Web site designed to connect teens with modern art and today's working artists. Currently, Red Studio features an interview with Shahzia Sikander, an artist born in Pakistan in 1969, who was educated, and now lives here in the US. Conducted by six students, interview questions range from what it's like for a young woman with a Muslim family to pursue a career as an artist, if she's ever felt she has to censor her art, to what type of music she likes. Red Studio visitors can view the interview as a Flash presentation with sound, or read the complete transcript. There is also an earlier interview with Vito Acconci, who is asked if he is an artist or an architect, and why he always wears black. Another teen-orientated part of the site is polls, so that kids can find out what other kids think about the purpose of art, and what they like to do after school.

2005-01-01

353

Two Phases of Engraftment Established by Serial Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially transplanted bone marrow eventually fails to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice. The reasons for this loss of repopulating ability are unknown. We showed that serial bone marrow transplantation changed the ratio of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow. The numbers of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU- GM) in the bone marrow did not change with serial transplantation. Spleen CFU (CFU-S) numbers decreased

Richard J. Jones; Paul Celano; Saul J. Sharkis; Lyle L. Sensenbrenner

1989-01-01

354

The recovery of the B-cell population in adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated and bone marrow-reconstituted mice.  

PubMed Central

The recovery of the B-cell population in adult thymectomized, irradiated and bone marrow-reconstituted mice (T X BM mice was estimated at various times after bone marrow transplantation. The spleen cells to be tested were mixed with dexamethasone-resistant thymocytes (DRT) and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and transferrred to irradiated recipients. The number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in the spleen of the recipients was determined 7 days later. Using this functional B-cell assay a sequential appearance of the precursors of IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC in the spleen of T X BM mice was observed. The precursors of IgM-PFG (IgM-B cells) were present immediately after transplantation. The first IgG-B cells could be detected at 13-16 days after transplantation and the IgA-B cells finally appeared at 22 days after transplantation. The number of B cells reached a constant and normal level at 30 days after transplantation. The IgM-, IgG- and IgA-B cell development in sham-thymectomized, irradiated and bone narrow-reconstituted mice (ST X BM mice) was virtually the same as in T X BM mice.

van Muiswinkel, W B; van Beek, J J; van Soest, P L

1975-01-01

355

Bortezomib enhances the osteogenic differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow and placental tissues.  

PubMed

Bortezomib (BZB) is a chemotherapeutic agent approved for treating multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In addition, there are several reports showing that bortezomib can induce murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo osteogenic differentiation and increase bone formation in vivo. MSCs are the multipotent stem cells that have capacity to differentiate into several mesodermal derivatives including osteoblasts. Nowadays, MSCs mostly bone marrow derived have been considered as a valuable source of cell for tissue replacement therapy. In this study, the effect of bortezomib on the osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from both bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and postnatal sources such as placenta (PL-MSCs) were investigated. The degree of osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs and PL-MSCs after bortezomib treatment was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, matrix mineralization by Alizarin Red S staining and the expression profiles of osteogenic differentiation marker genes, Osterix, RUNX2 and BSP. The results showed that 1nM and 2nM BZB can induce osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs and PL-MSCs as demonstrated by increased ALP activity, increased matrix mineralization and up-regulation of osteogenic differentiation marker genes, Osterix, RUNX2 and BSP as compared to controls. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by bortezomib may lead to the potential therapeutic applications in human diseases especially patients with osteopenia. PMID:24747566

Sanvoranart, Tanwarat; Supokawej, Aungkura; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Manochantr, Sirikul; Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

2014-05-16

356

Phase II study of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Twenty-three children with congenital or acquired hematological disorders and 8 children with solid tumors received filgrastim at a dose of 5 micrograms/Kg by a daily 2-hour infusion following allogeneic (18 cases) or autologous (13 cases) bone marrow transplantation (group I). The results were compared with those of a disease, age and type of transplant matched cohort of 31 children treated in the same institution who did not receive the growth factor (group II). Filgrastim treatment was started within 24 hours of completion of the marrow infusion and lasted for 21 consecutive days or until the absolute neutrophil count reached 10 x 10(9)/l for 3 consecutive days. Twelve variables were evaluated prospectively in Group I and retrospectively in Group II. Myeloid reconstitution with peripheral granulocyte counts > 0.5 x 10(9)/L was achieved at a median time of 13 days in group I and of 14 days in group II (p = ns). Platelet recovery to > 50 x 10(9)/L was slower in group I (43 vs 30 days: p < .05). Median time to last platelet and red blood cell infusion was higher in group I (33 vs 18 days for platelets, p < .05; 45 vs 25 for red blood cells, p < .005). Filgrastim-treated children undergoing autologous BMT had fewer days of fever (6 vs 10 days, p < .05). There was no significant toxicity ascribable to filgrastim. Clinically and microbiologically documented infections, days of antibiotic therapy, duration of total parenteral nutrition and median time in hospital were similar in both groups. We conclude that in children undergoing autologous BMT for malignancies, filgrastim significantly reduced the number of febrile days. Similar benefits were not observed in children undergoing allogeneic BMT. Children receiving filgrastim experienced a delay in erythrocyte and platelet recovery. A prospective randomized study is required to better define the cost-benefit of filgrastim in children undergoing autologous or allogeneic BMT. PMID:8932813

Dini, G; Floris, R; Pession, A; Manfredini, L; Dallorso, S; Lanino, E; Garaventa, A; Miano, M; Kotitsa, Z; Rondelli, R

1996-11-01

357

Hong Kong Chinese perceptions of the experience of unrelated bone marrow donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative perspective of the Chinese experience of unrelated bone marrow donation. A total population of 37 Chinese men and women, residing in Hong Kong who had donated bone marrow to an unrelated recipient were interviewed and asked their retrospective perceptions and experiences during the process of unrelated bone marrow donation. The majority was female (60%) and

Eleanor Holroyd; Alexander Molassiotis

2000-01-01

358

Use Of An Algorithm For Total Parenteral Nutrition In Bone Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state me benefit of establishing standards for TPN usage in bone marrow transplant patients.Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT) experience severe mucositis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as a result of the marrow ablative therapy received. These patients are typically unable to maintain their nutrition status orally and do not tolerate enteral tube feedings well. Consequently, they receive

D Dean; A. Habeck; J. Kerestes-Smith

1996-01-01

359

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in marrow recipients: a report of three cases and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma infection following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is infrequently reported. We report three cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in BMT recipients documented during an 8-year period at our institution: one after an unrelated marrow transplant in a toxoplasma-seronegative patient, the second complicating syngeneic marrow transplantation, and the third following allogeneic, related BMT. The disease is extremely rare in seronegative patients and

PH Chandrasekar; F Momin

1997-01-01

360

Increased Differentiation Capacity of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aquaporin-5 Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5?/? mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5+/+ mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5?/? and AQP5+/+ mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPAR?2, C/EBP?, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5?/? -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5?/? BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5?/? mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5+/+ than AQP5?/? BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration.

Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao

2012-01-01

361

Multilineage differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to undergo multilineage differentiation. Human BMSCs were isolated from the ilia of donors by density gradient centrifugation, then purified by adherent separation and cultured in vitro. P3 or P4 BMSC populations were collected and induced for multilineage differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes and neuroblasts using an inductive medium in vitro. The BMSCs were cultured in either an osteoblast or chondroblast induction medium, seeded onto porous coral scaffolds and implanted into mice in vivo. The mice were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose at 6 or 9 weeks post-surgery. The scaffolds were then removed for analysis. Lipid vacuoles were observed subsequent to being cultured in an adipogenic medium. These accumulated lipid vacuoles were detected using Sudan Black B and Oil Red O (positive) staining. Deposited calcium was detected using von Kossa and Alizarin Red S (positive) staining subsequent to being cultured in an osteogenic medium. The BMSCs retracted to form neuron-like cells with axon- and dendrite-like processes following induction by ?-mercaptoethanol. The cells were positively stained by toluidine blue and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry. Newly formed bone tissues were observed and islands of cartilage tissue were also formed at 9 weeks post-implantation in vivo. The present study demonstrated that human BMSCs were homogeneous and differentiated with high fidelity to osteogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic or chondrogenic lineages. These cells also form bone and cartilage tissues when implanted in vivo and may therefore be used as seed cells in bone tissue engineering.

ZHENG, YOU-HUA; XIONG, WEI; SU, KAI; KUANG, SHI-JUN; ZHANG, ZHI-GUANG

2013-01-01

362

Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.  

PubMed

In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong

2013-09-01

363

Guidelines for the transfusion of red cells.  

PubMed

The following recommendations, which aim at standardising and rationalising clinical indications for the transfusion of red cells in Belgium, were drawn up by a working group of the Superior Health Council. To this end, the Superior Health Council organised an expert meeting devoted to "Guidelines for the transfusion of red cells" in collaboration with the Belgian Hematological Society. The experts discussed the indications for red cell transfusions, the ideal red cell concentrate, the practical issues of administering red cells, and red cell transfusions in patients in a critical condition. The recommendations formulated by the experts were validated by the working group with the purpose of harmonising red cell transfusion in Belgian hospitals. PMID:19186562

Baele, P L; Muylle, L; Noens, L; Gulliksson, H; Brands, A; Isbister, J; Van der Linden, P; Hübner, R; Berneman, Z; Lamy, M; Ferrant, A; Lambermont, M; Sondag, D

2008-01-01

364

Bone marrow origin of a B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

To search for precursors of the neoplastic B cells in a patient with a nodular lymphoma, we produced a monoclonal antibody to a variable region idiotope on the lymphoma IgM heavy chain. Clonal ancestors of the lymphoma cells were identified by this marker among bone marrow pre-B cells (5% to 26%). A second antiidiotype (anti-Id) antibody specific for the complete lymphoma IgM kappa recognized 10% of B cells in bone marrow and blood and greater than 95% of B cells in lymphomatous lymph nodes, including one obtained after tumor conversion to a diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunoglobulin gene analysis surprisingly revealed expansion of multiple clones of early B lineage cells in bone marrow, including members of the neoplastic clone. The data suggest that this lymphoma arose through a progression of transformational events beginning in bone marrow: first, creation of an oligoclonal pre-neoplastic pool of pre-B cells, subsequent conversion of a single subclone into low grade neoplastic B cells that homed to the lymph node follicles, and later progression to a more invasive form of the B-cell lymphoma. PMID:3291988

Bertoli, L F; Kubagawa, H; Borzillo, G V; Burrows, P D; Schreeder, M T; Carroll, A J; Cooper, M D

1988-07-01

365

Reversible Chloramphenicol-Induced Bone Marrow Depression in the Chimpanzee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chloramphenicol administered by intravenous or oral routes at a dose rate of 150 mg/kg/day to a total of 13 chimpanzees caused mild depression of erythrocyte precursors in bone marrow. The drug effect was characterized by a fall in reticulocyte count and ...

P. E. Steffes E. J. Van Loon R. A. Schoentag W. C. Hanly

1970-01-01

366

Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-06-01

367

Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

Cohen, Marie; And Others

1977-01-01

368

Bone Marrow Graft in Man after Conditioning by Antilymphocytic Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic bone marrow grafts carried out after previous administration of antilymphocytic serum alone were attempted in 16 patients. Of these, six had acute myeloblastic leukaemia, four acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and one a blast cell crisis in polycythaemia vera. Ten of these patients were in an overt phase of the disease and resistant to chemotherapy, while nine had complete agranulocytosis. In

G. Mathé; J. L. Amiel; L. Schwarzenberg; J. Choay; P. Trolard; M. Schneider; M. Hayat; J. R. Schlumberger; Cl. Jasmin

1970-01-01

369

A Novel Metric for Bone Marrow Cells Chromosome Pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyotyping is a set of procedures, in the scope of the cytogenetics, that produces a visual representation of the 46 chromosomes observed during the metaphase step of the cellular division, called mitosis, paired and arranged in decreasing order of size. Automatic pairing of bone marrow cells is a difficult task because these chromosomes appear distorted, overlapped, and their images are

Artem Khmelinskii; Rodrigo Ventura; João Sanches

2010-01-01

370

Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis  

SciTech Connect

To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of {gamma}--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD{sub 50} values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

Benko', Klara [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged LtD, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei bld. 98., H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary)

2008-12-08

371

Outcome following late marrow relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.

Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.

1984-10-01

372

Disseminated superficial porokeratosis after autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP) is reported in a black man 5 years after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Porokeratosis is a rare hyperkeratotic disorder arising from clonal keratinocytes with a high potential to develop squamous cell carcinoma. Inherited forms are classical but recent observations of acquired porokeratosis have been reported in immunocompromized patients

B Rio; C Magana; A Le Tourneau; C Bachmeyer; V Lévy; N Hamont; J Diebold; R Zittoun

1997-01-01

373

Thrombocytopenia in Venocciusive Disease After Bone Marrow Transplantation or Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic venocclusive disease (VOD) is a frequent complica- tion of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Analysis of 13 cases observed during a 3-year period in our BMT center shows that VOD is associated with a constant peripheral thrombocytopenia and refractoriness to platelet transfu- sion. These signs appear in the very early stage of VOD, five to ten days before the classical

B. Rio; G. Andreu; A. Nicod; J. P. Arrago; F. Dutrillaux; M. Samama; R. Zittoun

374

Assessment of psychological distress in prospective bone marrow transplant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient psychological distress is associated with many aspects of the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) process and has been linked with poor treatment outcomes. We assessed psychological distress in potential BMT candidates, and compared patient and nurse coordinator ratings of emotional distress at the time of initial BMT consultation. Fifty patients self-reported psychological distress using both the NCCN Distress Thermometer (DT)

PC Trask; A Paterson; M Riba; B Brines; K Griffith; P Parker; J Weick; P Steele; K Kyro; J Ferrara

2002-01-01

375

Central line practice in Canadian blood and marrow transplant.  

PubMed

More than 800 blood cell and bone marrow transplants are performed annually in Canada to treat fatal cancers and rare blood disorders. Central vascular access is fundamental in blood and marrow transplant nursing to facilitate chemotherapy and blood product infusions. A tunnelled Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is the vascular access device-of-choice in the cell and marrow transplant population. Several practice guidelines direct nursing policy and procedure for CVC management and care. CVC insertion and removal guidelines are increasingly relevant given the widening scope of advanced practice nursing. Unresolved issues are noted among the most heavily cited CVC practice recommendations accessible via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A descriptive survey based on the CDC guidelines was conducted to identify potential variability in CVC strategies in Canadian blood and marrow transplant nursing. Survey results indicate nationwide differences in catheter site selection, educational strategies, dressing strategies, delegation of dressing changes, and volumes of flushing and locking solutions used to manage catheter patency. Variability in practice coincides with gaps in the evidence identified in practice recommendations. Future studies comparing specific care approaches to device-associated complications are needed to resolve issues and strengthen practice guidelines. PMID:24902424

Keeler, Melanie

2014-01-01

376

White blood cell detection in bone marrow images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the automatic detection of white blood cells in bone marrow microscopic images. This approach is based on fuzzy techniques with the aim to allow: good processing of both vagueness and indetermination characteristics of this kind of image; and the analysis of monochrome instead of color images. Taking these considerations into account, a very low

P. Sobrevilla; E. Montseny; J. Keller

1999-01-01

377

Marrow Transplantation in Aplastic Anemia: An Animal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of investigations indicate that cyclophosphamide (CY), anti-thymus sera (ATS) and anti-lymphocyte sera (ALS can be used to provide adequate immunosuppression to the busulfan (BU) treated rat so that AgB incompatible marrow grafts may be accept...

G. W. Santos

1972-01-01

378

Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells: Nature, Biology, and Potential Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal cells are progenitors of skeletal tissue components such as bone, cartilage, the hemato- poiesis-supporting stroma, and adipocytes. In addition, they may be experimentally induced to undergo unortho- dox differentiation, possibly forming neural and myogenic cells. As such, they represent an important paradigm of post-natal nonhematopoietic stem cells, and an easy source for potential therapeutic use. Along with

Paolo Bianco; Mara Riminucci; Stan Gronthos; Pamela Gehron Robey

2001-01-01

379

Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to infarct remodelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The paradigm that cardiac myocytes are non-proliferating and terminally differentiated cells has recently been challenged by several studies reporting the ability of bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes. However, these results are controversial and could not be reproduced by others. Therefore, we studied the contribution and potential transdifferentiation of BMC into different cell types during the remodelling

Helge Möllmann; Holger M. Nef; Sawa Kostin; Christof von Kalle; Ingo Pilz; Michael Weber; Jutta Schaper; Christian W. Hamm; Albrecht Elsässer

2006-01-01

380

Nutritional considerations in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation is often associated with multiple organ failure which is usually reversible. Oral mucositis and dysphagia, vomiting, diarrhoea, protein losing enteropathy, transient exocrine pancreatic impairment, hypoalbuminaemia, biochemical trace element and mineral deficiencies are all common following transplantation and have profound nutritional consequences. Malnutrition affects negatively the clinical outcome. Nutritional support is provided to malnourished patients and those who

A Papadopoulou

1998-01-01

381

In vitro preprogramming of marrow stromal cells for myocardial regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We have previously reported that marrow stromal stem cells (MSCs), when implanted into myocardium, can undergo milieu-dependent differentiation to express phenotypes similar to the cells in the immediate microenvironment. We tested the hypothesis that by in vitro preprogramming of MSCs, we may be able to guide their differentiation to express a therapeutically desirable phenotype that is different from those

Bindu Bittira; Jin-Qiang Kuang; Abdulaziz Al-Khaldi; Dominique Shum-Tim; Ray C.-J Chiu

2002-01-01

382

Treatment of solid tumors following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second solid tumors are well known late complications after bone marrow transplantation. Treatment strategies are ill defined. We retrospectively evaluated treatment and outcome in a single institution. From August 1974 to July 1996, six solid tumors were observed in five of 387 patients 2 to 13 years after BMT, corresponding to a probability of developing a second solid tumor of

G Favre-Schmuziger; S Hofer; J Passweg; A Tichelli; T Hoffmann; B Speck; R Herrmann; A Gratwohl

2000-01-01

383

Matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation for combined immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from siblings is the treatment of choice for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of BMT from matched unrelated donors (MUD) in congenital immunodeficiencies when a sibling donor is unavailable. Sixteen consecutive patients with SCID (n = 9) and CID (n = 7), were referred for an unrelated

I Dalal; B Reid; J Doyle; M Freedman; S Calderwood; F Saunders; CM Roifman

2000-01-01

384

Immunocytochemical examination of bone marrow in disseminated neuroblastoma.  

PubMed Central

To assess the usefulness of immunocytochemical analysis of bone marrow in patients with neuroblastoma, marrow smears from 33 staging procedures in 12 patients were examined using an indirect immunoalkaline phosphatase technique with monoclonal antibodies raised against human neural tissue. Marrow aspirate and trephine collagenase digest specimens from individual sites were each tested with the monoclonal antibody UJ13A and with a pool of three related antibodies. The results were compared with morphological assessment of conventionally stained aspirates and trephine specimens taken at the same time. Immunostaining suggested the presence of tumour in seven of 18 staging procedures in which conventional techniques had shown infiltration. Tumour infiltration was also suggested in four of 10 staging procedures with suspicious trephine specimens, but in none of three with relatively innocent histological and cytological features. Immunological investigation provides no additional information about the presence of infiltration if conventional microscopy has shown definite tumour. When histological appearances are suspicious, immunostaining of stored aspirate smears or collagenase digest specimens may provide evidence of infiltration. There are insufficient data to comment on the value of immunostaining when conventional techniques reveal "normal" marrow, but the impression gained from this study is that immunostaining has a limited role in the detection of metastatic neuroblastoma, which yet remains to be defined. Images

Carey, P J; Thomas, L; Buckle, G; Reid, M M

1990-01-01

385

Density Gradient Centrifugation Compromises Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Yield  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) are widely used in regenerative medicine, but recent data suggests that the isolation of BMNCs by commonly used Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation (DGC) causes significant cell loss and influences graft function. The objective of this study was to determine in an animal study whether and how Ficoll-Paque DGC affects the yield and composition of BMNCs compared to alternative isolation methods such as adjusted Percoll DGC or immunomagnetic separation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Each isolation procedure was confounded by a significant loss of BMNCs that was maximal after Ficoll-Paque DGC, moderate after adjusted Percoll DGC and least after immunomagnetic PMN depletion (25.6±5.8%, 51.5±2.3 and 72.3±6.7% recovery of total BMNCs in lysed bone marrow). Interestingly, proportions of BMNC subpopulations resembled those of lysed bone marrow indicating symmetric BMNC loss independent from the isolation protocol. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) content, determined by colony-forming units for granulocytes-macrophages (CFU-GM), was significantly reduced after Ficoll-Paque DGC compared to Percoll DGC and immunomagnetic PMN depletion. Finally, in a proof-of-concept study, we successfully applied the protocol for BMNC isolation by immunodepletion to fresh human bone marrow aspirates. Our findings indicate that the common method to isolate BMNCs in both preclinical and clinical research can be considerably improved by replacing Ficoll-Paque DGC with adapted Percoll DGC, or particularly by immunodepletion of PMNs.

Frohlich, Wenke; Schulz, Isabell

2012-01-01

386

Notch signaling and the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been increased interest in the regulatory interactions between osteoblasts and cells in the surrounding bone marrow microenvironment. The proximity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with osteoblastic cells first suggested regulatory interactions, and recent data have highlighted the role of osteoblastic cells in providing a HSC niche. Reports have indicated that direct contact is necessary to mediate the

Jonathan M. Weber; Laura M. Calvi

2010-01-01

387

Characterization of conditioned medium of cultured bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized that bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation has beneficial effects on spinal cord injury in animal models and therapeutic trials. It is hypothesized that BMSCs provide microenvironments suitable for axonal regeneration and secrete some trophic factors to rescue affected cells from degeneration. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the trophic factors involved remain unclear. In

Norihiko Nakano; Yoshiyasu Nakai; Tae-Boem Seo; Yoshihiro Yamada; Takayuki Ohno; Atsuo Yamanaka; Yoji Nagai; Masanori Fukushima; Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Toshio Nakatani; Chizuka Ide

2010-01-01

388

Efficacy of Amlodipine in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium antagonist amlodipine may have the potential for expanded use in children owing to its physiochemistry and pharmacokinetic profile that facilitates once-daily dosing in a liquid formulation. Its safety and efficacy have not been previously evaluated in children. A retrospective analysis of 15 pediatric bone marrow transplant patients who had amlodipine incorporated into their antihypertensive drug regimen reveals significantly

Sohail Khattak; John W. Rogan; E. Fred Saunders; Jochen G. W. Theis; Gerald S. Arbus; Gideon Koren

1998-01-01

389

Anaplasma platys in Bone Marrow Megakaryocytes of Young Dogs.  

PubMed

Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. In the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors of two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that A. platys can infect megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes. PMID:24622106

De Tommasi, A Sara; Baneth, Gad; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; de Caprariis, Donato

2014-06-01

390

Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented

RG Edwards

2004-01-01

391

Thymus and Bone Marrow Derived Lymphatic Leukaemia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

VERY little information is available concerning the origin of the lymphoid cells of human and animal leukaemias. The lymphoid cell population has been divided into two different functional groups, namely the thymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) mainly involved in cell mediated immunity, and the bone marrow derived lymphocytes (B cells) mediating humoral immunity. These two lymphocyte categories have not been

N. Haran-Ghera; A. Peled

1973-01-01

392

Relapsing lymphomatoid papulosis after allogenic bone-marrow transplant.  

PubMed

Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder in children, which can rarely be associated with a cutaneous or systemic lymphoma. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with typical LyP and pathological features of subtype A. Six months later, the patient presented with rapidly progressive peripheral and systemic lymphadenopathy. On examination of a lymph-node biopsy, a lymphoid infiltrate negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and positive for CD30 was found, suggestive of systemic anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (S-ALCL). The patient was treated with chemotherapy, followed by allogeneic bone-marrow transplant (BMT). Over the following 6 years, she presented with biopsy-confirmed LyP relapses with complete cutaneous, peripheral-blood and bone-marrow chimerism. This is only the third reported paediatric association of S-ALCL with LyP to our knowledge, and seems to be the first paediatric case of recurrent relapses of LyP after bone-marrow allograft for S-ALCL with total (100%) cutaneous and bone-marrow chimerism. LyP occurring after allogenic BMT does not appear to be donor-derived. PMID:24073656

Miquel, J; Vourc'h-Jourdain, M; Thomas, C; Cassagnau, E; Stalder, J-F; Barbarot, S

2013-10-01

393

Systemic aspects of allergic disease: Bone marrow responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with allergic diseases, allergen provocation can activate a systemic response that provokes inflammatory cell production by the bone marrow. After release and differentiation of progenitor cells, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells are typically recruited to tissues in atopic individuals. An understanding at the molecular level of the signaling process that leads to these systemic responses between the target

Judah A. Denburg; Roma Sehmi; Hiroko Saito; Jeong Pil-Seob; Mark D. Inman; Paul M. O’Byrne

2000-01-01

394

Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E-selectin provides an effective approach for tissue-specific drug delivery to the bone marrow. Tumor growth in the bone can be effectively inhibited by blockage of the STAT3 signaling. PMID:24818768

Mai, Junhua; Huang, Yi; Mu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Guodong; Xu, Rong; Guo, Xiaojing; Xia, Xiaojun; Volk, David E; Lokesh, Ganesh L; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2014-08-10

395

Bone marrow angiogenesis and progression in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma plasma cells home and expand in the bone marrow where cause an unbalanced bone remodelling with increased bone resorption and low bone formation that represent the typical feature in the majority of patients. A clinically relevant aspect of the interactions of multiple myeloma plasma cells in the bone marrow microenvironment is neovascularization, a constant hallmark of disease progression. This process is only partially supported by factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 and metalloproteinases, which are directly secreted by the tumor cells. In fact, the presence in the bone marrow microenvironment of cytokines, in particular interleukin-6, as a consequence of plasma cell-stromal cell interactions, induces the production and secretion of angiogenic factors by other cells present in the bone microenvironment, thus contributing to the angiogenic switch during the progression of the disease. Near angiogenesis vasculogenesis occur in the bone marrow of myeloma patients and contribute to the vascular three formation. In the bone marrow of myeloma patients haematopoietic stem cells are recruited and induced to differentiate into endothelial cells by the angiogenic cytokines present in the microenvironment. Myeloma plasma cells also induce angiogenesis indirectly via recruitment and activation of stromal inflammatory cells (i.e.: macrophages and mast cells) to secrete their own angiogenic factors. They are recruited and activated by tumor plasma cells through the secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2, interleukin-8, and other chemokines, such as ITAC, Mig, IP-10. When macrophages and mast cells are activated they secrete their angiogenic factors: fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, which contribute to enhance the tumor neovascularization. Finally, myeloma macrophages when exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 secreted by plasma cells shows vasculogenic ability and acquire endothelial cell markers and transform into cells functionally and phenotypically similar to paired bone marrow endothelial cells. So they participate to the formation of the bone marrow capillary network (vasculogenic mimicry).

Ria, Roberto; Reale, Antonia; De Luisi, Annunziata; Ferrucci, Arianna; Moschetta, Michele; Vacca, Angelo

2011-01-01

396

Effects of a hybrid micro/nanorod topography-modified titanium implant on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin ?1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. Results The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. Conclusion This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo.

Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Zihui; Huang, Qingfeng; Xu, Ling; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Yuqin; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

2013-01-01

397

Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.  

PubMed

Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin

2014-01-01

398

An assessment of bone marrow and bone endosteum dosimetry methods for photon sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rather complex and microscopic histological structure of the skeletal system generally limits one's ability to accurately model this tissue during dosimetric evaluations. Consequently, various assumptions must be made to evaluate the absorbed dose from external and internal photons to the radiosensitive tissues of the red (or haematopoietically active) bone marrow and the osteogenic tissues of the skeletal endosteum. These various methods for photon skeletal dosimetry have not been inter-compared, partly due to the lack of a realistic reference model that can provide a high-resolution three-dimensional geometry for secondary electron particle transport. In the present study, the paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model developed by Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 45 344) was utilized to evaluate the absorbed dose per incident photon fluence to these skeletal regions from idealized parallel beams of monoenergetic photons. The PIRT model results were then used as a local reference against which absorbed doses via other methods were compared. For red bone marrow dosimetry, four approximate techniques were considered: (1) the dose response function method (DRF method) presented in ORNL/TM-8381, (2) the mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio method (two-parameter MEAC method), (3) the MEAC method with the additional use of energy-dependent dose enhancement factors from King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345) (three-parameter MEAC method), and (4) the three-parameter MEAC method applied at the voxel level through the use image-specific CT numbers (CTN method). For the bone endosteum (i.e., bone surfaces), two approximate techniques were compared: (1) the DRF method for bone surfaces and (2) the homogeneous bone approximation (HBA) method. In each case, the local reference standard was assumed to be that of the PIRT model. Four different ex vivo bone specimens with distinctively different internal structures were used in the study: the cranium, the lumbar vertebra, the os coxae and the left middle rib, each excised from a 66 year male cadaver (body mass index, 22.7 kg m-2). High-resolution CT images of these skeletal sites were used to construct computational voxel models for Monte Carlo radiation transport. Study results indicated that skeletal sites with thick cortical regions and thick trabeculae such as in the cranium provide considerable beam attenuation at low photon energies, which is not properly accounted for in methods based on a homogeneous skeletal tissue structure (DRF, MEAC, HBA). For bone marrow dose assessment, the CTN method showed the best agreement with PIRT model results over a broad range of photon energies, while the HBA method showed better agreement with the PIRT model in assessing bone endosteum dose at energies above 100 keV. Bone surface doses were better approximately by the DRF method at energies below 50 keV. Considerable secondary electron escape at photon energies over 1-3 MeV were accounted for in RBM dose assessment only in the PIRT model, as the other methods presume either an infinite expanse of spongiosa (DRF) or the existence of charge-particle equilibrium (MEAC, CTN).

Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Shah, Amish P.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2006-11-01

399

High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient.

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.

2013-01-01

400

Improved Functional Activity of Bone Marrow Derived Circulating Progenitor Cells After Intra Coronary Freshly Isolated Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  There is growing evidence that intracoronary autologous bone marrow cells transplantation (BMCs-Tx) in patients with chronic\\u000a myocardial infarction beneficially affects postinfarction remodelling. In this randomized controlled study we analyzed the\\u000a influence of intracoronary autologous freshly isolated bone marrow cells transplantation by use of point of care system on\\u000a cardiac function and on the functional activity of bone marrow derived circulating

R. Goekmen Turan; I. Bozdag-T; J. Ortak; S. Kische; I. Akin; H. Schneider; C. H. Turan; T. C. Rehders; M. Rauchhaus; T. Kleinfeldt; C. Belu; M. Brehm; S. Yokus; S. Steiner; K. Sahin; C. A. Nienaber; H. Ince

2011-01-01

401

Red giants: then and now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ?sh/?olinec and ?sh·?olinec prove to be important self-consistently derived quantities. I present some striking, explicit, asymptotic analytical theorems and results involving these quantities. Perhaps the most astonishingly unexpected and gratifying single result is this: for the very value Nature gives us for the relevant temperature exponent (?=15; CNO cycle) for nuclear-energy generation, ?sh and ?olinec behave in a well defined, precisely inverse manner for a given value of core-mass, Mc. This emphasizes that the internal behaviour of such stars is definitely anti-homologous rather than homologous: dense cores physically promote diffuse surrounding envelopes. I also extend the ideas yet further in a way which (I) links the structural and evolutionary behaviour of stars from the main sequence through horizontal-branch phases of evolution, and (II) also has implications for post-main-sequence developments in more massive stars. The end results is that the post-main-sequence developments of all stars - low-mass, intermediate-mass, and high-mass - as they expand to become giants, are finally seen to be examples of one underpinning fact: that dense cores with this surrounding shells naturally follow hydrogen exhaustion. While "this has been know all along" from oft-repeated computer calculations, we now know why analytically. That matters to true theorists. What follows is a requested, much expanded version of my Cambridge talk.

Faulkner, John

402

Involvement of subchondral bone marrow in rheumatoid arthritis: Lymphoid neogenesis and in situ relationship to subchondral bone marrow osteoclast recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the presence and immuno- histochemical characteristics of subchondral bone mar- row inflammatory infiltrate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the in situ relationship between marrow inflammation and osteoclast recruitment. Methods. Bone samples and paired synovia from 8 RA patients undergoing joint surgery were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for specific lymphoid neogenetic features, such

Serena Bugatti; Roberto Caporali; Antonio Manzo; Barbara Vitolo; Costantino Pitzalis; Carlomaurizio Montecucco

2005-01-01

403

Differential diagnosis of focal and diffuse neoplastic diseases of bone marrow in MRI.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of malignant disease in the bone marrow. Compared to bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, MRI is noninvasive and provides information by sampling a large volume of bone marrow. Due to disease-related alterations in the composition of bone marrow, MRI provides a very high sensitivity, but lacks specificity for most bone marrow disorders. However, MRI can be a very valuable diagnostic tool properly placed within the clinical context. PMID:15950098

Nöbauer, Iris; Uffmann, Martin

2005-07-01

404

Water masers in red supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of long-term monitoring of circumstellar water maser sources in red supergiants are reviewed. The observations were carried out in 1980-2006 on the RT-22 radio telescope at Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. We discuss the results for the semiregular variable M-supergiant VX Sgr and non-variable M-supergiant IRC-10414. In addition to our single-dish data, very-long-baseline interferometry results are invoked. VX Sgr and IRC-10414 display a characteristic water line profile, which suggests the presence of a rotating circumstellar disc and a bipolar outflow.

Pashchenko, M. I.; Rudnitskij, G. M.; Samodurov, V. A.; Tolmachev, A. M.

2006-10-01

405

Red facts: Dibromodicyanobutane. Fact sheet  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2780, dibromodicyanobutane. Dibromodicyanobutane (1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane) is a microbiocide/microbiostat used to control slime-forming bacteria and fungi in commercial/industrial water cooling systems (recirculating), oil recovery drilling muds/packer fluids, pulp/paper mill water systems, secondary oil recovery rejection water, industrial adhesives and coatings, resin/latex/polymer emulsions, metalworking cutting fluids, paints, specialty industrial products (including fiber processing fluids, waxes, polishes, and inks), and wet-end additives/industrial processing chemicals.

NONE

1996-06-01

406

The binding of Ruthenium red to tubulin.  

PubMed

The inhibition of microtubule assembly by Ruthenium red (Deinum, J., Wallin, M., Kanje, M. and Lagercrantz, C. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 675, 209-213) could be counteracted by either taxol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Ruthenium red remained bound to the assembled microtubules. Microtubules assembled in the presence of Ruthenium red and taxol showed the typical taxol-dependent stability. The dimethyl sulfoxide-induced microtubules showed normal assembly characteristics, e.g., were GTP dependent, could be disassembled by cold, colchicine and Ca2+ and had no alterations in ultrastructure. The absolute disassembly induced by Ca2+ in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and Ruthenium red was dependent on the microtubule protein concentration, but independent in the absence of Ruthenium red. Ruthenium red was strongly bound to purified tubulin also in the presence of 8% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide. The dimethyl sulfoxide-induced assembly of purified tubulin in the presence of Ruthenium red was slightly stimulated, although the critical protein concentration was the same. It was found by resonance Raman spectroscopy with a flow technique that Ruthenium red did not bind to a specific calcium binding site on tubulin, although binding to a GTP binding site cannot be excluded. The wavenumbers of the lines in the region 375-500 cm-1 differ from those found for Ruthenium red bound to typical calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin. Although Ruthenium red binds to serum albumin as well, the spectrum with albumin resembled that of the free dye. PMID:2578824

Deinum, J; Wallin, M; Jensen, P W

1985-02-15

407

Bone marrow-on-a-chip replicates hematopoietic niche physiology in vitro.  

PubMed

Current in vitro hematopoiesis models fail to demonstrate the cellular diversity and complex functions of living bone marrow; hence, most translational studies relevant to the hematologic system are conducted in live animals. Here we describe a method for fabricating 'bone marrow-on-a-chip' that permits culture of living marrow with a functional hematopoietic niche in vitro by first engineering new bone in vivo, removing it whole and perfusing it with culture medium in a microfluidic device. The engineered bone marrow (eBM) retains hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in normal in vivo-like proportions for at least 1 week in culture. eBM models organ-level marrow toxicity responses and protective effects of radiation countermeasure drugs, whereas conventional bone marrow culture methods do not. This biomimetic microdevice offers a new approach for analysis of drug responses and toxicities in bone marrow as well as for study of hematopoiesis and hematologic diseases in vitro. PMID:24793454

Torisawa, Yu-suke; Spina, Catherine S; Mammoto, Tadanori; Mammoto, Akiko; Weaver, James C; Tat, Tracy; Collins, James J; Ingber, Donald E

2014-06-01

408

Consequences of irradiation on bone and marrow phenotypes, and its relation to disruption of hematopoietic precursors.  

PubMed

The rising levels of radiation exposure, specifically for medical treatments and accidental exposures, have added great concern for the long term risks of bone fractures. Both the bone marrow and bone architecture are devastated following radiation exposure. Even sub-lethal doses cause a deficit to the bone marrow microenvironment, including a decline in hematopoietic cells, and this deficit occurs in a dose dependent fashion. Certain cell phenotypes though are more susceptible to radiation damage, with mesenchymal stem cells being more resilient than the hematopoietic stem cells. The decline in total bone marrow hematopoietic cells is accompanied with elevated adipocytes into the marrow cavity, thereby inhibiting hematopoiesis and recovery of the bone marrow microenvironment. Poor bone marrow is also associated with a decline in bone architectural quality. Therefore, the ability to maintain the bone marrow microenvironment would hinder much of the trabecular bone loss caused by radiation exposure, ultimately decreasing some comorbidities in patients exposed to radiation. PMID:24607941

Green, Danielle E; Rubin, Clinton T

2014-06-01

409

Still from Red Spot Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

410

Corneal Myofibroblast Generation From Bone Marrow-derived Cells  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone marrow-derived cells can differentiate into myofibroblasts, as defined by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression, that arise in the corneal stroma after irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy and whose presence within the cornea is associated with corneal stromal haze. C57BL/6J-GFP chimeric mice were generated through bone marrow transplantation from donor mice that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a high proportion of their bone marrow-derived cells. Twenty-four GFP chimeric mice underwent haze-generating corneal epithelial scrape followed by irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with an excimer laser in one eye. Mice were euthanized at 2 weeks or 4 weeks after PTK and the treated and control contralateral eyes were removed and cryo-preserved for sectioning for immunocytochemistry. Double immunocytochemistry for GFP and myofibroblast marker alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) were performed and the number of SMA+GFP+, SMA+GFP?, SMA?GFP+ and SMA?GFP? cells, as well as the number of DAPI+ cell nuclei, per 400X field of stroma was determined in the central, mid-peripheral and peri-limbal cornea. In this mouse model, there were no SMA+ cells and only a few GFP+ cells detected in unwounded control corneas. No SMA+ cells were detected in the stroma at two weeks after irregular PTK, even though there were numerous GFP+ cells present. At 4 weeks after irregular PTK, all corneas developed mild to moderately severe corneal haze. In each of the three regions of the corneas examined, there were on average more than 9X more SMA+GFP+ than SMA+GFP? myofibroblasts. This difference was significant (p <0.01). There were significantly more (p <0.01) SMA?GFP+ cells, which likely include inflammatory cells, than SMA+GFP+ or SMA+GFP? cells, although SMA?GFP? cells represent the largest population of cells in the corneas. In this mouse model, the majority of myofibroblasts developed from bone marrow-derived cells. It is possible that all myofibroblasts in these animals developed from bone marrow-derived cells since mouse chimeras produced using this method had only 60% to 95% of bone marrow-derived cells that were GFP+ and it is not possible to achieve 100% chimerization. This model, therefore, cannot exclude the possibility of myofibroblasts also developed from keratocytes and/or corneal fibroblasts.

Barbosa, Flavia L.; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Cutler, Alicia; Asosingh, Kewal; Kaur, Harmet; de Medeiros, Fabricio W.; Agrawal, Vandana; Wilson, Steven E.

2010-01-01

411

Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca{sup 2+} levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions.

Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Nakamura, Kyoko [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Iesaki, Takafumi [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

2012-07-13

412

Active Queue Management using Adaptive RED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Random,Early Detection (RED) [1] is an active queue management,scheme,which has been deployed extensively to reduce packet loss during congestion. Although RED can improve loss rates, its performance,depends severely on the tuning of its operating parameters. The idea of adaptively varying RED parameters to suit the network conditions has been investigated in [2], where the maximum packet dropping probability maxp

Rahul Verma; Aravind Iyer; Abhay Karandikar

2002-01-01

413

Aplanktonic zones in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use micropalaeontological and stable isotope results for a series of cores from north to south through the Red Sea, to assess temporal and spatial patterns of change in planktonic foraminiferal faunas leading up to the remarkable full-glacial Red Sea aplanktonic zones. Aplanktonic zones reflect salinities in the Red Sea in excess of the lethal 49p.s.u. limit, caused by reduced

M. Fenton; S. Geiselhart; E. J. Rohling; Ch. Hemleben

2000-01-01

414

Concise review: bone marrow autotransplants for liver disease?  

PubMed

There are increasing reports of using bone marrow-derived stem cells to treat advanced liver disease. We consider several critical issues that underlie this approach. For example, are there multipotent stem cell populations in human adult bone marrow? Can they develop into liver cells or supporting cell types? What are stromal stem/progenitor cells, and can they promote tissue repair without replacing hepatocytes? Does reversal of end-stage liver disease require new hepatocytes, a new liver microenvironment, both, neither or something else? Although many of these questions are unanswered, we consider the conceptual and experimental bases underlying these issues and critically analyze results of clinical trials of stem cell therapy of end-stage liver disease. PMID:23939914

Saramipoor Behbahan, Iman; Keating, Armand; Gale, Robert Peter

2013-11-01

415

Risk of donor lymphocyte infusions following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Clinical data so far suggest that the resistance to induction of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) by donor lymphocyte infusions is less prominent in allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients than indicated by the limited results of experimental studies in animals published many years ago. To confirm this apparent discrepancy, graded numbers of donor type splenocytes were given at various intervals after bone marrow transplantation to mouse radiation chimeras. The results were closely similar to the previously published data, in that the chimeras developed a high degree of tolerance, equivalent to 2-3 log protection. It was also observed that this tolerance can be broken by prior treatment with a lethal dose of cyclophosphamide. It is postulated that the leukemic cells in relapsed patients reduce the suppressor cell population that is responsible for the resistance to re-induction of GVHD. PMID:9197324

van Bekkum, D W; Kinwel-Bohré, E P

1997-06-01

416

Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages accumulate in the human bone marrow.  

PubMed

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites requires formation and development of gametocytes, yet all but the most mature of these sexual parasite forms are absent from the blood circulation. We performed a systematic organ survey in pediatric cases of fatal malaria to characterize the spatial dynamics of gametocyte development in the human host. Histological studies revealed a niche in the extravascular space of the human bone marrow where gametocytes formed in erythroid precursor cells and underwent development before reentering the circulation. Accumulation of gametocytes in the hematopoietic system of human bone marrow did not rely on cytoadherence to the vasculature as does sequestration of asexual-stage parasites. This suggests a different mechanism for the sequestration of gametocytes that could potentially be exploited to block malaria transmission. PMID:25009232

Joice, Regina; Nilsson, Sandra K; Montgomery, Jacqui; Dankwa, Selasi; Egan, Elizabeth; Morahan, Belinda; Seydel, Karl B; Bertuccini, Lucia; Alano, Pietro; Williamson, Kim C; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Taylor, Terrie E; Milner, Danny A; Marti, Matthias

2014-07-01

417

Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

1984-08-01

418

Receptor Editing in Self-reactive Bone Marrow B Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary A central paradigm of immunology is clonal selection: lymphocytes displaying clonally distributed antigen receptors are generated and subsequently selected by antigen for growth or elimination. Here we show that in mice transgenic for anti-H-2Kk,b antibody genes, in which a homogeneous clone of developing B cells can be analyzed for the outcome of autoantigen encounter, surface immunoglobulin M+/idiotype+ immature B cells binding to self-antigens in the bone marrow are induced to alter the specificity of their antigen receptors. Transgenic bone marrow B cells encountering membrane-bound Kb or Kk proteins modify their receptors by expressing the V(D)J recombinase activator genes and assembling endogenously encoded immunoglobulin light chain variable genes. This (auto)antigen-directed change in the specificity of newly generated lymphocytes is termed receptor editing.

Tiegs, Susan L.; Russell, David M.; Nemazee, David

2013-01-01

419

Receptor editing in self-reactive bone marrow B cells  

PubMed Central

A central paradigm of immunology is clonal selection: lymphocytes displaying clonally distributed antigen receptors are generated and subsequently selected by antigen for growth or elimination. Here we show that in mice transgenic for anti-H-2Kk,b antibody genes, in which a homogeneous clone of developing B cells can be analyzed for the outcome of autoantigen encounter, surface immunoglobulin M+/idiotype+ immature B cells binding to self-antigens in the bone marrow are induced to alter the specificity of their antigen receptors. Transgenic bone marrow B cells encountering membrane-bound Kb or Kk proteins modify their receptors by expressing the V(D)J recombinase activator genes and assembling endogenously encoded immunoglobulin light chain variable genes. This (auto)antigen-directed change in the specificity of newly generated lymphocytes is termed receptor editing.

1993-01-01

420

Adult bone marrow stem cells in cartilage therapy.  

PubMed

Cartilage defect rarely heals spontaneously since cartilage tissue is poorly vascularized and the lesion usually does not penetrate to subchondral bone, and hence it does not have access to progenitor cells of bone marrow. Severe cartilage damage may lead to osteoarthritis (OA). Current surgical and non-surgical therapeutic interventions in OA are limited to symptom relief and/or repair of focal lesion, and later a total knee replacement is still necessary. Cell therapy with chondrocyte implantation requires healthy cartilage for donor of the cells. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage. They can readily be isolated from bone marrow as well as many other adult tissues and have an extensive proliferation capacity. Therefore, MSCs may offer a great potential to be developed as an alternative for cell-based articular cartilage therapy. PMID:22451188

Lubis, Andri Mt; Lubis, Vita K

2012-01-01

421

Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

1997-01-01

422

Prospective study of renal insufficiency after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since more and more children survive allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), knowledge of acute and late complications becomes increasingly important. Besides the major complications [(opportunistic) infections, veno-occlusive disease, graft versus host disease, and recurrence of primary disease], acute and chronic renal insufficiency are significant post-transplant complications that may contribute to transplant-related mortality. To elucidate risk factors for acute and chronic

Joana E. Kist-van Holthe; Charlotte A. Goedvolk; Ronald Brand; Margreet H. van Weel; Robbert G. M. Bredius; Jacques A. van Oostayen; Jacques M. J. J. Vossen; Bert J. van der Heijden

2002-01-01

423

Pancytopenia after allogeneic bone marrow transplant due to copper deficiency.  

PubMed

Pancytopenia occurring 1 year or later after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation typically prompts a primary consideration for relapse. We present the case of a 15-year old-girl who underwent transplantation for therapy-related myelodysplasia secondary to Ewing sarcoma treatment who developed pancytopenia with myelodysplasia 1 year after transplant due to copper deficiency. Copper deficiency is an important consideration in the evaluation of pancytopenia and myelodysplasia in pediatric patients. PMID:23652881

Hudspeth, Michelle; Turner, Amy; Miller, Nicole; Lazarchick, John

2014-05-01

424

Catecholamines in murine bone marrow derived mast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) were found to store high levels of dopamine (3753±844 pg\\/107 cells) and occasionally produce norepinephrine and epinephrine. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor, ?-methyl-para-tyrosine, decreased intracellular catecholamine concentrations, and activation with ionomycin stimulated dopamine release. Neither dopaminergic receptor antagonists nor exogenous dopamine ?10 ?M affected IL-3-induced cell proliferation. High exogenous dopamine (20–100 ?M) decreased

Jessica G Freeman; John J Ryan; Christopher P Shelburne; Daniel P Bailey; L. Andrew Bouton; Nedathur Narasimhachari; Jos Domen; Nathalie Siméon; François Couderc; Jennifer K Stewart

2001-01-01

425

Bone marrow–derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that transplantation of adult bone marrow–derived cells expressing c-kit reduces hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced pancreatic damage. Although quantitative analysis of the pancreas revealed a low frequency of donor insulin-positive cells, these cells were not present at the onset of blood glucose reduction. Instead, the majority of transplanted cells were localized to ductal and islet structures, and their

David Hess; Li Li; Matthew Martin; Seiji Sakano; David Hill; Brenda Strutt; Sandra Thyssen; Douglas A Gray; Mickie Bhatia

2003-01-01

426

Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe form of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I) usually leads to death early in life. Allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation is the only cure. Unrelated transplantation has been reported only once. We describe three children with LAD-I transplanted with T cell non-depleted bone marrow from unrelated HLA-matched donors. All patients engrafted, one of them at second transplant. One patient developed

NJ Farinha; M Duval; E Wagner; J Champagne; N Lapointe; S Barrette; B Tapiero; L Busque; MA Champagne

2002-01-01

427

Multiple autoimmune events after autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 36-year-old woman with RAEB-t and severe bone marrow fibrosis undergoing autologous BMT, developed a histologically documented GVHD-like skin rash. Thereafter, autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune hemolytic anemia and a lupus anti-coagulant (LAC) were diagnosed. The patient is still alive, symptom-free and in first complete remission (CR); however, all of the autoantibodies are still detectable, with the exception

G Lambertenghi Deliliers; C Annaloro; A Della Volpe; A Oriani; E Pozzoli; D Soligo

1997-01-01

428

Successful unrelated bone marrow transplantation for Shwachman–Diamond syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-year-old boy with Shwachman–Diamond syndrome underwent unrelated HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation for severe pancytopenia. Conditioning was with busulfan, thiotepa and cyclophosphamide plus rabbit anti-lymphocyte serum. Engraftment for neutrophils and platelets was observed on days +18 and +41, respectively. Transplant-related side-effects were mild and transient. After a follow-up of 32 months, the patient is alive and enjoys a normal life,

S Cesaro; G Guariso; E Calore; MV Gazzola; R Destro; S Varotto; L Zanesco; C Messina

2001-01-01

429

Impaired pulmonary immunity post-bone marrow transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious complications are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation\\u000a (HSCT), and the lung is a particular target organ post-transplant. Our laboratory has used a murine bone marrow transplant\\u000a model to study alterations in immunity that occur as a result of transplantation. Our studies focus on immune responses that\\u000a occur following immune cell reconstitution in

Stephanie M. Coomes; Leah L. N. Hubbard; Bethany B. Moore

2011-01-01

430

Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg\\/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were

R. Cadossi; P. Zucchini; G. Emilia; G. Torelli

1990-01-01

431

Proliferation of human hematopoietic bone marrow cells in simulated microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Expansion and\\/or maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) potential following in vitro culture remains a major obstacle\\u000a in stem cell biology and bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Several studies suggest that culture of mammalian cells in microgravity\\u000a (?-g) may reduce proliferation and differentiation of these cells. We investigated the application of these findings to the\\u000a field of stem cell biology in

P. Artur Plett; Stacy M. Frankovitz; Rafat Abonour; Christie M. Orschell-Traycoff

2001-01-01

432

Increased bone marrow angiogenesis in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that angiogenesis may be involved in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, apart from its well-characterized role in the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. In this study, we quantified the degree of angiogenesis in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) by measuring the microvessel density and hotspot density in bone marrow trephine biopsy sections with B-CLL

AR Kini; NE Kay; LC Peterson; LAC Peterson

2000-01-01

433

Molecular and functional characterization of human bone marrow adipocytes.  

PubMed

Adipocytes are a cell population largely located in the human bone marrow cavity. In this specific microenvironment where adipocytes can interact with a variety of different cells, the role of fat is mainly unknown. To our knowledge, this report is the first to characterize mature adipocytes isolated from human bone marrow (BM-A) molecularly and functionally to better understand their roles into the hematopoietic microenvironment. Healthy BM-A were isolated after collagenase digestion and filtration. We studied the morphology of BM-A, their gene expression and immunophenotypic profile and their functional ability in the hematopoietic microenvironment, comparing them with adipocytes derived from adipose tissue (AT-A). BM-A showed a unilocular lipid morphology similar to AT-A and did not lose their morphology in culture; they showed a comparable pattern of stem cell-surface antigens to AT-A. In line with these observations, molecular data showed that BM-A expressed some embryonic stem cells genes, such as Oct4, KLf4, c-myc, Gata4, Tbx1, and Sox17, whereas they did not express the stem cell markers Sox2 and Nanog. Moreover, BM-A had long telomeres that were similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Notably, BM-A supported the survival and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in long-term cultures. These results showed that BM-A are stromal cells with a gene expression pattern that distinguished them from AT-A. BM-A showed stem cell properties through their hematopoietic supporting function, which was certainly linked to their role in the maintenance of the bone marrow microenvironment. Depending on specific demands, BM-A may acquire different functions based on their local environment. PMID:23435314

Poloni, Antonella; Maurizi, Giulia; Serrani, Federica; Mancini, Stefania; Zingaretti, Maria Cristina; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Olivieri, Attilio; Leoni, Pietro

2013-06-01

434

Increased CD133 expression in bone marrow of myelodysplastic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh frozen bone marrow biopsies were evaluated immunohistochemically, applying monoclonal antibodies against CD31, CD34, VEGFR-2 and CD133, a novel marker identifying human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Specimens of 51 patients diagnosed with MDS were compared with 16 AML and 18 controls. The percentage of CD34 expressing cells was increased and CD31 expression was decreased in advanced stages of MDS compared

J. Auberger; M. Dlaska; T. Auberger; E. Gunsilius; E. Wöll; W. Hilbe

2005-01-01

435

Severe canine hereditary hemolytic anemia treated by nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe hemolytic anemia in Basenji dogs secondary to pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency can be corrected by marrow allografts from healthy littermates after a conventional high-dose myeloablative conditioning regimen. The nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen used here, which consisted of a sublethal dose of 200 cGy total body irradiation before and immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine after a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical

J. Maciej Zaucha; Cong Yu; Clinton D Lothrop; Richard A Nash; George Sale; George Georges; Hans-Peter Kiem; Glenn P Niemeyer; Marc Dufresne; Qiongfang Cao; Rainer Storb

2001-01-01

436

The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

1991-01-01

437

L-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester treatment of canine marrow and peripheral blood cells: Inhibition of proliferative responses with maintenance of the capacity for autologous marrow engraftment  

SciTech Connect

The success of allogeneic marrow transplantation as treatment for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases has been restricted by the serious complications of graft-versus-host disease. Experiments in a variety of mammalian marrow transplant models have shown that removal of mature T cells from donor marrow permits engraftment without the development of GVHD. Incubation of canine marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester resulted in the inhibition of mitogen-and alloantigen induced blastogenesis, the elimination of allosensitized Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte and Natural Killer activity, and prevented the development of CTL from pCTL. The effects of these incubations were similar to those described in mice and humans. Additionally, in vitro CFU-GM growth from treated canine marrow was reduced, but could be regained when the Leu-Leu-OMe-treated marrow was cocultured with either untreated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte-enriched PBMC but not with untreated monocyte-depleted PBMC. Six of seven dogs conditioned with 920 cGy total-body irradiation engrafted successfully after receiving autologous marrow that was incubated with Leu-Leu-OMe prior to infusion. These cumulative results indicate that incubation with Leu-Leu-OMe is a feasible method to deplete canine marrows of alloreactive and cytotoxic T cells prior to transplantation.

Raff, R.F.; Severns, E.; Storb, R.; Martin, P.; Graham, T.

1988-11-01

438

Peripheral blood stem cell donation: an analysis from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donation-related data for 1488 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplants reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) or the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group (EBMT) by 152 teams worldwide between 1994 and 1998 were reviewed. In 1998, 26% of allografts registered with the IBMTR were collected from blood. Median age of PBSC donors was 38 years

P Anderlini; JD Rizzo; ML Nugent; N Schmitz; RE Champlin; MM Horowitz

2001-01-01

439

Increase of bone marrow lymphocytes in systemic mastocytosis: reactive lymphocytosis or malignant lymphoma? Immunohistochemical and molecular findings on routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To clarify the nature (reactive or neoplastic) of lesional, perifocally aggregated lymphocytes in bone marrow infiltrates of systemic mastocytosis (SM), the histopathology of which can resemble malignant lymphoma with focal bone marrow involvement, particularly low grade malignant B cell lymphoma of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma subtype, which frequently exhibits increased mast cell (MC) numbers.Methods: Thirteen cases of SM and three of

H-P Horny; K Lange; K Sotlar; P Valent

2003-01-01

440

Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

441

Breast Cancer Studies Raise Doubts Over Bone Marrow Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 15, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released long-awaited preliminary results of five studies on bone marrow transplants for women with advanced breast cancer. Considered a last resort, the painful and costly procedure involves ultrahigh doses of chemotherapy which destroy the patient's bone marrow which must then be replaced by a transplant or marrow-restoring stem cells. Four of the five studies found no difference in survival rates of patients who had high-dose chemotherapy with transplants, and those who had lower doses of chemotherapy. The fifth study, from South Africa, did find a benefit for women with positive lymph nodes. Critics of the transplant therapy argue that the studies show thousands of women have needlessly undergone excruciating and expensive procedures. However, because the five studies are so different, attacking tumors in different ways and involving women in different stages of breast cancer, the NCI and others have asserted that this is far from the last word on the subject, and the NCI has plans to fund fifteen additional studies. The sites listed provide information about breast cancer treatments.

De Nie, Michael W.

1999-01-01

442

Movement of Thorotrast aggregates in the bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

A thorough time study, morphologic and autoradiographic, concerning the movement of thorium dioxide in time, based on bone marrow from corpses of Thorotrast-injected people has been done. The fragments have been taken from bone marrow of the femur and bone marrow together with bone tissue from other bones. The time elapsed since injection and death went from 1 day to 40 years. It is concluded that in the beginning the thorium has a uniform distribution and about 7 months later it constitutes aggregates of various sizes that tend to reunite themselves in great groups. It is also concluded that Thorotrast, whether forming aggregates or not, has a movement towards the bone trabeculae. In the liver and spleen the explanation of the movements of the aggregates was very simple. The thorium follows the lymphatic pathways towards the hilum. It is thought that in the bone other conditions prevail that are not of hydraulic order but interfere with others of a special physical order. It has been found by chance a small osteolytic sarcoma in the compact of a sternum.

da Silva Horta, J.; Moura Nunes, J.

1979-02-01

443

Mobilised bone marrow-derived cells accelerate wound healing.  

PubMed

Massive skin defects caused by severe burn and trauma are a clinical challenge to surgeons. Timely and effective wound closure is often hindered by the lack of skin donor site. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to 'differentiate' into multiple tissue cells. In this study we focused on the direct manipulation of endogenous BMDCs, avoiding the immunocompatibility issues and complicated cell isolation, purification, identification and amplification procedures in vitro on wound repair. We found that mobilisation of the BMDCs into the circulation significantly increased the amount of BMDCs at the injury site which in turn accelerated healing of large open wound. We used a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model to track BMDCs and to investigate their role in full-thickness skin excisional wounds. We have shown that bone marrow mobilisation by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) exerted multiple beneficial effects on skin repair, both by increasing the engraftment of BMDCs into the skin to differentiate into multiple skin cell types and by upregulating essential cytokine mRNAs critical to wound repair. The potential trophic effects of G-CSF on bone marrow stem cells to accelerate wound healing could have a significant clinical impact. PMID:22734442

Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Shi-Zhao; Han, Shu; Xia, Zhao-Fan

2013-08-01

444

Hepatosplenic candidiasis--a contraindication to marrow transplantation?  

PubMed

To determine whether a prior history of hepatosplenic candidiasis resulted in increased Candida-associated morbidity and mortality after marrow transplant, 15 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven hepatosplenic candidiasis were observed prospectively. All patients received amphotericin B before transplant. Amphotericin B was continued at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day from conditioning through marrow engraftment, at which time it was discontinued if computerized tomography (CT) evidence of disease was stable or improved. Patients were observed for progression of candidiasis for the first 100 days after transplant. The amount and duration of antifungal therapy received before transplant varied widely. The majority of patients (73%) had persistently abnormal CT scans before transplant. After transplant, 3 of 15 died (20%) with evidence of fungal disease, although fungal species differed from those diagnosed pretransplant, compared with a historical mortality rate of 90% in posttransplant patients with documented hepatosplenic candida. Comparison CT scans obtained before and after transplant showed improvement in 9 of 15 (60%), complete resolution in 2 of 15 (13%), and none showed progression. We conclude that hepatosplenic candidiasis is not an absolute contraindication to marrow transplant when patients receive amphotericin B therapy before transplant and continue therapy until engraftment is established. PMID:7919390

Bjerke, J W; Meyers, J D; Bowden, R A

1994-10-15

445

Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. (Univ. di Modena (Italy))

1990-02-26

446

T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

1999-01-01

447

Gastrointestinal and nutritional sequelae of bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

The nature of the gastrointestinal injury following bone marrow transplantation and its clinical and nutritional sequelae are poorly defined. Prospective assessments of gastrointestinal function, nutritional status, and wellbeing were therefore carried out in 47 consecutive patients (28 males, 19 females; mean age 8.4 years) undergoing bone marrow transplant. 31 diarrhoeal episodes (median duration 9.5 days) occurred in 27 patients at a median of 10 days after transplantation. Ninety one per cent of episodes were associated with protein losing enteropathy. Protein losing enteropathy was more severe in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) comparing with other causes. It led to a substantial fall in serum albumin and there was a negative correlation between faecal alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrations and serum albumin. Transient pancreatic insufficiency developed in 18 patients, and pancreatitis in one. Intestinal permeability was normal in 12 patients who had no diarrhoea during the conditioning treatments. Diarrhoeal patients had a significantly greater decrease in nutritional status and wellbeing than patients without diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal injury following bone marrow transplantation is thus complex. Severe protein losing enteropathy in this context suggests the presence of GVHD.

Papadopoulou, A; Lloyd, D R; Williams, M D; Darbyshire, P J; Booth, I W

1996-01-01

448

Early and late bone-marrow changes after irradiation: MR evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the chronologic evolution of bone-marrow changes during and after radiation therapy is essential in differentiating normal postradiation changes from other marrow abnormalities. The appearance of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow was studied on 55 serial spin-echo and short-T1 inversion-recovery (STIR) MR images obtained in 14 patients receiving radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease, seminoma, or prostate carcinoma. Images were obtained before, at weekly intervals during, and at various monthly intervals up to 14 months after a 3- to 6-week course of fractionated paravertebral lymph-node irradiation of 1500-5000 rad (15-50 Gy). During the first 2 weeks of therapy, there was no definite change in the appearance of the marrow on spin-echo images; however, there was an increase in signal intensity on the STIR images, apparently reflecting early marrow edema and necrosis. Between weeks 3 and 6, the marrow showed an increasingly heterogenous signal and prominence of the signal from central marrow fat, shown best on T1-weighted images. Late marrow patterns (6 weeks to 14 months after therapy) varied and consisted of either homogenous fatty replacement or a band pattern of peripheral intermediate signal intensity, possibly representing hematopoietic marrow surrounding the central marrow fat. No focal marrow lesions or soft-tissue edema were identified during the course of radiation therapy; their presence should raise the possibility of the presence of a pathologic process other than radiation change. These data suggest that MR can detect radiation-induced marrow changes as early as 2 weeks after starting therapy, and that there are at least two distinct types of late marrow MR patterns.

Stevens, S.K.; Moore, S.G.; Kaplan, I.D. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (USA))

1990-04-01

449

Both bone marrow- and non-bone marrow-associated factors determine susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of BUF and WAG rats.  

PubMed

To determine the feasibility of treatment with allogeneic bone marrow for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we investigated the susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of bone marrow chimeras using BUF, (WAG X BUF)F1 (high responder), and WAG (low responder) rats. In contrast to previous studies in which other rat strains were used, the response was largely determined by the genotype of the grafted bone marrow, but the influence of a non-bone marrow-associated factor was evident. The latter factor was identified as a low corticosterone response in BUF rats and a high corticosterone response in WAG rats. After adrenalectomy, a significant proportion of WAG rats developed clinical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The bone marrow-associated factor of resistance appeared to be the activity of cyclophosphamide-sensitive suppressor cells. The latter cells were found to interfere with the formation of inflammatory foci in the central nervous system, while corticosterone primarily prevents the clinical expression of lesions. PMID:8599838

van Gelder, M; Kinwel-Bohré, E P; Mulder, A H; van Bekkum, D W

1996-02-25

450

Infectious complications after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with and without T-cell depletion of donor marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The infectious complications during different time intervals after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (day 0 to day 30, 31 to 100, 101 to 365, 366 to 730) were reviewed in 67 adult patients, 27 of whom received transplants without T-cell depletion (TCD) using methotrexate or cyclosporin A for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and 40 of whom received donor

T. Schmeiser; M. Wiesneth; D. Bunjes; Renate Arnold; B. Hertenstein; W. Heit; E. Kurrte

1989-01-01

451

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

452

Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks  

PubMed Central

This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

2009-01-01

453

Dirofilaria immitis in red foxes in Illinois.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis was found in 8 of 225 (3.6%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) collected from fur buyers and trappers in Bond, Clinton, DeKalb, Edgar, Ford, Jasper, Moultrie, and Richland counties, Illinois. Infections ranged from 1 to 23 nematodes per fox. The finding of D. immitis in red foxes represents a new host record for the state. PMID:7431521

Hubert, G F; Kick, T J; Andrews, R D

1980-04-01

454

Re-examination of Turkey red.  

PubMed

Cotton yarn was dyed in Turkey red using madder through a special method. Amount of the dyestuffs bound to mordanted cotton fibre and the oiling numbers of the cotton yarn was investigated by using TLC (thin layer chromatography) and spectrophotometry. Sn(II) in the bright red cotton yarn was analysed by X-ray diffraction method. PMID:17867541

Karadag, Recep; Dolen, Emre

2007-07-01

455

Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.  

PubMed

The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

2009-09-01

456

Chemistry of the Red and Brown Algæ  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN view of the fact that a study of the literature on the red and brown algæ revealed considerable uncertainty as to whether true cellulose occurs in these plants, the following seaweeds were examined for cellulose by the usually accepted methods :- among the red algæ, Corallina officinalis, Bostrychia scorpioides, Chondrus crispus, Rhodymenia palmata ; among the brown algæ, Laminaria

Barbara Russell-Wells; T. O'TUAMA

1934-01-01

457

Red stars in Magellanic Cloud globular clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of 235 red stars in globular clusters of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds are presented. The stars were found by blink comparison of V and I photographs of six SMC and 36 LMC globular clusters. Spectroscopic observations reveal 44 of the red stars detected to be of types Ctm, M or C, indicating that some clusters do contain

T. Lloyd Evans

1980-01-01

458

Red Light Running: A Policy Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes an assessment of factors affecting red light running, a review of red light running trends in the U.S. and in Texas, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of strategies to deal with the problem, including engineering countermeasures,...

C. Quiroga E. Kraus I. van Schalkwyk J. Bonneson

2003-01-01

459

TRENDS IN RED MUD UTILIZATION – A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud is the major waste material produced during alumina production following the Bayers process. Depending on the quality of the raw material processed, 1–2.5?tons of red mud is generated per ton of alumina produced. The treatment and disposal of this residue is a major operation in an alumina plant. A lot of research and developmental activities are going on

R. K. PARAMGURU; P. C. RATH; V. N. MISRA

2004-01-01