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Red cell salvage and reinfusion in pediatric bone marrow donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of a semi-automated processing technique to salvage red blood cells from pediatric bone marrow donors to minimize the risk of severe anemia following bone marrow harvest and ABO incompatibility in the recipient. Sixty healthy, HLA-matched, pediatric donors of bone marrow hematopoietic cells with a median age 8.0 years (2–19) were studied. Thirteen of the donor–recipient pairs

M Kletzel; M Olszewski; K Danner-Koptik; K Coyne; PR Haut



Bone marrow fractionation by the haemonetics system: reduction of red cell mass before marrow freezing, with special reference to pediatric marrow volumes.  


For purposes of freezing autologous marrow or transplants of allogeneic marrow with major ABO blood group incompatibility, 54 freshly harvested bone marrows from children of 7-65 kg of weight were depleted of their red cells with the Haemonetics V50 system. The marrow volumes ranged from 230 to 1,145 ml, with 17 small (200-399 ml), 18 intermediate (400-799 ml) and 19 large (800-1,200 ml) volumes. After processing, the median recoveries were: volume 24%, red cell mass 18%, and nucleated cells 75%. In the small marrow volume group, a good nucleated cell recovery was achieved at the expense of red cell depletion. The colony-forming units, granulocytes-macrophages (CFU-GM) were normal after thawing of processed, cryopreserved marrows, and good engraftment of both allogeneic and autologous marrows were achieved. We conclude that marrow processing with the Haemonetics V50 system results in adequate red cell depletion and good nucleated cell recovery without open-air contact of marrow or excessive time consumption. For small marrow volumes, however, the red cell depletion was suboptimal, and a bowl size smaller than 125 ml is desirable for pediatric use. PMID:1413659

Saarinen, U M; Lähteenoja, K M; Juvonen, E



Development and evaluation of a new algorithm for determining radiation dose to the red bone marrow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation. Red bone marrow cannot be easily modeled because it is distributed heterogeneously throughout the skeleton and cannot be distinguished from yellow or inactive bone marrow by radiographic means, so dosimetry models must apply algorithms to estimate the dose to the red bone marrow. The current methods for deriving red bone marrow distribution from CT data are based on assumptions that may not be anatomically realistic and the uncertainty of such calculations has been difficult to estimate. This dissertation describes a new algorithm for calculating the distribution of red bone marrow and the applications of the algorithm. The CT data and red bone marrow distribution algorithms are incorporated into an EGS4 user code to assess the effects of the red bone marrow distribution on the computed dose to the red bone marrow for three irradiation scenarios. Parallel beams of monoenergetic photons have been modeled from the Anterior-Posterior, Posterior-Anterior, Left Lateral and Right Lateral directions in the energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV. Monoenergetic photons in the range of 30 keV to 1 MeV have been modeled in geometries representing head and abdominal CT examinations. A so-called "whole body irradiation" procedure for a 6-direction 3.9 MeV electron protocol has also been studied. Comparing the whole body red bone marrow doses for these irradiations demonstrates a discrepancy between the two different methods for parallel beams of photons below about 200 keV as high as 25%. At higher energies, the disparity in red bone marrow dose is less than 5%. For non-uniform irradiations, however, a greater improvement is realized with the proposed new method. An improvement in red bone marrow dose of 25% to 35% was found for the CT examinations, and nearly 40% for the whole body electron skin treatment protocol. The data presented here justify the need to better understand the uncertainty in existing dosimetry methodologies for radiation protection. This dissertation also presents recommendations for incorporating the new algorithm into other models and for future work.

Caracappa, Peter F.


Red Marrow Radiation Dose Adjustment Using Plasma FLT3-L Cytokine Levels: Improved Correlations Between Hematologic Toxicity and Bone Marrow Dose for Radioimmunotherapy Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculated red marrow absorbed dose in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) has not been highly predictive of the dose-limiting hematologic toxicity observed in many patient populations studied. Because patients receiving the same red marrow dose often experience different grades of toxicity, other factors might help predict the different grades of toxicity ob- served. One such factor may be the plasma FLT3-L

Jeffry A. Siegel; Dion Yeldell; David M. Goldenberg; Michael G. Stabin; Richard B. Sparks; Robert M. Sharkey; Arnold Brenner; Rosalyn D. Blumenthal


Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc99m labeled red blood cell venography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern




Split chimerism between nucleated and red blood cells after bone marrow transplantation for haemoglobinopathies  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that a stable presence of both donor and recipient haematopoietic derived cells after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) occurs in approximately ten percent of the patients affected by ?-Thalassemia. Once achieved this condition, defined as persistent mixed chimerism (PMC), the patients do not require additional red blood cells (RBCs) support and, regardless of the presence in some cases of an extremely low percentage of donor-derived nucleated cells, they are clinically cured by an incomplete, but functional graft. Most of the published papers have, however, investigated the impact of donor engraftment in the nucleated cells rather than in the mature erythrocytes. We have recently published a paper showing that in four long-term transplanted patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, characterized by the presence of few donor engrafted nucleated cells—both in the peripheral blood and in the bone marrow—the majority of the erythrocytes were of donor origin. Moreover we showed that the proportion of donor-derived erythroid precursors, determined by analyzing singularly picked-up burst-forming unit erythroid colonies, was equivalent to that observed in the mature nucleated cells rather than in the red blood cells. These results suggest that in patients characterized by the presence of PMC after HSCT a selective advantage of the donor erythroid precursors maturation might successfully contrast the problems bound to the recipient ineffective erythropoiesis. When genetically modified HSCT will be a possible option for treating Thalassemia Major, the co-existence of the repaired cells with those still expressing the genetic defect will be an expected scenario, not in an allogeneic, but in an autologous environment.

Testi, Manuela; Battarra, Mariarosa; Lucarelli, Guido



Minor histocompatibility antigens on transfused leukoreduced units of red blood cells induce bone marrow transplant rejection in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

When successful, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–matched bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning is a cure for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders that require chronic transfusion, such as sickle cell disease and aplastic anemia. However, there are unusually high bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection rates in these patients. Rejection correlates with the number of transfusions before bone marrow transplantation, and it has been hypothesized that preimmunization to antigens on transfused blood may prime BMT rejection. Using a novel mouse model of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and major histocompatibility complex–matched bone marrow transplantation, we report that transfusion of RBC products induced BMT rejection across minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) barriers. It has been proposed that contaminating leukocytes are responsible for transfusion-induced BMT rejection; however, filter leukoreduction did not prevent rejection in the current studies. Moreover, we generated a novel transgenic mouse with RBC-specific expression of a model mHA and demonstrated that transfusion of RBCs induced a CD8+ T-cell response. Together, these data suggest that mHAs on RBCs themselves are capable of inducing BMT rejection. Cellular immunization to mHAs is neither monitored nor managed by current transfusion medicine practice; however, the current data suggest that mHAs on RBCs may represent an unappreciated and significant consequence of RBC transfusion.

Desmarets, Maxime; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Neades, Renee



The relative roles of MHC and non-MHC antigens in bone marrow transplantation in rats. Graft acceptance and antigenic expression on donor red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the influence of MHC and non-MHC genes in bone marrow transplantation, various combinations of congenic and inbred strains of rats were used as donors and recipients. A standard regimen of busulfan and cyclophosphamide treatment was used to condition the recipients. The resultant survival patterns of the animals indicated that: (1) a difference across the entire RT1 (MHC) complex is sufficient for the induction of fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in 100% of the engrafted animals; and (2) the blood group antigens RT2 and RT3, which are controlled by non-MHC genes, do not cause bone marrow graft rejection or GVHD. There were sequential changes of expression in surface alloantigens on the red cells in different donor-recipient combinations without other hematologic changes in the busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioned bone marrow chimeras.

Pinto, M.; Gill, T.J.; Kunz, H.W.; Dixon-McCarthy, B.D.



Red blood cells derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow CD34+ human haematopoietic stem cells are permissive to Plasmodium parasites infection.  


The production of fully functional human red cells in vitro from haematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) has been successfully achieved. Recently, the use of hHSCs from cord blood represented a major improvement to develop the continuous culture system for Plasmodium vivax. Here, we demonstrated that CD34+hHSCs from peripheral blood and bone marrow can be expanded and differentiated to reticulocytes using a novel stromal cell. Moreover, these reticulocytes and mature red blood cells express surface markers for entrance of malaria parasites contain adult haemoglobin and are also permissive to invasion by P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PMID:24037205

Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Lelievre, Joel; Ferrer, Mireia; Anton, Nuria; Thomson, Richard; Peligero, Cristina; Almela, Maria Jesus; Lacerda, Marcus Vg; Herreros, Esperanza; Del Portillo, Hernando A



Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry.  


To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors S(rm<--tb) and S(rm<--rm) is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as (131)I, (90)Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for (131)I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and (90)Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and (90)Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for (131)I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for (90)Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for (90)Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:17762083

Traino, A C; Ferrari, M; Cremonesi, M; Stabin, M G



Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.



Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Bone Marrow Segmentation for Quantitative Calculation of Pure Red Marrow Metabolism Using 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro- d -glucose- Positron Emission Tomography: a Novel Application with Significant Implications for Combined Structure–Function Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  The aim of this study was to introduce a new concept for accurate measurement of the global metabolic activity of the red\\u000a marrow by combining segmented volumetric data from structural imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)\\u000a and quantitative metabolic information provided by functional modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Imaging studies from five subjects who

Sandip Basu; M. Houseni; G. Bural; W. Chamroonat; J. Udupa; S. Mishra; Abass Alavi



Hemolysis of Transfused Group 0 Red Blood Cells in Minor ABO-Incompatible Unrelated-Donor Bone Marrow Transplants in Patients Receiving Cyclosporine Without Posttransplant Methotrexate  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLOGENEIC bone marrow transplantation may be A successfully performed despite AB0 incompatibility between the donor and the recipient.14 Minor AB0 incom- patibility-where donor-derived antibody is directed against antigens on the recipient's erythrocyteman cause delayed hemolysis of recipient erythrocytes 1 to 2 weeks posttrans- plant?-7 This phenomenon is not due to passive transfer of antibody during marrow infusion, but rather is

James L. Gajewski; Lawrence D. Petz; Loni Calhoun; Sheryl O'Rourke; Elliot M. Landaw; Nancy R. Lyddane; Lynne A. Hunt; Gary J. Schiller; Winston G. Ho; Richard E. Champlin




PubMed Central

1. The effect produced by intravenous administration of gum shellac solution varied directly with the strength of the solution and the amount injected. (a) Strong solutions were intensely toxic and fatal to all the animals injected. Toxicity was abolished by the presence of carbon particles in the solution. (b) Medium strength solutions produced a marked normoblastosis followed by an erythroblastosis if injections were continued, accompanied either by an initial rise of red blood cells and hemoglobin followed by a decrease or an initial decline followed by an increase. The decrease of erythrocytes and hemoglobin did not amount to an actual anemia, and was usually concomitant with the greatest outpouring of nucleated red cells. (c) Small doses elicited the same kind of response except that the normoblastosis was less marked, the decrease of red cells and hemoglobin minimal or absent, the increase of red blood cells and hemoglobin marked in most instances. (d) Minimal doses elicited no appreciable reaction. 2. The bone marrow in animals killed after a course of injections showed intense erythrocytic hyperplasia. This disappeared after a variable length of time with a return of the bone marrow to apparently normal condition. 3. Toxic effects with non-fatal doses in form of hemorrhages were produced mainly in the bone marrow and occasionally in the kidney under the following conditions. (a) After one injection in an animal with hyperplastic marrow (hemorrhages ih the bone marrow only). (b) After the fourth and fifth dose when administered at long intervals (4 to 19 day intervals). (c) After one injection given 40 days after several successive injections (one animal only). 4. Small and divided doses administered at long intervals produced no apparent ill effect. 5. Subcutaneous administrations did not elicit any marked systemic reactions. Locally there was induration and edema. 6. The conclusion was drawn that gum shellac solution stimulates markedly the production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The mechanism of stimulation is not clear, but it seems unlikely that it is due to destruction of red blood cells in the peripheral blood stream.

Muller, Gulli Lindh



Morphological Manifestations of Parvovirus B19 Infection in the Bone Marrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parvovirus B19 (PV B19) preferentially infects erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, frequently causing anemia along with transient aplastic crisis and pure red cell aplasia. The giant normoblast, previously described as the classic marrow findin...

L. E. More



Swiss Bone Marrow Donor Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe Swiss Bone Marrow Donor Registry was established in 1988 as a project of Swisstransplant. Up to January 1999, a total of 14,753 unrelated donors have been recruited by the Regional Blood Transfusion Centers of the Swiss Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service. HLA-AB typing of the donors is performed at laboratories of blood transfusion centers or universities; the Laboratoire national

A. Morell; M. Kern; G. Salvisberg; I. Wenger



Bone Marrow Transplantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marrow transplantation has undergone great advances since it was first attempted in the late 1950s. While the initial successes in marrow transplantation were limited to transplantation between identical twins, marrow transplants are now being performed u...

C. B. Thompson E. D. Thomas



Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from 225 g to 300 g, appeared to have no substantial effect for the estimated absorbed dose.

Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)



Bone Marrow Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow necrosis is regarded as an uncommon entity that is associated with a poor prognosis. However, organized studies using either bone marrow biopsy specimens or autopsy material showed that bone marrow necrosis can be demonstrated in approximately one third of specimens. It is found in a large number of both malignant and nonmalignant disorders, in addition to occurring following

Marcel E. Conrad



Marrow Donor Recruitment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) in utilizing this Navy grant was to recruit and type at least 46,000 new unrelated potential marrow donors for inclusion in the National Marrow Donor Program's Registry. Specifically, it was anticipated...



Bone marrow aspiration  


... soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of this tissue in liquid form for examination. See also: Bone marrow biopsy Bone marrow culture


Bone Marrow Dosimetry Using 124I-PET  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow is usually dose-limiting for radioimmunotherapy. In this study, we directly estimated red marrow activity concentration and the self-dose component of absorbed radiation dose to red marrow based on PET/CT of 2 different 124I-labeled antibodies (cG250 and huA33) and compared the results with plasma activity concentration and plasma-based dose estimates. Methods Two groups of patients injected with 124I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (11 patients with renal cancer receiving 124I-cG250 and 5 patients with colorectal cancer receiving 124I- huA33) were imaged by PET or PET/CT on 2 or 3 occasions after infusion. Regions of interest were drawn over several lumbar vertebrae, and red marrow activity concentration was quantified. Plasma activity concentration was also quantified using multiple patient blood samples. The red marrow–to–plasma activity concentration ratio (RMPR) was calculated at the times of imaging. The self-dose component of the absorbed radiation dose to the red marrow was estimated from the images, from the plasma measurements, and using a combination of both sets of measurements. Results RMPR was observed to increase with time for both groups of patients. Mean (±SD) time-dependent RMPR (RMPR(t)) for the cG250 group increased from 0.13 ± 0.06 immediately after infusion to 0.23 ± 0.09 at approximately 6 d after infusion. For the huA33 group, mean RMPR(t) was 0.10 ± 0.04 immediately after infusion, 0.13 ± 0.05 approximately 2 d after infusion, and 0.20 ± 0.09 approximately 7 d after infusion. Plasma-based estimates of red marrow self-dose tended to be greater than image-based values by, on average, 11% and 47% for cG250 and huA33, respectively, but by as much as ?73% to 62% for individual patients. The hybrid method combining RMPR(t) and plasma activity concentration provided a closer match to the image-based dose estimates (average discrepancies, ?2% and 18% for cG250 and huA33, respectively). Conclusion These results suggest that the assumption of time-independent proportionality between red marrow and plasma activity concentration may be too simplistic. Individualized imaged-based dosimetry is probably required for the optimal therapeutic delivery of radiolabeled antibodies, which does not compromise red marrow and may allow, for some patients, a substantial increase in administered activity and thus tumor dose.

Schwartz, Jazmin; Humm, John L.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.; Larson, Steven M.; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.



What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?  


... Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? Tweet A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is a process to replace unhealthy bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat patients with: life- ...


Fate of the nucleus of the marrow erythroblast.  


Nucleated red cells lose their nuclei during passage through the endothelium of marrow sinuses. The passage occurs through cytoplasmic pores which are not gaps at the junction of two endothelial cells but perforations within the endothelium. Enucleation occurs because the pores are of relatively fixed size. Whereas the cytoplasm is flexible and squeezes through the pore, the nucleus is rigid and cannot conform to the pore size. It is, thus, caught, and the red cell becomes enucleated. PMID:4687788

Tavassoli, M; Crosby, W H



Recessive Familial Erythrocytosis: Aspects of Marrow Regulation in Two Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of marrow regulation were carried out in two families with recessively ex- pressed erythrocytosis. The erythrocytosis in the affected individuals was associated with increased erythropoietin (ESF) pro- duction. However, hormone production was uninfluenced by alterations In the 02 car- rying capacity of the blood when the hematocrit was lowered acutely by phlebo- tomy. Hemoglobin and red cell function (p50;

John W. Adamson; George Stamatoyannopoulos; Stella Kontras; Andre Lascari; James Detter



Automated measurement of schistocytes after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation-related thrombotic microangiopathy (BMT-TMA) is a severe complication partly suspected on the evidence of a microangiopathic haemolysis. Microscopic schistocyte observation confirms the mechanical origin of the haemolysis, but remains a tedious procedure that lacks standardization. Direct measurement of abnormal red blood cell (RBC) fragments is now available on some automated haematology systems. We compared in 131 patients (69

J-F Lesesve; S Salignac; T Lecompte; P Bordigoni



Fate of the Nucleus of the Marrow Erythroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleated red cells lose their nuclei during passage through the endothelium of marrow sinuses. The passage occurs through cytoplasmic pores which are not gaps at the junction of two endothelial cells but perforations within the endothelium. Enucleation occurs because the pores are of relatively fixed size. Whereas the cytoplasm is flexible and squeezes through the pore, the nucleus is rigid

Mehdi Tavassoli; William H. Crosby



Marrow transplantation for leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Marrow transplantation for selected patients with leukemia, as for patients with severe combined immunologic deficiency or severe aplastic anemia, has now become an accepted clinical procedure. For patients with acute leukemia who have relapsed after achieving a remission of chemotherapy, marrow grafting from an identical twin or an HLA-identical sibling has now been demonstrated to produce median remissions as long as or longer than any reported for combination chemotherapy. In contrast to chemotherapy, marrow transplantation offers the possibility of cure for a small but significant fraction of these patients. Marrow transplantation for patients with ANL in first remission has now resulted in median survivals much longer than any reported with chemotherapy. Although it now appears that more than 50% of these patients can be cured with marrow transplantation, a much longer follow-up is indicated since some patients who achieve a complete remission with combination chemotherapy are now living for a long time, and some of these patients (less than 20%) may also be cured. Current intensive research with new modalities such as interferon, Acyclovir, Cyclosporin A, and monoclonal antibodies can reasonably be expected to improve the overall results of marrow transplantation.

Thomas, E.D.



Red Bull  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Bull case describes the history of the Red Bull brand and how the company stimulated and harnessed word-of-mouth to build a new product category (functional energy drinks) and brand franchise. The case concludes by asking the reader to consider how Red Bull should react to competitive challenges in the U.S. The Red Bull case was written to enable

Paul Farris; Richard Johnson


Quantitatively different red cell/nucleated cell chimerism in patients with long-term, persistent hematopoietic mixed chimerism after bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia major or sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent mixed chimerism represents a state in which recipient and donor cells stably co-exist after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, since in most of the studies reported in literature the engraftment state was observed in the nucleated cells, in this study we determined the donor origin of the mature erythrocytes of patients with persistent mixed chimerism after transplantation for hemoglobinopathies. Results were compared with the engraftment state observed in singly picked out burst-forming unit – erythroid colonies and in the nucleated cells collected from the peripheral blood and from the bone marrow. Design and Methods The donor origin of the erythrocytes was determined analyzing differences on the surface antigens of the erythrocyte suspension after incubation with anti-ABO and/or anti-C, -c, -D, -E and -e monoclonal antibodies by a flow cytometer. Analysis of short tandem repeats was used to determine the donor origin of nucleated cells and burst-forming unit – erythroid colonies singly picked out after 14 days of incubation. Results The proportions of donor-derived nucleated cells in four transplanted patients affected by hemoglobinopathies were 71%, 46%, 15% and 25% at day 1364, 1385, 1314 and 932, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the erythroid precursors, analyzing the donor/recipient origin of the burst-forming unit – erythroid colonies. In contrast, on the same days of observation, the proportions of donor-derived erythrocytes in the four patients with persistent mixed chimerism were 100%, 100%, 73% and 90%. Conclusions Our results showed that most of the erythrocytes present in four long-term transplanted patients affected by hemoglobinopathies and characterized by the presence of few donor engrafted nucleated cells were of donor origin. The indication that small proportions of donor engrafted cells might be sufficient for clinical control of the disease in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies is relevant, although the biological mechanisms underlying these observations need further investigation.

Andreani, Marco; Testi, Manuela; Gaziev, Javid; Condello, Rossella; Bontadini, Andrea; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Ricci, Francesca; De Felice, Lidia; Agostini, Francesca; Fraboni, Daniela; Ferrari, Giuliana; Battarra, Mariarosa; Troiano, Maria; Sodani, Pietro; Lucarelli, Guido



Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were

Yong-Hoon Kim; Chang-Su Ha; Hyun-Sook Lee; Sun-Hwa Lim; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Moon-Koo Chung; Hwa-Young Son



Bone Marrow Failure Following Severe Injury in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background: Hematopoietic failure has been observed in experimental animals following shock and injury. In humans, bone marrow dysfunction has been observed in the red cell component and characterized by a persistent anemia, low reticulocyte counts, and the need for repeated transfusions despite adequate iron stores. While a quantitative defect in white blood cell count has not been noted, an alteration in white blood cell function manifesting as an increased susceptibility to infection is well established. Since the etiology of this anemia remains unknown and the bone marrow has been rarely studied following injury, we measured various parameters of hematopoiesis directly using bone marrow from trauma patients and tested the hypothesis that trauma results in profound bone marrow dysfunction, which could explain both the persistent anemia and the alteration in white blood cell function. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood were obtained between day 1 and 7 following injury from 45 multiple trauma patients. Normal volunteers served as controls. Peripheral blood was assayed for hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, erythropoietin levels, white blood cell count, and differential. Peripheral blood and bone marrow were cultured for hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E colonies). Results: Bone marrow CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E colony formation was significantly reduced while peripheral blood CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E was increased in the trauma patients compared with normal volunteers. Bone marrow stroma failed to grow to confluence by day 14 in >90% of trauma patients. In contrast, bone marrow stroma from volunteers always reached confluence between days 10 and 14 in culture. The mean hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte counts of the trauma patients were 8.6 ± 1.0 g/dL and 2.75 ± 0.7% respectively, while their plasma erythropoietin levels were 2 to 10 times greater than control values. Conclusions: Release of immature white blood cells into the circulation may also contribute to a failure to clear infection and an increased propensity to organ failure. Concomitantly, profound changes occur within the bone marrow, which include the increased release of erythroid and myeloid progenitors into the circulation, a decrease in progenitor cell growth within the bone marrow, and an impaired growth of the bone marrow stroma. Erythropoietin levels are preserved following trauma, implying that the persistent anemia of injury is related to the failure of the bone marrow to respond to erythropoietin.

Livingston, David H.; Anjaria, Devashish; Wu, Jonathan; Hauser, Carl J.; Chang, Victor; Deitch, Edwin A; Rameshwar, Pranela



Analysis of 500 bone marrow transplants from unrelated donors (UR-BMT) facilitated by the Japan Marrow Donor Program: confirmation of UR-BMT as a standard therapy for patients with leukemia and aplastic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1991, the Japan Marrow Donor Program (JMDP) was established with the cooperation of the Japanese Red Cross and Japan Marrow Donor Foundation under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan. By December 1998, 122365 HLA-A,B typed volunteer marrow donors and 7207 patients had been cumulatively registered in the JMDP. The results of HLA-matching between

Y Kodera; Y Morishima; S Kato; Y Akiyama; H Sao; T Matsuyama; K Kawa; H Sakamaki; S Nakagawa; N Hirabayashi; H Dohi; S Okamoto; A Hiraoka; H Gondo; M Tsuchida; M Harada; S Asano; T Juji; T Sasazuki; F Takaku



Overview of marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references.

Thomas, E.D.



Autologous bone marrow transplantation.  


Autologous bone marrow transplantation has become a very popular and successful treatment for many patients with lymphomas and other malignancies. The current indications, pretreatment regimes, and laboratory manipulations are discussed as well as the application of gene transfer to eliminate selected genetic diseases and detect disease relapse. PMID:7748468

McCarthy, L J; Danielson, C F; Cornetta, K; Srour, E F; Broun, E R



Phase I/II study of Holmium-166-DOTMP for bone marrow ablation in multiple myeloma prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT)  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated a bone seeking radionuclide, Ho-166 DOTMP (which has both beta and gamma energies) as an agent for bone marrow ablation prior to bone marrow transplant. Six men and 1 woman in the age range 42-59 yrs. who had previously failed conventional chemotherapy using VAD (Vincristine, Adriamycin, Dexamethasone) were treated. Each patient received a diagnostic dose (Dx) of 30 mCi of Ho-166 DOTMP and underwent serial total body images using photopeak and scatter windows. Transmission images were obtained on day O. Transmission, scatter and photopeak images were used to calculate marrow dose and skeletal uptake. Therapy dose (Tx) was established to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to the marrow. Bone marrow biopsy samples from lilac crest were obtained to determine activity concentration and to calculate marrow dose. The Dx was followed by a Tx of 25 Gy (3 pts.), 40 Gy (3 pts.) and 50 Gy (1 pt.). Additional total body imaging was accomplished prior to each Tx and SPECT after the final Tx. Bone retention varied from 26-33%. The calculated red marrow dose varied from 11 to 48 Gy. Toxicity was minimal and included: myalgia (1), nausea (2), increased BUN (1), sore throat (1), fever (1x1 day). Bone marrow ablation was achieved in 3/7 pts. The last pt. treated at the highest dose level had greater than 75% reduction in myeloma protein. We conclude that at doses as high as 31.8 mCi/Kg no significant toxicity has been observed. Diagnostic pretherapy imaging and derived dosimetry is helpful in prescribing a red marrow dose prior to radionuclide therapy. The MTD has not yet been reached. However, thus far Ho-166 DOTMP has safely ablated bone marrow prior to BMT.

Podoloff, D.A.; Bhadkamkar, V.H.; Kasi, L.P. [Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others



Red clover  


... There isn’t enough information to rate the safety of red clover when applied to the skin. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Red clover is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. But it is ...


Red Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN connection with the letters on ``red water'' in NATURE of April 4 and 11, it may be of interest to state that a rusty-red coloration of brine and salt in evaporating pools of sea water is common on this coast.

Cyril Crossland



Bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bone marrow transplantations have a definite role in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. In acute myeloid leukemia and CML\\u000a an allogeneic transplant using an HLA identical donor certainly provides a far superior survival than chemotherapy. Patients\\u000a with Ph’ chromosome need to be transplanted in first remission if a suitable donor is available. In recurrent lymphomas the\\u000a best results are chieved

T. S. Vats



Red Sky with Red Mesa  


With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).


Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

Fiske, Donald W.


Bone marrow hypoplasia complicating tacrolimus (FK506) therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tacrolimus (FK506)-induced hematological toxicity, which has rarely been reported in transplant recipients, may result in\\u000a anemia episodes, reported mainly in kidney and heart transplant recipients, sporadic cases of thrombotic thrombocy-topenic\\u000a purpura\\/hemolytic uremic syndrome, red cell aplasia (4 reported cases), and generalized bone marrow suppression (only 1 reported\\u000a case). We describe a case of a liver transplant recipient with pancytopenia that

Annamaria Nosari; Laura Marbello; Luciano G. De Carlis; Andrea De Gasperi; Giuliana Muti; Valentina Mancini; Enrica Morra



[MR study of bone marrow changes of the spine following radiotherapy].  


MR examinations of bone marrow variations in the spine after radiotherapy were performed on 24 patients in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral column. The actinically affected bone marrow showed a characteristic increase of signal intensity in T1-weighted sequences in the sagittal plane, due to conversion of red marrow to fatty marrow. The dose in the well-defined radiation areas was between 28 and 70 Gray (Gy). The lowest dose, applied to the bone-marrow bordering on the defined radiation areas, where we still could find an increase of signal intensity, was below 2.6 to 5 Gy. MR imaging was performed between 6 and 9 month after radiotherapy. PMID:2399420

Starz, I; Einspieler, R; Poschauko, H; Ebner, F; Arian-Schad, K; Justich, E



Bone marrow stem cells.  


The "mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)" are cells adherent in the bone marrow, which can be isolated to induce differentiation. In contrast to the "embryonic stem cells" whose goal is to develop a new organism, the "MSC adult stem cells" can participate in tissue growth and repair throughout postnatal life. Addition of 5-azacytidine to MSCs in vitro induces the gradual increase in cellular size and begins spontaneous beatings, thereafter differentiating into cardiomyocytes. The "Methods" and "Protocols" to induce structural and functional maturations of MSCs, thus to achieve "Cellular Cardiomyoplasty," are described. With appropriate media, differentiations of MSCs to various kinds of cells such as chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes are also achievable. PMID:23807784

Duong, Minh Ngoc; Ma, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Ray C J



Bone marrow transplantation.  


Improvements in the results of bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of SCID may be expected by employing purified stem-cell concentrates for patients who do not have a compatible sibling available. Refinements in the purification technique and its monitoring are required, however. For the same category of patients it seems worthwhile to continue attempts at restoration with liver cells from fetuses less than 12 weeks of age. In addition, full protection against infections should be provided for patients expected to develop GVHD, and, therefore, such patients should only be treated in centers where reverse isolation and bacteriologic decontamination can be performed. In view of the rarity of the disease, transplanters should agree on a limited number of graft protocols. For the treatment of bone marrow aplasia, attempts to identify the factors that can serve to predict the occurrence of GVHD in compatible host-donor sibling pairs should be continued. Only when the patients who will develop GVHD can be recognized in advance will it be feasible to fully exploit available GVHD reductive measures. In particular the role of the intestinal microflora should be investigated in this respect. Experimental evidence is presented, suggesting an aggravating influence of microflora on GVHD lesions, which are primarily induced by histocompatibility reactions. For such studies with incompatible siblings, the dog is the best available animal model. For the selective isolation of hemopoietic stem cells for transplantation purposes (as one means of reducing GVHD), methods for rapid identification of stem cells and immune competent cells, respectively, have to be developed. In leukemia, more research is necessary on the factors that play a role in the late complications of bone marrow transplantation. The toxicity of aggressive regimens employed in the eradication of the leukemia should be further analyzed. The collection of autologous normal hemopoietic stem cells from leukemic patients as introduced by Dicke et al. warrants further exploration to see whether these cells may replace the allogeneic transplantation procedure, thus avoiding all the complications generally encountered in GVHD. For all three diseases, it is extremely important to develop a method for the selection of compatible donors among unrelated individuals, because this will at least double the number of candidates for therapeutic bone marrow transplantation. Current progress in histocompatibility typing in the rhesus monkey and the dog makes these species excellent models for such investigations. PMID:17188

van Bekkum, D W



High-gradient magnetic separation in blood and bone marrow processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has been succesful in capturing red blood cells from whole blood. This is due to the paramagnetic property of the haemoglobin contained in red blood cells when it is in the deoxygenated state. The captured red blood cells and the processed white blood cells and platelets appear to be functionally undamaged by separation. The capture depends on field gradient, flow rate, dilution of the blood, size of filter and a number of other factors. Malarial parasite-containing red cells have been captured using this technique and elsewhere lymphocyte/red cell rosettes have been retained in the filter of a system using a field gradient produced by a superconducting magnet. The ex vivo processing of human bone marrow is currently under study. Removal of targetted cells from bone marrow, such as tumour cells or T-lymphocytes prior to reinfusion is currently practiced. Positive cell rescue, however, is not practicable as the present techniques mostly damage the targetted cells. We are applying high-gradient magnetic separation, using an antibody complex linked to the surface of red blood cells, which should recognise target cells within bone marrow. The whole complex is then liable to retention in a sufficiently high-gradient magnetic field and the target cell made available by red-blood-cell lysis.

Roath, S.; Smith, A. Richards; Watson, J. H. P.



Anemias of Bone Marrow Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

he anemias of chronic bone marrow failure are disorders other than iron deficiency, folate deficiency, and vitamin B12 deficiency in which anemia is present and the reticulocyte count does not increase appropriately. These anemias are commonly (but not always) normochromic and nor- mocytic. The differential diagnosis of the anemias of bone marrow failure is presented in Table 1. Although chronic

Richard S. Stein; Stacey Goodman



PubMed Central

A great difference exists in the adult bone marrow of central bones as compared with outlying bones of the mammalia and avia, the distal bones being at a great disadvantage from the standpoint of blood cell production. Several experimental procedures are reported by which this disadvantage is overcome and in consequence fatty marrow of outlying bones is replaced by red marrow occurring chiefly at the epiphyseal regions, unless a low oxygen stimulus is also provided when marrow of the diaphysis becomes involved. A common factor in all of the experiments was an elevation of temperature beyond that prevailing in these distal regions, and it is felt that the evidence warrants the opinion that the cause of improvement is thermal. In some experiments, blood cell formation was increasing while the heat was adversely affecting the testis. The experiments permit construction of a general theory of fat distribution in bone marrow. In certain grafts of precartilage to other rats, normal differentiation into bone, cartilage, and marrow occurred, while in others cartilage and very small amounts of primitive marrow developed with slight, or no bone formation. Cartilage was always successfully engrafted. The capacity to form sinusoids in bone marrow is determined by the nature of the tissue rather than by the ingrowing endothelium.

Huggins, Charles; Blocksom, B. H.



Cytological and histological detection of amyloid deposits in bone marrow of patients affected by multiple myeloma.  


We recently published a study aiming to verify the frequency of amyloid deposits in the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who did not present any signs or symptoms of systemic amyloidosis, applying the Congo red technique on bone marrow smears obtained by aspiration from the posterior iliac spine. The results suggested that nearly 40% of patients affected by MM may have amyloid deposits in their bone marrow. Subsequently, this finding has not been confirmed by another study performed with histological specimens of bone marrow in a similar clinical setting. To explain this discrepancy, we performed a comparative study on the bone marrows of 36 patients affected by MM, evaluated by both cytological and histological techniques. The results of this study confirm the high frequency of amyloid deposits in the bone marrow of patients affected by MM when the analysis is made on cytological smears, and indicate that the presence of amyloid on marrow smears is confirmed by core biopsies simultaneously performed in only 25% of cases. Should further studies confirm our findings, cytological assessment could be considered a sensitive technique to detect bone marrow amyloid deposits. PMID:21718137

Petruzziello, Fara; Zeppa, Pio; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Fernandez, Laura Sosa; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Musto, Pellegrino; D'Auria, Fiorella; Vita, Giulia; Morabito, Fortunato; Piro, Eugenio; Ponti, Maria Rita Costanza; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Rosanna; Pane, Fabrizio; Catalano, Lucio



C. I. acid red 52: a new stain for cells of granulocytic origin.  


Using the xanthene dye C.I. acid red 52 (C.I. 45100) as a single agent stain applied to coverslip preparations of blood and bone marrow, primary and secondary granules in cells of neutrophilic origin stained brilliant pink. In eosinophils, granules stained dark red. In leukemic myeloblasts that also stained with Sudan black B and demonstrated myeloperoxidase and specific esterase activity, a few bright red staining granules were visualized with acid red 52. In some leukemic promyelocytes, Auer rods stained bright red. In leukemic lymphoblasts, no red granules were seen. Of a wide variety of dyes tested so far, acid red 52 is the most sensitive stain for primary and secondary granules of granulocytes in blood and bone marrow. PMID:2440154

Kass, L



Fragment filtration: a method for the accurate determination of flow cytometric kinetic data from bone marrow aspirates  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which bone marrow obtained by conventional aspiration is contaminated by peripheral blood has been confirmed and quantitated. In marrow aspirates from normal subjects the median percentage of nucleated cells that had originated from the peripheral blood was 32% (range 2.5%-64%), in patients with acute leukemia 23% (range 0.5%-96.5%), in patients with chronic leukemia 59% (range 17%-76%), and in patients with lymphoma 31% (range 0.5%-74%). Flow cytometric (FCM) DNA analysis of conventional marrow aspirates from a range of subjects significantly underestimated the proportions of S-phase cells present, when compared with results from trephines obtained at the same time. Having shown, using 51Cr-labeled red cells in mice, that circulating red cells do not reenter the marrow parenchyma, a mathematical correction for contaminating blood similar to that described by Holdrinet et al. was devised. This correction improved the S-phase cell estimate from aspirated marrows, and the corrected values were not significantly different from values from paired trephine samples. A previously described technique for collecting fragments by filtration of aspirated marrow has been adapted for FCM analysis as a more direct way of overcoming problems due to blood contamination. This method was shown to yield estimates of S-phase cells not significantly different from those in paired marrow trephines and offers an alternative to routine trephine biopsies for FCM analysis of marrow cell kinetics.

Zbroja, R.A.; Wass, J.; Vincent, P.C.; Young, G.A.



Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  


What are the IBMFS disorders? Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Dyskeratosis Congenita Fanconi Anemia Pearson Syndrome Severe Congenital Neutropenia Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii Other Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Amegakaryocytic ...


Autologous bone marrow purging with LAK cells.  


In this study we will demonstrate that LAK cells, in vitro, can lyse hematologic neoplastic cells with a minor toxicity of the staminal autologous marrow cells. In fact, after bone marrow and LAK co-culture at a ratio of 1/1 for 8 hours, the inhibition on the GEMM colonies resulted to be 20% less compared to the untreated marrow. These data made LAK an inviting agent for marrow purging in autologous bone marrow transplantation. PMID:8013966

Giuliodori, L; Moretti, L; Stramigioli, S; Luchetti, F; Annibali, G M; Baldi, A



Olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine-related bone marrow suppression: A possible drug-drug interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with refractory Crohn's disease had two separate episodes of bone marrow suppression while receiving 50 to 75 mg 6-mercaptopurine a day and 1000 to 1750 mg olsalazine a day. This adverse reaction necessitated dose reduction of 6-mercaptopurine on the first occasion and withdrawal of 6-mercaptopurine and olsalazine on the second occasion. The patient's red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase

Lionel D. Lewis; Carol L. Szumlanski; Diane M. Otterness; Lynne Lennard; Richard M. Weinshilboum; David W. Nierenberg



Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.  


Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena



A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ra-223, an ?-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metasteses of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. Methods The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. Results The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histograms results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e., the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 Gy to 20 Gy. Conclusion The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the absorbed fraction method of dose calculation.

Hobbs, Robert F; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J; Bolch, Wesley E; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D; Sgouros, George



Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.



Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.


Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt



Cytochemistry of sheep bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted on bone marrow samples obtained from 15 clinically normal Libyan Barbary sheep. Haemopoietic cells, including those of myelocytic series, erythrocytic series, megakaryocytic series, lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes and mitotic cells were identified on the basis of their morphological characteristics in May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained bone marrow smears. Cytochemical reactions of bone marrow cells revealed that all granulocytes,

Mahasen Matug Gawas; Khalid Mohammed Belhaj; AL IZZI


Cocaine-Contaminated Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should a person with history of drug addiction be categorically denied as a bone marrow donor? The answer to the question is controversial. We report a case of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for refractory acute myeloid leukemia preceded by essential thrombocythemia. The donor used cocaine and marijuana the night before the bone marrow harvest.

Yi-Kong Keung; David Morgan; Everardo Cobos



Response Kinetics of Radiation-induced Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Human Bone Marrow Culture  

PubMed Central

The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in the bone marrow or peripheral blood is a sensitive indicator of cytogenetic damage. While the kinetics of MN-RET induction in rodent models following irradiation have been investigated and reported, information about MN-RET induction of human bone marrow after radiation exposure is sparse. In this report, we describe a human long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC), established in three-dimensional (3D) bioreactors, which sustains long-term erythropoiesis. Using this system, we measured the kinetics of human bone marrow red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte (RET) production, as well as the kinetics of human MN-RET induction following radiation exposure up to 6 Gy. Human bone marrow established in the 3D bioreactor demonstrated an average percentage of RBCs among total viable cells peaking at 21% on day 21. The average percentage of RETs among total viable cells reached a maximum of 11% on day 14, and remained above 5% by day 28, suggesting that terminal erythroid differentiation was still active. Time- and dose-dependent induction of MN-RET by gamma radiation was observed in the human 3D LTBMC, with peak values occurring at approximately 3 days following 1 Gy irradiation. A trend towards delayed peak to 3–5 days post-radiation was observed with radiation doses ? 2 Gy. Our data reveal valuable information on the kinetics of radiation-induced MN-RET of human bone marrow cultured in the 3D bioreactor, a synthetic bioculture system, and suggest that this model may serve as a promising tool for studying MN-RET formation in human bone marrow, thereby providing opportunities to study bone marrow genotoxicity testing, mitigating agent effects, and other conditions that are not ordinarily feasible to experimental manipulation in vivo.

Sun, Hongliang; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Dertinger, Stephen D.; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau




PubMed Central

1. Increase in circulatory rate caused by hard exercise has no power to dislocate nucleated red cells from the bone marrow either in normal, in anemic, in hyperplastic, or in anemic and hyperplastic animals. 2. In anemic and hyperplastic animals pseudocrises of nucleated red cells can be produced at certain periods by hard exercise, but careful analysis leads inevitably to the conclusion that the increase in these cells is merely a more accurate expression of circulatory content at the time of the procedure. 3. Section of the vasomotor nerves to the four limbs with consequent dilatation of the marrow vessels and increased blood flow through the tissue does not result in the freeing of nucleated red cells from the bone marrow.

Drinker, Cecil K.; Drinker, Katherine R.; Kreutzmann, Henry A.



Bone marrow: the workhorse organ.  


Bone marrow accounts for 3% to 6% of body weight and is dispersed throughout bone. In a healthy adult, bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion new blood cells daily to maintain steady-state levels in the peripheral circulation. Its output is measured using the complete blood count (CBC), which is arguably the most frequently ordered laboratory test in the clinical milieu. Hematopoiesis starts with hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate and mature into any of the three different types of mature blood cells. A simple CBC can rule out, confirm, or direct attention to anemia, cancer, infection, acute hemorrhage states, toxin exposure, allergies, immunodeficiencies, or adverse drug reactions. Interpreting CBCs depends on reference values from the laboratory that processes the blood sample. Since reference intervals are formulated based on a younger, much healthier population, data specific to elderly people are limited. PMID:23315278

Wick, Jeannette Y



Evaluation of iron status: zinc protoporphyrin vis-a-vis bone marrow iron stores.  


Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the red cells is an indicator of iron status in the bone marrow (BM) and can be easily measured by Protofluor-Z Hematofluorometer from Helena Laboratories. It is well known that bone marrow iron is a gold standard for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) even in the pre-latent phase. Hence, it was considered pertinent to evaluate the diagnostic utility of ZPP in comparison with bone marrow iron stores. 107 random BM were selected over a period of 2(1/2) years; in each case, RBC indices where recorded along with ZPP and Perls' Prussian blue reaction for BM iron stores. The specificity and sensitivity were found to be 77.8% and sensitivity 69.8%, respectively. However, the sensitivity increased up to 96.2% when Hb, RBC indices and ZPP were considered for the diagnosis of IDA. PMID:18417877

Das, Sheila; Philip, Kandathil Joseph


Bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early trials of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for homozygous beta-thalassemia and the analyses of results of\\u000a transplantation in patients less then 16 years old have allowed us to identify three classes of risk using the criteria of\\u000a degree of hepatomegaly, the degree of portal fibrosis and the quality of the chelation treatment given before the transplant.\\u000a Patients for whom

G. Lucarelli; E. Angelucci; C. Giardini; D. Baronciani; M. Galimberti; P. Polchi; B. Erer



Cure of murine thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation without eradication of endogenous stem cells  

SciTech Connect

alpha-Thalassemic heterozygous (Hbath/+) mice were used to investigate the possible selective advantage of transplanted normal (+/+) hemopoietic cells. Without conditioning by total-body irradiation (TBI), infusion of large numbers of normal bone marrow cells failed to correct the thalassemic peripheral blood phenotype. Since the recipients' stem cells are normal with respect to number and differentiation capacity, it was thought that the transplanted stem cells were not able to lodge, or that they were not stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, a nonlethal dose of TBI was given to temporarily reduce endogenous stem cell numbers and hemopoiesis. TBI doses of 2 or 3 Gy followed by infusion of normal bone marrow cells proved to be effective in replacing the thalassemic red cells by normal red cells, whereas a dose of 1 Gy was ineffective. It is concluded that cure of thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation does not necessarily require eradication of thalassemic stem cells. Consequently, the objectives of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation of thalassemic patients (and possibly other nonmalignant hemopoietic disorders) should be reconsidered.

Wagemaker, G.; Visser, T.P.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Bone marrow transplantation for acute myelosclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with acute myelosclerosis were treated with chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantatin. Three of the four had prompt engraftment with greater than 0.10 x 10/sup 9/ granulocytes/liter three weeks after transplantation. One patient continues in complete remission one year after transplantation. One patient experienced a partial remission and two patients died early in the post-transplantation period. Marrow fibrosis diasppeared in three of the four patients. The patient with residual marrow fibrosis died 22 days after transplantation. It is apparent that marrow fibrosis is reversible. In view of the absence of other effective therapy, intensive therapy with marrow transplantation should be considered as primary therapy for patients with acute myelosclerosis who have a suitable marrow donor.

Smith, J.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Shulman, H.M.; Thomas, E.D.; Fefer, A.; Buckner, C.D.



Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow constitutes an unique microenvironment for cancer cells in three specific aspects. First, the bone marrow\\u000a actively recruits circulating tumor cells where they find a sanctuary rich in growth factors and cytokines that promote their\\u000a proliferation and survival. When in the bone marrow, tumor cells profoundly affect the homeostasis of the bone and the balance\\u000a between osteogenesis and

Christophe F. Chantrain; Olivier Feron; Etienne Marbaix; Yves A. DeClerck



Renal tubular regeneration by bone marrow—derived cells in a girl after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow cells can contribute to regeneration of the kidney in experimental models. However, renal regeneration by apparent bone marrow—derived cells has not been shown previously in humans. The authors here report on a 7-year-old girl who received whole bone marrow transplantation from a male donor, and the contribution of bone marrow cells to the

Masashi Nishida; Hidekazu Kawakatsu; Isao Shiraishi; Shin-ichiro Fujimoto; Takahiro Gotoh; Yoji Urata; Takahiko Ono; Kenji Hamaoka



Histological alterations in bone marrow in patients with late engraftment after autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow histology after bone marrow transplantation has rarely been studied. Here, we reviewed the pre- and post-transplant bone marrow biopsies (BMB) of 40 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients autografted in our center, 28 with normal and 12 with delayed peripheral recovery. The two groups were comparable in terms of previous therapy, disease phase and the number of infused cells,

C Annaloro; A Oriani; E Pozzoli; DLambertenghi Deliliers; VG Bertolli; A Della Volpe; D Soligo; GLambertenghi Deliliers; G Lambertenghi Deliliers




PubMed Central

Bone marrow specimens were obtained from seven workers who had been exposed to the dust of a calcareous sandstone consisting of 56·3% free silica. The pattern of changes was in the form of generalized hyperplasia, and in particular there were very high figures for the myeloid series, reticulum cells, and plasma cells. The eosinophils showed a slight but definite increase but the erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes were within the normal range. These changes were considered to be related to silicosis since other diseases causing stimulation of the bone marrow had been adequately excluded. The findings correlate with the histopathological changes which are reported to occur in the lungs of silicotic patients; they indicate a high degree of stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. If these changes are considered together with the industrial history and clinical and laboratory data, they may provide a clue to the diagnosis of silicosis and help in the differential diagnosis from other diffuse pulmonary lesions. Images

Warraki, S. E.; Gammal, M. Y.; Awny, A. Y.



Selectivity of wolf predation on red deer in the Bieszczady Mountains, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pattern of wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 predation on red deerCervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied in Bieszczady Mountains in 1991–2002. In total 324 remains of red deer > 4 months old, killed\\u000a by wolves throughout the year, were found. The sex, age and bone marrow fat content of wolf kills were compared with the same\\u000a characteristics within the free

Wojciech ?mietana



Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 has seen steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection\\u000a of publications that advance the understanding of the pathobiology of the bone marrow and the interpretation of the BMB.

Jon van der Walt



Navy Bone Marrow Donor Program Contract.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As of September 15, 1987, 1,971 potential donors have signed consent forms and joined the Puget Sound Blood Center Bone Marrow Donor Program. Of these, 305 are family members of former bone marrow transplant patients, 274 were recruited from the pheresis ...

P. G. Beatty



Bone marrow necrosis complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia.  


Two women with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase were found to have bone marrow necrosis when severe bone pains and falling blood counts prompted a marrow examination to exclude blast transformation. One patient survived for 12 months following the event without transforming. The second patient died soon after and was found to have widespread extramedullary disease. PMID:1934927

Macheta, A T; Cinkotai, K I; Love, E M; Geary, C G; Liu Yin, J A



Bone Marrow Transplantation for Fanconi Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is a genetic disorder associated with diverse congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and increased risk of leukemia and other cancers. Affected persons often die before 30 years of age. Bone marrow trans- plantation is an effective treatment, but there are few data regarding factors associated with transplant outcome. We analyzed outcomes of HLA-identical sibling (N = 151)

Eliane Gluckrnan; Arleen D. Auerbach; Mary M. Horowitz; Kathleen A. Sobocinski; Robert C. Ash; Mortimer M. Bortin; Anna Butturini; Bruce M. Carnitta; Richard E. Charnplin; Wilhelrn Friedrich; Robert A. Good; Edward C. Gordon-Smith; Richard E. Harris; John P. Klein; Juan J. Ortega; Ricardo Pasquini; Norma K. C. Rarnsay; Bruno Speck; Marcus R. Vowels; Mei-Jie Zhang; Robert Peter Gale



Bone Marrow Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Since 1987, about 250 patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for multiple myeloma have been reported. Most of the patients belonged to advanced tumor stages and had received extensive chemotherapy prior to BMT. Complete remission rates (CR, mostly defined as bone marrow plasma cells < 5% and absence of paraproteins in serum and urine) after allogeneic

A. Heyll; C. Aul; V. Runde; M. Thomas; W. Schneider



Liver from Bone Marrow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. We have investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical

Neil D. Theise; Manjunath Nimmakayalu; Rebekah Gardner; Peter B. Illei; Glyn Morgan; Lewis Teperman; Octavian Henegariu; Diane S. Krause



Mariculture of Red Seaweeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As new applications for using red seaweed have developed, the demand for red seaweed has increased, to the point where commercial harvesting techniques now need to be developed to lessen dependence on wild seaweed stocks. The history of red seaweed use as...

J. E. Hansen J. E. Packard W. T. Doyle



Red Owl's Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1960s, Joseph Hoffman, a high school graduate, baker and father of seven, sought to obtain a Red Owl grocery store franchise in Wisconsin. He entered into negotiations with Red Owl Stores, Inc. after the franchisor assured him that the $18,000 he had to invest in the franchise was sufficient. Over the course of the negotiations, Red Owl

Gregory M Duhl



Question of bone marrow stromal fibroblast traffic  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow stromal fibroblasts (CFU-F) normally do not exchange bone marrow sites in vivo. Restitution of the CFU-F after radiation damage is primarily recovery by the local fibroblasts from potentially lethal damage. Migration of stromal fibroblasts from shielded sites to an irradiated site makes a minimal contribution, if any, to CFU-F recovery. Determination of the relative contribution of donor stromal cells in bone marrow transplants by karyotyping the proliferating bone marrow stromal cells in vitro may not reflect the relative distribution of fibroblasts in the marrow. If there is residual damage to the host stromal fibroblasts from treatment before transplantation, these cells may not be able to proliferate in vitro. Therefore, an occasional transplanted fibroblast may contribute most of the metaphase figures scored for karyotype.

Maloney, M.A.; Lamela, R.A.; Patt, H.M.



[Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES)].  


Bone marrow edema (BME) syndrome represents a pathologic accumulation of interstitial fluid in bone - with a traumatic BME being differentiated from a non-traumatic, often ischemic, and a reactive as well as a mechanical BME. Atraumatic/ischemic BME is inconsistently described as a separate entity or as a reversible preliminary stage of osteonecrosis (ON). However, there is always the risk of transformation of BME into ON and subsequent joint destruction. The most common sites of BME are the hip, knee, and ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic gold standard. Differential diagnoses of the transient BME as osteonecrosis, osteochondrosis dissecans, and a reflex dystrophy should be considered. Conservative or surgical treatment is considered, depending on the etiology of BME. BME syndrome is generally treated conservatively. Infusion of prostacycline or bisphosphonates is a promising option. Ischemic BME and early stages of ON can be successfully treated by core decompression. A combination of both treatment options may also offer advantages. PMID:23460121

Craiovan, B S; Baier, C; Grifka, J; Götz, J; Schaumburger, J; Beckmann, J



Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.  


Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z



Can bone marrow differentiate into renal cells?  


A considerable plasticity of adult stem cells has been confirmed in a wide variety of tissues. In particular, the pluripotency of bone marrow-derived stem cells may influence the regeneration of injured tissues and may provide novel avenues in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow contains at least hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, and both can differentiate into a wide range of differentiated cells. Side population (SP) cells, which are originally defined in bone marrow cells by high efflux of DNA-binding dye, seem to be a new class of multipotent stem cells. Irrespective of the approach used to obtain stem cells, the fates of marrow-derived cells following bone marrow transplantation can be traced by labeling donor cells with green fluorescence protein or by identifying donor Y chromosome in female recipients. So far, bone marrow-derived cells have been reported to differentiate into renal cells, including mesangial cells, endothelial cells, podocytes, and tubular cells in the kidney, although controversy exists. Further studies are required to address this issue. Cell therapy will be promising when we learn to control stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and resident stem cells in the kidney. Identification of factors that support stem cells or promote their differentiation should provide a relevant step towards cell therapy. PMID:12376804

Imai, Enyu; Ito, Takahito



The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors.

Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet



Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

Colnot, C. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States)]. E-mail:; Huang, S. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States); Helms, J. [Stanford University, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)



Amelogenin enhances the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow.  


Amelogenins are the major constituent of developing extracellular enamel matrix proteins and are understood to have an exclusively epithelial origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that amelogenins can be detected in other tissues, including bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the role of amelogenins in MSCs remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of recombinant human full-length amelogenin (rh174) on the osteogenic differentiation of cultured human MSCs. MSCs isolated from human bone marrow were cultured in osteoblastic differentiation medium with 0, 10 or 100 ng/ml rh174. The mRNA levels of bone markers were examined by real-time PCR analysis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium concentration were determined. Mineralization was evaluated by alizarin red staining. The mRNA levels of ALP, type I collagen, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in the MSCs treated with rh174 became significantly higher than those in non-treated controls. Treatment of MSCs with rh174 also enhanced ALP activity and calcium concentration, resulting in enhanced mineralization, as denoted by high intensity of alizarin red staining. In conclusion, the present study showed that rh174 enhances the mineralization accompanied by the upregulation of bone markers in human bone marrow MSCs during osteogenic differentiation, suggesting a certain role of amelogenin in the modulation of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:22653431

Tanimoto, K; Huang, Y C; Tanne, Y; Kunimatsu, R; Michida, M; Yoshioka, M; Ozaki, N; Sasamoto, T; Yoshimi, Y; Kato, Y; Tanne, K



Intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation facilitates hemopoietic recovery including dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we provide evidence using a serial bone marrow transplantation (BMT) protocol that intra-bone marrow (IBM)-BMT (IBM-BMT) can efficiently reconstitute the hemopoietic system with cells of donor origin, in contrast to conventional intravenous (IV)-BMT (IV-BMT). Furthermore, the hematolymphoid system of secondary recipients that had received bone marrow cells (BMCs) from primary recipients treated with IBM-BMT recovered earlier than

Susumu Baba; Muneo Inaba; Hiroshi Iwai; Mitsuru Taira; Keizo Takada; Hiroko Hisha; Toshio Yamashita; Susumu Ikehara



Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

Many compounds that possess sulfhydryl groups have been shown to protect bone marrow from radiation injury. The most effective thiol radioprotective agent is ethiofos (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothoic acid or WR-2721). The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using binding of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase {sup 3}H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L.; Sawich, C.



Method for Improving Bone Marrow Engraftment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention demonstrates that a delay in marrow infusion is associated with a decrease in the amount of conditioning required and improved engraftment. Surprisingly, it has been discovered that for a given dose of TBI, a delay in transplantation...

S. T. Iidstad



MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity\\u000a and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings\\u000a of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the\\u000a bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy

Heike E. Daldrup-Link; Tobias Henning; Thomas M. Link



Histology of the bone marrow antibody response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The histology of the specific and non-specific antibody response in mouse and rat bone marrow was studied after subcutaneous\\u000a priming and intravenous boosting with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Cells producing specific antibody against HRP were found\\u000a only occasionally in the bone marrow after subcutaneous priming. After the intravenous boost injection their number gradually\\u000a increased. These anti-HRP forming cells were found as

A. A. Geldof; G. F. Rimmelzwaan; H. L. Langevoort



Whence the Red Panda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the “bear-like” arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids

John J. Flynn; Michael A. Nedbal; Jerry W. Dragoo; Rodney L. Honeycutt



RED Facts: Iron Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When a pesticide is eligible for reregistration, EPA announces this and explains why in a Reregistration Eligibility Document, or RED. The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED for iron salts. The iron salts consist of three pesticide active in...



Red Maple Takeover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update looks at the effect of the proliferation of the red maple on the the forest ecosystems of the eastern United States. It examines the reasons why the red maple population has surged at the expense of other trees.

Science Update;



Lymphocystis in Red Drum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents natural infection and experimental transmission of lymphocystis in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Lymphocystis was a chronic problem in a commercial red drum production facility in Texas during 1993–1994. Electron microscopy of lesions and infected cell cultures revealed an icosohedral virus 220–230 nm in diameter. The virus was experimentally transmitted by intramuscular injection and oral administration, with the

R. A. Bowden; D. J. Oestmann; D. H. Lewis; M. S. Frey



Asymptomatic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) at the time of diagnostic bone marrow biopsy in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma and smoldering myeloma. A series of 144 cases and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of asymptomatic amyloidosis (AL) among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) or smoldering multiple\\u000a myeloma (SMM) is unknown. We evaluated number and clinical significance of asymptomatic AL in consecutive MM and SMM patients,\\u000a not having recognition of symptomatic AL at the time of their diagnostic bone marrow biopsy. Bone marrow biopsies were stained\\u000a with Congo red and

Sergio Siragusa; William Morice; Morie A. Gertz; Robert A. Kyle; Philip R. Greipp; John A. Lust; Thomas E. Witzig; Martha Q. Lacy; Steven R. Zeldenrust; S. Vincent Rajkumar; Stephen J. Russell; Suzanne R. Hayman; Francis Buadi; Shaji K. Kumar; David Dingli; Angela Dispenzieri



PD-RED: to improve the performance of red  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new active queue management (AQM) scheme to improve the performance of the well-known random early detection (RED) AQM. The new AQM is based on the proportional derivative (PD) control principle, and we call it PD-RED. In PD-RED we introduce minimal changes to RED. We demonstrate the improvement in performance of PD-RED over adaptive RED AQM by simulations.

Jinsheng Sun; King-Tim Ko; Guanrong Chen; Sammy Chan; Moshe Zukerman



Porcine bone marrow stromal cell differentiation on heparin-adsorbed poly(e-caprolactone)–tricalcium phosphate–collagen scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the potential of heparin as a substrate component for the fabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs using poly(e-caprolactone)–tricalcium phosphate–collagen type I (PCL–TCP–Col) three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds. First we explored the ability of porcine bone marrow precursor cells (MPCs) to differentiate down both the adipogenic and osteogenic pathways within 2-D culture systems, with positive results confirmed by Oil-Red-O and Alizarin

Zhi Zhen Chum; Maria A. Woodruff; Simon M. Cool; Dietmar W. Hutmacher



An overview of the Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry: 10 years of bone marrow donor provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry (WBMDR) is in its 11th year of operation and its 4th year as an International ‘Hub’ participating in Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide. It is operated by the Welsh Regional Tissue Typing Laboratory which is accredited by Clinical Pathology Accreditation (UK) Ltd, and the European Federation for Immunogenetics and, together with the Welsh Blood Service,

C Darke



Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track

C.. Colnot; S. Huang; J. Helms



Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using Monoclonal Antibody-Purged Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experience from a clinical trial of autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in the treatment of 30 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and complement-treated bone marrow. All patients were in complete remission (CR) at the time of transplant: 6 patients were in first CR. 18 in second CR, and 6 in third CR.

Edward D. Ball; Letha E. Mills; Gibbons G. Cornwell; Bruce H. Davis; Christopher T. Coughlin; Alexandra L. Howell; Therese A. Stukel; Bradley J. Dain; Robert McMillan; Wayne Spruce; William E. Miller; Linda Thompson



Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging after bone marrow harvest – a retrospective study in 50 unrelated marrow donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 50 unrelated marrow donors were examined by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the morphological sequelae of bone marrow harvesting (BMH). Signal increase in T2-weighted sequences and contrast media enhancement in T1 sequences at the operative sites were found as typical MRI morphology 4 weeks after harvest (group A, n=16), corresponding to edema, hyperemia and proliferative

F Kroschinsky; T Kittner; S Mauersberger; U Rautenberg; U Schuler; C Rutt; M Laniado; G Ehninger



Marrow stromal fibroblastic cell cultivation in vitro on decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix.  


The in vitro biocompatibility of decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix was evaluated. Following a freeze-thaw cycle, sectioned discs of fresh frozen rat metaphyseal bone were sequentially incubated in solutions of hypertonic, then hypotonic Ringer's solution, followed by deoxycholic acid, then DNAase I. The adequacy of decellularization of marrow stroma was examined by light microscopy. Marrow stromal fibroblastic cells were harvested by dispersion of rat long bone marrow, followed by concentration by discontinuous Ficoll-Paque gradient centrifugation. The fibroblastic cells were expanded by in vitro cultivation, and second passage cells were cryopreserved until needed. Cryopreserved marrow stromal cells were applied dropwise to sections of decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix, and cultured in BJGb medium with 20% fetal bovine serum for ten days. Mature cultures were formalin fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections showed individual spindle cells invading the upper portion of the decellularized extracellular matrix, and also a monolayer of spindle cells on the upper surfaces of exposed trabecular and cortical bone. This experiment showed that decellularized marrow extracellular matrix is a biocompatible three dimensional in vitro substrate for marrow stromal fibroblastic cells. PMID:19778536

Dutra, Timothy F; French, Samuel W



Pesticide induced marrow toxicity and effects on marrow cell population and on hematopoietic stroma.  


Long term inhalation of toxic pesticides used for the domestic and industrial purposes have been shown to cause moderate to severe hematotoxicity and increased incidence of several marrow degenerative diseases, specifically hypoplastic bone marrow failure condition in humans. The progression of pesticide induced hematotoxicity and the exact underlying mechanisms of toxicity that play major role in limiting normal hematopoiesis are not quite well explained. In this present study, we have developed an animal model of hypoplastic bone marrow failure following pesticide exposure to show the deleterious effects of toxic pesticides on mouse hematopoietic system. Here we have presented the results of studying long-term marrow explant culture, IL-2, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors expression profile, fibroblast colony forming unit (CFU-F), hematopoietic progenitor cell colony formation and caspase-3 expression by the bone marrow cells. We have also identified the expression levels of several extracellular apoptosis markers (CD95/Fas) and intracellular apoptosis inducer proteins (pASK1, pJNK, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3) in the bone marrow cells of pesticide exposed mice. The long-term marrow explant culture demonstrated the impairment in proliferation of the stromal cells/stromal fibroblasts in culture. Decreased IL-2, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors expression profile essentially hinted at the suppressed cytokine activity in the pesticide exposed marrow. CFU-F analysis showed the defect in functional maturation of the stromal fibroblasts. The decreased hematopoietic progenitor cell colony formation indicated the toxicity induced inhibition of cellular proliferation and functional maturation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in pesticide exposed marrow. We have detected a sharp increase in the expression levels of both the extracellular Fas-antigen and intracellular apoptosis inducer proteins in the bone marrow cells of pesticide exposed mice that explained well, the apoptosis pathway involved following marrow toxicity. The decreased proliferation and functional maturation of marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors with subsequent increase in marrow cellular apoptosis following pesticide toxicity provided the base necessary for explaining the increased incidence of hypoplastic bone marrow failure in humans exposed to moderate to high concentrations of pesticides. PMID:22005501

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Basak, Pratima; Chaklader, Malay; Das, Prosun; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata



Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation.  


Patients often develop nausea, vomiting and bloating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These symptoms may interfere with nutrition and the ability to take oral medications. Gastroparesis is a recognized cause of these symptoms in non-transplant patients but less is known about patients who undergo BMT. Between January 1996 and March 1997, a total of 151 patients underwent BMT. Eighteen patients (12%) developed persistent symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis (persistent nausea, vomiting or bloating). Scintigraphic gastric emptying studies were performed to assess for gastroparesis. Prokinetic agents were administered at the time of study. The records on these patients were compared with those of all other patients undergoing BMT during the same time period without these symptoms. Nine patients who demonstrated delayed gastric emptying were further evaluated with esophagastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Biopsy samples were reviewed for evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Fourteen of 18 patients demonstrated delayed gastric emptying and most responded to prokinetic agents given at the time of study. Age, conditioning regimen, cytomegalovirus antigenemia and acute GVHD did not appear to be associated with the development of gastroparesis. Allogeneic BMT recipients were at higher risk than autologous BMT patients (26% vs 0%, P < 0.0001). of allogeneic bmt recipients, there was a nonsignificant trend of patients receiving tacrolimus to be less likely to experience gastroparesis than those receiving cyclosporine (27% vs 48%, P = 0.08). For the nine patients undergoing upper endoscopy, GVHD on gastric biopsy was an uncommon finding and was mild when present. Gastroparesis appears to be a common cause of nausea, vomiting and bloating following allogeneic BMT. This may occur less often with tacrolimus than cyclosporine because of the former agent's prokinetic properties. Patients usually respond to prokinetic drugs at the time of scintigraphy. GVHD and CMV infection do not appear to be major contributing factors. PMID:11498745

Eagle, D A; Gian, V; Lauwers, G Y; Manivel, J C; Moreb, J S; Mastin, S; Wingard, J R



Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.  


A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease. PMID:23525059

Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P


Magnetic microspheres and monoclonal antibodies for the depletion of neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow: experiences, improvements and observations.  

PubMed Central

Improvements to the original procedure of using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and magnetic microspheres for the depletion of tumour cells from bone marrow are described. These include a completely disposable system for the magnetic depletion of tumour cells coated with magnetic microspheres. Properties of a new series of microspheres are compared with the old M330 beads in their ability to deplete neuroblasts from both model systems and 50 bone marrows harvested from Stage IV neuroblastoma patients. Using human neuroblastoma cell lines labelled with the DNA intercalating, Hoechst dye 33342 a 5% tumour contamination can routinely be removed from 5 X 10(6) - 5 X 10(7) nucleated cells. Analysis of the 50 purged marrows revealed that 10 were visibly contaminated with tumour (by conventional cytology and immunological procedures). In all but one case, tumour cells were removed. In this instance the tumour:bead ratio fell to 1:4 indicating the importance of maintaining a sufficient number of beads in the system. Red cell contamination of marrow was also kept extremely low so preventing possible physical blockade of bead:tumour cell interaction. Marrow engraftment was rapid in this group, apart from patients who had been exposed to high doses of alkylating agents prior to autografting. Images Figure 2

Kemshead, J. T.; Heath, L.; Gibson, F. M.; Katz, F.; Richmond, F.; Treleaven, J.; Ugelstad, J.



Engraftment of W/c-kit mutant mice is determined by stem cell competition, not by increased marrow 'space'.  


W/c-kit mutant mice accept engraftment by small numbers of normal hematopoietic stem cells without the necessity for myeloablation. One explanation for this observation is that a deficiency of Kit receptors reduces the number of primitive hematopoietic stem cells and increases the number of available "niches" or "space" in the marrow. As a test of this model, we transplanted a series of unirradiated W mutant mice with donor marrow cells of the identical mutant genotype. Despite the intrinsic anemia and hematopoietic defect of severely affected W(X)/W(V) and mildly affected W(V)/+ hosts, donor-derived red blood cells (RBC) were not detected for up to 6 months after transplantation with 1-4 x 10(7) marrow cells of the same W(X)/W(V) and W(V)/+ genotypes, respectively. In contrast, both genotypes were engrafted, as judged by sustained proliferation of donor-derived RBC, after a second transplant with equal numbers of +/+ cells. The inability of W(X)/W(V) marrow to proliferate in W(X)/W(V) hosts was not due to an absence of transplantable stem cells, however, as W(X)/W(V) cells were capable of sustained engraftment and proliferation in irradiated W(X)/W(V) recipients. We conclude that when donor and host are equivalent for Kit receptor function, W mutant mice do not accept marrow grafts more readily than wild-type mice. The results suggest that a deficiency of host Kit receptor function promotes engraftment of normal stem cells not by increasing marrow space, but by providing an advantage to donor cells in competition for marrow stroma or for self-renewal and differentiation. PMID:8641343

Fleishman, R A



Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using the binding of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase /sup 3/H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Sawich, C.



Bone marrow megakaryocytes in human ontogenesis.  


The aim of the study was a histomorphometric evaluation of bone marrow megakaryocytes (MK). The study was based on bone marrow histological evaluation. Morphometric evaluation was carried out with the aid of the MicroImage Olympus computer image analysis software. We evaluated the amount of megakaryocytes (MK) per 1 mm2, MK area, the nuclear-cytoplasmatic (N/C) ratio and circular deviation (CD). Bone marrow was examined in premature newborns, full-term newborns and adults. The obtained data were statistically analysed with the aid of the Statistica PL computer software. Statistically significant differences were found in MK quantity, their distribution in relation to non-haematopoietic elements of haematopoietic microenvironment of sinusoid vessels system. To a smaller extent, did the differences refer to MK area, the N/C ratio or shape. PMID:15638426

Litwiejko-Pietry?czak, E; Szkudlarek, M; Klim, B; Pietrewicz, T M



Oral cavity complications of bone marrow transplantation.  


Bone marrow transplantation, once regarded as experimental, has evolved into a standard treatment for a variety of malignancies. Considerable advances have been made in histocompatibility typing, pretransplantation chemotherapy, and posttransplantation immunosuppressive therapy as well as prophylaxis and treatment of infections. Oral complications develop in almost all patients, and their early recognition may result in the institution of prompt treatment and prolonged survival. Mucositis, often severe and extremely painful, develops in more than three quarters of bone marrow transplant recipients, and its prevention, unfortunately, remains unsatisfactory. Herpes simplex virus and Candida albicans account for most oral infections, although their incidence has been dramatically reduced by the institution of prophylactic agents. Graft versus host disease continues to be a significant complication of marrow transplantation, and the detection of commonly occurring oral changes may support its diagnosis. PMID:9421217

Eisen, D; Essell, J; Broun, E R



The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.



RED Facts: 'Bacillus thuringiensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0247, Bacillus thuringiensis. Bacillus thuringiensis is a group of similar bacteria that act as insecticides wich are used on gorwing agricultural corps, harvested crop...



RED Facts: Folpet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0630, folpet. Folpet is a fungicide used to control scab (sphaceloma) on avocados, wood rot fungi, mold/mildew, and spoilage fungi on wood and other surfaces.



RED Facts: Chlorine Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration Case 4022, chlorine gas. Chlorine gas is used in water treatment to disinfect drinking water, swimming pools, ornamental ponds and aquaria, sewage and wastewater, and other ...



RED Facts: Tridecenyl Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 4116, tridecenyl acetates. Tridecenyl acetates are sex attractant pheromones used in tomato fields to disrupt the mating behavior of tomato pinworms.



RED Facts: Chlorhexidine Diacetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3038, chlorhexidine diacetate. Chlorhexidine diacetate is a disinfectant used to control bacteria on agricultural premises, egg handling and packing equipment, and meat ...



RED Facts: Diphenylamine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2210, dipheylamine. Diphenylamine (DPA) is a plant growth regulatory used post-harvest to control storage scald in apples.



Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.



Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy.  


Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment, which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered CXCL12 protein levels, a key regulator of hematopoietic cell homing to the bone marrow. Sublethal concentrations of VP16 and melphalan also decreased the levels of several transcripts which contribute to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen 1A1 (Col1a1). The impact of chemotherapy on message and protein levels for some targets was not always aligned, suggesting differential responses at the transcription and translation or protein stability levels. As one of the main functions of a mature osteoblast is to synthesize ECM of a defined composition, disruption of the ratio of its components may be one mechanism by which chemotherapy affects the ability of osteoblasts to support hematopoietic recovery coincident with altered marrow architecture. Collectively, these observations suggest that the osteoblast compartment of the marrow hematopoietic niche is vulnerable to functional dysregulation by damage imposed by agents frequently used in clinical settings. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of chemotherapy-induced changes on the hematopoietic support capacity of the marrow microenvironment may contribute to improved strategies to optimize patient recovery post-transplantation. PMID:23551534

Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F



Whence the red panda?  


The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous (based on prior modeling, as well as conflict between the results of our analyses of less and more complete data sets) conclusions about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. PMID:11083933

Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L



Red blood cell proteomics.  


Since its discovery in the 17th century, the red blood cell, recognized in time as the critical cell component for survival, has been the focus of much attention. Its unique role in gas exchange (oxygen/CO(2) transport) and its distinct characteristics (absence of nucleus; biconcave cell shape) together with an - in essence - unlimited supply lead to extensive targeted biochemical, molecular and structural studies. A quick PubMed query with the word "erythrocyte" results in 198 013 scientific articles of which 162 are red blood cell proteomics studies, indicating that this new technique has been only recently applied to the red blood cell and related fields. Standard and comparative proteomics have been widely used to study different blood components. A growing body of proteomics literature has since developed, which deals with the characterization of red blood cells in health and disease. The possibility offered by proteomics to obtain a global snapshot of the whole red blood cell protein make-up, has provided unique insights to many fields including transfusion medicine, anaemia studies, intra-red blood cell parasite biology and translational research. While the contribution of proteomics is beyond doubt, a full red blood cell understanding will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. In this review we will briefly discuss the methodology and limitations of proteomics, the contribution it made to the understanding of the erythrocyte and the advances in red blood cell-related fields brought about by comparative proteomics. PMID:20655788

Pasini, E M; Mann, M; Thomas, A W



[Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].  


Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M



Biology of human bone marrow stemcells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract.\\u000a   The bone marrow is constituted of two separate and\\u000a distinct stem cells. The hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are\\u000a responsible for the production and maintenance of all the mature\\u000a blood cells. The mesenchymal stem cells constituted the bone\\u000a marrow stroma. In this report we review our current\\u000a understanding on both stem cell populations. We also discuss the\\u000a recent unexpected degree

D. Bonnet



Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... enable JavaScript. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Bone Marrow Biopsy Biopsie de moelle osseuse - français ( ...


Planning for Bone Marrow or Cord Blood Transplant Costs  


... this page Planning for bone marrow or cord blood transplant costs Tweet There is a lot to consider ... the cost of a bone marrow or cord blood transplant. By planning now, you can be better prepared ...


Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse.  


In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were severely depleted. Histopathologically, hemorrhage in the cerebellar parenchyma, hemosiderin deposition and hemorrhage in the heart, necrosis and telangiectasia in liver, pulmonary parenchymal cysts, spermatogenic germ cells necrosis, atrophy and hemorrhage in testis, oligospermia and hemorrhage in the epididymis, and atrophy of BM, thymus and spleen were observed. In conclusion, autoimmune-like complications such as hematological value change, BM dysplasia and systemic hemorrhage appear to be the lethal cause of the mouse transplanted with mock-transduced BM. PMID:19934605

Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Chang Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lim, Sun Hwa; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Chung, Moon Koo; Son, Hwa Young



Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse  

PubMed Central

In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were severely depleted. Histopathologically, hemorrhage in the cerebellar parenchyma, hemosiderin deposition and hemorrhage in the heart, necrosis and telangiectasia in liver, pulmonary parenchymal cysts, spermatogenic germ cells necrosis, atrophy and hemorrhage in testis, oligospermia and hemorrhage in the epididymis, and atrophy of BM, thymus and spleen were observed. In conclusion, autoimmune-like complications such as hematological value change, BM dysplasia and systemic hemorrhage appear to be the lethal cause of the mouse transplanted with mock-transduced BM.

Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lim, Sun-Hwa; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Chung, Moon-Koo




PubMed Central

The marrow cells of a patient with pure red cell aplasia markedly increased their rate of heme synthesis when they were freed from the host environment and were incubated in vitro. When the red cell aplasia was treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone, marrow cell incorporation of 59Fe into heme in vitro increased several weeks before a reticulocytosis was apparent, and was the earliest effect noted. The plasma ?G-globulins of this patient inhibited heme synthesis by normal marrow cells or the patient's own marrow cells obtained after remission of the disease. Since the inhibition of heme synthesis could be the result of damage to erythroblasts, the patient's posttreatment marrow cells or normal marrow cells were labeled with 59Fe and were then incubated with the patient's pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment ?G-globulins as well as normal ?G-globulins. At the end of this incubation the supernatant and cells were separated and counted. Heme was extracted and also was counted. Treatment of the cells with the patient's pretreatment ?G-globulins resulted in a release of 40% of the radioactive heme from the cells. This represented the loss of radioactive hemoglobin and was an index of erythroblast cytotoxicity. A progressive disappearance of the cytotoxic factor in the ?G-globulins occurred in the 3 wk period preceding the onset of reticulocytes in the patient's blood. Posttreatment and normal ?G-globulins did not produce this effect and increased injury of red cells and lymphocytes was not produced by the patient's pretreatment ?G-globulins. These studies demonstrate a method for measuring erythroblast cytoxicity and show that red cell aplasia is associated with ?G-globulins that specifically damage erythroblasts. Whether interference with new erythroblast development also occurs and contributes to the inhibition of heme synthesis has not yet been ascertained. Images

Krantz, Sanford B.; Moore, W. H.; Zaentz, S. Donald



Understanding donors' motivations: A study of unrelated bone marrow donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical advances in bone marrow transplantation techniques and immunosuppressive medications have dramatically increased the number of such transplants performed each year, and consequently, the demand for bone marrow from unrelated donors. Although physiological aspects of bone marrow donation have been thoroughly investigated, very few studies have examined psychosocial factors that may impact individuals' donation decisions and outcomes. To examine one

Galen E. Switzer; Mary Amanda Dew; Victoria A. Butterworth; Roberta G. Simmons; Mindy Schimmel



Blood and marrow transplantation activity in Europe 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, a total of 12101 blood or marrow transplants, performed in Europe by 343 teams from 31 countries, were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Of these, 3858 (32%) were allogeneic, 8243 (68%) autologous transplants. Of the autologous transplants 1384 (17%) were bone marrow derived, 6504 (79%) from peripheral blood stem cells and 355

A Gratwohl; J Hermans; H Baldomero



Chromosomal Dichotomy in Blood and Marrow of Acute Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The chromosome patterns in freshly aspirated, noncultured marrow of six patients with acute leukemia differed consistently from the findings in cultured blood of the same individuals. Unique anomalies in chromosome number and\\/or morphology char acterized all six marrows but none of the essentially diploid blood cultures. The cyto- genetic peculiarities of the leukemic marrows were, on the whole, unrelated



Bone marrow metastasis in astrocytic gliomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing survival time of many pediatric patients with malignancies, unexpected symptoms or signs require diligent search for rare complications or second cancers related to the disease or treatment. We recently encountered a patient with extensive glioblastoma multiforme who developed pancytopenia six months after completion of treatment with craniospinal radiation and chemotherapy with etoposide and cyclophosphamide. Bone marrow aspirate

E. Hsu; D. Keene; E. Ventureyra; M. A. Matzinger; C. Jimenez; H. S. Wang; L. Grimard



Bone Marrow Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is now becoming a powerful strategy for the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases. Using various animal models for autoimmune diseases, we have previously found that allogeneic BMT (not autologous BMT) can be used to treat autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immune thrombocytic purpura, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), chronic glomerulonephritis,

Susumu Ikehara




PubMed Central

F1 hybrid mice are capable of rejecting inbred parental strain bone marrow grafts after a single lethal exposure to X-rays. The incompatibility is genetically controlled by the Hybrid-histocompatibility-1 (Hh-1) locus in or near the D end of the Histocompatibility-2 (H-2) region. The onset of parental graft rejection begins 9–12 hr after transplantation and is completed by 24 hr. Maturation of hybrid resistance does not occur until the 22nd day of life. In adults, the resistance to parental marrow grafts can be temporarily abrogated or weakened by administration of cyclophosphamide or dead cultures of Corynebacterium parvum, acute supralethal exposures to radiation, or by split-dose irradiation with 6–37-day intervals. Parental marrow grafts elicit a transplantation reaction in irradiated F1 mice which is indistinguishable from that elicited in irradiated allogeneic (H-2-incompatible) hosts. Because of this immunogenetic similarity, the following question is raised: are the same or different alloantigens responsible for rejection of parental and allogeneic marrow grafts? In the first case, Hh-1 alleles would be recessive determinants of tissue-specific transplantation antigens, whereas in the second case they would be the determinants of parental- and tissue-specific antigens subject to genetic suppression in Hh-1 heterozygotes. Although the available evidence is not conclusive in excluding one of the two possibilities, it favors the concept that allograft reactivity to hemopoietic cells is elicited by recessive tissue-specific antigens.

Cudkowicz, Gustavo; Bennett, Michael



Evaluation of the National Bone Marrow Registry,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In mid-December, 1987, NIH was informed of language in Senate Report 100-89 that directed an evaluation of the National Bone Marrow Registry. Specifically, the directive is as follows: 'The Committee directs the Secretary to conduct an evaluation of the N...

N. S. Braveman



Bone marrow culture in aplastic anemia.  

PubMed Central

Blood and bone marrow granulocyte colony forming units (CFUc) were assayed in 46 patients with aplastic anemia, and the serum was examined for its inhibitory action on normal CFUc growth. All patients showed a gross reduction in colonies and clusters in incidence and absolute number in the bone marrow and blood. Two proliferative abnormalities of CFUc in aplastic anaemia were identified: a significantly higher than normal cluster to colony ratio (P less than 0.05) and a higher than normal ratio of granulocytes to total aggregates in the bone marrow. Eleven out of 34 patients tested had serum inhibitory to normal CFUc. These patients were indistinguishable from the rest on haematological and CFUc culture characteristics, and no correlation between the results of CFUc assay and haematological severity was found. The results suggest that the CFUc is abnormal in aplastic anaemia, the reduction in pool size being related to a failure of self-renewal, but an immunological role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia remains unproven. The close relationship of CFUc incidence to the percentage of granulocyte precursors in the marrow, together with the failure of the CFUc assay to predict clinical severity, limits the practical use of the assay to the confirmation of diagnosis in aplastic anaemia.

Barrett, A J; Faille, A; Balitrand, N; Ketels, F; Najean, Y



Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow.  


In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described. PMID:20381277

Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Sourbron, Steven; Duerr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea



Bone Marrow: The Bursa Equivalent in Man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human bone marrow lymphoid cells, particularly when enriched with plasma cells, as in multiple myeloma, respond to pokeweed mitogen and to antiserum to immunoglobulin but not to phytohemagglutinin. Cells of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia of the bursal deficient type failed to respond to either pokeweed or to the antiserum to immunoglobulin. Leukocytes of the agammaglobulinemia patients however responded in a

Nabih I. Abdou; Nancy L. Abdou



Stress among allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BMT (bone marrow transplantation) is acknowledged as one of the most stressful treatments in modern cancer care. When investigating the impact of BMT on patients it is crucial that the analytic method employed captures direct patient perceptions, allowing the patient to define the domains under investigation. In this study, a multivariate analytic method, concept mapping (CM), was used to identify

Heikki Heinonen; Liisa Volin; Michael A. Zevon; Antti Uutela; Chris Barrick; Tapani Ruutu



Method for Determining Active Bone Marrow Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was initiated to assess the contribution by medical x-ray to the cumulative ionizing radiation experienced by survivors of the atomic bombs. The study was conducted to define the quantity of active bone marrow irradiated in whole and partial ...

W. J. Russell H. Yoshinaga S. Antoku M. Mizuno



Interleukin-2 in autologous bone marrow transplantation.  


Interleukin-2 results in the generation of lymphokine activated killer cells which exhibit a potent effect against a wide variety of tumours. Consequently, interleukin-2 therapy has been used to induce a graft versus tumour effect following autologous bone marrow transplantation. Preclinical studies have shown that this results in successful engraftment, and an enhanced reconstitution of the immune system. PMID:8453356

Charak, B S


Issues for designing marrow transplant programs.  


Centers that design a creative and effective BMT program can be viable in this era of limited health care dollars. Ongoing evaluation of cost and outcome is of critical importance to the center, patients, insurers, and health care policy makers. The program design, operational design, staffing and education needs, and economic considerations are important components of a marrow transplant program. PMID:8165380

Kelleher, J



Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 16-year-old female developed a hemolytic uremic syndrome 9 months after undergoing bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during second relapse. There appears to be no etiologic relationship between the post-transplant immune status and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. The patient succumbed later to recurrent leukemia.Copyright © 1982 S. Karger AG, Basel

W. E. Spruce; S. J. Forman; K. G. Blume; R. M. Bearman; H. Bixby; A. Ching; J. Drinkard; San Marco



Bone marrow transplantation for pediatric malignancies.  


Bone marrow transplantation is now being performed in children having a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Marrow donors for patients with hematologic malignancies are usually allogeneic, including HLA-identical siblings, one-antigen mismatched family members, unrelated matched donors, or in some situations, two- or three-antigen mismatched family member donors. Umbilical cord blood is being explored as a source of hematopoietic reconstitution for some allogeneic transplants. Recipients with solid tumors most often receive autologous marrow or PBSC grafts. Posttransplant complications continue to include acute and chronic GVHD, infections, prolonged immunodeficiency, and recurrent malignancy. Because children are now surviving longer after transplantation, a variety of delayed effects are becoming apparent. These include, but may not be limited to, neuroendocrine dysfunction, neuropsychological effects, and ocular and pulmonary dysfunction. Secondary malignancies are now also becoming apparent, particularly among patients surviving more than 10 years after transplantation. Despite these known problems, marrow transplantation remains the treatment of choice for patients who relapse from conventional chemotherapy and for patients with CML in chronic phase and AML in first remission. Research continues to develop methods to decrease posttransplant complications and, hence, increase the probability of long-term disease-free survival. PMID:9286297

Sanders, J E



Correlation between characteristics of unrelated bone marrow donor and cell density of total nucleated cell in bone marrow harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the features of bone marrow donor and the quality of marrow harvest has been unclear because most\\u000a of bone marrow registries have multiple collection centers with somewhat different harvest procedures. We are able to address\\u000a this issue for Tzu Chi General Hospital is the only collection center affiliated with Tzu Chi Taiwan Bone Marrow Registry.\\u000a Between November

Ruey-Ho Kao; Chi-Cheng Li; Cheng-Kuang Shaw; Tso-Fu Wang; Sung-Chao Chu; Shu-Huey Chen; Chao-Yuan Yao; Kuan-Po Huang; Yi-Feng Wu



Early events in natural resistance to bone marrow transplantation. Use of radiolabeled bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resistance against the proliferation of splenic colony-forming units (CFU-S) is seen in certain combinations of bone marrow donors and irradiated hosts. In order to examine the early events following bone marrow transplantation and to determine whether genetically determined CFU-S repression is due to elimination of the transplanted cells from the spleen or to inhibition of their proliferation, we labeled




Facilitation of hematopoietic recovery by bone grafts with intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that T cells can acquire donor-type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and can interact with both donor-type antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and B cells, when adult donor bones are co-grafted with intravenous (IV) injection of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in order to supply donor bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. We have also found that the direct injection

Changye Song; Hiroko Hisha; Xiaoli Wang; Qing Li; Ming Li; Wenhao Cui; Kequan Guo; Satoshi Okazaki; Tomomi Mizokami; Junko Kato; Yunze Cui; Wei Feng; Yuming Zhang; Ming Shi; Muneo Inaba; Hongxue Fan; Susumu Ikehara



Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation rejuvenates the B-cell lineage in aged mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related reductions in the frequency and absolute number of early B lineage precursors in the bone marrow of aged mice have been reported. Reversal of B-cell lineage senescence has not been achieved. Age-related impairment of the B-cell lineage is caused by the decreasing functionality of hematopoietic and B lineage precursors, and reduced efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells that constitute

Daisuke Hida; Naoki Ishiguro; Masataka Haneda; Yoshiyuki Ishida; Haruhiko Suzuki; Ken-ichi Isobe; K-i Isobe



Frequency of Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Rat Bone Marrow Exposed to 2.45 GHz Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wistar rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous, radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) field 2 hours daily, 7 days weekly, at power density 5 10 mW/cm2. Four subgroups were created in order to be irradiated 4, 16, 30 and 60 hours. Sham-exposed controls were included in the study. Animals were euthanized on the final irradiation day of each treated subgroup. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine the extent of genotoxicity after the particular treatment time. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical evaluation of data. In comparison to the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MW irradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells.

Trosic, I.; Busljeta, I.



Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin  

SciTech Connect

Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice.

Xie, S.S.; Inazawa, M.; Sinha, N.; Sawada, S.; Vergidis, R.; Diener, E.



Bone marrow stem cells and biological scaffold for bone repair in aging and disease.  


The loss of bone mass observed in aging enhances the risk of fractures. The process of bone repair in aging is slow and limited due to reduced activity of the osteoblasts. Bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) residing in the bone marrow are the progenitors for osteoblasts. The ability to enhance healing of bone defect in aging by MSCs can contribute in the prevention of the complications resulting from long-term immobilization that are especially fatal in old age. Our aim was to test the ability of MSCs inserted into a biological scaffold to enhance bone defect repair. Osteoprogenitor cells were selected from rat bone marrow stem cells cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with FCS, antibiotics, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone. The selected osteogenic subpopulation was identified by osteocalcin immunohistochemistry as well as Alizarin red S and von Kossa staining which are specific for bone matrix and mineral deposition. Committed osteoprogenitor cells cultured on the hydrogel scaffold were transplanted into the area of a rat tibia segmental bone defect and examined after 6 weeks. Radiology images revealed that 6 weeks post-implantaion, calcified material was present in the site of the defect, indicating new bone formation. It is concluded that committed osteogenic MSCs contained in a biocompatible scaffold can provide a promising surgical tool for enhancement of bone defect healing that will minimize the complications of bone repair in aging and disease. PMID:15621208

Srouji, S; Livne, E



Red giant seismology: Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars), the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

Mosser, B.



Bone marrow: its contribution to heme catabolism.  


Heme oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR), the two NADPH-dependent enzymes involved in the degradation of hemoglobin and its derivatives, were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 5 hematologically normal persons, 4 patients with chronic leucemia (CL), 11 patients with acute leucemia (AL), 8 patients with refractory sideroblastic anemia (RA), 7 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IA), 5 patients with hemolytic anemia (HA), and 7 patients with secondary anemia (SA) to determine the enzymatic capacity of the bone marrow in different hematologic disorders for heme catabolism. HO activity in the bone marrow of normal persons was 0.42 +/- 0.28 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 2.15 +/- 1.34; in AL, 0.39 +/- 0.25; in RA, 0.58 +/- 0.37; in IA, 0.41 +/- 0.28; in HA, 2.56 +/- 1.40; and in SA, 1.72 +/- 1.06. BR activity, respectively, was in normal persons 8.7 +/- 2.4 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 13.6 +/- 9.1; in AL, 3.8 +/- 3.1 in RA, 5.1 +/- 2.7; in IA, 5.5 +/- 3.7; in HA, 17.0 +/- 7.2; and in SA, 10.5 +/- 4.2. On the basis of these findings it seems evident that both oxygenase and biliverdin reductase activities of the bone marrow are capable of adaptive regulation. The physiologic role of bone marrow in heme catabolism seems to be of significant importance. PMID:1070284

Mähönen, Y; Anttinen, M; Vuopio, P; Tenhunen, R



Persistent genetic damage in blood and bone marrow cells following radioiodine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Patients treated with medical isotopes provide opportunity for prospective study of radiation effects induced by internally-deposited radionuclides. We analyzed serial blood samples of a thyroid cancer patient treated with {sup 131}I for changes in micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes and glycophorin A (GPA) locus mutations in erythrocytes. Initial treatment (48 mCi) induced a 6-fold increase in MN frequency (from 6 to 36/1000). Dose response studies of the patient`s lymphocytes X-irradiated in vitro before diagnosis of cancer showed the increase corresponds to an in vivo blood dose of 11.4 cGy compared to an NCRP red marrow dose estimate of 9.6 cGy (0.2 cGy/mCi {sup 131}I). A second treatment (390 mCi), given 26 months after the first, further increased the MN frequency to 17-fold over background (101/1000). Analysis of 80 MN for kinetochores using the CREST anti-kinetochore antibody showed that 90% contained acentric chromosomal fragments. Analysis of 100 G-banded metaphases revealed 20 with structural CAs including rings, deletions, translocations and a dicentric. The frequency of GPA allele-loss variant erythrocytes increased from 11.4 to 10.8 and 17.8 x 10{sup {minus}6} in samples obtained at 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, after the second treatment. This response is consistent with radiation-induced GPA mutations in long-lived erythroid marrow stem cells as previously reported for A-bomb survivors. The induced frequency of GPA variant cells corresponds to a red marrow dose of 60 cGy based on the persistent linear dose response of 25 x 10{sup {minus}6} per Gy from previous studies. We conclude that exposure to {sup 131}I induces persistent genetic damage and that these biodosimetric methods are useful in reconstructing radiation doses in exposed individuals.

Livingston, G.K.; Schumfann, B.L. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bigbee, W.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others



Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to recipients followed by intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation accelerates acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently established a novel method for bone marrow transplantation: intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation (IBM–BMT), by which the rapid recovery of donor-derived hematopoiesis can be expected even when reduced radiation doses are used. In this paper, we examine, using mice, whether the combination of pretreatment of recipients with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and IBM–BMT can induce a more rapid recovery

Yasuhiro Suzuki; Yasushi Adachi; Yuming Zhang; Keizo Minamino; Masayoshi Iwasaki; Hiromi Mukaide; Ming Shi; Keiji Nakano; Yasushi Koike; Jianfeng Wang; Naoko Koike-Kiriyama; Akio Shigematsu; Seiji Yanai; Susumu Ikehara



MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow  

PubMed Central

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment.

Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M.



Non-ABO red blood cell alloantibodies following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune-mediated hemolysis is a well-recognized occurrence which complicates the period following a bone marrow transplant (BMT). However, although many studies have investigated the hemolytic anemia following ABO-incompatible BMT, data regarding the occurrence of alloantibodies against red blood cell (RBC) antigens other than ABO in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are limited. In this review, we briefly analyze the most

M Franchini; G Gandini; G Aprili



Myelodysplastic patients with raised percentage of hypochromic red cells have evidence of functional iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised percentage hypochromic red cells (%HRC) were detected at diagnosis in 10 of 34 consecutive patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [refractory anemia (RA) (4\\/26) and RA with ring sideroblasts (6\\/8)], all of whom had normal or increased serum ferritin and bone marrow iron stores. Elevated %HRC has persisted in all 10 cases and subsequently developed in another RA patient

P. T. Murphy; J. P. Quinn; D. O’Donghaile; R. Swords; J. R. O’Donnell



Pure red cell aplasia: Clinical features and treatment results in 16 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare hematological disease characterized by selective marrow erythroid aplasia. We report\\u000a the clinical features and treatment results of 16 Chinese patients with PRCA. Nine (56%) cases were not associated with any\\u000a underlying disorders and were considered idiopathic, while seven patients (44%) had associated diseases, three involving the\\u000a thymus, two with T large granular

Y. L. Kwong; K. F. Wong; R. H. S. Liang; Y. C. Chu; L. C. Chan; T. K. Chan



Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CDEE PORTON have produced a Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade for AFV local smoke protection, with the object of combining the rapid screening qualities of the No 80 White Phosphorus with the quicker loading and reduced fire hazard of the L5 and L7 Jack Grenade...

C. A. Robinson P. A. Nelson P. G. Bartholomew



RED Facts: Pronamide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED for pronamide, also known by the trade name Kerb. Pronamide is a selective, systemic, pre- and post-emergence herbicide that acts by inhibiting plant cell division. It is used to control grasses and br...



The Red Scare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Scare describes the time in American History following World War II when tension between Americans and other Communist countries, specifically the Soviet Union, were threateningly high. Each county was equipped for, yet fearful of an atomic war. The United States government tried to use this fear to motivate the American public to become mobilized. American citizens were encouraged

Allison Ellis



Red Cross Swimming Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)|

Vlasich, Cynthia



RED Facts: Deet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0002, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and other isomers (DEET). N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) is an insect repellent used in households/domestic dwellings, on the human ...




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Esquimalt’ is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre of Agriculture (PARC) and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. ‘Esquimalt’ produces high yields of large, firm fruit that ripen late, and is wel...


'Saanich' Red Raspberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...


Human Red Cell Peptidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for characterizing peptidases in terms of electrophoretic behaviour in starch gel and of substrate specificity is described. A survey of red cells from a large number of people has revealed genetically determined variants of two of these enzymes. Separate loci appear to be involved.

W. H. P. Lewis; Harry Harris




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Chinook' is a new primocane fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore. released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station, the Washington State University A...


Red Sea Drillings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

David A. Ross; Robert B. Whitmarsh; Syed A. Ali; Joseph E. Boudreaux; Robert Coleman; Robert L. Fleisher; Ronald Girdler; Frank Manheim; Albert Matter; Catherine Nigrini; Peter Stoffers; Peter R. Supko



RED Facts: Methylisothiazolinone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 3092, methylisothiazolinone. The Reregistration Eligibility Decision covers the two active ingredients 5-chloro-2-methyl-3 (2H)-isothiazolone and 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothia...



Red blood cell proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its discovery in the 17th century, the red blood cell, recognized in time as the critical cell component for survival, has been the focus of much attention. Its unique role in gas exchange (oxygen\\/CO2 transport) and its distinct characteristics (absence of nucleus; biconcave cell shape) together with an – in essence – unlimited supply lead to extensive targeted biochemical, molecular and

E. M. Pasini; M. Mann; A. W. Thomas



Red Facts: Biobar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED for the active ingredients 2,2'-(1-methyltrimethylenedioxy)bis(4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane) and 2,2-oxybis(4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane), which comprise the reregistration case Biobor. Biobor is...



Red Emitting VCSEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({?} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter


RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX Converter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands t...

L. Chase A. B. Langdon



How to exhaust your bone marrow.  


A 32-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of oedema and 8 kg of gained weight. The oedema decreased spontaneously over weeks and there was no evidence for a nephrotic syndrome; however, the blood tests revealed a moderate pancytopenia. The patient practiced excessive physical activity at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen in critically ill patients or those with severe malnutrition. In this case, the cause is presumed to be excessive physical activity/overtraining in combination with relatively insufficient nutrition. PMID:23813507

Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W; Kamper, Anne-Lise



[Q fever: bone marrow characteristic granuloma].  


Q fever is a worldwise zoonosis, caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In humans, acute disease, when symptomatic, can manifest by a flu-like illness, pneumonia or hepatitis. Patients with predisposing conditions can evolve with chronic disease, which major clinical presentation is endocarditis with negative routine blood cultures. Histological studies of Q fever based on infected organs biopsies (liver and bone marrow) have demonstrated a distinctive type of granuloma, typically appearing as a "doughnut" granuloma, characterized by a central clean space surrounded by inflammatory cells and rimmed with an eosinophilic fibrinoid material. We describe a 37-year-old man, admitted to hospital for persistent fever. Bone marrow biopsy showed the characteristic "doughnut" granuloma, suggesting a Q fever. Diagnosis was then confirmed by serological tests for C. burnetii. PMID:23010400

Szablewski, Vanessa; Costes, Valérie; Rousset, Thérèse; Mania, Emile; El Aoufi, Nasreddine



Marrow Transplantation from Unrelated Volunteer Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

less than 30% of the patients in North America have an HLA-matched sibling and 3-5% have a one HLA-locus mismatched relative, for most patients in need of an allogeneic marrow transplant the only chance of finding a suitable donor is through the identification of an HLA-compatible unrelated volunteer. Three accomplishments have allowed unrelated donor transplants to become feasible and successful:

Claudio Anasetti


Bone Marrow Cells and Myocardial Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years.\\u000a Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high\\u000a morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the\\u000a clinical application of HSC

Fu-sheng Wang; Cathy Trester



Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3–24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or

GA Hale; HE Heslop; RA Krance; MA Brenner; D Jayawardene; DK Srivastava; CC Patrick



Noninfectious pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a successful and recognised treatment option for patients with a number of haematological and non-haematological malignant and non-malignant conditions. Pulmonary complications both infectious and non-infectious are common after BMT. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to pulmonary complications, including the type and duration of immunological defects produced by the underlying disease and treatment, the development

I Khurshid; L C Anderson




PubMed Central

Transplantation of 5 x 105 DBA/2 (H-2d) bone marrow cells into irradiated B10 and 129-strain mice (both H-2b) resulted in graft failure in the first recipient strain and in graft take in the second. Transplantation of B10 (H-2b) cells into irradiated B10.BR and C3H mice (both H-2k) also resulted in failure in the congenic B10.BR recipients and take in the C3H mice. Resistance and susceptibility of B10 and 129-strain animals were specific for given H-2 alleles of donor cells. Transplantation of DBA/2 marrow into (B10 x 129)F2 mice and of B10 marrow into (B10.BR x C3H)F1 x C3H backcross mice revealed definite genetic control of the graft-rejection process, presumably at the level of alloantigen recognition. Resistance to allografts, or responder status, was conferred upon segregating mice by dominant alleles of two major independent autosomal loci. The effects of the loci were additive. Conversely, susceptibility to allografts, or nonresponder status, was due to the apparently recessive alleles of both loci. None of the genes was closely linked with the markers tf (tufted) and T (brachyury) of linkage group IX, Aw (white-bellied agouti) of linkage group V, Sl (steel) of linkage group IV, and cch (chinchilla) and p (pink eye, dilute) of linkage group I. There were suggestions, however, that the regulator genes of marrow graft rejection are either non-H-2 histocompatibility genes or other genetic factors closely linked with them.

Cudkowicz, Gustavo



Blood and marrow transplantation in mainland China.  


As of 1981, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) was applied in an acute leukaemia patient with success. Since then, the number of BMT has been increasing gradually, especially since the 1990s. Approximately 2000 BMTs per year have been performed in recent years in more than 100 BMT units in mainland China. A recent survey of 12 major BMT units indicates that the predominant types of transplantation performed are identical sibling (38.6%), related mismatched/haploidentical (19.4%), unrelated (17.2%), and autologous (24.5%). The indications of major disease entities are acute myeloid leukaemia (32.8%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (20%), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) [18.9%], and lymphoid malignancy (13.5%). The number of transplants from unrelated donor or related mismatched/haploidentical donor has been increasing significantly in recent 6 years. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilised bone marrow plus peripheral blood are routinely used as a source of stem cells for haploidentical BMT. Umbilical cord blood is used less often. Although the total number of patients who received allo-BMT continues to increase, the increase in BMT for CML has been flattened since 2004. By the end of 2008, more than 960 000 volunteer's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data are available in Chinese Marrow Donor Program (CMDP), and more than 1100 stem cell donations have been performed from it. Stem cells for unrelated BMT in mainland China are mainly from Taiwan Tzu Chi Stem Cell Center and CMDP. Related HLA-mismatched/haploidentical BMT has reached fairly good outcomes in terms of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, relapse, treatment-related mortality, disease-free survival, and overall survival, which are comparable with HLA-identical-sibling BMT in the author's BMT units. Syngeneic BMT started successfully in 1964 and has still very good outcomes in more than 23 BMT units from the statistics of Chinese Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. PMID:19494389

Lu, D P



Total Body Irradiation before Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the total body irradiation methods in the National Institute of Oncology between January 1984 and February 1998. Patients and Method: One hundred and twenty-four patients underwent total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation in the last 15 years. A special cobalt unit has been used, the dose rate was 6 to 8 cGy\\/min in the midline

Judit Székely; László Fábry; Gyula Forgács; Gábor Kontra; Julia Petrányi; Olga Ésik; György Németh



Weather sends red tide packing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mobile Register newspaper article provides general information about the impact of a cold front on red tide in Alabama. Red tide in the area had been rising until the front passed through, killing most of the phytoplankton bloom.

Finch, Bill; Register, Mobile


Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.



Mycobacterial infections in marrow transplant patients.  


Bone marrow transplant recipients undergo ablation of host immune defenses with total-body irradiation or high dose chemotherapy, or both. Over a 5.6-year period, mycobacterial infections were observed in 7 of 682 patients with leukemia who received marrow grafts. Four patients had pulmonary and three extrapulmonary infection. Granulomas were observed in the lungs of three patients, in the liver of one patient, and in the skin of one patient. Cultures revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients, Mycobacterium fortuitum in two patients, and Mycobacterium kansasii in one patient. In the six patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy in either the pretransplant or posttransplant period, complete resolution of the infection was achieved. Pretransplant chest radiograph abnormalities suggesting mycobacterial infections should be aggressively evaluated in these immunocompromised hosts. Prophylaxis should be considered in marrow graft recipients with a well-established history of inadequately treated tuberculosis, previous Bacille Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy, known family contacts, recent skin test conversion, or past skin test positivity. PMID:6356515

Navari, R M; Sullivan, K M; Springmeyer, S C; Siegel, M S; Meyers, J D; Buckner, C D; Sanders, J E; Stewart, P S; Clift, R A; Fefer, A



Bone Marrow Biopsies with a Silverman Needle  

PubMed Central

Advantages and disadvantages of bone marrow biopsies taken from the posterior iliac crest using the Silverman needle were evaluated. Sixty-three biopsies were carried out in patients on whom previous aspirations of the bone marrow space were unsuccessful. Open surgical biopsy was thus avoided in all but one case. Only local anesthesia was required. In 12 cases the first attempt to obtain material with the Silverman needle was unsuccessful. Limitations of the method are largely due to crushing of the specimen so obtained, with polarization of nuclei simulating the appearance of fibroblasts seen in cases of myelosclerosis. At times marrow was completely expressed from the spongy bone, leaving a useless specimen of spicules. The quality of histological material is usually inferior to that yielded by successful aspiration. Despite limitations, the Silverman needle method is considered to be preferable to open biopsy in cases in which attempts at aspiration have failed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

Hirte, W. E.; Cunningham, T. A.



Religious red herrings.  


Brierley et al take big polarised political debates deep into the context of paediatric intensive care. They are concerned that 'deeply held belief in religion leads to children being potentially subjected to burdensome care'. However, it can be argued that they make a mistake in categorising this as a problem derived from religion, religious belief or the depth of religious conviction. Religion here is a red herring. PMID:22893531

Sheehan, Mark



The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Bone Marrow Cell Cycle Markers in Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Patients with Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS) are at increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), possibly related to cell cycle dysregulation. In a cross-sectional analysis of bone marrow from 77 IBMFS, 71 sporadic conditions (AML, MDS, acquired aplastic anemia) and 22 normal controls we found overexpression of p53 in IBMFS, AML, and MDS; of Ki-67 in IBMFS and AML; and of survivin in IBMFS compared with all other groups. The patterns of expression of cell cycle markers in IBMFS are thus distinct. Longitudinal studies will determine the diagnostic and prognostic significance of these findings.

Al-Rahawan, Mohamad M.; Bryant, Barbara J.; Elghetany, M. Tarek



Bone marrow transfusions in previously irradiated, hematologically normal syngeneic mice  

SciTech Connect

Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.

Brecher, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.



Red Tide in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

Ely, Elenor; Ross, Neil W.; Island, Sea G.


Regeneration of bone marrow after tibial ablation in immunocompromised rats is age dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries to the marrow cavity result in rapid endosteal bone formation followed by remodeling and regeneration of the marrow. It is not known whether this process is affected by age, although marrow quality is markedly different in young and old animals. To test if marrow regeneration differs with age, we used a bone marrow ablation model that has been used

Maya Fisher; Sharon Hyzy; Robert E. Guldberg; Zvi Schwartz; Barbara D. Boyan



Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) for Indications Other Than Aplastic Anemia and Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a technique in which a portion of the marrow from an HLA matched donor is infused into a recipient who has a marrow deficiency. The purpose is to restore normal marrow function. Bone marrow transplants have now be...

H. Handelsman



An Innovative Approach to Bone Marrow Collection and Transplantation in a Patient with ?-Thalassemia Major: Marrow Collection Using a Perfusion Method Followed by Intra-Bone Marrow Injection of Collected Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using small animals (mice and rats) and monkeys, we have found that the combination of bone marrow collection using the perfusion\\u000a method (PM) and intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) of the collected cells is safe and effective in treating\\u000a various intractable diseases. Based on these findings, we attempted to apply this method to humans. We report here the first\\u000a case

Chunfu Li; Yuelin He; Xiaoqin Feng; Muneo Inaba; Yasushi Adachi; Keizo Takada; Yuming Zhang; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Xuedong Wu; Yunze Cui; Masayoshi Iwasaki; Hiroko Hisha; Naoki Hosaka; Mitsuru Taira; Keizo Minamino; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Keiji Nakano; Junichi Fukui; Yusuke Ueda; Yasushi Koike; Masanobu Tsuda; Susumu Ikehara



Vertebral hyperemia associated with bone marrow insult and recovery  

SciTech Connect

A 15-year-old boy with rhabdoid sarcoma received chemotherapy, which was followed by bone marrow depression, massive nosebleeds and, finally, hematologic recovery. On both hepatobiliary and renal scintigraphy, prominent vertebral activity was present in early images. Correlation with his clinical course suggests that the findings reflect hyperemia due to marrow insult and recovery. Radionuclide imaging to detect hyperemia may be a useful probe for drug effects on hematopoietic bone marrow.

Klein, H.A.; Bolden, R.O.; Simone, F.J.



Long-Term Culture of Human Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been described for the long-term culture of human bone marrow cells in liquid medium. Hematopoiesis, as measured by the production of granulocytic-macrophage progenitor cells (CFUc), continued for at least 20 weeks and was dependent upon the presence of a marrow-derived adherent layer of cells. As in the case of murine marrow liquid cultures, the adherent layer consisted

Suzanne Gartner; Henry S. Kaplan



Hematopoietic gene expression profile in zebrafish kidney marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebrafish kidney marrow is considered to be the organ of definitive hematopoiesis, analogous to the mammalian bone marrow. We have sequenced 26,143 ESTs and isolated 304 cDNAs with putative full-length ORF from a zebrafish kidney marrow cDNA library. The ESTs formed 7,742 assemblies, representing both previously identified zebrafish ESTs (56%) and recently discovered zebrafish ESTs (44%). About 30% of

Huai-Dong Song; Xiao-Jian Sun; Min Deng; Guo-Wei Zhang; Yi Zhou; Xin-Yan Wu; Yan Sheng; Yi Chen; Zheng Ruan; Chun-Lei Jiang; Hui-Yong Fan; Leonard I. Zon; John P. Kanki; Ting Xi Liu; A. Thomas Look; Zhu Chen



Inhibition of vection by red.  


We investigated the effects of colors on vection induction. Expanding optical flows during one's forward self-motion were simulated by moving dots. The dots and the background were painted in equiluminant red and green. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that vection was weaker when the background was red than when the background was green. In addition, Experiment 3 showed that vection was weaker when the moving dots were red than when the dots were green. Experiment 4 demonstrated that red dots on a red background induced very weak vection, as compared with green dots on a green background. In Experiments 5 and 6, we showed that the present results could not be explained by a luminance artifact. Furthermore, Experiment 7 showed that a moving red grating induced weaker vection than did a green one. We concluded that a red visual stimulus inhibits vection. PMID:20675807

Seno, Takeharu; Sunaga, Shoji; Ito, Hiroyuki



Reversal of acute (''malignant'') myelosclerosis by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

A 28-yr-old woman with acute malignant myelosclerosis received, as primary treatment, ablative chemotherapy and total body radiation therapy followed by bone marrow transplantation from her histocompatible brother. The patient is now well more than 15 mo after bone marrow transplantation, with normal peripheral blood counts, a normal bone marrow, no evidence of graft-versus-host disease, and is on no therapy. In light of the poor results obtained with conventional chemotherapy in this disease, bone marrow transplantation may represent the treatment of choice for patients who have an appropriate donor.

Wolf, J.L.; Spruce, W.E.; Bearman, R.M.; Forman, S.J.; Scott, E.P.; Fahey, J. L.; Farbstein, M.J.; Rappaport, H.; Blume, K.G.



Effects of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid on the growth of human mononuclear marrow cells and marrow stromal cell cultures.  

PubMed Central

The effects of various lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated on the growth of freshly isolated human bone marrow mononuclear cells and marrow stromal cell cultures. LTB4, LXA4, LXB4, 12-HETE and 15-HETE (1 microM) decreased [3H]-thymidine incorporation on marrow stromal cell cultures without affecting cell number. Only 12-HETE showed a dose-response effect on [3H]-thymidine incorporation. While LTB4 (1 microM) decreased thymidine incorporation on marrow mononuclear cells, LTC4, LXA4, LXB4, 12-HETE and 15-HETE had no effect. The lipoxygenase inhibitor NDGA had no effect on both cell types suggesting no role of endogenous lipoxygenase metabolites on cell growth. These results suggest no important role of lipoxygenase metabolites of AA on the proliferation of human marrow mononuclear cells and marrow stromal cell cultures.

Desplat, V; Dupuis, F; Trimoreau, F; Dulery, C; Praloran, V; Denizot, Y



Simultaneous development of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) activity in irradiated mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells  

SciTech Connect

Spleen cells from irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice were tested for their ability to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against P815 target (ADCC-P815), ADCC against sheep red blood cells (ADCC-SRBC), and natural killer (NK) activity judged as YAC-1 lysis at different times after bone marrow reconstitution. Donor-derived ADCC-P815 effectors were found to appear in the spleens 10-12 days after bone marrow reconstitution simultaneously with the appearance of donor-derived NK cells. NK cells recently derived from bone marrow are known to express the Thy-1 antigen; the phenotype of the ''early'' ADCC-P815 effectors was found to be the same as that of NK cells, i.e., Thy-1+, asialo-GM1+. These data suggest that ADCC-P815 effector cells belong to the NK cell population. ADCC-SRBC, in contrast to ADCC-P815 and NK activity, was already high on Day 7 after bone marrow reconstitution. However, it was mediated partly by recipient-derived effectors. ADCC-SRBC effectors were characterized to be different from ADCC-P815 effectors.

Sihvola, M.; Hurme, M.



Red Blood Cell Clearance in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Summary Anemia is a frequently encountered problem in the critically ill patient. The inability to compensate for anemia includes several mechanisms, collectively referred to as anemia of inflammation: reduced production of erythropoietin, impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin, reduced iron availability, and increased red blood cell (RBC) clearance. This review focuses on mechanisms of RBC clearance during inflammation. We state that phosphatidylserine (PS) expression in inflammation is mainly enhanced due to an increase in ceramide, caused by an increase in sphingomyelinase activity due to either platelet activating factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, or direct production by bacteria. Phagocytosis of RBCs during inflammation is mediated via RBC membrane protein band 3. Reduced deformability of RBCs seems an important feature in inflammation, also mediated by band 3 as well as by nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and sialic acid residues. Also, adherence of RBCs to the endothelium is increased during inflammation, most likely due to increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules as well as PS on the RBC membrane, in combination with decreased capillary blood flow. Thereby, clearance of RBCs during inflammation shows similarities to clearance of senescent RBCs, but also has distinct entities, including increased adhesion to the endothelium.

Straat, Marleen; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Juffermans, Nicole P.



Bone marrow monocytes in histiocytosis X acquire some phenotypic features of Langerhans cells in long term bone marrow cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone marrow cells of a patient with Letterer-Siwe disease were cultured for three weeks in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC) conditions and examined at one-week intervals with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry and by the immunogold transmission electron microscopy (immunoTEM) technique. Although at diagnosis the bone marrow showed a slight increase of monocytes with a normal

R. Luksch; D. Soligo; A. Cerri; L. Fina; E. Berti; G. Lambertenghi Deliliers



Prevention of senile osteoporosis in SAMP6 mice by intra-bone marrow injection of allogeneic bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SAMP6 mouse spontaneously develops osteoporosis early in life and is therefore a useful model for examining the mechanisms underlying osteoporosis. We have recently established a new bone marrow transplantation (BMT) method: the bone marrow cells (BMCs) of normal allogeneic mice are directly injected into the bone marrow cavity of irradiated recipients (IBM-BMT). Using IBM-BMT, we attempted to prevent osteoporosis

Keizo Takada; Muneo Inaba; Naoya Ichioka; Susumu Baba; Mitsuru Taira; Koichi Nakamura; Hirokazu Iida; Susumu Ikehara



Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation With 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide Purged Marrows for Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia in Late Remission or Early Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by infusion of autologous marrow purged with 100 ?g\\/mL of 4-hydroperoxycyclo- phosphamide (4HC). The marrow harvests were performed when there were <5% blasts in the marrow. Seven patients were transplanted in second complete remission (CR), eight in third CR, one in fourth CR, and eight

Craig Rosenfeld; Richard K. Shadduck; Donna Przepiorka; Kenneth F. Mangan; Michael Colvin



Constitution and telomere dynamics of bone marrow stromal cells in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the genotypic origin of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) following sex-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and investigated the telomere dynamics in MSC in normal individuals and patients after BMT. The study population consisted of 11 patients with hematologic disorders who showed complete chimerism after BMT. Telomere length was measured in MSC using Southern blotting analysis in eight patients

J-J Lee; C-E Nam; H Kook; J P Maciejewski; Y-K Kim; I-J Chung; K-S Park; I-K Lee; T-J Hwang; H-J Kim



Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children failing prior autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three children with de novo acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (n= 20), secondary AML (n = 1), or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 2) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) for graft failure (n = 1) or recurrent malignancy (n = 22) between February 1992 and August 1999 following autologous BMT (ABMT). Induction chemotherapy was given to 14 patients and nine

GA Hale; Xin Tong; E Benaim; JM Cunningham; HE Heslop; EM Horwitz; W Leung; RJ Rochester; PD Shearer; DK Srivastava; JP Woodard; LC Bowman



Bone marrow transplant today—Home tomorrow: Ambulatory care issues in pediatric marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric marrow transplantation is now an accepted and increasingly successful intensive therapy for a wide range of disorders in children. Supportive therapies that were once thought to be possible only in the acute care setting can now be safely managed in the outpatient arena. This shift is influenced by scientific and patient care advances and by managed care and cost

Patricia A Fidler; Cynthia J Hibbs



Bone marrow cryopreservation and clinical implications in autologous bone marrow transplantation.  


A simple, rapid and effective technique using the IBM (Cobe)-2991 cell processor for the concentration of buffy coat cells from large volume marrow has been well adopted (n = 16). Only about one-eighth of the original volume was obtained while retaining more than 90% of the total nucleated cells to be cryopreserved in polyolefine bags with TC-199 culture medium and final 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (n = 9), processed by a computerized Nicool ST-20 (France) programmed freezer and stored in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Stem cell assay by CFU-GM after thawing yielded a mean of 50.39 +/- 19.54% which has been satisfactory for clinical implementation. So far, three cases with hematological malignancies had been rescued by autologous cryopreserved marrow after supralethal doses of chemoradiotherapy. Two patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia transplanted in 1st remission as of Oct. 31 had been disease free for 178+ and 157+ days, respectively, after transplant which was taken at the corresponding age of 53 and 42 years. The other patient who was a victim of Hodgkin's disease, stage IV, and was transplanted in 3rd remission, expired on the 59th day because of the complication of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis despite excellent granulocytopoietic reconstitution. The preliminary results are encouraging for further exploitation, especially for those who would otherwise be candidates for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation but are limited by age or lack of an HLA-identical sibling to serve as marrow donors. PMID:3054972

Tzeng, C H; Hsieh, R K; Chuang, M W; Liu, J H; Chen, K Y; Yung, C H; Wang, S Y; Chen, P M



Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard



Autologous bone marrow transplantation by photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous exposure of Merocyanine 540 dye containing cultured tumor cells to 514-nm laser light (93.6 J/cm2) results in virtually complete cell destruction. Under identical conditions, 40% of the normal progenitor (CFU-GM) cells survive the treatment. Laser- photoradiation treated, cultured breast cancer cells also were killed, and living tumor cells could not be detected by clonogenic assays or by anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody method. Thus, laser photoradiation therapy could be useful for purging of contaminating tumor cells from autologous bone marrow.

Gulliya, Kirpal S.



Alaska red: A general purpose, productive, red-skinned potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Alaska Red’ is the first red-skinned potato bred and selected in Alaska as a clone suitable for the fresh potato market.\\u000a Its parents are Alaska Clone 11-57-1-59 and ‘Red Beauty’. It is a high yielding, medium specific gravity potato with uniform\\u000a skin and eye basin color, shallow eyes, uniform oval-to-flattened shape and is very attractive. The flesh is snowy white

C. H. Dearborn



Mars: simply red?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars has been known as the Red Planet since ancient times, and the small flotilla of spacecraft that has visited our solar system neighbour over the past few years could only confirm this basic observation from those ancient civilizations. However, the enormous amount of data returned from the varied instruments has significantly increased our knowledge of almost every aspect of the planet's evolution. Three orbiters and two rovers are currently operating there, and NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is on its way. One of the three orbiters is Mars Express, ESA's first spacecraft to another planet. It is considered a major success of ESA's science programme, and one of the highlights of the agency's increasing efforts in planetary exploration. A wealth of scientific results has been published in journals and presented at conferences. The instrument on Mars Express that probably has the largest appeal to the public is the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). Two years ago we gave a description of its scientific goals and presented the first images obtained from orbit (Hauber and Neukum 2004). Here we give an overview of the technical and scientific achievements of HRSC made over the two years of the nominal mission, and show some of the most appealing images. But don't be fooled: despite the spectacular false-colour images shown here to enhance the subtle colour variations of the martian surface, HRSC's multispectral images have shown that Mars is red in varying tones everywhere, except at small parts of its ice-covered poles. Many other aspects of the data are harder to understand. Mars may still be red, but it is by no means simple!

Hauber, Ernst; Neukum, Gerhard



Targeted pathologic evaluation of bone marrow donors identifies previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities.  


Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic studies. A total of 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001 and 2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. Of the screened potential donors, the mean age was 59 years and there were 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years (n = 33), anemia (n = 22), cytopenias other than anemia (n = 27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (n = 20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (n = 10), history of malignancy (n = 4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (n = 3), prior graft failure (n = 1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (n = 1), and body habitus (n = 1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11 of 122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5 of 22, 23%), age >60 years (2 of 33, 6%), history of malignancy (2 of 4, 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1 of 20, 5%), and body habitus (1 of 1, 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 3), abnormal marrow cellularity (n = 3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (n = 1), and monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. PMID:23769818

Tilson, Matthew P; Jones, Richard J; Sexauer, Amy; Griffin, C A; Morsberger, Laura A; Batista, Denise A S; Small, Donald; Burns, Kathleen H; Gocke, Christopher D; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Although flavonoids contribute to the red, violet, and blue pigmentation of many flowers and seeds, their biosynthetic pathway is still being elucidated. In their Perspective, Bartel and Matsuda discuss new work (Xie et al.) revealing that the biosynthetic enzyme BANYULS is important for regulating the relative amounts of two types of flavonoids, the anthocyanins and the condensed tannins, both of which are powerful antioxidants that confer health benefits on humans when eaten.

Bonnie Bartel (Rice University;Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology); Seiichi P. T. Matsuda (Rice University;Department of Chemistry and the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)



Spectrograph Red Leak Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This test features the measurement of one star, 16 Cyg B = HD 186427, with both spectrographs, in the range 1530-3230A. The goal of the test is to achieve S/N = 35 to 50A at 5A resolution. The star is an HST ultraviolet standard, and it is also a near-solar analog. The purpose of the test is to measure the amount of red leak into the ultraviolet region for an object with a color that is very similar to solar system objects. The information is necessary for efficient planning.

Caldwell, John



Phialemonium curvatum infection after bone marrow transplantation.  


We report a case of cutaneous infection caused by Phialemonium curvatum GAMS et COOKE, 1983, after bone marrow transplantation. The genus Phialemonium was created by GAMS & MCGINNIS in 1983 including three new species: Ph. obovatum, Ph. curvatum and Ph. dimorphosporum, and represents an intermediate genus between Acremonium and Phialophora. Nowadays, the genus Phialemonium is considered to be a pheoid fungus which may cause the eventual lesions observed in pheo- and hyalohyphomycosis. Species of this genus have been described as opportunistic agents in humans and animals, mainly as a result of immunosuppression. In the present case, the patient had multiple myeloma and received an allogenic bone marrow transplant from his HLA-compatible brother. Two months after transplantation, he developed purplish and painful nodular lesions on the right ankle. Some of these lesions drained spontaneously and apparently hyaline mycelial filaments were observed, whose culture was initially identified as Acremonium sp. Subsequent studies showed that the fungus was Phialemonium curvatum. The infection was treated with amphotericin B, followed by ketoconazole. The patient was submitted to surgical debridement followed by two skin grafts to repair the bloody area. The duration of the treatment was 4 months and secondary prophylaxis with ketoconazole alone was maintained for one additional month. No recurrence was observed after discontinuation of treatment. The authors comment on the pathogenicity of the genus Phialemonium. PMID:11452326

Heins-Vaccari, E M; Machado, C M; Saboya, R S; Silva, R L; Dulley, F L; Lacaz, C S; Freitas Leite, R S; Hernandez Arriagada, G L


Osteonecrosis after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Osteonecrosis after bone marrow transplantation is usually severe. Most patients develop acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring a high dose of steroids for a long period of time. Generally ineffective nonoperative treatment in the past has resulted in treatment primarily with total hip arthroplasty (THA). We asked whether THA (1) reliably improved functional status, (2) led to more complications, and (3) THA after bone marrow transplantation was as durable as THA for idiopathic ON. We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients (123 hips) with osteonecrosis. The mean age at surgery was 33 years (range, 15.7–56 years). We performed all arthroplasties with an alumina ceramic bearing coupled with an alumina head 32 mm in diameter. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 9.2 years; range, 2–26 years). We documented seven revisions: three for late septic loosening, four for late aseptic loosening. Considering loosening of any component as the end point, the survivorship was 74.8% (range, 58.7%–90.9%) at 10 years. In this difficult situation, we believe the results acceptable. Septic loosening affecting this specific population has to be considered a serious event. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Raould, Agnes; Bizot, Pascal; Nizard, Remy; Sedel, Laurent



Bone Marrow Osteoblast Damage by Chemotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic reconstitution, following bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, requires a microenvironment niche capable of supporting both immature progenitors and stem cells with the capacity to differentiate and expand. Osteoblasts comprise one important component of this niche. We determined that treatment of human primary osteoblasts (HOB) with melphalan or VP-16 resulted in increased phospho-Smad2, consistent with increased TGF-?1 activity. This increase was coincident with reduced HOB capacity to support immature B lineage cell chemotaxis and adherence. The supportive deficit was not limited to committed progenitor cells, as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human CD34+ bone marrow cells co-cultured with HOB pre-exposed to melphalan, VP-16 or rTGF-?1 had profiles distinct from the same populations co-cultured with untreated HOB. Functional support deficits were downstream of changes in HOB gene expression profiles following chemotherapy exposure. Melphalan and VP-16 induced damage of HOB suggests vulnerability of this critical niche to therapeutic agents frequently utilized in pre-transplant regimens and suggests that dose escalated chemotherapy may contribute to post-transplantation hematopoietic deficits by damaging structural components of this supportive niche.

Piktel, Debbie; Walton, Cheryl; Fortney, James E.; Akers, Stephen M.; Martin, Karen H.; Denvir, James; Boskovic, Goran; Primerano, Donald A.; Vos, Jeffrey; Bailey, Nathanael; Gencheva, Marieta; Gibson, Laura F.



Bone marrow transplantation in Taiwan: an overview.  


In Taiwan, a country with 21 million people, 388 bone marrow transplants (BMTs), 308 allografts and 80 autografts, were performed in 5 BMT centers from November 1983 to October 1993. The commonest indications were leukemia, aplastic anemia, lymphoma and thalassemia. Campaigns promoting an unrelated marrow donor registry were started in August 1993 and recruited approximately 26,000 volunteers. A peripheral stem cell program is just beginning. The overall results of BMT in Taiwan are comparable to other countries. The complications of BMT are similar to Western series, except that acute GVHD was rarer in one large series; this observation needs further study. A particular indication for allogeneic BMT in Taiwan is thalassemia, accounting for 10% of all patients. Disease-free survival after BMT for thalassemia is 44%; graft rejection is the major cause of treatment failure. Another important issue is the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in BMT, since the prevalence of HBV infection in Taiwan is very high (> 90%). Abnormal liver function is currently the most common complication and might be related to HBV. Among nearly 100 allogeneic BMTs with HBV carriers as either donor or recipient, 2 patients (approximately 2%) died of HBV-related hepatic failure. Whether the HBV status of the donor and recipient is an important prognostic factor remains to be defined. PMID:7920298

Chen, Y C; Lin, K H; Huang, W S; Tang, J L



Hodgkin's disease with bone marrow involvement.  


Bone marrow involvement was seen in 11 percent of patients with Hodgkin's Disease which was determined from pre-treatment biopsy specimens using established histopathologic criteria. Analysis of 32 evaluable patients with marrow involvement showed male preponderance with a peak in fourth decade of life. Twenty four cases (75%) had B-symptoms and 15 (46%) presented within six months of onset of symptoms. On categorizing for clinical staging, 21 (65%) belonged to stage III and IV. Hepatomegaly (greater than or equal to 2 cms) was present in seven cases (21%) and splenomegaly in 13 cases (40%). Mixed cellularity and lymphocytic depletion histopathologic subtypes showed the highest frequency of involvement (21 cases; 65%). Out of 28 cases ESR was raised in 27 cases (96%). Eighteen cases (56%) showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Serum copper levels were determined in 14 cases, out of which 12 (85%) showed elevated levels. These parameters along with anemia (hemoglobin of 12 g/dl or less) in 26 cases (81%), correlated well with the disease activity. Only four cases had leukopenia at presentation pointing to no hindrance for aggressive chemotherapy. All cases received minimum of six courses of standard combination chemotherapy with or without local radiotherapy. Sixteen cases (50%) relapsed subsequently and were managed accordingly. A five year follow-up revealed a minimal 31 percent overall survival, and 18 percent of patients were disease free and well since the time of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2591999

Gupta, R; Parikh, P M; Advani, S H; Charak, B S; Saikia, T; Dinshaw, K A; Gonsalves, M A; Gopal, R; Nair, C N; Nadkarni, K S



Bone Marrow Transplantation for Cancer - An Update.  


The number of allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants continues to grow worldwide. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has become standard therapy for many patients with leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and testicular cancer. Encouraging results of autologous BMT in treating patients with poor-risk breast cancer have led to this approach being tested in nationwide randomized trials. In order to increase availability and efficacy of BMT, other sources of hematopoietic cells are explored for transplantation, such as from HLA-matched unrelated volunteer donors, partially matched related donors, placental/umbilical cord blood and allogeneic peripheral blood. Relapse of original malignancy remains the main obstacle for the success of BMT. Recent clinical investigations have demonstrated that donor-derived peripheral blood leukocytes are effective in inducing remissions in patients with hematological malignancies who relapse after allogeneic BMT. BMT procedures are associated with significant complexity and should be carried out only in transplant units that meet adequate standards. In order to better define the role of BMT in treating cancer, more phase III clinical trials are needed. The future of BMT will depend on further improvements in its efficacy and economic constraints. PMID:10387982

Pavletic; Armitage



Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominal pain.  


Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs, including weight loss, fever, chills, anemia, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The histological features of AITL are also distinctive. Pure red cell aplasia is a bone marrow failure characterized by progressive normocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia without leucopenia or thrombocytopenia. However, AITL with abdominal pain and pure red cell aplasia has rarely been reported. Here, we report a rare case of AITL-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominal pain. The diagnosis was verified by a biopsy of the enlarged abdominal lymph nodes with immunohistochemical staining. PMID:23936760

Tao, Jin; Zheng, Feng-Ping; Tian, Hong; Lin, Ying; Li, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Jian-Ning; Shao, Chun-Kui; Wu, Bin



Red giants rotational splittings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space missions CoRoT and Kepler provide high quality data that allow to test the transport of angular momentum in stars by the seismic determination of the internal rotation profile. Our aim is to test the validity of the seismic diagnostics for red giant rotation that are based on a perturbative method and to investigate the oscillation spectra when the validity does not hold. We use a non-perturbative approach implemented in the ACOR code [1] that accounts for the effect of rotation on pulsations, and solves the pulsations eigenproblem directly for dipolar oscillation modes. We find that the limit of the perturbation to first order can be expressed in terms of the core rotation and the period separation between consecutive dipolar modes. Above this limit, each family of modes with different azimuthal symmetry m, has to be considered separately. For rapidly rotating red giants, new seismic diagnostics can be found for rotation by exploiting the differences between the period spacings associated with each m-family of modes.

Ouazzani, R. M.; Goupil, M. J.; Dupret, M. A.; Marques, J. P.



Open lung biopsy in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of open lung biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infiltrates in children who have undergone bone marrow transplantation. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients in whom pulmonary infiltrates developed within 6 months after bone marrow transplantation. Of 528 patients who received

Andrea Hayes-Jordan; Ely Benaim; Stacye Richardson; Javier Joglar; D. Kumar Srivastava; Laura Bowman; Stephen J. Shochat



Bone Marrow Necrosis as the Only Manifestation of Disseminated Carcinomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case with thrombocytopenia and bone marrow necrosis as the only manifestation of disseminated carcinomatosis is reported. The diagnosis was first established by repeated bone marrow biopsy which revealed marked necrosis without evidence of malignancy. The patient’s general condition deteriorated rapidly despite therapy with steroids. Autopsy revealed disseminated metastatic adenocarcinoma, but the primary site of the tumor was not

Haim Granot; Aaron Polliack; Yaacov Matzner



Isolated Bone Marrow Manifestation of HIV-Associated Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin lymphoma frequently involves the bone marrow and is usually recognized at staging after Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis on a lymph node or other tissue biopsies, but occasionally the marrow involvement is the only apparent manifestation of disease. In the latter setting, diagnosis can be problematic. From a total of 42 patients with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus–associated

Maurilio Ponzoni; Luca Fumagalli; Giuseppe Rossi; Massimo Freschi; Alessandro Re; Maria Grazia Viganò; Massimo Guidoboni; Riccardo Dolcetti; Robert W. McKenna; Fabio Facchetti



The bone marrow at the crossroads of blood and immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progenitor cells that are the basis for all blood cell production share the bone marrow with more mature elements of the adaptive immune system. Specialized niches within the bone marrow guide and, at times, constrain the development of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and lineage-restricted immune progenitor cells. Specific niche components are organized into distinct domains to create a

Francois E. Mercier; Christine Ragu; David T. Scadden



Bones of contention: Marrow-derived cells in myocardial regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 7 years have passed since the initial publication reporting that bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. The subsequent years produced hundreds of investigations that ran the gamut of findings from validation to disproof. Undeterred by the concurrent debate, clinical trials ensued to test the safety and efficacy of bone marrow-derived cell population for autologous therapy in clinical treatment of myocardial

Mark A. Sussman; Charles E. Murry



Biennial Report of the National Bone Marrow Donor Registry, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) is a nonprofit organization based in Minneapolis, MN, that operates the National Bone Marrow Donor Registry under contract from the Federal government with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health R...



The Experience and Preparation of Pediatric Sibling Bone Marrow Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assist sibling bone marrow donors with the psychological and emotional distress that they may experience as donors, a sibling bone marrow donor program was developed at The Hospital for Sick Children. These donors feel overwhelming responsibility for their siblings' survival, which can lead to psychological distress. The donors are engaged in age-appropriate medical play and are encouraged to discuss

Wendy I. Shama



Merkel Cell Carcinoma Developing after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for haematopoietic malignancies have an increased risk of developing secondary malignancies. It has been estimated that the incidence of secondary cancer is 4.2 times higher than of primary cancer in the general population. Potential risk factors associated with the development of secondary cancers in bone marrow recipients include the use of an alkylating agent in

Montserrat Gilaberte; Ramon M. Pujol; Jordi Sierra; Xavier Matias-Guiu; Josep Isern; Pere Serret; Luis De Andrés; Agustin Alomar




Microsoft Academic Search

Leukemia has been studied in two sets of identical two. One leukemic ; twin was irradiated with 850 r and the other with 1,140 r from Co⁶° sources. ; Each was then given bone marrow from the respective normal twin. Successful ; transplantation of this isologous marrow was determined by the return of morrow ; function, evident after less than

E. Donnall Thomas; Harry L. Lochte; Joe H. Cannon; Otto D. Sahler; Joseph W. Ferrebee



Pathophysiology and Management of Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The inherited marrow failure syndromes are a diverse set of genetic disorders characterized by hematopoietic aplasia and cancer predisposition. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable and much broader than previously recognized. The medical management of the inherited marrow failure syndromes differs from that of acquired aplastic anemia or malignancies arising in the general population. Diagnostic workup, molecular pathogenesis, and clinical treatment are reviewed.

Shimamura, Akiko; Alter, Blanche P.



Migration of bone marrow stem cells in ischaemic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in the management of haematological malignancy and solid cancer, but its role in neurodegenerative conditions remains uncertain. We hypothesize that: (1) ventricular delivery of bone marrow stem cells improves functional outcome in experimental ischaemia of the mouse brain; and (2) this improved outcome is due to migration of bone marrow stem

W. S. Poon; G. Lu; K. S. Tsang; X. L. Zhu; G. G. Chen; H. K. Ng


Bone marrow transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between February 1981 and December 1984 we treated 52 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase and 18 patients with more advanced disease by high-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation using marrow cells from HLA-identical sibling donors. In addition, the 40 patients who had not previously undergone splenectomy received radiotherapy to the spleen. To prevent graft

John M. Goldman; Jane F. Apperley; Lydia Jones; Robert Marcus; Alan W. G. Goolden; Richard Batchelor; Geoffrey Hale; Herman Waldmann; Cecil D. Reid; Jill Hows; Edward Gordon-Smith; Daniel Catovsky; David A. G. Galton



Chronic Disseminated Histoplasmosis Bone Marrow Involvement in an Immunocompetent Patient  

PubMed Central

Histoplasmosis normally do not affect immunocompetent individuals. Prolonged exposure may cause chronic disseminated histoplasmosis. Elderly male patient presented with fever, hematuria and pain in right hypochondrium. He had pallor, fever and mild hepatosplenomegaly. Investigations revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia. Giemsa stained bone marrow aspirate showed yeast-like cells, suggestive of Histoplasma capsulatum. PAS stained bone marrow aspirate and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.

Tangri, Rajiv; Verma, Neena; Gautam, Dheeraj



Gelatinous Bone Marrow Transformation Complicated by Self-Induced Malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 48-year-old woman with a history of anorexia nervosa was admitted to our hospital because of malaise, anorexia and edema in the face and legs. She was diagnosed with gelatinous bone marrow and iron deficiency anemia due to severe malnutrition. She was intravenously treated by saccharated ferric oxide and her anemia was improved, but her bone marrow still showed much

Daisuke Nonaka; Minoru Tanaka; Kouichi Takaki; Morio Umeno; Takashi Okamura; Hirohisa Taketa



Effect of 910MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to investigate the possibility of electromagnetic fields (EMF) developed by nonionizing radiation to be a noxious agent capable of inducing genotoxicity to humans, in the current study we have investigated the effect of 910-MHz EMF in rat bone marrow. Rats were exposed daily for 2 h over a period of 30 consecutive days. Studying bone marrow smears from EMF-exposed

Georgia Demsia; Dimitris Vlastos; Demetrios P. Matthopoulos



Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature suggested that cells of the microenvironment of tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression profiling and phenotypic and functional studies in three groups of individuals: patients with MM, patients with monoclonal

J Corre; K Mahtouk; M Attal; M Gadelorge; A Huynh; S Fleury-Cappellesso; C Danho; P Laharrague; B Klein; T Rème; P Bourin



Comparative Study of Bone Marrow and Blood B Cells in Infantile and Acquired Agammaglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

The status of immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors of the bone marrow dependent (B) cells present in either the bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) of three patients with infantile agammaglobulinemia (I-AGG), or seven patients with acquired agammaglobulinemia (A-AGG) is compared with those of 12 controls. Quantitative and qualitative changes of the different classes of Ig receptors on B cells were evaluated by their capacity to bind [125I]anti-Ig, to be stained with fluorescinated anti-Ig and their in vitro proliferative capacity upon incubation with the anti-Ig. Patients with I-AGG lacked B cells in both the BM and PB. Whereas BM cells of patients with A-AGG carried receptors similar to control cells, their blood B cells had fewer IgM, IgG, and IgA cells which failed to proliferate in vitro in the presence of the anti-Ig. An anti-IgM of the IgG class was detected in the sera of patients with A-AGG but not in sera of I-AGG. The isolated anti-IgM agglutinated human red cells coated with IgM. The anti-IgM partially blocked the binding of fluorescinated or radiolabeled anti-IgM to IgM peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal controls. The eluted anti-IgM in presence of complement was partially cytotoxic to normal cells. It is concluded that I-AGG-B cell defect is due to failure of B cell development in the bone marrow compartment whereas the peripheral exclusion of IgM cells by an anti-IgM with the subsequent failure of differentiation of both IgG and IgA cells could be an important mechanism in A-AGG-B cell defect.

Abdou, Nabih I.; Casella, Salvatore R.; Abdou, Nancy L.; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.



Relationship between mixed chimerism and rejection after bone marrow transplantation in thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Background Thalassaemia is a genetic disease that requires a hypertransfusion regimen to treat the anaemia caused by enhanced red blood cell destruction. The only radical cure for thalassaemia is to correct the genetic defect by bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical donor capable of producing and maintaining a normal haemoglobin level in the recipient. Complete donor haematopoiesis is not essential for sustained engraftment and the simultaneous presence of haematopoietic cells of both donor and recipient origin is not a rare event after a transplant. Patients and methods The evolution of marrow engraftment of 93 transplanted thalassaemic patients, all from Middle East or Asian countries, was monitored by analysis of short tandem repeats. Results Forty-three of 93 (46%) patients experienced a status of mixed chimerism early after bone marrow transplantation. Results of further engraftment analysis in these patients showed in 27 complete donor engraftment; rejection occurred in seven, while eight maintained the presence of both host and donor-derived cells. Interestingly, five out of the seven patients who rejected their transplant showed more than 25% residual host cells early after transplantation. Discussion and conclusion Our study confirmed that the presence of large amounts of residual host cells within the first 2 months after a transplant is a risk factor for graft rejection also in a group of patients with wide ethnic heterogeneity, irregular transfusion regimens and/or poor chelation treatment. Ten percent of the transplanted thalassaemic patients maintained coexistence of donor and recipient cells, showing a stable functional graft, characterized by normal production of beta globin chains and high levels of haemoglobin. A mechanism responsible for peripheral tolerance induction, such as the production of specific regulatory T-cell clones, seems to play a key role in the induction of long-term tolerance after the transplant.

Andreani, Marco; Testi, Manuela; Battarra, Mariarosa; Indigeno, Paola; Guagnano, Annalisa; Polchi, Paola; Federici, Giorgio; Lucarelli, Guido



Microscopy analysis of bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells cultured on hydrogel 3-D scaffold.  


Bone marrow contains progenitor cells that are able to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages, including bone. These cells may also provide a potential therapy for bone repair. The purpose of this study was to select the osteoprogenitor cell subpopulation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to test the ability of a hydrogel scaffold to support growth and osteogenic differentiation. MSCs isolated from rat femur bone marrow were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with antibiotics, FCS, and L-glutamine. Osteogenic supplements (dexamethasone, sodium beta-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid) were added for one, two or three weeks. A selective subpopulation of osteoprogenitor cells was identified by immunohistochemistry, general morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Committed osteogenic cells were transferred to a 3-D hydrogel scaffold and cultured for an additional week. In standard culture, the osteoprogenitor cells formed cell clusters identified by Alizarin red S staining and by positive osteocalcin immunostaining. The number of osteoprogenitor cells, matrix synthesis, and mineralization increased gradually up to three weeks in culture. Mineral deposition in the matrix analyzed by EDS revealed the presence of calcium and phosphate ions at a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.73 in both the osteogenic cultures and the scaffold osteoprogenitor culture. Histological preparations revealed cell clusters within the hydrogel scaffold and SEM analysis revealed cell clusters attached to the scaffold surface. It is concluded that the hydrogel scaffold can support growth and differentiation of osteogenic cultures including mineralization and can potentially serve as a bone graft substitute containing committed osteoprogenitor cells. PMID:15880496

Srouji, S; Maurice, S; Livne, E



Red meat in global nutrition.  


The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E



Bone marrow replacement in the treatment of hemolytic disease in mice  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow replacement therapy following whole-body x- or gamma-irradiation has until now proven to be of limited value in the treatment of individuals with hemolytic disease. The large doses of radiation required for destruction of defective erythropoietic tissues coupled with their resultant high mortality appears to limit its usefulness. Techniques have been developed by the authors to limit the extent of exposure and to improve survival following irradiation. These techniques include shielding of all parts of the body except the hind limbs, prophylactic use of antibiotics, and preparatory blood transfusion to suppress the development of indigenous defective erythrocytes. Using these combined techniques we were able to establish high rates of survival, successful engraftment, and long-term clinical improvement in mice with several hemolytic disorders emanating from hereditary defects in spectrin production and incorporation. Evidence is presented indicating that complete bone marrow replacement occurs even in nonirradiated portions of the erythron and that only donor type red blood cells appear in the circulation.

Bernstein, S.E.; Deveau, S.A. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (USA))



Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night.

Tabatabai, R.N.



Dose conversion factors for marrow and bone by skeletal regions  

SciTech Connect

Radiation dose estimates for the active bone marrow are of primary importance in radioimmunotherapy. The dose coefficients of MIRD 11 (S values) and ICRP 30 (values of specific effective energy, SEE) reflect unnecessary simplifying assumptions regarding anatomical and radiological parameters that may limit the ability of these coefficients to predict clinical symptoms associated with irradiation of the marrow at the multi-gray level. The results of new calculations of electron transport in the skeleton, based on the microstructure have been applied to the skeletal regions of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series to produce dose coefficients (absorbed dose per disintegration) for active marrow and bone surface cells as targets from electron sources in the marrow, on the surfaces of bone, or in bone volume. The coefficients are determined for fifteen skeletal regions, thus allowing estimation of the absorbed dose to these different skeletal regions. The development of these new coefficients will be described, and the coefficients will be compared with similar coefficients from the MIRD and ICRP dosimetry systems. For I-131, the region-specific dose coefficients for marrow irradiating marrow in the adult range from 2.1 x 10{sup -5} mGy/MBq-s (pelvis) to 5.6 x 10{sup -4} mGy/MBq-s (clavicles). A weighted average coefficient for the whole skeleton (marrow irradiating marrow, I-131) is 9.5 x 10{sup -6} mGy/MBq-s, in comparison with 1.7 x 10{sup -5} mGy/MBq-s from MIRD-11 and 2.9 x 10{sup -5} mGy/MBq-s from ICRP-30. Weighted average coefficients for newborns through 15-year-olds (marrow irradiating marrow, I-131) vary from 3.2 x 10{sup -4} to 1.05 x 10{sup -5} mGy/MBq-s. Sample dose estimates for several nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals, with an emphasis on radioimmunotherapy, will be presented.

Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)



International red meat trade.  


The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L



Treatment of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice by Intra-Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Transplantation plus Portal Vein Injection of ? Cells Induced from Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curative therapy for diabetes mellitus mainly involves pancreas or islet transplantation to recruit insulin-producing cells. This approach is limited, however, because of both the shortage of donor organs and allograft rejection. Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) has recently been shown to be effective in inducing donor-specific tolerance in mice and rats without the use of immunosuppressants. After induction of

M. Li; M. Inaba; K. Q. Guo; H. Hisha; N. G. Abraham; S. Ikehara



Marrow donor registry and bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors in Taiwan: initial experience of the Tzu Chi Taiwan Marrow Donor Registry (TCTMDR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the outcomes of unrelated bone marrow transplantation facilitated by TCTMDR, we focused on 48 marrow transplants performed in Taiwan during the period May 1994 to June 1997. Follow-up of these 48 cases was made up to 30 May 1998. The average length of follow-up was 328 days (range 7–1385 days). All the donor\\/recipient pairs were HLA-A, B and

C-K Shaw; C-L Lin; C-C Li; T-D Lee; W-P Tseng



Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma infiltrating bone marrow at presentation: the value to diagnosis of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To describe the histological appearances of bone marrow infiltrated with rhabdomyosarcoma at presentation and to determine their value in establishing the diagnosis. METHODS: Patients presenting over seven years in the northern health region of England with rhabdomyosarcoma were studied. Bone marrow aspirates and trephine biopsy specimens taken at presentation were examined. RESULTS: Seven of 32 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma had

M M Reid; P W Saunders; N Bown; C R Bradford; Z T Maung; A W Craft; A J Malcolm



Engraftment and survival after unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation: a report from the National Marrow Donor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed engraftment of unrelated- donor (URD) bone marrow in 5246 pa- tients who received transplants facili- tated by the National Marrow Donor Program between August 1991 and June 1999. Among patients surviving at least 28 days, 4% had primary graft failure (failure to achieve an absolute neutrophil count > 5 3 108\\/L before death or second stem-cell infusion). Multivariate

Stella M. Davies; Craig Kollman; Claudio Anasetti; Joseph H. Antin; James Gajewski; James T. Casper; Auayporn Nademanee; Harriet Noreen; Roberta King; Dennis Confer; Nancy A. Kernan


Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma infiltrating bone marrow at presentation: the value to diagnosis of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe the histological appearances of bone marrow infiltrated with rhabdomyosarcoma at presentation and to determine their value in establishing the diagnosis. METHODS: Patients presenting over seven years in the northern health region of England with rhabdomyosarcoma were studied. Bone marrow aspirates and trephine biopsy specimens taken at presentation were examined. RESULTS: Seven of 32 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma had bone marrow infiltration, resulting in marrow failure in all cases, at diagnosis. The diagnosis was established in these seven by the typical cytological appearances and immunophenotype of the infiltrating cells (all seven patients) and cytogenetic abnormalities (three patients). Histological examination of the bone marrow showed a pseudoalveolar pattern with fibrous septal bands, enlarged vascular channels, and lack of cohesion of the tumour cells within the subdivided aggregates in all seven. In four cases multinucleate giant cells, often with peripherally sited nuclei, were found. CONCLUSIONS: These histological features of infiltrated marrow are so characteristic that the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma can be made, or at least suspected, in many cases even without recourse to technically difficult and expensive further investigations. Bone marrow biopsy should be a routine part of the investigation of patients with bone marrow failure and will be of particular value in the diagnosis of those with disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Images

Reid, M M; Saunders, P W; Bown, N; Bradford, C R; Maung, Z T; Craft, A W; Malcolm, A J



A retrospective study of the incidence and classification of bone marrow disorder in cats (1996–2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-year retrospective study of bone marrow reports was conducted to evaluate the incidence and classification of feline bone marrow disorders. Bone marrow reports from 203 cats were reviewed. Blood smears, bone marrow aspiration smears, bone marrow core biopsy specimens, and case records were reviewed for all cats with the exception of those bone marrows reported to be nondiagnostic or

Douglas J. Weiss



Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund;Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD



Red Rices - Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rices with a red bran layer are called red rices. This paper briefly reviews the history, definition, and types of red rices; the uses of red rices as food and medicine, and their role in cultural and religious ceremonies; the varieties of red rices, areas of cultivation, and their use in breeding programs for the improvement of cultivated varieties; and

Uma Ahuja; SC Ahuja; Narender Chaudhary; Rashmi Thakrar


Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow without graft-versus-host disease in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10/sup 9/ BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD.

Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.



Simultaneous bone marrow and intestine transplantation promotes marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and chimerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ allografts have been shown to pro- vide a syngeneic microenvironment for organ-based donor hematopoietic stem cells to maintain long-lasting chimerism after transplantation. We hypothesized that organ allografts would also support engraftment and hematopoiesis of adjunc- tively infused donor marrow stem cells, syngeneic to organ grafts, in nonmyelo- ablated recipients. In BN-to-LEW and GFP- to-ACI rat combinations, donor bone mar-

Atsunori Nakao; Hideyoshi Toyokawa; Kei Kimizuka; Michael A. Nalesnik; Isao Nozaki; Robert J. Bailey; Anthony J. Demetris; Thomas E. Starzl; Noriko Murase


Psychosocial Effects of Unrelated Bone Marrow Donation: Experiences of the National Marrow Donor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the psychosocial effects of unrelated marrow donation. Survey questionnaires were administered pre-donation, shortly post-donation, and 1 year post-donation to all donors through the National Mar- row Donor Program over a 3-year period. Univariate, bi- variate, and multivariate analyses were then performed. Donors were generally quite positive about the donation 1 year post-donation: 87% felt it

Victoria A. Butterworth; Roberta G. Simmons; Glenn Bartsch; Bryan Randall; Mindy Schimmel; David F. Stroncek



Facilitation of hematopoietic recovery by bone grafts with intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation.  


We have previously shown that T cells can acquire donor-type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and can interact with both donor-type antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and B cells, when adult donor bones are co-grafted with intravenous (IV) injection of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in order to supply donor bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. We have also found that the direct injection of donor BMCs into recipient BM (intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation: IBM-BMT) produces more rapid reconstitution (including T-cell functions) and higher survival rates than IV injection (IV-BMT) even in chimerism-resistant combinations. In the present study, we show that the co-administration of bones from suckling (2-3 days old) donor mice is also effective in the IBM-BMT system. Even when a relatively low number of BMCs were injected into adult (more than 15 weeks old) mice, complete reconstitution was achieved in the mice that had received IBM-BMT+bone grafts, but not in the mice that had received IBM-BMT alone. Most BM and splenic adherent cells obtained from the recipients that had received IBM-BMT+bone grafts were reconstituted by donor-type cells. Both T-cell proliferation and plaque-forming cell assays indicated that the T cells of such mice showed donor-type MHC restriction. Moreover, the analyses of thymic sections using confocal microscopy revealed that donor BM stromal cells had migrated into the thymus. Thus, the co-administration of donor bones has great advantages for allogeneic BMT in adult mice. PMID:18514748

Song, Changye; Hisha, Hiroko; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Qing; Li, Ming; Cui, Wenhao; Guo, Kequan; Okazaki, Satoshi; Mizokami, Tomomi; Kato, Junko; Cui, Yunze; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuming; Shi, Ming; Inaba, Muneo; Fan, Hongxue; Ikehara, Susumu



Characterizing Warfare in Red Teaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through

Ang Yang; Hussein A. Abbass; Ruhul A. Sarker



Erythropoiesis, anemia and the bone marrow microenvironment.  


The in vivo regulation of erythropoiesis involves the integration of a range of intrinsic and cell extrinsic cues. The macrophage contained within the erythroblastic island is central to the normal differentiation and support of erythroid development. The contributions of other cell types found within the local bone marrow microenvironment are also likely to play important roles depending on the context. Such cell types include osteoblasts, osteoclasts, adipocytes, endothelial cells in addition to developing hematopoietic cells. There are data correlating changes in erythroid homeostasis, particularly in anemic states such as hemoglobinopathies, with alterations in the skeleton. The interaction and coordination of erythroid development and skeletal homeostasis, particularly in setting of erythroid demand, may represent a centrally regulated axis that is important physiologically, pharmacologically and in the pathology of anemia states. PMID:21222184

Walkley, Carl R



Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Lymphoproliferative Disorders: An Infrequent Association  

PubMed Central

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome defined by a progressive normocytic anaemia and reticulocytopenia without leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Secondary PRCA can be associated with various haematological disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the present review is to investigate the infrequent association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders. PRCA might precede the appearance of lymphoma, may present simultaneously with the lymphoid neoplastic disease, or might appear following the lymphomatic disorder. Possible pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to explain the rare association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders are reported. Most cases of PRCA are presumed to be autoimmune mediated by antibodies against either erythroblasts or erythropoietin, by T-cells secreting factors selectively inhibiting erythroid colonies in the bone marrow or by NK cells directly lysing erythroblasts. Finally, focus is given to the therapeutical approach, as several treatment regimens have failed for PRCA. Immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy are effective for improving anaemia in the majority of patients with lymphoma-associated PRCA. Further investigation is required to define the pathophysiology of PRCA at a molecular level and to provide convincing evidence why it might appear as a rare complication of lymphoproliferative disorders.

Vlachaki, Efthymia; Diamantidis, Michael D.; Klonizakis, Philippos; Haralambidou-Vranitsa, Styliani; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elizabeth; Klonizakis, Ioannis



Influenza virus infects bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro: implications for bone marrow transplantation.  


Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have differentiation, immunomodulatory, and self-renewal properties and are, therefore, an attractive tool for regenerative medicine and autoimmune diseases. MSCs may be of great value to treat graft-versus-host disease. Influenza virus causes highly contagious seasonal infection and occasional pandemics. The infection is severe in children, elderly, and immunocompromised hosts including hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine if MSCs are permissive to influenza virus replication. We isolated MSCs from the bone marrow of 4- to 6-week-old germ-free pigs. Swine and human influenza virus strains were used to infect MSCs in vitro. MSCs expressed known influenza virus ?-2,3 and ?-2,6 sialic acid receptors and supported replication of swine and human influenza viruses. Viral infection of MSCs resulted in cell lysis and proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings demonstrate that bone marrow-derived MSCs are susceptible to influenza virus. The data also suggest that transplantation of bone marrow MSCs from influenza virus-infected donors may transmit infection to recipients. Also, MSCs may get infected if infused into a patient with an ongoing influenza virus infection. PMID:23006541

Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M



Simultaneous bone marrow and intestine transplantation promotes marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and chimerism  

PubMed Central

Organ allografts have been shown to provide a syngeneic microenvironment for organ-based donor hematopoietic stem cells to maintain long-lasting chimerism after transplantation. We hypothesized that organ allografts would also support engraftment and hematopoiesis of adjunctively infused donor marrow stem cells, syngeneic to organ grafts, in nonmyeloablated recipients. In BN-to-LEW and GFP-to-ACI rat combinations, donor bone marrow (BM) infusion together with small intestine transplantation (SITx) under short-course tacrolimus immunosuppression resulted in persistent macrochimerism (more than 5%) for 150 days. In contrast, after BM infusion or SITx alone, chimerism was temporary and disappeared by day 100. Y-chromosome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sex-mismatched male BM plus female intestine or female BM plus male intestine transplantation into female recipients suggested that persistent macrochimerism was derived from infused BM. BM infusion together with lymphoid-depleted intestine grafts also supported macrochimerism development; however, third-party intestine grafts did not. After GFP-positive BM plus wild-type (WT) SITx into ACI, large numbers of GFP-positive leukocytes were found in WT intestine grafts. Isolated cells from WT intestine grafts developed GFP-positive CFU-Cs and propagated multilineage GFP-positive leukocytes when adoptively transferred into lethally irradiated WT recipients. These findings suggest that intestine allograft supports simultaneously infused donor (syngeneic to organ grafts) marrow stem cell engraftment, differentiation, and persistence of chimerism.

Nakao, Atsunori; Toyokawa, Hideyoshi; Kimizuka, Kei; Nalesnik, Michael A.; Nozaki, Isao; Bailey, Robert J.; Demetris, Anthony J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Murase, Noriko



An overview of the Czech Bone Marrow Donor Registry.  


The Czech Bone Marrow Donor registry (CBMD) was founded in 1991 in the National HLA centre at Prague's Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. In the same year, the CBMD submitted its data to the Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW). Another line of CBMD's international cooperation is accomplished through computer linkup with the European Donor Secretariat (E.D.S) network. Donors are being recruited constantly through blood transfusion units and other volunteers are enrolled through the mass media. All the methodology used is developed in compliance with the standards of the European Federation for Immunogenetics (EFI). CBMD closely cooperates with clinical centres for transplantation of bone marrow, stem cells (PBSC) and cord blood from unrelated donors. More than 7,000 potential bone marrow typed in HLA-A, B locus have been registered. Besides potential bone marrow donors, frozen cells of cord blood are kept by CBMD. Search requests from registries all over word come via E.D.S. daily except for weekends. Since its foundation in 1991, nearly 20,000 international requests have been handled. During the last two years, 5 CBMD donors provided their bone marrow to Czech patients, one donor provided stem cells (PBSC) and one donor provided bone marrow + stem cells (PBSC). To date, more than 20 transplantations from unrelated donors have been performed in Prague's transplant centres. PMID:9916632

Kupková, L; Ivasková, E; Hána, I; Korínková, P; Vítek, A; Starý, J



Transporting bone marrow for in vitro purging before autologous reinfusion.  


We describe the procedures employed for transporting bone marrow to and from a central facility. Marrow has been harvested from 80 patients with neuroblastoma, at 16 centers which are geographically dispersed throughout North America. Marrow from the outside transplant centers was packed on wet ice or cold packs in insulated containers, and transported by commercial carriers or chartered aircraft to the central processing laboratory. Post processed marrows were frozen in liquid nitrogen and returned by commercial carrier to the referring institution. In comparing transported with non-transported but similarly treated marrows, no differences were found in any of the following parameters: (1) CFU-GM recovery, (2) fraction viable cells at thawing, or (3) time to engraftment in patients. We conclude the transportation of harvested marrows to a central purging facility is safe. Based on this experience, we propose a set of standards, which, if adhered to, will insure the continued safe processing, shipping, and storage of bone marrow in all centers so engaged. PMID:2309000

Janssen, W E; Gee, A P; Graham-Pole, J R; Lee, C; Luzins, J; Spencer, C; Worthington-White, D A; Pick, T; Koch, P; Gross, S



Estrogen mitogenic action. III. is phenol red a "red herring"?  


The reported estrogenic action of phenol red and/or its lipophilic contaminants has led to the widespread use of indicator-free culture medium to conduct endocrine studies in vitro. Because we have recently developed methods to measure large-magnitude estrogen effects in the tissue culture medium containing phenol red, we concluded that the indicator issue required further evaluation. To do this, we selected nine estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cell lines representing four target tissues and three species. We investigated phenol red using five different experimental protocols. First, 17beta-estradiol (E2) responsive growth of all nine ER+ cells lines was compared in the medium with and without the indicator. Second, using representative lines we asked if phenol red was mitogenic in the indicator-free medium. The dose-response effects of phenol red were compared directly to those of E2. Third, we asked if tamoxifen-inhibited growth equally in phenol red-containing and indicator-free medium. This study was based on a report indicating that antiestrogen effects should be seen only in phenol red-containing medium. Fourth, we asked if phenol red displaced the binding of 3H-E2 using ERK intact human breast cancer cells. Fifth, we compared E2 and phenol red as inducers of the progesterone receptor using a human breast cancer cell line. All the experiments presented in this report support the conclusion that the concentration of phenol red contaminants in a standard culture medium available today is not sufficient to cause estrogenic effects. In brief, our studies indicate that the real issue of how to demonstrate estrogenic effects in culture resides elsewhere than phenol red. We have found that the demonstration of sex steroid hormone-mitogenic effects in culture depends upon conditions that maximize the effects of a serum-borne inhibitor(s). When the effects of the inhibitor are optimized, the presence or absence of phenol red makes no everyday difference to the demonstration of estrogen mitogenic effects with several target cell types from diverse species. PMID:11039495

Moreno-Cuevas, J E; Sirbasku, D A


Evaluation of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for photodynamic bone marrow purging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 was tested as a photosensitizer for the selective photoinactivation of malignant cells in bone marrow transplantation samples. Using a murine model system, incubation of 1.5 X 107 cells/mL with 15 nM Pc 4 followed by exposure to red light ((lambda) > 600 nm, fluence of 18 J/cm2) was shown to result in a greater than 6 log10 reduction of the clonogenic growth for the murine cell lines ABE-8.1/2, BC3A and L1210. The clonogenic growth of WEHI-3 and P815 cells was reduced by more than 5 log10 and more than 3 log10, respectively. Late murine hematopoietic progenitor cells were less sensitive than cancer cells; the surviving fractions were 0.084 for the colony forming unit, megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk); 0.038 for the colony forming unit, granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM); 0.0018 for the colony forming unit, mix (CFU-mix) and < 0.003 for burst forming units, erythroid (BFU-E). Early hematopoietic progenitor cells, assayed in the in vitro cobble stone area forming cell assay, were not affected by the photodynamic treatment. Likewise, in vivo assays of early hematopoietic progenitor cells showed no reduction of their ability to repopulate the bone marrow. Irradiation of the samples following incubation of 1.5 X 106 cells/mL with Pc 4 resulted in increased photosensitivity of all cell types, including the early and late hematopoietic progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of Pc 4 uptake by the cells revealed that the increased photosensitivity could be traced to increased Pc 4 uptake; however, Pc 4 uptake among cell types did not correlate with photosensitivity. When mixed with bone marrow (BM) cells, Pc 4 uptake in the cell lines increased as the fraction of BM increased from 0.5 to 0.95. These observations suggest that Pc 4 may be a suitable photosensitizer for bone marrow purging.

Keij, Jan F.; Jiang, Yajuan; Sotiropoulos, Damianos A.; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Visser, Jan W.



Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)  


Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.


Importance of neurological assessment before bone marrow transplantation for osteopetrosis  

PubMed Central

Neurological complications of malignant infantile osteopetrosis are well recognised; successful bone marrow transplantation, when performed early in life, can prevent or halt some of them. In a subgroup of infants osteopetrosis is associated with primary retinal degeneration and/or generalised neurodegeneration. Bone marrow transplantation, in spite of being successful in correcting the osseous and haematological abnormalities, does not influence the progressive course of the neurodegenerative disorder. Thus, the recognition of this subgroup of infants with a very poor prognosis is essential before deciding on bone marrow transplantation.??

Abinun, M; Newson, T; Rowe, P; Flood, T; Cant, A



Analgesic infiltration at the site of bone marrow harvest significantly reduces donor morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information has been published concerning the severity of pain experienced by bone marrow donors or the use of local analgesia following bone marrow harvesting procedures. The aims of this study were to assess duration and severity of pain experienced by bone marrow donors and the effectiveness of bupivacaine as a local analgesic agent following bone marrow harvest. During a

B Chern; N McCarthy; C Hutchins; STS Durrant



Factors That Influence Greeks' Decision to Register as Potential Bone Marrow Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50%

P. A. Galanis; L. D. Sparos; T. Katostaras; E. Velonakis; A. Kalokerinou



The Application of Bone Marrow Transplantation to the Treatment of Genetic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diseases can be treated by transplantation of either normal allogeneic bone marrow or, potentially, autologous bone marrow into which the normal gene has been inserted in vitro (gene therapy). Histocompatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used for the treatment of genetic diseases whose clinical expression is restricted to lymphoid or hematopoietic cells. The therapeutic role of bone marrow transplantation

Robertson Parkman



Considerations of Marrow Cellularity in 3Dimensional Dosimetric Models of the Trabecular Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose assessment to active bone marrow is a critical feature of radionuclide therapy treatment planning. Skeletal dosimetry models currently used to assign radionuclide S values for clin- ical marrow dose assessment are based on bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions. Accordingly, these models cannot explicitly consider energy loss to inactive marrow (adi- pose tissue) during particle transport across the trabecular

Wesley E. Bolch; Phillip W. Patton; Didier A. Rajon; Amish P. Shah; Derek W. Jokisch; Benjamin A. Inglis


Hematopoietic reconstitution after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous nonfrozen bone marrow rescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The kinetics of marrow engraftment were analyzed in 50 patient with acute leukemia (21), malignant lymphoma (15), and solid tumors (14) after high-dose multiagent chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) with nonfrozen bone marrow. Unseparated heparinized whole bone marrow was stored in 10% CPDA1 at 4°C for 72 h, then filtered and reinfused. The median number of

H. Köppler; K. H. Pflüger; K. Havemann



Use of Hoechst 33342 for Sensitive Detection of Viable Cells Seeded into Bone Marrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensitive detection of small numbers of cells in bone marrow is essential for developing effective marrow-purging methods. This is true whether one is purging tumor cells from autologous marrow, or T lymphocytes from allogeneic marrow(in an effort to prev...

C. P. Reynolds A. T. Black J. N. Woody



Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds.  


This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds as estimated through TNF alpha release indicates its potential as future biopolymeric graft material. Rat bone marrow cells cultured on scaffolds for 28 days under static conditions in osteogenic and adipogenic media respectively led to induction of differentiation. Proliferation and spreading of fibroblasts and bone marrow cells on silk scaffolds were observed to be dependent on scaffold porosity as revealed through confocal microscopic observations. Histological analysis shows osteogenic differentiation within silk scaffolds resulting in extensive mineralization in the form of deposited nodules as observed through intense Alizarin Red S staining. Similarly, adipogenesis was marked by the presence of lipid droplets within scaffolds on staining with Oil Red O. Real-time PCR studies reveal higher transcript levels for osteopontin (Spp1), osteocalcin (Bglap2) and osteonectin (Sparc) genes under osteogenic conditions. Similarly, upregulated adipogenic gene expression was observed within A. mylitta and B. mori scaffolds under adipogenic conditions for Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte binding protein (aP2) genes. The results suggest suitability of silk fibroin protein 3D scaffolds as natural biopolymer for potential bone and adipose tissue engineering applications. PMID:19577292

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C



Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches.  


Although haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are commonly assumed to reside within a specialized microenvironment, or niche, most published experimental manipulations of the HSC niche have affected the function of diverse restricted progenitors. This raises the fundamental question of whether HSCs and restricted progenitors reside within distinct, specialized niches or whether they share a common niche. Here we assess the physiological sources of the chemokine CXCL12 for HSC and restricted progenitor maintenance. Cxcl12(DsRed) knock-in mice (DsRed-Express2 recombined into the Cxcl12 locus) showed that Cxcl12 was primarily expressed by perivascular stromal cells and, at lower levels, by endothelial cells, osteoblasts and some haematopoietic cells. Conditional deletion of Cxcl12 from haematopoietic cells or nestin-cre-expressing cells had little or no effect on HSCs or restricted progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from endothelial cells depleted HSCs but not myeloerythroid or lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from perivascular stromal cells depleted HSCs and certain restricted progenitors and mobilized these cells into circulation. Deletion of Cxcl12 from osteoblasts depleted certain early lymphoid progenitors but not HSCs or myeloerythroid progenitors, and did not mobilize these cells into circulation. Different stem and progenitor cells thus reside in distinct cellular niches in bone marrow: HSCs occupy a perivascular niche and early lymphoid progenitors occupy an endosteal niche. PMID:23434755

Ding, Lei; Morrison, Sean J



Antioxidant effect of red wine polyphenols on red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of red wine polyphenols against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidation was investigated in normal human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with micromolar amounts of wine extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), hemolysis, methemoglobin production, and lipid peroxidation. All these oxidative modifications were prevented by incubating the RBCs with oak barrel aged red wine

Idolo Tedesco; Maria Russo; Paola Russo; Giuseppe Iacomino; Gian Luigi Russo; Antonio Carraturo; Clementina Faruolo; Luigi Moio; Rosanna Palumbo



Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Bone Marrow Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanisms responsible for both acquired and inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) are not yet understood. Although most inherited BMF syndromes can be linked to specific genetic defects, these defects do not fully explain the range of physical characte...

J. Cancelas



Clonal Analysis of Bone Marrow and Macrophage Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ERA c...

C. C. Stewart E. B. Walker C. Johnson R. Little



Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance in a bone marrow donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, for whom allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was planned. Donor workup revealed monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. We discuss this finding and stress the importance of performing complete donor examinations.

S. O. Peters; M. Stockschläder; W. Zeller; K. Mross; M. Dürken; W. Krüger; A. R. Zander



Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures  

SciTech Connect

To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.



Histoincompatibility Reactions in Bone Marrow Transplantation and their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope and efficacy of bone marrow therapy in the treatment of aplastic and genetically determined anemias, leukemias, and certain congenital and acquired immunologic deficiency states would be greatly enhanced if a method could be found that would eli...

M. L. Tyan



Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells.  


Bone marrow stem cells develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in production of hepatocytes, biliary cells, or oval cells during liver regeneration. Cross-sex or cross-strain bone marrow and whole liver transplantation were used to trace the origin of the repopulating liver cells. Transplanted rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, to block hepatocyte proliferation, and then hepatic injury, to induce oval cell proliferation. Markers for Y chromosome, dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme, and L21-6 antigen were used to identify liver cells of bone marrow origin. From these cells, a proportion of the regenerated hepatic cells were shown to be donor-derived. Thus, a stem cell associated with the bone marrow has epithelial cell lineage capability. PMID:10325227

Petersen, B E; Bowen, W C; Patrene, K D; Mars, W M; Sullivan, A K; Murase, N; Boggs, S S; Greenberger, J S; Goff, J P



Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option  


... Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with a ... Transplant Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant A ...


Bone Marrow Fat May Raise Osteoporosis Risk, Study Says  


... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone Marrow Fat May Raise Osteoporosis Risk, Study Says Obesity does ... Obesity Osteoporosis TUESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Excess fat in blood, muscle and the liver may increase ...


Evaluation of Typing Techniques on Bone Marrow Transplantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period under review 806 members of 179 families were HLA serotyped to detect HLA matched siblings for 179 patients suffering from marrow failure or malignancy. One hundred and seven patients were found to have 132 phenotypically identical sibli...

E. D. Thomas R. A. Clift R. P. Warren



Navigating Survival: Quality of Life Following Bone Marrow Transplantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the quality of life of adult Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) survivors and processes involved in maintaining or enhancing life quality were identified. Ground theory methodology was used to explore quality of life from the survivor's...

P. A. Peters



CNS inflammation and bone marrow neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.  


By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow-neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow-derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45(+)/CCR2(+)/GR-1(+)/Iba-1(+) bone marrow-derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M; McGorray, Susan P; Saban, Daniel R; Boulton, Michael E; Busik, Julia V; Raizada, Mohan K; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B



Bone marrow cells of swine: collection and separation.  


Bone marrow is a source of stem cells for greater and easier access, which is widely studied as a provider of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells for various purposes, mainly therapeutic by the advances in research involving cell therapy. The swine is an animal species commonly used in the pursuit of development of experimental models. Thus, this study aimed to standardize protocol for collection and separation of bone marrow in swines, since this species is widely used as experimental models for various diseases. Twelve animals were used, which underwent bone marrow puncture with access from the iliac crest and cell separation by density gradient followed by a viability test with an average of 98% of viable cells. Given our results, we can ensure the swine as an excellent model for obtaining and isolation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow, stimulating several studies addressing the field of cell therapy. PMID:22362561

Branco, Érika; Cabral, Rosa; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Kfoury, José Roberto; Miglino, Maria Angelica



Role of bone marrow derived precursor cells in wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Neovascularization, necessary for wound healing, involves angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are key to vasculogenesis. We hypothesized ischemic wounds have a deficit of EPCs.Methods: EPCs were quantified using LacZ-Tie-2 transgenic mice, where beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is expressed by the Tie-2 promoter. Wild type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from LacZ-Tie-2 mice. 4 wks later, chimeric

Stephen M. Bauer; Lee Goldstein; Vijay Bairreddy; Richard Bauer; Ruthanne Snyder; Omaida Velazquez



Treatment of Chronic Wounds With Bone Marrow-Derived Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Recentevidenceindicatesthatbonemar- row contains stem cells with the potential for differen- tiation into a variety of tissues, including endothelium, liver, muscle, bone, and skin. It may thus be plausible that bone marrow-derived cells can provide progenitor and\\/or stem cells to wounds during healing. Our objec- tive in this study was to establish proof of principle that bone marrow-derived cells applied to

Evangelos V. Badiavas; Vincent Falanga



Unexpected Bone Marrow Uptake of Thallium201 in Nonsecretory Myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 43-yr-old man was referred for any possible parathyroid ab normality that could explain his hypercalcémie and slightly in creased parathormone levels. The thallium-technetium scan showed a diffuse abnormal thallium uptake incidentally in the bone marrow, otherwise parathyroid scan appearance was nor mal. He had an essentially normal bone scan, although subse quent nanocdloid scintigraphy demonstrated bone marrow ex pansion.

Haluk Burcak Sayman; Enis Altiok; Gevher Devranoglu; Burhan Ferhanoglu


Bulgarian Bone Marrow Donors Registry—past and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Bulgarian Bone Marrow Donors Registry (BBMDR) has been established and since August 2005 it has been a member of\\u000a Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide. Currently the number of healthy donors included in the BBMDR is relatively low. All donors included\\u000a in the BBMDR are typed for HLA-A, -B, -DRB loci. Phylogenetic analysis based on HLA allele frequencies shows that Bulgarians

Asen Zlatev; Milena Ivanova; Snejina Michailova; Anastasia Mihaylova; Elissaveta Naumova



Isolation and Characterization of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Transformed Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Transformed cells have been isolated from the bone marrow of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)-infected, moribund chicks. These cells have been maintained in vitro through more than 30 serial passages. The cells induce solid tumors when inoculated into the wing web of day-old chickens, and cell-free filtrates induce reticuloendotheliosis. Virus particles recovered after cocultivation of bone marrow cells and chicken embryo

Ray B. Franklin; Reynaldo L. Maldonado; Henry R. Bose



Estrogen enhances differentiation of osteoblasts in mouse bone marrow culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of estrogen on bone are possibly mediated by several cell types. In the present study, the effect of 17?-estradiol (E2) on osteoblast-like cells was investigated by using mouse bone marrow cultures. Bone marrow cells were harvested from the shafts of femurs of 10-week-old NMRI mice and cultured. On day 6, confluent primary cultures were trypsinized and subcultured. Under

Q. Qu; M. Perälä-Heape; A. Kapanen; J. Dahllund; J. Salo; H. K. Väänänen; P. Härkönen



Circulating Bone Marrow Cells Can Contribute to Neointimal Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the source of smooth muscle-like cells during vascular healing, C57BL\\/6 (Ly 5.2) female mice underwent whole body irradiation followed by transfusion with 106 nucleated bone marrow cells from congenic (Ly 5.1) male donors. Successful repopulation (88.4 ± 4.9%) by donor marrow was demonstrated in the female mice by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated A20.1\\/Ly 5.1 monoclonal antibody after 4

Chih-lu Han; Gordon R. Campbell; Julie H. Campbell




Microsoft Academic Search

A simple in vitro technique is described for the growth of colonies from single cell suspensions of mouse bone marrow. The system involves the plating of marrow cells in agar on feeder layers of other cells, those from 8-day-old mouse kidney and 17th day mouse embryo being shown to be the most efficient types of feeder layers.Approximalely 400 colonies per

TR Bradley; D Metcalf



Renal repair: role of bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute kidney injury carries severe consequences and has limited treatment options. Bone marrow stem cells may offer the potential\\u000a for treatment of acute kidney injury. The purpose of this review is twofold. The first purpose is to provide a concise overview\\u000a of the biology of bone marrow stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, for clinical nephrologists

Fangming Lin



Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells to neural cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To explore the possibility and condition of differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) to neural cellsin vitro, BMSCs from whole bone marrow of rats were cultured. The BMSCs of passage 3 were identified with immunocytochemical staining\\u000a of CD44(+), CD71(+) and CD45(?). There were type I and type II cells in BMSCs. Type I BMSCs were spindle-shaped and strong\\u000a positive

Wu Yongchao; Zheng Qixin; Guo Xiaodong; Xie Zhongping; Wang Yuntao; Hao Jie



Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)  


Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...


Red Teaming: Past and Present.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Red teaming is a relatively new buzzword, but there is no common definition of its meaning. It can mean role-playing the adversary, conducting a vulnerability assessment, or using analytical techniques to improve intelligence estimates. While these defini...

D. F. Longbine



Evaluation of radiation effects on hematopoetic bone marrow by immunoscintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Radiotherapy is known to cause dose-dependent damage to the hematopoetic bone marrow (HBM) within the portal. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate acute suppression and long term recovery of HBM by use of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy (BMI) with monoclonal antibodies (1 mg of intact BW 250/183 labelled with 350-400 MBq Tc-99m) against NCA-95, expressed on granulocytes and their precursor cells. Ninety-five planar scintigrams covering 114 portals were analyzed. Antibody uptake of irradiated bone marrow was quantified by ROI-technique and expressed as percentage of uptake in corresponding areas outside the portal. During irradiation a marked drop of marrow uptake significantly correlating with the already received dose was observed. Scans obtained after completion of radiotherapy revealed a reduced uptake ({approximately}40% of the reference region) for about 4 years. Afterwards bone marrow normalized in portals with doses <35 Gy while following >35 Gy diminished uptake (70{plus_minus}25%) persisted indicating irreversible damage to HBM. We conclude that BMI is suitable for evaluation of acute damage and long time recovery of functional bone marrow after therapeutic irradiation and may be used for optimized planning of repeated radiotherapy.

Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R.; Buell, U. [Technical Univ. of Aachen (Germany)] [and others



The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored.

Rubin, P. (Univ. of Rochester, NY); Wheeler, K.T.; Keng, P.C.; Gregory, P.K.; Croizat, H.



Hydrothermal treatment of red mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud is a by-product of the Bayer process for an extraction of alumina from bauxite ore. The main constituents are Fe203, Al203, TiOe, SiO2 and Na20. Though red mud contains very effective resources as a raw material for the metallurgical industry, it has been concentrated in a large pond and has not been utilized except for limited use as

K. Kodaira; M. Higuchi; S. Shimada; T. Matsushita; A. Tsunashima



Inhibition of vection by red  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of colors on vection induction. Expanding optical flows during one’s forward self-motion were\\u000a simulated by moving dots. The dots and the background were painted in equiluminant red and green. Experiments 1 and 2 showed\\u000a that vection was weaker when the background was red than when the background was green. In addition, Experiment 3 showed that\\u000a vection

Takeharu Seno; Shoji Sunaga; Hiroyuki Ito



Treatment of marrow graft recipients with thymopentin.  


Four adult patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia were given marrow grafts from HLA-identical siblings following 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 10-12 Gy total body irradiation. All received intermittent intravenous methotrexate as prophylaxis against graft-versus-disease (GVHD). In an attempt to accelerate immune recovery and prevent GVHD, each patient received thymopentin (TP5) for 100 days after grafting. No adverse effects were seen with TP5 administration. All four patients developed acute GVHD (one grade I, one grade II, and two grade III). Two patients died of late infections: one at 6 months from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and one at 11 months from disseminate Pseudomonas, Candida and cytomegalovirus infection. Two patients survive more than 3.9 years after transplantation with Karnofsky scores of 100%. One required treatment for chronic GVHD and recovered. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, antibody production to specific antigen in vivo, and results of in vitro immunologic studies were not altered by TP5 treatment. We conclude that while the administration of TP5 in these patients as described was not harmful, it did not prevent opportunistic infection, improve immunologic reconstitution or lower the incidences of acute or chronic GVHD from that of our previous experiences without thymopentin. PMID:3332144

Witherspoon, R P; Navari, R; Storb, R; Sullivan, K M; Doney, K; Beatty, P; Lum, L G; Thomas, E D



Psychological issues in bone marrow transplantation.  


We studied the psychological and emotional problems experienced by seven children and their families who underwent bone marrow transplantation at the University of Colorado Medical Center from 1973 to 1975. These problems included (1) anxiety and depression relating to isolation, fear of death, and painful procedures; (2) an overdependence associated with a feeling of helplessness; (3) anger directed toward both the staff and the parents; (4) a reduced tolerance for medical procedures; and (5) periodic refusal to cooperate. Initially we had been concerned that patients might become agitated, psychotic, or even suicidal. These did not occur. Severe anxiety over bodily changes was not a problem. We did not encounter prolonged refusal to cooperate, refusal to remain in isolation, or drug addiction. Important aspects in management included an honest, straightforward, and direct discussion of all aspects of transplantation, including the potential complications and the risks of death from the underlying disease or from complications of transplantation. A firm but understanding approach to the patients appeared to be the most effective method to develop their continuing cooperation. The opportunity for patients to express verbally their fears of procedures and of death was essential. The donors needed help in working through their feelings of guilt if a transplant was not successful. The parents needed continuing psychological support for the many personal, social, and psychological difficulties which they had to face. PMID:400708

Gardner, G G; August, C S; Githens, J



Analysis of bone marrow stem cell.  


In this study we define hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a population of cells that, when sorted as single cells, gives rise to both myeloid as well as lymphoid progeny. We sorted single cells from four populations of CD34+ cells from fetal bone marrow: (1) CD38- HLA-DR-, (2) CD38- HLA-DR+, (3) CD38+ HLA-DR-, and (4) CD38+ HLA-DR+ into liquid culture media supplemented with interleukin-3 (IL-3) IL-6, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, erythropoietin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insuline-like growth factor (IGF-1). The HSCs were found in the cell populations lacking CD38, the plating efficiency was highest in the CD34+ CD38- HLA-DR+ cell population (48% n = 12); however, only a small proportion of the CD34+ CD38- HLA-DR+ cells showed both lymphoid and myeloid growth potential. When the identical cell populations were sorted into liquid culture media supplemented with bFGF and IGF-1, cell growth was noted from only 1%-5% of the sorted CD34+ CD38- HLA-DR- cells. The cells have the potential to grow and differentiate in vitro to form complex structures that recapitulate normal bone formation. Serial passages of the progeny from these cultures resulted in the formation of similar structures. PMID:7527679

Terstappen, L W; Huang, S



Dental abnormalities after pediatric bone marrow transplantation.  


Our purpose was to describe the types and frequencies of altered dental development in pediatric patients following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A retrospective review of the medical records and panoramic radiographs of all patients who underwent BMT at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1990 and 2000, for whom pre-BMT and post-BMT dental examination and panoramic radiography records were available, is presented. All patients were treated on institutional protocols. We recorded patient demographics and radiographic evidence of microdontia, hypodontia, taurodontia, root stunting, caries, enamel pearls, dental restorations/extractions and pulpal calcification. The 99 patients identified (52 males, 47 females) had a median age of 13.5 years (range, 3.4-25.9 years) at the time of BMT. In all, 73 were Caucasian, 15 were African-American, and 11 were of other races. The frequency of radiographically evident root stunting in permanent teeth was significantly increased after BMT (P<0.001), but there was no significant change in the frequency of other dental abnormalities after BMT. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in survivors of childhood BMT, but only root stunting appeared to progress with BMT. PMID:16113667

Vaughan, M D; Rowland, C C; Tong, X; Srivastava, D K; Hale, G A; Rochester, R; Kaste, S C



Bone marrow cells other than stem cells seed the bone marrow after rescue transfusion of fatally irradiated mice  

SciTech Connect

In a previous publication, iodinated deoxyuridine (/sup 125/IUdR) incorporation data were interpreted as indicating that spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) in DNA synthesis preferentially seeded bone marrow. In the present studies, the CFU-S content of marrow from irradiated, bone-marrow transfused mice was directly determined. Pretreatment of the transfused cells with cytocidal tritiated thymidine resulted in an insignificant diminution in CFU-S content when compared with nontritiated thymidine pretreatment, implying that there is no preferential seeding. The /sup 125/IUdR incorporation data have been reinterpreted as being a result of the proliferation of other progenitor cells present that have seeded the bone marrow.

Cronkite, E.P.; Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.



Long-term survival of murine allogeneic bone marrow chimeras: effect of anti-lymphocyte serum and bone marrow dose  

SciTech Connect

Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of donor stem cells to engraft permanently are two major obstacles to successful bone marrow transplantation. The effect of a single large dose of anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS) on mice receiving various numbers of H-2 incompatible bone marrow cells was evaluated. Most animals receiving lethal total body irradiation (TBI) and allogeneic marrow died within 45 days due to GVHD. Mice that were given ALS 6 to 24 h before TBI and bone marrow 24 h after irradiation survived in good health for more than 200 days. These cell preparations caused lethal GVHD in third party mice indicating that the lack of alloreactivity was specific to the strain in which the unresponsiveness was originally induced.

Norin, A.J.; Emeson, E.E.; Veith, F.J.



Vascularized bone marrow transplantation model in rats as an alternative to conventional cellular bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results.  


The aim of the study was to follow the development of microchimerism after allogeneic vascularized bone marrow transplantation (VBMT) versus conventional bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In one group, a VBMT model consisted of donor Brown Norway rat hind limb heterotopic transplanted on recipient Lewis rats. An intravenous infusion of donor bone marrow cells in suspension equivalent to that grafted in the vascularized femur limb was administered intravenously to recipient rats in the second group. Cellular microchimerism was investigated in recipients of VBMT versus BMT. Donor-derived cells could be detected in VBMT recipients at 30 and 60 days but not in recipients of intravenous suspension of BMC. VBMT provides a theoretical alternative to conventional cellular bone marrow transplantation by addressing crucial clinical problems such as failure of engraftment or graft-versus-host disease. PMID:22099839

Zamfirescu, D; Popovicu, C; Stefanescu, A; Bularda, A; Popescu, M; Zegrea, I; Lanzetta, M; Lascar, I



Bone marrow transplantation with interleukin-2-activated bone marrow followed by interleukin-2 therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in mice.  


We have investigated approaches to induce graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) without graft-versus-host disease to improve survival and cure in leukemia. The present study shows that bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using syngeneic bone marrow activated with interleukin-2 (ABM) for 24 hours in vitro, followed by interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy, was superior to BMT with fresh, syngeneic bone marrow (FBM) in terms of survival and cure in mice with acute myeloid leukemia (P less than .001) and led to normal hematopoietic reconstitution. Addition of IL-2 therapy after BMT with FBM did not improve the results over BMT with FBM alone (P = .98). These results suggest that the GVL effect of ABMT can be enhanced by using ABM for BMT followed by IL-2 therapy without compromising engraftment. PMID:2257292

Charak, B S; Brynes, R K; Groshen, S; Chen, S C; Mazumder, A



[Red sea bream iridoviral disease].  


The first outbreak of red sea bream iridoviral disease caused by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was recorded in cultured red sea bream Pagrus major in Shikoku Island, Japan in 1990. Since 1991, the disease has caused mass mortalities of cultured marine fishes not only red sea bream but also many other species. The affected fish were lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. The causative agent was a large, icosahedral, cytoplasmic DNA virus classified as a member of the family Iridoviridae and was designated as red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV). The genome of RSIV is liner dsDNA and considered to be circularly permitted and terminally redundant like other iridoviruses. The length of physical map of RSIV genome is 112,415bp. An indirect immunofluorescence test with a monoclonal antibody and PCR are commonly used for the rapid diagnosis of RSIV infected fish in the field. For the control of this disease, a formalin-killed vaccine against red sea bream iridoviral disease was developed and now commercially available. PMID:16308538

Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Kunita, Jun



Maintenance of red blood cell integrity by AMP-activated protein kinase alpha1 catalytic subunit.  


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. We previously showed that AMPKalpha1-/- mice develop moderate anemia associated with splenomegaly and high reticulocytosis. Here, we report that splenectomy of AMPKalpha1-/- mice worsened anemia supporting evidence that AMPKalpha1-/- mice developed a compensatory response through extramedullary erythropoiesis in the spleen. Transplantation of bone marrow from AMPKalpha1-/- mice into wild-type recipients recapitulated the hematologic phenotype. Further, AMPKalpha1-/- red blood cells (RBC) showed less deformability in response to shear stress limiting their membrane flexibility. Thus, our results highlight the crucial role of AMPK to preserve RBC integrity. PMID:20670625

Foretz, Marc; Guihard, Soizic; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Fauveau, Véronique; Couty, Jean-Pierre; Andris, Fabienne; Gaudry, Murielle; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoit



Effects of platelet factor 4 on expression of bone marrow heparan sulfate in syngenic bone marrow transplantation mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To explore the effects of platelet factor 4 (PF4) on hematopoietic reconstitution and its mechanism in syngenic bone marrow\\u000a transplanation (BMT). The syngenic BMT mice models were established. 20 and 26 h before irradiation, the mice were injected\\u000a 20 ?g\\/kg PF4 or PBS twice into abdominal cavity, then the donor bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were transplanted. On the\\u000a 7th

Meng Fankai; Sun Hanying; Liu Wenli; Yuan Huiling; Xu Huizhen; Sun Lan; Zhou Yinli; Ren Tianhua



Use of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells and cultured bone marrow stromal cells in dogs with orthopaedic lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical application in veterinary orthopedics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs)\\u000a and cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) for the treatment of some orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The authors carried\\u000a out a clinical study on 14 dogs of different breed, age and size with the following lesions: 1 bone cyst

A. Crovace; A. Favia; L. Lacitignola; M. S. Di Comite; F. Staffieri; E. Francioso



Clinical use of bone marrow, bone marrow concentrate, and expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage disease.  


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow (BM) are widely used for bone and less for cartilage tissue regeneration due to their self-renewal and differentiating properties into osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages. This review considers the last decade of clinical trials involving a two-step procedure, by expanding in vitro MSCs from BM, or the so called "one-step" procedure, using BM in toto or BM concentrate, for the regeneration of cartilage and osteochondral tissue defects. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Cartilage defects that can be repaired by the two-step technique are about twice the size as those where the one-step method is used; (2) the two-step procedure is especially used for the treatment of osteoarthritic lesions, whereas the one-step procedure is used for osteochondral defects; (3) the number of transplanted cells ranges between 3.8×10(6) and 11.2×10(6) cells/mL, and the period of cell culture expansion of implanted MSCs varies widely with regard to the two-step procedure; (4) hyaluronic or collagenic scaffolds are used in all the clinical studies analyzed for both techniques; (5) the follow-up of the two-step procedure is longer than that of the one-step method, despite having a lower number of patients; and, finally, (6) the mean age of the patients (about 39 years old) is similar in both procedures. Clinical results underline the safety and good and encouraging outcomes for the use of MSCs in clinics. Although more standardized procedures are required, the length of follow-up and the number of patients observed should be augmented, and the design of trials should be implemented to achieve evidence-based results. PMID:23030230

Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Tschon, Matilde; Borsari, Veronica; Nicoli Aldini, Nicolò; Fini, Milena



Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors. 1983 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our work has defined two experimental tumor systems in which we have shown that there is interaction between the bone marrow and certain neoplasms. We have documented that these interactions are important in host responses against tumors. Our experiments have assigned a major role to bone marrow in the growth inhibition of methylcholanthrene-induced (MCA) sarcomas. We have discovered that the bone marrow contains Natural Tumor Growth Regulatory Cells (NTRC) that in collaboration with immunocytes specifially sensitized to a tumor are capable of neutralizing that tumor. In addition, we have shown that a mammary carcinoma of mice significantly alters the pattern of hemopoiesis and disturbs lymphocyte and stem populations in the bone marrow. Our approach has been to pursue multiple convergent lines of attack, since the host response against various cancers is complex, relying on the interaction of several cell types which exercise their tumor neutralization effect probably through various mechanisms. A unique component of our work is the investigation of the influence neoplasms exert on the production of various types of bone marrow cells which can function or can differentiate into cells that participate in the host's antitumor responses. The focus of the work has remained the same and we have continued to define the identity of the bone marrow derived cells involved in tumor neutralization and the mechanisms through which they exert their function.

Not Available



An efficient red eye reduction technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Red Eye Reduction (RER) technique is one of the essential components for imaging device with flash. We present an efficient RER technique that performs red eye detection followed by a verification procedure and an artifact free red eye correction method. The integral projection based method of red eye detection is fast and efficient in handling wide range of variations

Basavaraja S Vandrotti; Muninder Veldandi; Krishna A Govindarao; Mithun Uliyar; Pranav Mishra



Habitability of Planets Around Red Dwarf Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

Martin J. Heath; Laurance R. Doyle; Manoj M. Joshi; Robert M. Haberle



Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.  


Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible. PMID:10472629

Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M



Abnormalities of myeloid progenitor cells after "successful" bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

We studied recovery of peripheral blood- and bone marrow-derived myeloid progenitor cells (CFU-G,M) in 29 patients who received bone marrow transplants 2 mo to 8.5 yr previously. All patients had normal levels of peripheral blood neutrophils, normal bone marrow cellularity, and a normal myeloid-erythroid ratio. Both peripheral blood- and bone marrow-derived CFU-G,M were markedly reduced compared with normal controls and bone marrow donors [5 +/- 1/10(6) vs. 37 +/- 4/10(6) (P less than 0.001) and 23 +/- 5/2 x 10(5) vs. 170 +/- 21/2 x 10(5) (P less than 0.001)]. Five patients had no detectable CFU-G,M even when 10(6) bone marrow cels were plated. These abnormalities of CFU-G,M were unrelated to age, sex, diagnosis, conditioning regimen, dose of bone marrow cells transplanted, and presence or absence of graft-vs.-host disease. Patients who received either autotransplants or transplants from identical twins also had decreased or absent CFU-G,M indicating that allogeneic factors and posttransplant immune suppressor with methotrexate or corticosteroids were not major determinants of this abnormality. Co-culture of normal or donor peripheral blood or bone marrow mononuclear cells with recipients peripheral blood or bone marrow mononuclear cells, purified T cells, or serum failed to show any evidence of active CFU-G,M suppression. Furthermore, the abnormality of CFU-G,M could not be corrected by the addition of normal syngeneic (donor) hematopoietic cells or serum. Depletion of T-cells from recipient bone marrow by physical techniques resulted in marked increase in CFU-G,M (36 +/- 13 vs. 138 +/- 36; P less than 0.05). The abnormality could be reproduced in vitro by readdition of autologous T cells. In contrast to results with T cell depletion by physical techniques, T cell depletion with a monoclonal anti-T antibody (B7) and complement had no effect. These data indicate that most-transplant recipients have a marked abnormality in CFU-G,M when these cells are cultured in vitro. In at least some of these patients, the decreased cloning efficiency of CFU-G,M appears to be mediated by a suppressive effect of autologous T cells. Images

Li, S; Champlin, R; Fitchen, J H; Gale, R P



Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at E-mail:

Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan



Correlation of Plasma FL Expression with Bone Marrow Irradiation Dose  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ablative bone marrow irradiation is an integral part of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These treatment regimens are based on classically held models of radiation dose and the bone marrow response. Flt-3 ligand (FL) has been suggested as a marker of hematopoiesis and bone marrow status but the kinetics of its response to bone marrow irradiation has yet to be fully characterized. In the current study, we examine plasma FL response to total body and partial body irradiation in mice and its relationship with irradiation dose, time of collection and pattern of bone marrow exposure. Materials/Methods C57BL6 mice received a single whole body or partial body irradiation dose of 1–8 Gy. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 24, 48 and 72 hr post-irradiation as well as 1–3 weeks post-irradiation. FL levels were determined via ELISA assay and used to generate two models: a linear regression model and a gated values model correlating plasma FL levels with radiation dose. Results At all doses between 1–8 Gy, plasma FL levels were greater than control and the level of FL increased proportionally to the total body irradiation dose. Differences in FL levels were statistically significant at each dose and at all time points. Partial body irradiation of the trunk areas, encompassing the bulk of the hematopoietically active bone marrow, resulted in significantly increased FL levels over control but irradiation of only the head or extremities did not. FL levels were used to generate a dose prediction model for total body irradiation. In a blinded study, the model differentiated mice into dose received cohorts of 1, 4 or 8 Gy based on plasma FL levels at 24 or 72 hrs post-irradiation. Conclusion Our findings indicate that plasma FL levels might be used as a marker of hematopoietically active bone marrow and radiation exposure in mice.

Sproull, Mary; Avondoglio, Dane; Kramp, Tamalee; Shankavaram, Uma; Camphausen, Kevin



Epidermal Iron Pigments in Red Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

FROM the hair of red mongrel dogs and New Zealand red rabbits we have extracted iron pigments which in most respects are similar to the pigments isolated before from red human hair (trichosiderin)1-3 and Rhode Island Red chicken feathers (feather siderin)3,4. These findings suggest that iron compounds play a central part in certain types of red pigmentation. To facilitate studies

Peter Flesch



Pure red cell precursor toxicity by linezolid in a pediatric case.  


Linezolid (LZD)-induced myelosuppression has been reported in adults; however, LZD-induced pure red cell precursor toxicity rarely occurs. A 2-year-old boy diagnosed with infective endocarditis by Streptococcus mitis received LZD after developing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Although his infective symptoms were improved by LZD, progressive anemia was noticed 2 weeks after LZD therapy. Four weeks after LZD administration, his hemoglobin level was 6.5 g/dL and reticulocytes less than 0.1%. Bone marrow examination revealed markedly decreased erythropoiesis with cytoplasmic vacuolation of erythroblasts. Anemia recovered 19 days after cessation of LZD. Elevated protoporphyrin and a high LZD level in the blood suggested that mitochondrial disturbance by high-dose and long-term treatment with LZD may have been responsible for LZD-induced pure red cell precursor toxicity. PMID:19707157

Taketani, Takeshi; Kanai, Rie; Fukuda, Seiji; Uchida, Yuri; Yasuda, Kenji; Mishima, Seiji; Suyama, Tamiko; Kodama, Rumi; Yoshino, Isao; Kunishi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Masuda, Junichi



Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide  

SciTech Connect

The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors.

Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.



Estrogen deficiency stimulates B lymphopoiesis in mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

We have found that an estrogen deficiency causes a marked increase in bone marrow cells. To examine the effect of estrogen on hemopoiesis, we characterized the increased population of bone marrow cells after ovariectomy (OVX). In OVX mice, the percentage of myeloid cells and granulocytes was decreased, whereas that of B220-positive B lymphocytes was selectively increased 2-4 wk after surgery. The total number of myeloid cells and granulocytes did not change appreciably, but that of B220-positive cells was greatly increased by OVX. When OVX mice were treated with estrogen, the increased B lymphopoiesis returned to normal. B220-positive cells were classified into two subpopulations, B220low and B220high. The majority of the B220low cells were negative for the IgM mu chain, whereas most of the B220high cells were mu-positive. OVX selectively increased the precursors of B lymphocytes identified by B220low. mu-negative phenotype, suggesting that an estrogen deficiency stimulates accumulation of B lymphocyte precursors. When bone marrow-derived stromal cells (ST2) were pretreated with estrogen then co-cultured with bone marrow cells in the presence of estrogen, the stromal cell-dependent B lymphopoiesis was greatly inhibited. The present study suggests that estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of B lymphocyte development in mouse bone marrow.

Masuzawa, T; Miyaura, C; Onoe, Y; Kusano, K; Ohta, H; Nozawa, S; Suda, T



Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Cell fusion in myeloma marrow microenvironment: role in tumor progression.  


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy characterized by uncontrolled expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow that contribute to formation of multiple osteolytic bone disease and severe skeletal devastation. Recently, direct and indirect observations suggest that fusion events between cells housed within the MM marrow microenvironment often occur and may play a role in tumor progression, including myeloma bone disease (MBD). A number of cells resident in the marrow, such as myeloid progenitors and dendritic cells, have inherited fusogenicity and osteoclastogenic potential due to the expression of a number of fusogenic proteins as well as a high sensitivity to fusogenic factors produced within the MM marrow milieu. Similarly, osteoclasts (OC), as bone-resorbing multinucleated cells resulting from the fusion of marrow monocyte/ macrophages, have been reported to improperly fuse with malignant plasma cells and drive transition of these cells into OC-like cells exerting bone-resorbing capacity. Further, based on indirect cytogenetic and molecular evidence, it has been proposed that MM cells may generate a hybrid progeny with high metastatic potential and drug resistance, ultimately pointing to uncontrolled homotypic fusions that accelerate MBD progression. PMID:23237553

Cives, Mauro; Ciavarella, Sabino; Dammacco, Franco; Silvestris, Franco



Bone marrow stem cell therapy for recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.  


Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe inherited blistering disease caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene, resulting in defective anchoring fibrils at the epidermal-dermal junction. At present, no curative treatment for RDEB exists. Mounting evidence on reprogramming of bone marrow stem cells into skin has prompted the authors and others to develop novel strategies for treatment of RDEB. The rationale for bone marrow stem cell therapies for RDEB is based on the evidence that bone marrow-derived cells are guided into becoming skin cells, given the right microenvironment. Preclinical studies in mouse models have shown that wild-type bone marrow-derived cells can ameliorate the phenotype of RDEB and improve survival by restoring the expression of type VII collagen and the anchoring fibrils. At present, several clinical studies are ongoing around the world to study the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stem cell transplantation for RDEB. These studies provide a framework for future development of standardized, effective methods for stem cell transplantation to cure severe inherited skin diseases, including RDEB. PMID:20447506

Kiuru, Maija; Itoh, Munenari; Cairo, Mitchell S; Christiano, Angela M



Antigen CD34+ marrow cells engraft lethally irradiated baboons.  

PubMed Central

The CD34 antigen is present on 1-4% of human marrow cells including virtually all hematopoietic progenitors detected by in vitro assays. Since the anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody 12-8 reacts with a similar marrow population in baboons, it was possible to test whether this antigen is expressed by stem cells responsible for hematopoietic reconstitution in vivo. CD34+ cells were enriched from marrows of five baboons using avidin-biotin immunoadsorption. After lethal irradiation, the five animals were given 15-27 X 10(6) autologous marrow cells (3.2-4.4 X 10(6) cells/kg) containing 65-91% CD34+ cells. All animals achieved granulocyte counts greater than 1,000/mm3 and platelet counts greater than 20 X 10(3)/mm3 by 13-24 d posttransplant and subsequently developed normal peripheral blood counts. Two additional animals received 184 and 285 X 10(6) marrow cells/kg depleted of CD34+ cells. One animal died at day 29 without engraftment, while the other had pancytopenia for greater than 100 d posttransplant. The data suggest that stem cells responsible for hematopoietic reconstitution are CD34+.

Berenson, R J; Andrews, R G; Bensinger, W I; Kalamasz, D; Knitter, G; Buckner, C D; Bernstein, I D



[The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to bone marrow].  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a group of ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Their toxic effects are demonstrated mainly in tissues with high proliferation. The direct distribution of PAH in non-metabolized form to bone marrow and their biotransformation at this site to the toxic metabolites is necessary for demonstration of their toxic effect here. CYP1B1 that is constitutive expressed by stromal cells plays probably the main role in biotransformation of PAH in bone marrow. Reactions of toxic metabolites, development of oxidative stress and interference with intracellular calcium are ranged between the most important mechanisms of structural and functional changes of bone marrow after exposure to PAH. Pathological induction of apoptosis and malignant transformation of stem cells represent the concrete forms of bone marrow damage, caused by exposure to PAH. The bone marrow constitutes the central organ of hematopoiesis and the sites of production of cells of immune system. Its damage can bring therefore crucial health consequences for the whole organism. PMID:16106736

Hrudková, Monika; Fiala, Zdenek; Borská, Lenka; Novosad, Jakub; Smolej, Lukás



Early experience with red storm.  

SciTech Connect

Red Storm is a massively parallel processor. The Red Storm design goals are: (1) Balanced system performance - CPU, memory, interconnect, and I/O; (2) Usability - functionality of hardware and software meets needs of users for Massively Parallel Computing; (3)S calability - system hardware and software scale, single cabinet system to {approx} 30,000 processor system; (4) reliability - machines tays up long enough between interrupts to make real progress on completing application run (at least 50 hours MTBI), requires full system RAS capability; (5) Upgradability - system can be upgraded with a processor swap and additional cabinets to 100T or greater; (6) red/black switching - capability to switch major portions of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments; (7) space, power, cooling - high density, low power system; and (8) price/performance - excellent performance per dollar, use high volume commodity parts where feasible.

Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Ballance, Robert A.



Relationship between absolute and relative hematocrit changes and bone marrow response in rats.  


The object of the present study was to evaluate the physiologic mechanisms regulating erythropoiesis by monitoring the changes in reticulocyte count in the circulation and the formation of erythroblastic islands in the bone marrow following hypertransfusion and dehydration. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (110-130 grams) were transfused with 70% isogenic suspension of washed and packed red cells at a dose of 2.5 ml/100 g body weight intravenously on two consecutive days (absolute erythrocytosis) or deprived of water for three days to produce relative erythrocytosis and then injected i.v. with saline at a dose of 2.5 ml/100 g body weight with water provided at libitum. Hematocrit was measured using the microhematocrit method. Reticulocytes were enumerated using the new methylene blue stain. Plasma EPO levels were measured radioimmunologically and a bone marrow suspension was prepared for morphological examination and absolute erythroblastic islands determination. We observed a marked suppression of erythropoiesis following the transfusion as evidenced by the elevation in hematocrit values up to 0.64 +/- 0.04, a decrease in reticulocyte count and plasma EPO reduction--13.5 +/- 3.4 mU/ml (P < 0.05) and a suppression of EO formation in the bone marrow (P < 0.01). The hematocrit of the dehydrated rats was elevated during the first 24 hours (P < 0.001). Reticulocytes, as well as EO, decreased on day 3 down do 53.6 x 10(9)/l +/- 9.8 x 10(9)/l (P < 0.001) and 153.6 x 10(3) +/- 21.5 x 10(3)/femur (P < 0.001), respectively. The EPO level was measured simultaneously--16.3 +/- 4.2 mU/ml versus 24.6 +/- 5.3 mU/ml at day 1 (P < 0.001). Following rehydration, a fast increase in the hematocrit value with a concomitant increase in EO and the reticulocyte counts was observed. Our results show that the absolute and relative changes in hematocrit values are paramount in the feedback mechanism for erythroid homeostasis. PMID:10658368

Kalaidjieva, V; Iliev, Z



Red Algal Genomics: A Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The red algae (or Rhodophyta) are an ancient and diversified group of photoautotrophic organisms. A 1,200-million-year-old\\u000a fossil has been assigned to Bangiomorpha pubescens, a Bangia-like fossil suggesting sexual differentiation (Butterfield, 2000). Most rhodophytes inhabit marine environments (98%), but\\u000a many well-known taxa are from freshwater habitats and acidic hot springs. Red algae have also been reported from tropical\\u000a rainforests as members

Juan M. Lopez-Bautista


Communication between bone marrow niches in normal bone marrow function and during hemopathies progression  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation, quiescence and differentiation are regulated by interactions with bone marrow (BM) niches. Two niches have been identified in the adult BM: the endosteal (close to the bone) and the perivascular niche (close to blood vessels). A vast body of literature has revealed the molecular basis for the interaction of HSCs with the two niches. However, the signals that regulate the communication between the two niches have not been well defined. Taking in consideration several clinical and experimental arguments this review highlights the molecular cues, involved in the communication between the BM niches, which regulate the basic properties of HSCs in physiological and malignant conditions. As such, it aims at clarifying the most important advances in basic and clinical research focusing on the role of different factors in the regulation of the BM microenvironment.

Lamorte, Sara; Remedio, Leonor; Dias, Sergio



[Evolutionary and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation].  


Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipoperoxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increased on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1.83 microM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 microM, range 0.36-1.84) (p < 0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipoperoxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 microM, range 0.31-4.50) (p < 0.05). Starting from the 3rd post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 microM (range 0.21-1.48 p < 0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 microM (range 0.11-1.48 for the 4th week (p < 0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p < 0.001). An increase of plasma lipoperoxides on days 12-14 post-transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. PMID:12532690

Dubner, Diana; Pérez, Ma?ia del R; Barboza, Marcos; Sorrentino, Miguel; Robinson, Anibal; Gisone, Pablo



Lymphoid nodules and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in bone marrow biopsies.  


Out of 2,474 bone marrow biopsies we have observed 330 cases (13.3%) with presence of lymphoid nodules (LN). LN were frequent in old age (24.6% over 80 years), in females (17%) and in some diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (73.7% of the cases), partial aplasia (34%), hypersplenism (30.4%), hemopoietic dysplasia (25%), chronic renal failure (20.4%), polycythemia vera (20.2%), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (18.8%), acute leukemia (17.7%). Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bone marrow was found especially in systemic autoimmune diseases (26.3%), hypersplenism (9.8%), preleukemia (7.3%) and acute leukemia (4.2%). The presence of excessive medullary LN could indicate a bone marrow microenvironment damage, possibly of autoimmune origin. PMID:3934902

Navone, R; Valpreda, M; Pich, A



Bones of contention: marrow-derived cells in myocardial regeneration.  


Almost 7 years have passed since the initial publication reporting that bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. The subsequent years produced hundreds of investigations that ran the gamut of findings from validation to disproof. Undeterred by the concurrent debate, clinical trials ensued to test the safety and efficacy of bone marrow-derived cell population for autologous therapy in clinical treatment of myocardial disease. In the following conversational exchange, two scientists with distinct perspectives weigh the pros and cons of pursuing bone marrow stem cell therapy and look toward finding a consensus of where the future lies for regenerative medicine and the heart. The conclusion is that the two camps may not be as far apart as it may seem from the rancor in literature and at meetings, and the potential of one day achieving regenerative therapy is indeed a vision that both parties enthusiastically share. PMID:18440020

Sussman, Mark A; Murry, Charles E



Chemotherapy-induced bone marrow nerve injury impairs hematopoietic regeneration.  


Anticancer chemotherapy drugs challenge hematopoietic tissues to regenerate but commonly produce long-term sequelae. Chemotherapy-induced deficits in hematopoietic stem or stromal cell function have been described, but the mechanisms mediating hematopoietic dysfunction remain unclear. Administration of multiple cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy causes substantial sensory neuropathy. Here we demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced nerve injury in the bone marrow of mice is a crucial lesion impairing hematopoietic regeneration. Using pharmacological and genetic models, we show that the selective loss of adrenergic innervation in the bone marrow alters its regeneration after genotoxic insult. Sympathetic nerves in the marrow promote the survival of constituents of the stem cell niche that initiate recovery. Neuroprotection by deletion of Trp53 in sympathetic neurons or neuroregeneration by administration of 4-methylcatechol or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes hematopoietic recovery. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of adrenergic nerve protection for shielding hematopoietic niches from injury. PMID:23644514

Lucas, Daniel; Scheiermann, Christoph; Chow, Andrew; Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Barrick, Colleen; Tessarollo, Lino; Frenette, Paul S



Risk factors in interstitial pneumonitis following allogenic bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Total body irradiation is part of the preparatory regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of its cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. A major toxicity of bone marrow transplantation has been interstitial pneumonitis, which may be, in part, related to the lung irradiation. One hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and aplastic anemia at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1968-1979) were retrospectively studied. The present study demonstrated that lung shielding to 600 rad maximum in single dose total body irradiation, fractionation of total body irradiation in comparison to single dose total body irradiation, and absence of graft versus host disease in the leukemia patients, each reduced the risk of interstitial pneumonitis. Total body irradiation significantly reduced the leukemia recurrence rate and/or the failure of remission induction.

Pino Y Torres, J.L.; Bross, D.S.; Lam, W.C.; Wharam, M.D.; Santos, G.W.; Order, S.E.



Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.



The experience and preparation of pediatric sibling bone marrow donors.  


To assist sibling bone marrow donors with the psychological and emotional distress that they may experience as donors, a sibling bone marrow donor program was developed at The Hospital for Sick Children. These donors feel overwhelming responsibility for their siblings' survival, which can lead to psychological distress. The donors are engaged in age-appropriate medical play and are encouraged to discuss their feelings and concerns about their role. After the marrow harvest, donors receive a certificate, and either they or their parents evaluate the program. Thus far, 97.5% have rated the program very helpful. These evaluations suggest that the program has a very positive effect on the sibling donor's psychosocial health. Further studies of the program's long-term success are warranted. PMID:9579018

Shama, W I



Bone marrow necrosis - initial presentation in sickle cell anemia  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Sickle cell anemia Symptoms: Bone marrow necrosis • bone pain • fever • hepatomegaly • icterus • splenomegaly • weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In sickle cell disease, bone involvement is the commonest clinical presentation in the acute as well as chronic setting presenting as painful vaso-occlusive crisis and avascular necrosis, respectively. Other complications include bone marrow necrosis and infarction. Case Report: We report a case of a 20-year-old male who was referred for bone marrow evaluation due to symptoms of fever, weakness, and repeated episodes of bone pains. Bone trephine biopsy revealed multiple areas of central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts. Conclusions: Recognition of necrosis through bone trephine biopsy is important for early initiation of therapy.

Shafiq, Maria; Ali, Natasha



Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process  

SciTech Connect

Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.



Bone marrow cavity: a supportive environment for islet engraftment.  


An important goal in advancing islet transplantation for the treatment for type 1 diabetes, is to discover transplantation sites that promote long-term islet engraftment. Here, we investigate the bone marrow cavity in rats as a potential site for islet transplantation. Dark agouti streptozotocin diabetic recipients received DA islets to one of three sites: to the renal subcapsular, intrahepatic or bone marrow cavity site. Assessment of graft function was made by measuring blood glucose concentrations using a wireless continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM), performing a glucose tolerance test (GTT), and histological analysis. To determine if bone tissue secretes factors supportive to islet function and survival, human islets were cultured in the presence of osteoblast conditioned medium. Gene expression, insulin secretion and content were assessed in islets after culture. All transplant recipients with islets transplanted to the bone marrow cavity site had reversal of hyperglycemia and remained diabetes free until the end of the experiment at four months. Mean blood glucose concentrations, glucose variability and GTT, using CGM in recipients, yielded similar results between all transplantation sites. Histological assessments at four months after transplantation showed viable islets within the bone marrow space. Incubation of human islets in the presence of osteoblast conditioned medium resulted in positive changes in gene expression, insulin secretion and content. These positive changes were mediated by osteocalcin which was present in the conditioned medium. In summary, islets transplanted to the bone marrow cavity in diabetic rats showed good engraftment. In addition, the bone marrow cavity may provide an environment that is protective against post-transplant cellular stress thus increasing the chances of long-term islet function and survival. PMID:21512317

Kover, Karen; Tong, Pei Ying; Pacicca, Donna; Clements, Mark; Bodker, Ariel M; Eidson, Christine; Sheldon, Mary; Southard, Audrey; Zaidi, Adnan; Moore, Wayne V



Hematogones: a multiparameter analysis of bone marrow precursor cells.  


Morphologically distinct lymphoid cells with homogeneous, condensed chromatin and scant cytoplasm can be observed in large numbers in the bone marrow of children with a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic disorders. In some patients, these cells may account for greater than 50% of the bone marrow cells, creating a picture that can be confused with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or metastatic tumor. Although originally called hematogones (HGs), a variety of other names have been proposed for these unique cells. The clinical significance of expanded HGs has not been resolved, and the biologic features of these cells are incompletely described. In this study, we correlate the clinical, morphologic, cytochemical, flow cytometric, molecular, and cytogenetic properties of bone marrow samples from 12 children with substantial numbers of HGs (range 8% to 55% of bone marrow cells). Diagnoses in these patients included anemia, four; neutropenia, one; anemia and neutropenia, one; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, two; retinoblastoma, two; Ewing's sarcoma, one; and germ cell tumor, one. Flow cytometric analyses of bone marrow cells demonstrated a spectrum extending from early B-cell precursors (CD10+, CD19+, TdT+, HLA-Dr+) to mature surface immunoglobulin-bearing B cells in these patients, corroborating our morphologic impression of HGs, intermediate forms, and mature lymphocytes. DNA content was normal, and no clonal abnormality was identified by either cytogenetic or immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement studies. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3 years. None of the patients has developed acute leukemia or bone marrow involvement by solid tumor. The possible role of HGs in immune recovery and hematopoiesis is presented. PMID:2917189

Longacre, T A; Foucar, K; Crago, S; Chen, I M; Griffith, B; Dressler, L; McConnell, T S; Duncan, M; Gribble, J



Coagulation abnormalities in osteonecrosis and bone marrow edema syndrome.  


The aim of this review was to provide information about the variety of thrombophilic and hypofibrinolytic markers that are possible risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis and bone marrow edema syndrome. A total of 48 parameters were identified in 45 studies that included 2163 patients. The most frequently reported laboratory findings included altered serum concentrations of lipoproteins, decreased concentration and function of fibrinolytic agents, increased levels of thrombophilic markers, and several single nucleotide polymorphisms. Despite inhomogeneities in reported parameters, results, patients' collectives, and treatment strategies, these data suggest that coagulation abnormalities may play an important role in the emergence of osteonecrosis and bone marrow edema syndrome. PMID:23590772

Orth, Patrick; Anagnostakos, Konstantinos



Chemotherapy resolves symptoms and reverses marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis.  


12 patients with symptomatic chronic myelofibrosis were treated with either busulphan or 6-thioguanine. Therapy was without significant side effects and resulted in a reduction in the size of liver and spleen and an improvement in well-being in all cases. In 7 patients the Hb value rose and the extent of marrow fibrosis was reduced in the 5 patients in whom bone marrow examination was repeated after treatment. Chemotherapy is an effective and safer alternative to splenectomy in patients with myelofibrosis with symptomatic anaemia, symptomatic splenomegaly or constitutional symptoms such as fever, weight loss and night sweats. PMID:6515328

Manoharan, A; Pitney, W R



Probabilistic Prediction of the Outcome of Bone-Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bone-marrow transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for pediatric patients with recurring acute lymphoblastic leukemia, provided that a suitable donor is available. Many prognostic factors are known that help to predict the likely outcome of transplantation. We have implemented a system that applies probabilistic reasoning to the available data about individual patients to help determine the risk of recurrence and morbidity after transplantation, and to predict life expectancy. The resulting predictions can be used to decide whether marrow transplantation is the most desirable treatment modality for the patient.

Suermondt, H. Jacques; Amylon, Michael D.



Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

Adams, L.



Was That a Red Flag?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superintendents must become adept at selecting an in-house attorney or outside counsel, anticipating legal-service costs, and spotting red flags. Although the school attorney's most regular contact is the superintendent, the school board is the client. Mutual respect is essential. Preventive law's primary goals are keeping the district out of…

Thune, Gary R.




Microsoft Academic Search

The case deals primarily with the governance of the San Diego Imperial County Chapter of the American Red Cross in the early part of this decade during, after the debilitating Viejas fire. The chapter's CEO, Dodie Rotherham, seemingly cared more for raising donations to better the chapter than caring for the people in need and the community. Rotherham ignored the

Johanna Hunsaker


Red blood cell transfusion strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the hemoglobin level of 100 g\\/L has been used for many years as the allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion trigger, current evidence indicates that for most patients a more restrictive transfusion strategy is at least as effective as and possibly superior to a liberal transfusion strategy. Moreover, the available data indicate that the use of smaller volumes of allogeneic

M. A Blajchman; P. C Hébert



Voltametric Study of Indigo Red.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even if both indigo red and methylene blue show a prewave adsorption, it has been observed in the following work that the reduction process on the electrode of the former is different than for the latter. The formation and the structure of the first molec...

V. Salvado F. Sanz



Observation on Immunohemopoietic Marrow. Annual Report, October 15, 1978-October 14, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on: Studies on marrow-blood barrier; Cellular relationship in hemopoiesis; Functional potential of marrow implant; Developmental potential of cultured fibroblasts; Fusion-fission reorganization of membrane, a developing membrane model...

M. Tavassoli W. H. Crosby



Influence of a marrow stromal factor on survival of hemopoietic stem cells in vitro.  


When mouse bone marrow or spleen cells were incubated for 24 hours in medium conditioned by marrow adherent cells, the survival of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFUs) was considerably greater than that of stem cells incubated in fresh or spleen-conditioned medium. Medium conditioned by endosteal cells also increased marrow CFUs survival. Survival of CFUs more than 24 hours was greater when fresh marrow was incubated directly with marrow adherent cells than with medium conditioned by these cells. Although marrow-conditioned medium greatly increased CFUs susceptibility to 3H-thymidine suicide, DNA synthesis inhibitors did not prevent the increased survival of CUFs in marrow-conditioned medium. These results indicate that marrow stromal cells produce a factor that increases CFUs survival in vitro independently of proliferation. PMID:7409038

Blackburn, M J; Patt, H M



40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus by chemicals. Polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of rodents are...When the erythroblast develops into an erythrocyte the main nucleus is extruded and...frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow of treated...



40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus by chemicals. Polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of rodents are...When the erythroblast develops into an erythrocyte the main nucleus is extruded and...frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow of treated...



Chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes and radiation dose to active bone marrow in patients treated for cancer of the cervix  

SciTech Connect

An international study of cervical cancer patients reported a doubling of the risk for leukemia following radiotherapy. To evaluate the extent of residual chromosome damage in circulating T-cell lymphocytes in this population, approximately 200 metaphases were examined from each of 96 irradiated and 26 nonirradiated cervical cancer patients treated more than 17 years ago (average 23 years). Radiation dose averaged over the total red bone marrow was estimated to be 8.1 Gy. The type and frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations were quantified in 24,117 metaphases. Unstable aberrations did not differ significantly between irradiated and nonirradiated patients (P greater than 0.5). Stable aberrations (i.e., translocations, inversions, or chromosomes with deleted segments), however, were significantly higher among irradiated (2.8 per 100 cells) compared to nonirradiated (0.7 per 100 cells) women (P less than 10(4)). The frequency of these stable aberrations was found to increase significantly with increasing dose to the bone marrow. These data indicate that a direct relationship between radiation dose and extent of damage to somatic cells persists in populations and can be detected many years after partial-body radiation exposure. The stable aberration rate in irradiated cervical cancer patients was 50 to 75% lower than those observed 25 years or more after radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors and in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radiotherapy. The average marrow dose was only 1 Gy in the examined atomic bomb survivors and 3.5 Gy in the ankylosing spondylitis patients. It appears, then, that a very high dose delivered to the pelvic cavity in fractionated doses resulted in far fewer persistent stable aberrations than lower doses delivered either in acute whole-body exposure or in fractionated doses to the spinal column and sacroiliac joints.

Kleinerman, R.A.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tarone, R.E.; Machado, S.G.; Blettner, M.; Peters, L.J.; Boice, J.D. Jr. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))



CNTO 530 functions as a potent EPO mimetic via unique sustained effects on bone marrow proerythroblast pools  

PubMed Central

Anemia as associated with numerous clinical conditions can be debilitating, but frequently can be treated via administration of epoetin-alfa, darbepoietin-alfa, or methoxy-PEG epoetin-beta. Despite the complexity of EPO-EPO receptor interactions, the development of interesting EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) also has been possible. CNTO 530 is one such novel MIMETIBODY Fc-domain dimeric EMP fusion protein. In a mouse model, single-dose CNTO 530 (unlike epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa) bolstered red cell production for up to 1 month. In 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin-paclitaxel models, CNTO 530 also protected against anemia with unique efficiency. These actions were not fully accounted for by half-life estimates, and CNTO 530 signaling events therefore were studied. Within primary bone marrow erythroblasts, kinetics of STAT5, ERK, and AKT activation were similar for CNTO 530 and epoetin-alfa. p70S6K activation by CNTO 530, however, was selectively sustained. In vivo, CNTO 530 uniquely stimulated the enhanced formation of PODXLhighCD71high (pro)erythroblasts at frequencies multifold above epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa. CNTO 530 moreover supported the sustained expansion of a bone marrow–resident KitnegCD71highTer119neg progenitor pool. Based on these distinct erythropoietic and EPOR signaling properties, CNTO 530 holds excellent promise as a new EPO mimetic.

Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Houde, Estelle; Marshall, Deborah; Volk, Amy; Makropoulos, Dorie; Emerson, Christine; Pradeep, Anamika; Bugelski, Peter J.



Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been

B. A. Sayle; R. E. Helmer; B. A. Birdsong; S. Balachandran; F. H. Gardner



[Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the autologous bone marrow accelerate healing indolent gastric ulcers].  


The influence of cultivated multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC) of the autologous bone marrow on activity of wound healing processes was studied using the model of long-indolent autoimmune gastric ulcer in rats. MMSC of the bone marrow when under the state of stress inhibition do not possess optimal and regulatory activity. Precultivated MMSC of the bone marrow accelerate the processes of regeneration of the gastric ulcer. MMSC of the bone marrow realize their bioregulatory PMID:19514387

Askarov, M B; Shumakov, V I; Onishchenko, N A



Two Phases of Engraftment Established by Serial Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially transplanted bone marrow eventually fails to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice. The reasons for this loss of repopulating ability are unknown. We showed that serial bone marrow transplantation changed the ratio of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow. The numbers of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU- GM) in the bone marrow did not change with serial transplantation. Spleen CFU (CFU-S) numbers decreased

Richard J. Jones; Paul Celano; Saul J. Sharkis; Lyle L. Sensenbrenner



The role of marrow transplantation in the eradication of malignant disease. [Dogs; /sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

This Kettering award lecture describes the history of bone marrow transplantation for treatment of disseminated malignant disease, leukemia, carried out at the University of Washington. A major problem after marrow grafting is the recurrence of leukemia and display of profound immunologic incompetence. Presently, marrow transplantation has become an accepted form of therapy for several types of human disease including malignant disease as well as hereditory diseases of the bone marrow.

Thomas, E.D.



Method for Disposing of Red Phosphorus Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for disposing of a pyrotechnic composition comprised of red phosphorus, manganese dioxide, magnesium, zinc oxide, and linseed oil, with at least fifty percent of the composition being red phosphorus. The composition is burned in a fi...

F. E. Montgomery



Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various in vitro manipulations of red cells produce a so-called 'preservation injury' that manifests itself in the form of severely and irreversibly damaged red cells that are removed from the recipient's circulation at an accelerated rate usually during ...

C. R. Valeri



Freeze-Dried Human Red Blood Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary clinical evaluation of in vivo circulation of autologous, lyophilized and reconstituted human red blood cells was undertaken to establish a baseline level of in vivo performance of lyophilized red blood cells from both human volunteers and c...



Fixed-Dried Red Blood Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fixed-dried red blood cells (RBCs), and processes for preparing the same are disclosed. The red blood cells, upon reconstitution with distilled water or appropriate buffer: bind oxygen with native affinities, have partial deformability, present minimal th...

A. P. Bode M. S. Read T. C. Nichols T. H. Fischer



Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Lunar Prospector Gamma-ray data and Clementine Spectral Reflectance data to revisit the interpretation of thorium abundances at the Gruithuisen red spot, with implications for other lunar red spots.

Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.



Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.  


In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong



Multilineage differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to undergo multilineage differentiation. Human BMSCs were isolated from the ilia of donors by density gradient centrifugation, then purified by adherent separation and cultured in vitro. P3 or P4 BMSC populations were collected and induced for multilineage differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes and neuroblasts using an inductive medium in vitro. The BMSCs were cultured in either an osteoblast or chondroblast induction medium, seeded onto porous coral scaffolds and implanted into mice in vivo. The mice were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose at 6 or 9 weeks post-surgery. The scaffolds were then removed for analysis. Lipid vacuoles were observed subsequent to being cultured in an adipogenic medium. These accumulated lipid vacuoles were detected using Sudan Black B and Oil Red O (positive) staining. Deposited calcium was detected using von Kossa and Alizarin Red S (positive) staining subsequent to being cultured in an osteogenic medium. The BMSCs retracted to form neuron-like cells with axon- and dendrite-like processes following induction by ?-mercaptoethanol. The cells were positively stained by toluidine blue and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry. Newly formed bone tissues were observed and islands of cartilage tissue were also formed at 9 weeks post-implantation in vivo. The present study demonstrated that human BMSCs were homogeneous and differentiated with high fidelity to osteogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic or chondrogenic lineages. These cells also form bone and cartilage tissues when implanted in vivo and may therefore be used as seed cells in bone tissue engineering.




Increased differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aquaporin-5 deficiency.  


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5(+/+) mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) and AQP5(+/+) mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPAR?2, C/EBP?, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5(-/-) mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5(+/+) than AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao; Ma, Tonghui



Effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation on bone marrow angiogenesis in chronic myelogenous leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased bone marrow angiogenesis is a poor prognostic marker in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can be curative for patients with CML. Studies in myeloma have shown persistent increased bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) after autologous transplantation. It is not clear if abnormal bone marrow angiogenesis persists following a curative intervention like allogeneic transplantation.

S Kumar; M R Litzow; S V Rajkumar



Erythropoietic reconstitution, macrophages and reticulin fibrosis in bone marrow specimens of CML patients following allogeneic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinicopathological study was conducted on 351 bone marrow trephine biopsies derived from 124 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at standardized endpoints before and after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The purpose was to investigate quantitative changes of the nucleated erythroid precursor cell population and other associated features such as resident bone marrow macrophages and myelofibrosis and to elucidate

J Thiele; HM Kvasnicka; DW Beelen; B Pilgram; A Rose; L-D Leder; UW Schaefer



Function and Malfunction of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Primary Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the production of mature blood cells in bone marrow; peripheral pancytopenia is a common clinical presentation resulting from several different conditions, including hematological or extra-hematol ogical diseases (mostly cancers) affecting the marrow function, as well as primary failure of hematopoiesis. Primary bone marrow failure syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases with specific

Antonio M. Risitano; Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski; Carmine Selleri; Bruno Rotoli



Contribution of transplanted bone marrow cells to Purkinje neurons in human adult brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show here that cells within human adult bone marrow can contribute to cells in the adult human brain. Cerebellar tissues from female patients with hematologic malignancies, who had received chemotherapy, radiation, and a bone marrow transplant, were analyzed. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from female patients who received male (sex-mismatched) or female (sex- matched, control) bone marrow transplants.

James M. Weimann; Carol A. Charlton; Timothy R. Brazelton; Robert C. Hackman; Helen M. Blau



Contribution of transplanted bone marrow cells to Purkinje neurons in human adult brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show here that cells within human adult bone marrow can contribute to cells in the adult human brain. Cerebellar tissues from female patients with hematologic malignancies, who had received chemotherapy, radiation, and a bone marrow transplant, were analyzed. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from female patients who received male (sex-mismatched) or female (sex-matched, control) bone marrow transplants. Cerebella

James M. Weimann; Carol A. Charlton; Timothy R. Brazelton; Robert C. Hackman; Helen M. Blau



Damaged epithelia regenerated by bone marrow–derived cells in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Here we show that bone marrow cells can repopulate the epithelia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Epithelial cells of male donor origin were distributed in every part of the gastrointestinal tract of female bone marrow transplant recipients. Donor-derived epithelial cells substantially repopulated

Ryuichi Okamoto; Tomoharu Yajima; Motomi Yamazaki; Takanori Kanai; Makio Mukai; Shinichiro Okamoto; Yasuo Ikeda; Toshifumi Hibi; Johji Inazawa; Mamoru Watanabe



Immune reconstitution after allogeneic marrow transplantation compared with blood stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell grafts contain about 10 times more T and B cells than marrow grafts. Because these cells may survive in transplant recipients for a long time, recipients of blood stem cells may be less immunocompromised than re- cipients of marrow. Immune reconstitution was studied in 115 patients randomly as- signed to receive either allogeneic marrow or

Jan Storek; Monja A. Dawson; Barry Storer; Terry Stevens-Ayers; David G. Maloney; Kieren A. Marr; Robert P. Witherspoon; William Bensinger; Mary E. D. Flowers; Paul Martin; Rainer Storb; Frederick R. Appelbaum; Michael Boeckh



Evaluation of mouse whole body bone marrow cellularity and distribution of hematopoietic progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform murine transplant experiments, marrow cells are usually harvested from hind legs bones either by bone marrow flushing or bone crushing. We examined the feasibility of harvesting whole skeleton marrow in regards to cell numbers and progenitor potential. Bones of BALB\\/c mice were dissected and flushed with cold HBSS or crushed in a mortar with cold HBSS

J.-F Lambert; J. E Carlson; G. A Colvin; P. J Quesenberry



Use Of An Algorithm For Total Parenteral Nutrition In Bone Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state me benefit of establishing standards for TPN usage in bone marrow transplant patients.Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT) experience severe mucositis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as a result of the marrow ablative therapy received. These patients are typically unable to maintain their nutrition status orally and do not tolerate enteral tube feedings well. Consequently, they receive

D Dean; A. Habeck; J. Kerestes-Smith



Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins.  


We found that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as in a screen of 12 proteins, 8 exhibited photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins could be switched to a green state, and two orange variants could be photoconverted to a far-red state. The orange proteins are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibited the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent proteins described to date. PMID:19363494

Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L; Murphy, Christopher S; Davidson, Michael W; Piston, David W



NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website offers a brief explanation of red tide and a large bloom that spread from the Gulf of Maine to the Massachusetts Bay in 2005. The site explains NOAA's efforts to remediate red tide in New England as well as prevent new occurrences. The site features hyperlinks to research funding, legislation, and other NOAA sites that feature red tide.


Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxygen transport function is maintained better in CPD red cells than in ACD red cells. After storage at 4 C in CPD for 2 to 4 days, red cells can be rejuvenated with a solution containing pyruvate, inosine, glucose, phosphate, and adenine, and frozen usin...

C. R. Valeri



Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea  


... red lines under the skin. Thickened skin or constant redness along with sometimes-painful bumps. Inflamed eyes or eyelids. Swollen, red, bumpy nose, especially in men. Fast Facts about Rosacea Questions and Answers about Rosacea CONTACT US NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison ...


Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize

M. Campa; P. Borum



Popular Theatre and the Red Bull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governing the Pen to the Capacity of the Stage: Reading the Red Bull and Clerkenwell by Lucy Munro: This essay introduces the Issues in Review section ‘Popular Theatre and the Red Bull’, which highlights new work on the Red Bull theatre and its Clerkenwell locality. It suggests ways in which this group of essays relate to current ideas about repertory

Lucy Munro; Anne Lancashire; John H. Astington; Marta Straznicky



21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...



21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...



Improvements in Stability of Red Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red phosphorus has become an essential item in the production of modern smoke and obscurants devices, additionally nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the red phosphorus charge may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion of essential working

Sebastian Hörold


Red Blood Cell Deformability in Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red blood cell deformability was measured in 74 cases of renal failure and diabetic nephropathy by means of a modified nuclepore membrane filter method. Low red blood cell deformability was observed in a certain proportion of the patients. In cases of renal failure only weak correlation was found between reduced red blood cell deformability and BUN as well as between

Y. Kikuchi; T. Koyama; Y. Koyama; S. Tozawa; T. Arai; M. Horimoto; Y. Kakiuchi



Red Blood Cell Function and Blood Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red blood cells are ideal vehicles for delivering oxygen to tissues, but their functions deteriorate during liquid preservation. In this article, we review the role of red blood cells in oxygen delivery and methods to evaluate the effectiveness of red blood cell transfusion. Quantitative estimation of transfusion effects could avoid unnecessary transfusion and reduce the risk of transfusion-associated disorders. We

Naotaka Hamasaki; Masaaki Yamamoto



Skin regeneration with bone marrow-derived cell populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow-derived cells of distinct differentiation level could differently influence the process of skin regeneration. The results of our study revealed that hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) population influenced the repair of injured tissue slower in comparison with lineage negative (lin?) cell population containing not only HSC but also cell progenitors of different differentiation levels. Wound healing process was faster in

Giedr? Ramanauskait?; Vytautas Kaš?ta; Aida Vaitkuvien?; Gen? Biziulevi?ien?



Bone marrow stromal cells as a vehicle for gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoptive transfer of genetically modified somatic cells is playing an increasingly important role in the management of a wide spectrum of human diseases. Hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocytes have been used to transfer a variety of genes, however, they have limitations. In this study, the feasibility of retroviral gene transduction of bone marrow stromal cells, and the engraftment characteristics of

L Ding; S Lu; R B Batchu; R L Saylors III; N C Munshi



Reactivation of Breast Cancer Micrometastases by Senescent Bone Marrow Stroma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed an in vitro injury model of stroma cultured from bone marrow samples of mice and human donors. We demonstrated that oxidative and hypoxic damage and estrogen deprivation can induce IL-6 and IL-8 export by human female, premenopausal stroma. W...

R. Wieder



Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)|

Cohen, Marie; And Others



Meat and Marrow Utility Indices for Horse ( Equus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three horses were butchered and their economic anatomy examined. A Meat Utility Index (MUI) and a Marrow Index (MI) were derived, and these were modified to produce a Food Utility Index (FUI) using the methodology of Binford (1978) and Metcalfe & Jones (1988). The indices were compared with those for caribou, and the economic anatomy of the two species shown

Alan Outram; Peter Rowley-Conwy



Bone marrow transplantation in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.  


Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, OMIM 242900) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem childhood disorder characterized by short stature, renal failure, T-cell immunodeficiency, and hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents. SIOD is associated with biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1), which encodes a DNA stress response enzyme with annealing helicase activity. Two features of SIOD causing much morbidity and mortality are bone marrow failure and T-cell deficiency with the consequent opportunistic infections. To address the safety and efficacy of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in SIOD, we reviewed the outcomes of the only five SIOD patients known to us in whom bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been attempted. We find that only one patient survived the transplantation procedure and that the existing indicators of a good prognosis for bone marrow transplantation were not predictive in this small cohort. Given these observations, we also discuss some considerations for the poor outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23950031

Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Lange, Jonas; Asakura, Yumi; Cochat, Pierre; Massella, Laura; Boerkoel, Cornelius F



Erythropoietic Response of Bone Marrow Cells cultivated in Diffusion Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that cultivation of bone marrow by traditional in vitro methods does not sustain normal morphogenesis for prolonged periods of time1-4, and although synthesis of DNA and haem and some erythropoietic activity have been demonstrated in vitro5-9, these processes are maintained only for extremely short periods.

Irwin Berman; Earlene J. Newby



Oral health of children undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  


The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the oral health of children undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The study group comprised 23 children undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and their matched controls. The study group comprised 23 children undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and their matched controls. Measurements were taken of the mean decayed, missing and filled surfaces and the mean decayed, missing and filled teeth in both deciduous and permanent dentition at baseline, the mean bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation indices and mucositis at specific event-related times during the transplantation period, were measured. The number of decayed, missing and filled surfaces in deciduous teeth was significantly greater in the transplant children than the matched controls (P < 0.05) at baseline. There was a significant increase in both the mean bacterial plaque score for the deciduous teeth (P < 0.003) and the permanent teeth (P < 0.001) and the mean gingival inflammation score for the deciduous (P < 0.001) and the permanent teeth (P < 0.001), at 7 days post-transplantation. At 4 months post-transplantation the plaque and gingival inflammation score had returned to baseline levels. There were significantly increased mean bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation scores during the period of intense immunosuppression following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. PMID:9827979

Lucas, V S; Roberts, G J; Beighton, D



Characterization of conditioned medium of cultured bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized that bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation has beneficial effects on spinal cord injury in animal models and therapeutic trials. It is hypothesized that BMSCs provide microenvironments suitable for axonal regeneration and secrete some trophic factors to rescue affected cells from degeneration. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the trophic factors involved remain unclear. In

Norihiko Nakano; Yoshiyasu Nakai; Tae-Boem Seo; Yoshihiro Yamada; Takayuki Ohno; Atsuo Yamanaka; Yoji Nagai; Masanori Fukushima; Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Toshio Nakatani; Chizuka Ide



Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells.  


This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented on very recent studies. Methods of identifying, culturing, expanding and grafting stem cells are described, including the separation of haemopoietic and mesenchyme cell lines (HSC and MSC) and recent more detailed analyses using numerous CD and other markers to identify very small subsets of stem cells such as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) and bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSC) from MSC. Queries arising on the immense potential of these stem cell lines due to the discovery of epigentic factors and cell fusions influencing their development and potency are described. A section on cord blood stem cells is followed by a detailed discussion on the modern situation regarding the clinical use of stem cells, its recent setbacks due to epigenetic factors, different approaches to the discovery of a highly multipotent bone marrow stem cell, and a brief description of embryological approaches to identifying the basic bone marrow stem cell in very early mammalian embryos. PMID:15588475

Edwards, R G



Parent-Child Interactions with Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between parents and young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated in a prospective, longitudinal study. The parents of six children ages 3 years, 9 months, to 6 years, 9 months, were assessed for patterns of coping and for parental responsiveness using the Family Interaction Q-Sort within a week before the transplant and 3, 6, 12, and 24

Marian L. Lee; Sarale E. Cohen; Margaret L. Stuber; Kathleen Nader



Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))



Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for lysosomal storage diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with lysosomal storage disorders have visceral, skeletal, and neurological abnormalities and a limited life expectancy. Bone marrow transplantation has been used to correct the metabolic defects and leads to metabolic improvements in most patients However, the long-term effect of such therapy is uncertain. We analysed the data from 63 patients transplanted for lysosomal storage diseases. The transplant-related mortality was

P. M. Hoogerbrugge; O. F. Brouwer; P. Bordigoni; G. Cornu; P. Kapaun; J. J. Ortega; A. O'Meara; G. Souillet; D. Frappaz; S. Blanche; A. Fischer; O. Ringden



Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented

RG Edwards



Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model

Gisela Sparmann; Marie-Luise Kruse; Nicole Hofmeister-Mielke; Dirk Koczan; Robert Jaster; Stefan Liebe; Daniel Wolff; Jörg Emmrich



Plasmapheresis for Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura following Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)\\/hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has increased in recent years. The use of plasma exchange has greatly improved the outlook of de novo TTP. Fewer data are available on its use in post-BMT TTP but small uncontrolled series showed poor results with low response rates. We present here a case of

O. Kolker; S. Sviri; D. M. Linton; A. Nagler; M. Y. Shapira



Use of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has become the therapy of choice for a number of malignant and nonmalignant hematologic and nonhematologic disorders. A frequent complication after BMT is pulmonary disease which is associated with a high mortality rate. We examined the results of 79 bronchoscopies performed between May 1991 and May 1995 in 62 patients for the evaluation of pulmonary complications

M. Glazer; R. Breuer; N. Berkman; I. S. Lossos; J. Kapelushnik; A. Nagler; E. Naparstek; M. R. Kramer; J. Lafair; D. Engelhard



Local signals in stem cell-based bone marrow regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular basis of bone marrow (BM) tissue development and regeneration is mediated through hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Local interplays between hematopoietic cells and BM stromal cells (BMSCs) determine the reconstitution of hematopoiesis after myelosuppression. Here we review the BM local signals in control of BM regeneration after insults. Hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) and cytokines

Wei Han; Yan Yu; Xin Yuan Liu



Outcome following late marrow relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.

Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.



Varicella vaccination in children after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes zoster (HZ) is one of the most common complications after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children. Apart from treatment with antiviral drugs, effective prevention by active immunization with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) appears to be possible. In this study 15 patients were vaccinated with a live attenuated VZV vaccine (Varilrix) 12–23 months after BMT. The vaccine was well tolerated without

A Sauerbrei; J Prager; U Hengst; F Zintl; P Wutzler



Psychosocial Consequences of Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a pilot study that was undertaken before the authors proceeded with a systematic, three-year study on the psychosocial effects of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) among pediatric patients from four London hospitals and their families. The first 15 patients admitted to one hospital for BMT were included in the pilot study in an attempt to (1) assess the

Carien C. Pot-Mees; Harry Zeitlin



Foscarnet as treatment for cytomegalovirus retinitis following bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

This report describes a patient with chronic granulocytic leukaemia who developed cataracts on busulphan treatment. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, he developed cytomegalovirus retinitis, which was treated successfully with trisodium phosphonoformate (foscarnet). Cytomegalovirus retinitis and its therapy, and busulphan-induced cataract are discussed.

Ganly, P. S.; Arthur, C.; Goldman, J. M.; Schulenburg, W. E.



Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation presenting with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the high-resolution computed tomography findings of a patient with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation. The main finding consisted of extensive ground-glass opacities superimposed to mild interlobular septal thickening, resulting in the appearance termed \\

Taisa Gasparetto; Edson Marchiori; Marina B Guimarães; Dante Escuissato; Gláucia Zanetti



Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome in Mice after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary complications are a major clinical problem following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), contributing to more than 30% of transplant-related mortalities. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is responsible for significant mortality among BMT patients. However, the etiology of injury to the lung parenchyma by this disease syndrome is unknown and it has been difficult to evaluate the cellular and mo- lecular mechanisms

Gopi Shankar; J. Scott Bryson; C. Darrell Jennings; Peter E. Morris; Donald A. Cohen


Kinetics of Liver Repopulation after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Recent work has convincingly demonstrated that adult bone marrow contains cells capable of differentiating into liver epithelial cells in vivo. However, the frequency and time course with which fully functional hepatocytes emerge after bone marrow transplantation remained controversial. Here, we used the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase knockout mouse to determine the kinetics of hepatocyte replacement after complete hematopoietic reconstitution. Single donor-derived hepatocytes were first detected 7 weeks after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Liver disease was not required for this transdifferentiation. In the presence of selective pressure the single cells evolved into hepatocyte nodules by 11 weeks after transplantation and resulted in >30% overall liver repopulation by 22 weeks. The frequency with which hepatocytes were produced was between 10?4 and 10?6, resulting in only 50 to 500 repopulation events per liver. Hepatic engraftment was not observed without previous hematopoietic reconstitution even in the presence of liver injury. In addition, significant liver repopulation was completely dependent on hepatocyte growth selection. We conclude that hepatocyte replacement by bone marrow cells is a slow and rare event. Significant improvements in the efficiency of this process will be needed before clinical success can be expected.

Wang, Xin; Montini, Eugenio; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Lagasse, Eric; Finegold, Milton; Grompe, Markus



Matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation in leukocyte adhesion deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe phenotype of leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare, congenital disorder of leukocyte function that is usually fatal in the first few years of life. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation currently offers the only curative approach for this disease. We describe the first successful matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplant in an infant with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

C Mancias; AJ Infante; NR Kamani



Energy expenditure during allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by indirect calorimetry during allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation in order to evaluate the evolution in allogeneic and autologous recipient patients. REE values obtained with indirect calorimetry and compared with values using the Harris-Benedict formula were different. Evolution of REE during aplasia were significantly different in autologous and allogeneic recipients with an increase

V. Chamouard Cogoluenhes; C. Chambrier; M. Michallet; B. Gordiani; J. Y. Ranchere; D. Combret; Y. Lallemand; M. Roldan; M. Accominoti; I. Philip; J. F. Latour; G. Hulewitz; P. Biron; A. Barbieux; P. Bachmann



Bone Marrow Graft in Man after Conditioning by Antilymphocytic Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic bone marrow grafts carried out after previous administration of antilymphocytic serum alone were attempted in 16 patients. Of these, six had acute myeloblastic leukaemia, four acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and one a blast cell crisis in polycythaemia vera. Ten of these patients were in an overt phase of the disease and resistant to chemotherapy, while nine had complete agranulocytosis. In

G. Mathé; J. L. Amiel; L. Schwarzenberg; J. Choay; P. Trolard; M. Schneider; M. Hayat; J. R. Schlumberger; Cl. Jasmin



Bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).  


Patients with high-risk acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission, or those with relapsed leukemia, are unlikely to have their disease controlled by conventional therapeutic approaches. Bone marrow transplantation has been shown to produce extended leukemia-free survival for a substantial number of patients, making it the preferred treatment approach. However, differential availability, transplant-associated mortality, and antileukemic efficacy of various transplant options makes the choice between donor-cell sources problematic. Currently, patients can have transplantation therapy using either autologous marrow cryopreserved with or without purging, allogeneic related-donor, or umbilical-cord blood cells used for reconstitution. Transplants with autologous marrow or related-donor marrow can be undertaken with relative speed. In contrast, searching for an available unrelated living donor and the logistics of arranging for a donor harvest requires several months. Use of umbilical cord blood is more expeditious and may greatly accelerate the availability of unrelated allogeneic autotransplants and in the safety of unrelated-donor transplantation are needed to improve outcomes of transplantation in patients with ALL. Consideration of speedy availability, transplant-associated toxicity, and antileukemic efficacy of these varying options all need to be balanced for effective clinical decisions on transplant treatment in patients with ALL. PMID:9179277

Weisdorf, D J



White blood cell detection in bone marrow images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the automatic detection of white blood cells in bone marrow microscopic images. This approach is based on fuzzy techniques with the aim to allow: good processing of both vagueness and indetermination characteristics of this kind of image; and the analysis of monochrome instead of color images. Taking these considerations into account, a very low

P. Sobrevilla; E. Montseny; J. Keller



Bone-marrow haematopoietic-stem-cell niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells hold many promises for future clinical applications and regenerative medicine. The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the best-characterized somatic stem cell so far, but in vitro expansion has been unsuccessful, limiting the future therapeutic potential of these cells. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the composition of the HSC bone-marrow microenvironment, known as the HSC niche.

Anne Wilson; Andreas Trumpp



Relapsing lymphomatoid papulosis after allogenic bone-marrow transplant.  


Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder in children, which can rarely be associated with a cutaneous or systemic lymphoma. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with typical LyP and pathological features of subtype A. Six months later, the patient presented with rapidly progressive peripheral and systemic lymphadenopathy. On examination of a lymph-node biopsy, a lymphoid infiltrate negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and positive for CD30 was found, suggestive of systemic anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (S-ALCL). The patient was treated with chemotherapy, followed by allogeneic bone-marrow transplant (BMT). Over the following 6 years, she presented with biopsy-confirmed LyP relapses with complete cutaneous, peripheral-blood and bone-marrow chimerism. This is only the third reported paediatric association of S-ALCL with LyP to our knowledge, and seems to be the first paediatric case of recurrent relapses of LyP after bone-marrow allograft for S-ALCL with total (100%) cutaneous and bone-marrow chimerism. LyP occurring after allogenic BMT does not appear to be donor-derived. PMID:24073656

Miquel, J; Vourc'h-Jourdain, M; Thomas, C; Cassagnau, E; Stalder, J-F; Barbarot, S



“AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...


Bone marrow angiogenesis and progression in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma plasma cells home and expand in the bone marrow where cause an unbalanced bone remodelling with increased bone resorption and low bone formation that represent the typical feature in the majority of patients. A clinically relevant aspect of the interactions of multiple myeloma plasma cells in the bone marrow microenvironment is neovascularization, a constant hallmark of disease progression. This process is only partially supported by factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 and metalloproteinases, which are directly secreted by the tumor cells. In fact, the presence in the bone marrow microenvironment of cytokines, in particular interleukin-6, as a consequence of plasma cell-stromal cell interactions, induces the production and secretion of angiogenic factors by other cells present in the bone microenvironment, thus contributing to the angiogenic switch during the progression of the disease. Near angiogenesis vasculogenesis occur in the bone marrow of myeloma patients and contribute to the vascular three formation. In the bone marrow of myeloma patients haematopoietic stem cells are recruited and induced to differentiate into endothelial cells by the angiogenic cytokines present in the microenvironment. Myeloma plasma cells also induce angiogenesis indirectly via recruitment and activation of stromal inflammatory cells (i.e.: macrophages and mast cells) to secrete their own angiogenic factors. They are recruited and activated by tumor plasma cells through the secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2, interleukin-8, and other chemokines, such as ITAC, Mig, IP-10. When macrophages and mast cells are activated they secrete their angiogenic factors: fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, which contribute to enhance the tumor neovascularization. Finally, myeloma macrophages when exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 secreted by plasma cells shows vasculogenic ability and acquire endothelial cell markers and transform into cells functionally and phenotypically similar to paired bone marrow endothelial cells. So they participate to the formation of the bone marrow capillary network (vasculogenic mimicry).

Ria, Roberto; Reale, Antonia; De Luisi, Annunziata; Ferrucci, Arianna; Moschetta, Michele; Vacca, Angelo



A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated from the standard and regional technique. The results showed the regional technique values correlated more closely to several clinical response parameters. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Bayouth, John Ellis


Multiparameter analysis of transplantable hemopoietic stem cells. I. The separation and enrichment of stem cells homing to marrow and spleen on the basis of rhodamine-123 fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A multiparameter cell separative procedure is described that enables normal transplantable hemopoietic stem cells that preferentially home to the marrow of lethally irradiated mice to be enriched and separated from the majority of spleen colony-forming cells that are assayed 13 days after transplantation (CFU-S13). First, bone marrow cells are centrifuged in a discontinuous bovine serum albumin gradient. Low-density cells are harvested and labeled with the supravital cationic fluorochrome rhodamine 123 (Rh123). Labeled cells are analyzed using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and cells are sorted on the basis of relative Rh123 fluorescence within a predetermined forward versus 90 degrees red light scatter window that has been optimized for the recovery and enrichment of cells with marrow repopulating ability (MRA). Cells with MRA were characterized by relatively low Rh123 fluorescence and could be separated from a fraction that fluoresced more intensely and contained the majority of CFU-S13 but low MRA. Cells with platelet repopulating ability cofractionate with MRA whereas cells with erythroid repopulating ability remain associated with CFU-S13.

Bertoncello, I.; Hodgson, G.S.; Bradley, T.R.



Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Maslinski, Wlodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Warczynska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida



Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.  


Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a "herald" of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted. PMID:23493495

Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Ma?li?ski, W?odzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Warczy?ska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida



High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient.

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.



Effects of salinomycin on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.  


Various hypotheses on the origin of cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist, including that CSCs develop from transformed human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). Since the polyether antibiotic salinomycin selectively kills CSCs, the present study aims to elucidate the effects of salinomycin on normal hBMSC. The immunophenotype of hBMSC after salinomycin exposure was observed by flow cytometry. The multi-differentiation capacity of hBMSC was evaluated by Oil Red O and van Kossa staining. Cytotoxic effects of salinomycin were monitored by the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. Furthermore, spheroid formation and migration capacity were assessed. There were no differences in the immunophenotype and multi-differentiation capacity of hBMSC induced by salinomycin treatment. Cytotoxic effects were observed at concentrations of 30 ?M and above. Neither the migration capability nor the ability to form spheroids was affected. Essential functional properties of hBMSC were unaffected by salinomycin. However, dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects could be observed. Overall, low dose salinomycin showed no negative effects on hBMSC. Since mesenchymal stem cells from various sources respond differently, further in vitro studies are needed to clarify the effect of salinomycin on tissue-specific stem cells. PMID:23410960

Scherzed, A; Hackenberg, S; Froelich, K; Rak, K; Technau, A; Radeloff, A; Nöth, U; Koehler, C; Hagen, R; Kleinsasser, N



Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches  

PubMed Central

While haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are commonly assumed to reside within a specialized microenvironment, or niche1, most published experimental manipulations of the HSC niche have also impacted the function of diverse restricted progenitors. This raises the fundamental question of whether HSCs1 and restricted progenitors2,3 reside within distinct, specialized niches or whether they share a common niche. Here we assess the physiological sources of the chemokine, CXCL12, for HSC and restricted progenitor maintenance. Cxcl12DsRed knock-in mice showed that Cxcl12 was primarily expressed by perivascular stromal cells and at lower levels by endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and some haematopoietic cells. Conditional deletion of Cxcl12 from haematopoietic cells or Nestin-cre-expressing cells had little or no effect on HSCs or restricted progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from endothelial cells depleted HSCs but not myeloerythroid or lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from perivascular stromal cells depleted HSCs and certain restricted progenitors and mobilized these cells into circulation. Deletion of Cxcl12 from osteoblasts depleted certain early lymphoid progenitors, but not HSCs or myeloerythroid progenitors and did not mobilize these cells into circulation. Different stem/progenitor cells thus occupy distinct cellular niches in bone marrow: HSCs in a perivascular niche and early lymphoid progenitors in an endosteal niche.

Ding, Lei; Morrison, Sean J.



Red Nodule on the Breast  

PubMed Central

A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

Colucci, Roberta; Galeone, Massimiliano; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Pinzi, Cinzia; Bellandi, Serena; Moretti, Silvia



? Ophiuchi: Revisiting a Red Giant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In only a decade, seismology of red-giant stars has grown from infancy to adulthood in the study of stellar structure and evolution. The stimulants for this accelerated growth have been space observations, first provided by the WIRE star-tracker and MOST, and continuing with CoRoT and Kepler, having detected oscillations in thousands of cool giants. However, almost all of the stars in this impressive sample are faint, with little known about their basic properties. Even reliable spectral classifications are lacking for many of them. MOST is the only space-based photometer capable of continuous observations of bright red giants for which we have independent constraints (e.g., spectroscopy) essential to extract the internal structure from the stars' p-modes.

Kallinger, T.; Matthews, J. M.; Guenther, D. B.; Gruberbauer, M.; Kuschnig, R.; Weiss, W. W.; MOST Team



Intra-bone marrow injection of allogeneic bone marrow cells: a powerful new strategy for treatment of intractable autoimmune diseases in MRL\\/lpr mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intractable autoimmune diseases in chi- meric resistant MRL\\/lpr mice were treated by a new bone marrow transplantation (BMT) method consisting of fractionated irradiation, 5.5 Gy 3 2, followed by intra- bone marrow (IBM) injection of whole bone marrow cells (BMCs) from alloge- neic normal C57BL\\/6 (B6) mice (5.5 Gy 3 2 1 IBM). In MRL\\/lpr mice treated with this method,

Taketoshi Kushida; Muneo Inaba; Hiroko Hisha; Naoya Ichioka; Takashi Esumi; Ryokei Ogawa; Hirokazu Iida; Susumu Ikehara



Synergistic effects of injection of bone marrow cells into both portal vein and bone marrow on tolerance induction in transplantation of allogeneic pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established a new method for allogeneic pancreatic islet (PI) transplantation: relatively low doses of irradiation followed by simultaneous transplantation of PIs and bone marrow cells (BMCs) via the portal vein (PV). In the present study, we have compared this method with intra-bone marrow (IBM)-bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and with a combination of both methods. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic-recipient rats,

K Ikebukuro; Y Adachi; Y Suzuki; M Iwasaki; K Nakano; Y Koike; H Mukaide; Y Yamada; S Fujimoto; Y Seino; H Oyaizu; A Shigematsu; N Kiriyama; Y Hamada; Y Kamiyama; S Ikehara



Amelioration of cognitive ability in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow cells (BMCs) can increase the number of activated microglias, which play a central role in the inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) prone 8 (SAMP8) are widely used in various experiments because of cognitive deficits observed with age. In the present study, 4-month-old SAMP8 were reconstituted with BMCs of C57BL\\/6 mice by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow

Ming Li; Muneo Inaba; Kequan Guo; Nader G. Abraham; Susumu Ikehara



Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors. Annual progress report, August 1, 1981-July 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Research progress is reported for studies aimed at: (1) establishing an in vitro system for defining the cellular mechanisms that result in tumor neutralization through the cooperation of tumor immune T cells and bone marrow-derived Natural Growth Regulatory CellS (NTRC); (2) defining the stem cell populations on which CE mouse mammary carcinoma exerts a bodulating influence; and (3) identifying bone marrow-derived and bone marrow-dependent cell populations with a potential for participating in antitumor responses. (ACR)

Rosse, C.



Recombination in amorphous red phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative recombination in red a-P is reviewed briefly and new experiments on time-resolved photoluminescence are presented. These cover two time ranges: 50 ps-1 ns and 10-200 ns. The results of these experiments are interpreted as indicating that a Coulomb interaction in the ground state can account for the shift of the low-energy luminescence to lower energies with increasing time delay

R. T. Phillips; Z. Sobiesierski



Clifford the Big Red Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS Kids has companion sites for their programs that offer a number of activities for young users. This one features everyone's favorite enormous, bright-red pooch, Clifford. At Clifford's site, visitors can play a matching game, read a story, print a cut-out dog house, and print out pages to color. The site also offers some Clifford video clips. THe site is compact, easy to navigate, and well suited for their target audience.



Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.


Why Owens Lake is Red!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains the biological phenomena of reddish-colored salt lakes, such as Lake Owens, and playas. Applying colorful images and geological history, the author describes the processes by which astronomical numbers of microscopic, unicellular organisms living in the water and salt crust can cause the red coloration. Descriptions also include the ability of halophilic microbes to withstand high salt concentrations and other extreme conditions.

Armstrong, Wayne; Department, Palomar C.


Red electrophosphorescence from osmium complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report red electrophosphorescence from light-emitting diodes based on osmium (Os) complexes. Efficient red emission was achieved using an in situ polymerized tetraphenyldiaminobiphenyl-containing polymer as the hole-transporting layer and Os complexes doped blend of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole as the emitting layer. The emission peaks of the reported Os complexes, ranging from 620 to 650 nm, can be tuned by changing the structures of the ligands because the emission originates from triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. The Os complexes trap both electrons and holes, which facilitates the direct recombination of holes and electrons on the complex sites. The peak external quantum efficiency and brightness achieved from the complexes were 0.82% and 970 cd/m2, respectively. The Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates (x,y) for the best red emission from the complexes are (0.65, 0.33).

Jiang, Xuezhong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Carlson, Brenden; Dalton, Larry R.



Second allogeneic bone marrow transplants from unrelated donors for graft failure following initial unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft failure is a common and severe complication of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (UD-BMT). However, there are few reports of a second UD-BMT in this setting. We describe 12 patients with graft failure (five primary, seven secondary) who had a second transplant, five from their original donor and seven from a different donor. Their median age was 9 years.

VL Grandage; JM Cornish; DH Pamphilon; MN Potter; CG Steward; A Oakhill; DI Marks



Primary splenic histiocytic sarcoma complicated with prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia and secondary bone marrow involvement: a unique surgical case presenting with splenomegaly but non-nodular lesions  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 67-year-old Japanese female was followed up due to prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia with non-response to steroid therapy for 4?years, but recent progressive pancytopenia, hypo-albuminemia, and hypo-?-globulinemia were presented. An abdominal CT scan revealed heterogeneously enhanced splenomegaly without any nodular lesions. A splenectomy was performed, and gross examination showed markedly hyperemic red pulp, weighing 760?g, accompanied by multiple foci of peripheral anemic infarction. Surprisingly, microscopic findings exhibited a diffuse proliferation of medium-sized to large tumor cells having pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly within the sinuses and cords of the red pulp, which occasionally displayed conspicuous hemophagocytosis and vascular permeation. In immunohistochemistry, these atypical cells were specifically positive for CD68 (KP-1), CD163, and lysozyme, which was consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of the spleen. Subsequently, section from the aspiration of bone marrow showed infiltration of the neoplastic cells associated with erythrophagocytosis 2?months after the operation, but never before it. Therefore, primary splenic HS presenting with secondary bone marrow involvement was conclusively diagnosed. Since early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the HS patients with poor outcomes, splenic HS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases with chronic thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:



Identification of genes for two major sialoglycoproteins, glycophorin A and glycophorin C in canine red cell membranes.  


Glycophorins are the major sialoglycoproteins in red blood cell membranes, possessing various physiological and pathological roles. We examined membrane glycoproteins in canine red cells and cloned cDNAs for two major glycophorins, glycophorins A (GPA) and C (GPC) from bone marrow cells. Periodic acid-Schiff staining and immunoblotting analyses showed that canine red cell membranes contained several glycoproteins immunoreactive to an anti-bovine GPC antibody, whereas the most abundant sialoglycoproteins, the candidates for GPA, did not react with an anti-human GPA antibody. The amino acid sequences of the extracellular domains of GPA and GPC had no significant homology to those from other mammalian species, including humans, and had O-linked and/or N-linked glycosylation sites. On the other hand, the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain and/or the transmembrane helices of GPA and GPC were conserved among species, indicating some functional significance of those regions in red cell membranes that include dimerization of GPA in the membrane-spanning region, and association of GPC with membrane skeletal proteins through binding with protein 4.1 and p55 in the cytoplasmic domain. These findings provide insights for clinical studies to evaluate the involvement of GPA and GPC in the pathogenesis of red cell diseases. PMID:18380152

Sato, Kota; Otsuka, Yayoi; Arashiki, Nobuto; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Chen-Chi, Wang; Tamahara, Satoshi; Inaba, Mutsumi



Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.



[Significance of application of immunocytochemical detection of GD2 antigen in bone marrow in neuroblastoma patients].  


The presence of disseminated neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow in children over 1 year old is important for clinical staging and risk assessment at diagnosis and for therapy monitoring. Reliable detection of single tumor cells in bone marrow may be a factor of great prognostic significance. Currently disseminated NBL cells are detected by conventional cytomorphological examination of bone marrow smears but this method is not sensitive enough to detect single tumor cells. The development of more sensitive methods of evaluation bone marrow is needed. For this purpose Neuroblastoma Bone Marrow Committee developed standard immunocytochemical assay based on detection of the neuroblastoma-specific antigen. Disialoganglioside GD2 is a surface antigen expressed on neuroblastoma cells but not detectable on the surface of normal bone marrow cells. This article describes significance of immunoctochemical method of identification neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow. PMID:21344771

Bolek-Marzec, Katarzyna; Balwierz, Walentyna; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Szewczyk, Katarzyna



The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. METHODS: To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow.

Fahir Ozkalemkas; R?dvan Ali; Vildan Ozkocaman; Tulay Ozcelik; Ulku Ozan; Hulya Ozturk; Ender Kurt; Turkkan Evrensel; Omer Yerci; Ahmet Tunali



A qualitative and quantitative analysis of autologous human multipotent adult stem cells derived from three anatomic areas by marrow aspiration: tibia, anterior ilium, and posterior ilium.  


Purpose: The purpose of this article was to compare the yields of stromal multipotent stem cells (CD34+ and CD105+) and hematopoetic multipotent stem cells (CD44+) obtained from different areas via bone marrow aspiration (BMA). Materials and Methods: Sixty 60-mL bone marrow aspirates were taken from the tibial plateau, the anterior ilium, and the posterior ilium using a single point-of-care BMA technique and a single BMA concentration (BMAC) device. A 1-mL portion of each sample was used to determine CD stem cell concentrations and the nucleated cell count. The remaining BMA was centrifuged to separate the more mature red blood cell precursors from the stem cells and then concentrate the latter into a BMAC. The BMAC yield of 10 mL was analyzed with flow cytometry and nucleated cell counts to derive a concentration factor for the BMAC. Results: The yield of total nucleated cells was equal between the anterior and posterior ilium and more than twice that obtained from the tibial plateau. The CD44+ and CD105+ cell yields were also nearly equal between the anterior and posterior ilium but more than twice that of the tibial plateau; however, the ratios between the three different stem cell types in BMAC obtained from the different areas suggest varying potentials for tissue development. Conclusions: The ilium is the preferred donor site for obtaining autologous stem cells at the point of care. The tibial plateau yielded only half as much bone marrow multipotent/progenitor stem cells as did the anterior and posterior ilium. The composition of the BMAC from each site suggests that the potential for differentiation into various cell types changes depending on the source of bone marrow, but that BMAC represents 6.5 ± 1.0 concentration factor from BMA. PMID:24066346

Marx, Robert E; Tursun, Ramzey


Leukemia prevention and long-term survival of AKR mice transplanted with MHC-matched or MHC-mismatched bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of marrow transplantation within and outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the long-term survival and occurrence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. AKR mice, which were lethally irradiated and received MHC-matched marrow from CBA/J mice (CBA----AKR), never developed leukemia and were alive and remained healthy for up to 280 days post-transplant. These long-term surviving chimeras possessed substantial immune vigor when both cell-mediated and humoral responses were tested. Lethally irradiated AKR mice, which had received MHC-mismatched marrow (anti-Thy-1.2 treated or nontreated) from C57BL/6J mice (B6----AKR), never developed leukemia and survived up to 170 days post-transplant. However, both groups of these chimeras began dying 180 to 270 days post-transplant due to a disease process which could not be readily identified. Histological analysis of B6----AKR chimeras revealed severe lymphoid cell depletion in thymus and spleen; however, none of these chimeras exhibited classical features of acute graft versus host disease. Concanavalin A mitogenesis, primary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed in B6----AKR chimeras. IL-2 treatment of B6----AKR chimeras was shown to partially correct these deficiencies without stimulating mixed lymphocyte responsiveness to donor or host lymphocytes. These studies indicate that the use of MHC-mismatched marrow for the prevention of spontaneous AKR leukemia may rely on augmentative IL-2 therapy for complete immune reconstitution of leukemia-free chimeras.

Longley, R.E.; Good, R.A.



Shared oxidative pathways in response to gravity-dependent loading and gamma-irradiation of bone marrow-derived skeletal cell progenitors.  


Astronauts are exposed to radiation during space travel under conditions of dramatically reduced weightbearing activity. However, we know little about how gravity-dependent loading affects tissue sensitivity to radiation. We hypothesize gravity-dependent loading and irradiation share common molecular signaling pathways in bone cell progenitors that are sensitive to stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), species capable of impacting skeletal health. To address this, progenitor cells with potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts were extracted from bone marrow, then cells were centrifuged (from 5-gravity (g) to 50-g for 5-180 min) on day 2 in culture, or were exposed to a single dose (1-5 Gy) of irradiation (137Cs 1 Gy/min) on day 3 or 4. Production of ROS was measured via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using an oxidation-sensitive dye. Cell numbers were assessed by measurement of DNA content (CyQUANT). Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (Alizarin Red staining). Transient centrifugation was a potent stimulus to bone marrow stromal cells, increasing production of ROS (1.2-fold), cell number (1.5-fold to 2.2-fold), and ALP activity (2.7-fold). Radiation also caused dose- and time-dependent increases in ROS production (1.1-fold to 1.4-fold) by bone marrow stromal cells, but inhibited subsequent osteoblast differentiation. In summary, gravity-dependent loading by centrifugation stimulated ROS production and increased numbers of osteoblasts. Although radiation increased production of ROS by bone marrow stromal cells, cell number and differentiation of osteoprogenitors appeared reduced. We conclude gravity-dependent loading and radiation both stimulate production of ROS and affect critical bone cell functions including growth and differentiation. PMID:17867495

Kondo, H; Limoli, C; Searby, N D; Almeida, E A C; Loftus, D J; Vercoutere, W; Morey-Holton, E; Giedzinski, E; Mojarrab, R; Hilton, D; Globus, R K