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Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose-rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Results: Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Conclusions: Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction. PMID:23780474

Wilderman, S J; Roberson, P L; Bolch, W E; Dewaraja, Y K



Fatty acid composition of adipose cells in red and yellow marrow: A possible determinant of haematopoietic potential.  


The fatty acid composition of whole bone marrow and that of isolated, disaggregated adipose cells from red and yellow marrow was examined by gas chromatography. Consistent and significant shifts from myristic and palmatic acids (in red marrow) to their respective monounsaturated derivatives myristoleic and palmitoleic acids (in yellow marrow) were found. These differences in the fatty acids correlate with histochemical studies and lend further support to the concept that the composition of lipid in the adipose cells of bone marrow may determine their relative stability in relation to haematopoietic requirements. PMID:841268

Tavassoli, M; Houchin, D N; Jacobs, P



Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography  

SciTech Connect

A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))



Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin.  


Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of isotopes of radon and their decay products. External radiation sources and radionuclides other than radon dominate marrow doses at all ages. The variation with age of the various components of marrow dose is considered, including doses received in utero and in each year up to the age of 15. Doses in utero include contributions resulting from the ingestion of radionuclides by the mother and placental transfer to the foetus. Postnatal doses include those from radionuclides in breast-milk and from radionuclides ingested in other foods. Doses are somewhat higher in the first year of life and there is a general slow decline from the second year of life onwards. The low linear energy transfer (LET) component of absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is much larger than the high LET component. However, because of the higher radiation weighting factor for the latter it contributes about 40% of the equivalent dose incurred up to the age of 15. PMID:19454799

Kendall, G M; Fell, T P; Harrison, J D



Greater efficacy of alfacalcidol in the red than in the yellow marrow skeletal sites in adult female rats.  


The present study compared the bone anabolic effects of graded doses of alfacalcidol in proximal femurs (hematopoietic, red marrow skeletal site) and distal tibiae (fatty, yellow marrow skeletal site). One group of 8.5-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were killed at baseline and 4 groups were treated 5 days on/2 days off/week for 12 weeks with 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg by oral gavage. The proximal femur, bone site with hematopoietic marrow, as well as the distal tibia bone site with fatty marrow, were processed undecalcified for quantitative bone histomorphometry. In the red marrow site of the proximal femoral metaphysis (PFM), 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg induced increased cancellous bone mass, improved architecture (decreased trabecular separation, increased connectivity), and stimulated local bone formation of bone 'boutons' (localized bone formation) on trabecular surfaces. There was an imbalance in bone resorption and formation, in which the magnitude of depressed bone resorption greater than depressed bone formation resulted in a positive bone balance. In addition, bone 'bouton' formation contributed to an increase in bone mass. In contrast, the yellow marrow site of the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), the 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg dose induced a non-significant increased cancellous bone mass. The treatment decreased bone resorption equal to the magnitude of decreased bone formation. No bone 'bouton' formation was observed. These findings indicate that the highest dose of 0.1 microg alfacalcidol/kg for 12 weeks increased bone mass (anabolic effect) at the skeletal site with hematopoietic marrow of the proximal femoral metaphysis, but the increased bone mass was greatly attenuated at the fatty marrow site of the distal tibial metaphysis. In addition, the magnitude of the bone gain induced by alfacalcidol treatment in red marrow cancellous bone sites of the proximal femoral metaphysis was half that of the lumbar vertebral body. The latter data were from a previous report from the same animal and protocol. These findings indicated that alfacalcidol as an osteoporosis therapy is less efficacious as a positive bone balance agent that increased trabecular bone mass in a non-vertebral skeletal site where bone marrow is less hematopoietic. PMID:18799859

Tian, X Y; Liu, X Q; Chen, H Y; Setterberg, R B; Li, M; Jee, W S S



Influence of Age, Sex and Calendar Year on Lifetime Accumulated Red Bone Marrow Dose from Diagnostic Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

Our aim is to evaluate the relevance of different factors influencing lifetime accumulated red bone marrow dose, such as calendar year, age and sex. The lifetime dose was estimated for controls interviewed in person (N?=?2811, 37.5% women) of the population-based representative Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study. Data were assessed in standardized computer-assisted personal interviews. The calculation of doses is based on a comprehensive quantification model including calendar year, sex, kind of examination, and technical development. In multivariate regression models the annual red bone marrow dose was analyzed depending on age, sex and calendar year to consider simultaneously temporal changes in radiologic practice and individual risk factors. While the number of examinations continuously rises over time, the dose shows two peaks around 1950 and after 1980. Men are exposed to higher doses than woman. Until 1970 traditional examinations like conventional and mass screening examinations caused the main dose. They were then replaced by technically advanced examinations mainly computed tomography and cardiac catheter. The distribution of the red bone marrow dose over lifetime depends highly on the technical standards and radiation protection survey. To a lesser extent it is influenced by age and sex of the subjects. Thus epidemiological studies concerning the assessment of radiation exposure should consider the calendar year in which the examination was conducted. PMID:24244286

Weitmann, Kerstin; Terschuren, Claudia; von Boetticher, Heiner



Total extract of Korean red ginseng facilitates human bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The number of CD34+ cells in a peripheral blood stem cell collection is the key factor in predicting successful treatment of hematologic malignancies. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most popular medicinal herb in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of KRG on hematopoietic colony formation. Methods Bone marrow (BM) samples were obtained from 8 human donors after acquiring informed consent. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated, and CD34+ cells were sorted using magnetic beads. The sorted CD34+ cells were incubated with or without total extract of KRG (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL) or Ginsenoside Rg1 (100 µg/mL), and the hematopoietic colony assay was performed using methylcellulose semisolid medium. The CD34+ cell counts were measured by a single platform assay using flow cytometry. Results The numbers of human BM-MNCs and CD34+ cells obtained after purification were variable among donors (5.6×107 and 1.3-48×107 and 8.9×104 and 1.8-80×104, respectively). The cells expanded 1,944 times after incubation for 12 d. Total extract of KRG added to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific medium increased CD34+ cell counts 3.6 times compared to 2.6 times when using HSC medium alone. Total numbers of hematopoietic colonies in KRG medium were more than those observed in conventional medium, especially that of erythroid colonies such as burst forming unit-erythroid. Conclusion Total extract of KRG facilitated CD34+ cell expansion and hematopoietic colony formation, especially of the erythroid lineage.

Kim, Sang-Gyung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Seong-Mo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Hae-Bong



Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin.  


Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people and to adults at average levels of exposure in the UK. The contributions to dose are generally less complex than in the case of doses to foetuses and young children where it is necessary to take into account transfer of radionuclides across the placenta, intakes in mother's milk and changes in gut uptake in young infants. However, there is high uptake of alkaline earths and of similar elements in the developing skeleton and this significantly affects the doses from radioisotopes of these elements, not just in the teens and twenties but through into the fifth decade of life. The total equivalent dose to the RBM from all natural sources of radiation at age 15 years is calculated to be about 1200  µSv a year at average UK levels, falling to rather less than 1100  µSv per year in later life; the gentle fall from the late teens onwards reflects the diminishing effect of the high uptakes of radioisotopes of the alkaline earths and of lead in this period. About 60% of the equivalent dose is contributed by the low linear energy transfer (LET) component. Radionuclides in food make the largest contribution to equivalent doses to RBM and much the largest contribution to the absorbed dose from high LET radiation (mainly alpha particles). PMID:21865611

Kendall, G M; Fell, T P



Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (?3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian



Engraftment of bone marrow transplants in W anemic mice measured by electronic determination of the red blood cell size profile.  


Defective stem cells of WBB6F1-W/Wv mice produce macrocytic red blood cells (RBCs); stem cells of WBB6F1-+/+ mice produce normocytic RBCs. Utilization of the Coulter counter channelyzer permitted good dissociation between the size distribution of populations of +/+ and W/Wv RBCs. Peaks (mean cell volumes) for +/+ and W/Wv RBCs have been determined to be between the 30th and 40th channel and 50th and 60th channel, respectively. Variability of profiles for individual mice of both genotypes did not exceed the variability of separate determinations of the same cell suspension from a single mouse. Admixture (approximately 15%) of either type of erythrocytes could be quantitatively detected by this method. One week after transplant of 10(7) +/+ marrow cells into W/Wv recipients, 25% of donor type erythrocytes were detected. Eighteen days post-graft, concentration of +/- normocytes exceeded the concentration of macrocytes in the W/Wv recipients' circulation. Approximately 45 days post-transplant, the proportion of macrocytes decreased below the 10% detectable level. Calculation of the daily RBC production rate during repopulation and estimation of the number of RBCs produced by a single hematopoietic colony were determined. The RBC size profile was found to be a convenient method for studying the effect of implantation of W/Wv marrow into lethally irradiated +/+ mice. This method proved suitable for repetitive determination of the size population in individual transplanted mice. PMID:389653

Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Sharkis, S J; Ahmed, A; Sensenbrenner, L L; Sell, K W



Distinct, strict requirements for Gfi-1b in adult bone marrow red cell and platelet generation.  


The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Gfi-1b is essential for erythroid and megakaryocytic development in the embryo. Its roles in the maintenance of bone marrow erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis have not been defined. We investigated Gfi-1b's adult functions using a loxP-flanked Gfi-1b allele in combination with a novel doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene that efficiently mediates recombination in the bone marrow. We reveal strict, lineage-intrinsic requirements for continuous adult Gfi-1b expression at two distinct critical stages of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Induced disruption of Gfi-1b was lethal within 3 wk with severely reduced hemoglobin levels and platelet counts. The erythroid lineage was arrested early in bipotential progenitors, which did not give rise to mature erythroid cells in vitro or in vivo. Yet Gfi-1b(-/-) progenitors had initiated the erythroid program as they expressed many lineage-restricted genes, including Klf1/Eklf and Erythropoietin receptor. In contrast, the megakaryocytic lineage developed beyond the progenitor stage in Gfi-1b's absence and was arrested at the promegakaryocyte stage, after nuclear polyploidization, but before cytoplasmic maturation. Genome-wide analyses revealed that Gfi-1b directly regulates a wide spectrum of megakaryocytic and erythroid genes, predominantly repressing their expression. Together our study establishes Gfi-1b as a master transcriptional repressor of adult erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis. PMID:24711581

Foudi, Adlen; Kramer, Daniel J; Qin, Jinzhong; Ye, Denise; Behlich, Anna-Sophie; Mordecai, Scott; Preffer, Frederic I; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Orkin, Stuart H; Hock, Hanno



Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.



Bone Marrow Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone marrow suppression may occur as a result of a child's disease or treatment of the disease process. Bone marrow suppression\\u000a can result in a decrease in all the areas of hematopoiesis and is one of the most common dose-limiting toxicities of chemotherapy.\\u000a There can be a decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. The

Sandra Doyle


Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone  

E-print Network

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow immune cells, like all blood cells, arise in the bone marrow from so-called stem cells. Some develop. The bone marrow is the site of origin of red blood cells, white cells (including lymphocytes

Morante, Silvia



PubMed Central

1. The effect produced by intravenous administration of gum shellac solution varied directly with the strength of the solution and the amount injected. (a) Strong solutions were intensely toxic and fatal to all the animals injected. Toxicity was abolished by the presence of carbon particles in the solution. (b) Medium strength solutions produced a marked normoblastosis followed by an erythroblastosis if injections were continued, accompanied either by an initial rise of red blood cells and hemoglobin followed by a decrease or an initial decline followed by an increase. The decrease of erythrocytes and hemoglobin did not amount to an actual anemia, and was usually concomitant with the greatest outpouring of nucleated red cells. (c) Small doses elicited the same kind of response except that the normoblastosis was less marked, the decrease of red cells and hemoglobin minimal or absent, the increase of red blood cells and hemoglobin marked in most instances. (d) Minimal doses elicited no appreciable reaction. 2. The bone marrow in animals killed after a course of injections showed intense erythrocytic hyperplasia. This disappeared after a variable length of time with a return of the bone marrow to apparently normal condition. 3. Toxic effects with non-fatal doses in form of hemorrhages were produced mainly in the bone marrow and occasionally in the kidney under the following conditions. (a) After one injection in an animal with hyperplastic marrow (hemorrhages ih the bone marrow only). (b) After the fourth and fifth dose when administered at long intervals (4 to 19 day intervals). (c) After one injection given 40 days after several successive injections (one animal only). 4. Small and divided doses administered at long intervals produced no apparent ill effect. 5. Subcutaneous administrations did not elicit any marked systemic reactions. Locally there was induration and edema. 6. The conclusion was drawn that gum shellac solution stimulates markedly the production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The mechanism of stimulation is not clear, but it seems unlikely that it is due to destruction of red blood cells in the peripheral blood stream. PMID:19869286

Muller, Gulli Lindh



Bone marrow transplant  


Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...


Bone marrow biopsy  


Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...


Bone marrow transplant - discharge  


Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...


Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun



Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith



Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.  


Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith



Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  


KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...


Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  


... Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...


Bone Marrow Transplantation  


Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...


Bone Marrow Diseases  


Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... help with blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...


Bone marrow culture  


... of your pelvic bone or front of your breast bone. This is done with a small needle inserted into your bone. The process is called a bone marrow aspiration or a biopsy. The tissue sample is sent to a lab. ...



PubMed Central

Corticosteroids suppress the humoral antibody response of mice to sheep erythrocytes. This response depends on interactions between thymus-derived helper cells and bone marrow-derived antibody-forming cell precursors (AFC precursors). Previous experiments had shown that spleen cells (a mixture of thymus-derived and marrow-derived cells) were sensitive to corticosteroids while AFC precursors in the bone marrow were resistant. The present experiments showed that the thymus of a mouse given 2.5 mg of hydrocortisone acetate, although containing only about 5% of the number of cells of a normal thymus, was as effective as a normal thymus in cooperating with bone marrow when transferred to irradiated syngeneic mice and stimulated with SRBC. The proliferative response of thymus helper cells to SRBC was also resistant to hydrocortisone. In this context, the majority of thymic cells are in the cortex, are rapidly dividing, are sensitive to corticosteroids and are not iminunocompetent. A small number of thymic cells, probably located in the medulla, are resistant to corticosteroids, but are immunocompetent since they can serve as helper cells. The hydrocortisone-sensitive phase of the splenic response to SRBC was found to be the bone marrow-derived AFC precursor since spleens from hydrocortisone-treated donors had immunocompetence restored by normal bone marrow but not by normal thymus cells. PMID:4928816

Cohen, J. John; Claman, Henry N.



Finding lncRNAs in bone marrow and fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells in mice  

E-print Network

Red blood cell development is crucial to the survival of all mammals and occurs primarily in the liver during embryogenesis and then in the bone marrow during adulthood. In spite of the different microenvironments of the ...

Garza-Galindo, Alec G



Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy  


... be limited. Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... anesthesia for a bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy? While you will be given a local anesthetic, ...


Bone Marrow Failure Following Severe Injury in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background: Hematopoietic failure has been observed in experimental animals following shock and injury. In humans, bone marrow dysfunction has been observed in the red cell component and characterized by a persistent anemia, low reticulocyte counts, and the need for repeated transfusions despite adequate iron stores. While a quantitative defect in white blood cell count has not been noted, an alteration in white blood cell function manifesting as an increased susceptibility to infection is well established. Since the etiology of this anemia remains unknown and the bone marrow has been rarely studied following injury, we measured various parameters of hematopoiesis directly using bone marrow from trauma patients and tested the hypothesis that trauma results in profound bone marrow dysfunction, which could explain both the persistent anemia and the alteration in white blood cell function. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood were obtained between day 1 and 7 following injury from 45 multiple trauma patients. Normal volunteers served as controls. Peripheral blood was assayed for hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, erythropoietin levels, white blood cell count, and differential. Peripheral blood and bone marrow were cultured for hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E colonies). Results: Bone marrow CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E colony formation was significantly reduced while peripheral blood CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-E was increased in the trauma patients compared with normal volunteers. Bone marrow stroma failed to grow to confluence by day 14 in >90% of trauma patients. In contrast, bone marrow stroma from volunteers always reached confluence between days 10 and 14 in culture. The mean hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte counts of the trauma patients were 8.6 ± 1.0 g/dL and 2.75 ± 0.7% respectively, while their plasma erythropoietin levels were 2 to 10 times greater than control values. Conclusions: Release of immature white blood cells into the circulation may also contribute to a failure to clear infection and an increased propensity to organ failure. Concomitantly, profound changes occur within the bone marrow, which include the increased release of erythroid and myeloid progenitors into the circulation, a decrease in progenitor cell growth within the bone marrow, and an impaired growth of the bone marrow stroma. Erythropoietin levels are preserved following trauma, implying that the persistent anemia of injury is related to the failure of the bone marrow to respond to erythropoietin. PMID:14578739

Livingston, David H.; Anjaria, Devashish; Wu, Jonathan; Hauser, Carl J.; Chang, Victor; Deitch, Edwin A; Rameshwar, Pranela



Red blood cells.  


Red blood cells are derived from haemopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. Following a series of maturation steps, directed largely by the hormone erythropoietin (Epo), red cells enucleate and enter the circulatory system. In circulation these small, flexible biconcave cells containing haemoglobin transport O(2) from the lungs to the periphery, and CO(2) back from the periphery to the lungs. The most common disorders associated with red blood cells are anaemias. While there are numerous causes of anaemia, the reduced capacity for gaseous exchange is the underlying theme. Over the past 15 years, recombinant Epo has been used extremely successfully in the treatment of several forms of anaemia. The single gene disorders collectively known as haemoglobinopathies represent one of the best opportunities for gene therapy. PMID:12379271

Peter Klinken, S



Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were

Yong-Hoon Kim; Chang-Su Ha; Hyun-Sook Lee; Sun-Hwa Lim; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Moon-Koo Chung; Hwa-Young Son



[Suppressive effect of xenogenic bone marrow cells on antibody formation in a spleen cell culture in vitro].  


Bone marrow cells from syngenetic and xenogeneic donors of different species were added to splenocyte culture to induce the primary immune response to sheep red blood cells. It has been shown that both xenogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow cells suppress the primary immune response in vitro. A conclusion is made that the suppressant effect exerted by bone marrow cells on the immune response of splenocytes is not liable to xenogenic restriction. PMID:7407376

Vlasov, A A; Sidorovich, I G; Khaitov, R M



Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

Control, U. S.


Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin  

PubMed Central

Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385745

Ozcivici, Engin



Fat cotent of ectopic marrow implants and cellularity of resulting ossicles. [Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of marrow stroma to transfer a microenvironment conducive to hematopoiesis was studied in rabbits by means of subcutaneous implants of autologous marrow with variable hematopoietic cellularity and fat content as determined by histologic analysis. Cellularity of marrow in ossicles present at the implantation site 3 months later was found to be sigmoidally related to cellularity of the implant. Hypocellular marrow with fat content in excess of 50% was associated with onset of a sharp increase in saturated lipids as revealed by histochemistry. These results, which confirm and extend earlier qualitative observations of a difference in potential of red and yellow marrow upon ectopic implantation, are consistent with the putative regulatory role of stromal elements in hematopoiesis.

Maloney, M.A.; Flannery, M.L.; Patt, H.M.



High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kennedy Space Center's Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive Chairman Dr. George A. Martin and Center Director Jay Honeycutt (left to right) accept a plaque from the Leukemia Society of America's Associate Executive Director Martin Bernstine and the American Red Cross' Southeast Regional Director Jeff Koenreich. Representatives from the American Red Cross and the Leukemia Society of America came to KSC to honor those involved in the record-setting Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive held here earlier this year. Over 900 potential donors were added to the National Bone Marrow Registry as a result of the KSC drive. The drive established a new record for the most people registered in a single day for the American Red Cross in the three state region of which Florida is a part.



A stochastic model of radiation-induced bone marrow damage  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic model, based on consensus principles from radiation biology, is used to estimate bone-marrow stem cell pool survival (CFU-S and stroma cells) after irradiation. The dose response model consists of three coupled first order linear differential equations which quantitatively describe time dependent cellular damage, repair, and killing of red bone marrow cells. This system of differential equations is solved analytically through the use of a matrix approach for continuous and fractionated irradiations. The analytic solutions are confirmed through the dynamical solution of the model equations using SIMULINK. Rate coefficients describing the cellular processes of radiation damage and repair, extrapolated to humans from animal data sets and adjusted for neutron-gamma mixed fields, are employed in a SIMULINK analysis of criticality accidents. The results show that, for the time structures which may occur in criticality accidents, cell survival is established mainly by the average dose and dose rate.

Cotlet, G.; Blue, T.E.



Olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine-related bone marrow suppression: A possible drug-drug interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with refractory Crohn's disease had two separate episodes of bone marrow suppression while receiving 50 to 75 mg 6-mercaptopurine a day and 1000 to 1750 mg olsalazine a day. This adverse reaction necessitated dose reduction of 6-mercaptopurine on the first occasion and withdrawal of 6-mercaptopurine and olsalazine on the second occasion. The patient's red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase

Lionel D. Lewis; Carol L. Szumlanski; Diane M. Otterness; Lynne Lennard; Richard M. Weinshilboum; David W. Nierenberg



Red blood cell decreases of microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

Johnson, P. C.



Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  


... Twitter. What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ... the missing white blood cells. Types of Stem Cell Transplants The two main types of stem cell ...


Marrow Fat and Bone--New Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Context: There is growing interest in the relationship between bone mineral density, bone strength, and fat depots. Marrow adipose tissue, a well-established component of the marrow environment, is metabolically distinct from peripheral fat depots, but its functional significance is unknown. Objective: In this review, we discuss animal and human data linking the marrow adipose tissue depot to parameters of bone density and integrity as well as the potential significance of marrow adipose tissue in metabolic diseases associated with bone loss, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and anorexia nervosa. Potential hormonal determinants of marrow adipose tissue are also discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that whereas most animal and human data demonstrate an inverse association between marrow adipose tissue and measures of bone density and strength, understanding the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue and its hormonal determinants will be critical to better understanding its role in skeletal integrity and the role of marrow adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of bone loss. PMID:23393168

Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Horowitz, Mark C.; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Scheller, Erica L.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.



Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt



A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ra-223, an ?-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metastases of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histogram results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e. the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 to 20 Gy. The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the absorbed fraction method of dose calculation.

Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D.; Sgouros, George



Blood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) Program  

E-print Network

Blood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) Program Norris Cotton Cancer Center 000020200201111112-24747474 #12;Welcome On behalf of the members of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Team, we offer you a warm. - Kenneth Meehan, MD Director of the Blood & Marrow Transplantation Why this booklet is for you This booklet

Myers, Lawrence C.


Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department O.


Red Sky with Red Mesa  


The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.




Red Clover  


Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning ... body, including how red clover isoflavones may affect human prostate cells and the safety and effectiveness of ...


Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.



Last Marrow Standing: Bone Marrow Transplantation for Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Conditions  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome are a spectrum of acquired marrow failure, having a common pathologic thread of both immune dysregulation and the development of abnormal hematopoiesis. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation plays a critical role in the treatment of these disorders and, for many patients is the only treatment modality with demonstrated curative potential. In recent years, there have been many breakthroughs in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these uncommon disorders. The subsequent advances in nontransplant therapies, along with concurrent improvement in outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation, necessitate continual appraisal of the indications, timing, and approaches to transplantation for acquired marrow failure syndromes. We review here contemporary and critical new findings driving current treatment decisions. PMID:23065408

Gerds, Aaron T.; Scott, Bart L.



Combined Simulation and Experimental Study of Large Deformation of Red Blood Cells in Microfluidic Systems  

E-print Network

Combined Simulation and Experimental Study of Large Deformation of Red Blood Cells in Microfluidic blood cells (RBCs) traversing microfluidic channels with cross-sectional areas as small as 2.7 9 3 lm During its typical life span of 120 days upon egress from the bone marrow, the human red blood cell (RBC

Dao, Ming


Short survival of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells in murine sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several transgenic murine models for sickle cell anemia have been developed that closely reproduce the biochemical and physiological disorders in the human disease. A comprehensive characteriza- tion is described of hematologic parame- ters of mature red blood cells, reticulo- cytes, and red cell precursors in the bone marrow and spleen of a murine sickle cell model in which erythroid cells

Kitty de Jong; Renee K. Emerson; James Butler; Jacob Bastacky; Narla Mohandas; Frans A. Kuypers



Effects of glucan on bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow damage represents a significant problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, it is clear that the pharmacologic protection against bone marrow damage is of considerable interest, since the development of novel and effective medical approaches to combat radiation or cytotoxic damage are of major importance not only to the medical field but also to several industries and the military. This review represents a summary of our knowledge of the effects of various glucans on bone marrow protection. PMID:25332994

Vannucci, Luca; Vetvicka, Vaclav



Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these

Ron Waksman; Richard Baffour



Chronic axial compression of the mouse tail segment induces MRI bone marrow edema changes that correlate with increased marrow vasculature and cellularity  

PubMed Central

MRI of bone marrow edema (BME) has been found to be helpful in the diagnosis of back pain attributed to degenerative disk disease (DDD) and spondyloarthropathy (SA), but its interpretation is limited by a lack of knowledge of its nature and natural history. To address this, we assessed effects of compressive forces to mouse tail segments of WT and TNF-Tg mice with SA, via contrast enhanced MRI and histology. Normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) of uninstrumented WT vertebrae significantly decrease 3-fold (p<0.01) from 8 to 12 weeks of age, consistent with red to yellow marrow conversion, while the NMCE of TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated. Chronic compressive loading 6X body weight to WT tails increased NMCE 2-fold (p<0.02) within 2-weeks, which was equal to 6X loaded TNF-Tg tails within 4-weeks. Histology confirmed degenerative changes and that load-induced NMCE corresponded to increased vascular sinus tissue (35± 3% vs. 19± 3%; p<0.01) and cellularity (4,235± 886 vs.1,468± 320 cells/mm2; p<0.01) for the loaded vs. unloaded WT respectively. However, micro-CT analyses failed to detect significant load-induced changes to bone. While the bone marrow of loaded WT and TNF-Tg vertebrae were similar, histology demonstrated mild cellular infiltrate and increased osteoclastic resorption in the WT tails versus severe inflammatory-erosive arthritis in TNF-Tg joints. Significant (p<0.05) decreases in cortical and trabecular bone volume in uninstrumented TNF-Tg vs. WT vertebrae were confirmed by micro-CT. Thus, chronic load-induced DDD causes BME signals in vertebrae similar to those observed from Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), and both DDD and AS signals correlate with a conversion from yellow to red marrow, with increased vascularity. PMID:20187115

Papuga, M. Owen; Proulx, Steven T.; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T.; Dougherty, Paul E.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.



Bone Marrow Transplantation, (1997) 19, 315322 1997 Stockton Press All rights reserved 02683369/97 $12.00  

E-print Network

-dependence and to decrease the number 7 days beginning 3 h after bone marrow infusion. Three of red blood cell transfusions.4 and 1 , 4 to 32 ng/kg/day administered subcutaneously for platelet transfusion of neutrophils molecule (IL-1ra) and soluble receptors for tumor necrosis to 0.5 109 /l and platelet transfusion

Rabinowitz, Joshua D.


Cure of murine thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation without eradication of endogenous stem cells  

SciTech Connect

alpha-Thalassemic heterozygous (Hbath/+) mice were used to investigate the possible selective advantage of transplanted normal (+/+) hemopoietic cells. Without conditioning by total-body irradiation (TBI), infusion of large numbers of normal bone marrow cells failed to correct the thalassemic peripheral blood phenotype. Since the recipients' stem cells are normal with respect to number and differentiation capacity, it was thought that the transplanted stem cells were not able to lodge, or that they were not stimulated to proliferate. Therefore, a nonlethal dose of TBI was given to temporarily reduce endogenous stem cell numbers and hemopoiesis. TBI doses of 2 or 3 Gy followed by infusion of normal bone marrow cells proved to be effective in replacing the thalassemic red cells by normal red cells, whereas a dose of 1 Gy was ineffective. It is concluded that cure of thalassemia by bone marrow transplantation does not necessarily require eradication of thalassemic stem cells. Consequently, the objectives of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation of thalassemic patients (and possibly other nonmalignant hemopoietic disorders) should be reconsidered.

Wagemaker, G.; Visser, T.P.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Liver from Bone Marrow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. We have investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical

Neil D. Theise; Manjunath Nimmakayalu; Rebekah Gardner; Peter B. Illei; Glyn Morgan; Lewis Teperman; Octavian Henegariu; Diane S. Krause



Bone marrow failure: Pathophysiology and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologically, bone marrow is made up of a relatively mature but heterogenous population, fueled by a tiny pool of microscopically unrecognizable stem and progenitor cells. This complex tissue has the responsibility of maintaining our hematopoietic and, to a large extent, immunologic integrity, both of which are indispensable for health and, indeed, survival. Perhaps not surprisingly, bone marrow is the target

Peter Jacobs



Bone marrow examination in pancytopenia.  


Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists. PMID:23741821

Rangaswamy, M; Prabhu; Nandini, N M; Manjunath, G V



Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

Colnot, C. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States)]. E-mail:; Huang, S. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States); Helms, J. [Stanford University, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)



Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)  


... Favorites Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) When a ... help you find answers to financial questions: See Planning for Transplant Costs . Contact a patient services coordinator ...


Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

A study of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), a group of rare genetic blood disorders that include Fanconi Anemia, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia, and Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii.


Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

Many compounds that possess sulfhydryl groups have been shown to protect bone marrow from radiation injury. The most effective thiol radioprotective agent is ethiofos (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothoic acid or WR-2721). The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using binding of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase {sup 3}H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L.; Sawich, C.



Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh



Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.


Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.




Hyaluronate and its receptors in bone marrow.  


Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, which are mediated by cell adhesion molecules, play a fundamental role during many cellular processes including growth, differentiation, cell migration and cancer metastasis. One molecule playing a major role in these processes is the CD44 surface receptor, which is expressed in a wide range of cells including many cells of the hemopoietic system, where it mediates the interaction with its major ligand, hyaluronate. However, little is known about CD44 and hyaluronate in bone marrow and this was investigated immunohistochemically in trephine biopsies and in cultivated human bone marrow stromal cells. In biopsy specimens, patches of hyaluronate deposition were detected in the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, most of the areas of the ECM were devoid of hyaluronate. Single mast cells and lymphocytes scattered throughout the marrow were CD44 immunopositive. Marrow-derived stromal cells (MDSC) expanded in cell culture were immunopositive for CD44, hyaluronate synthase, and hyaluronate. Hence, a marked difference between CD44 immunolocalisation and hyaluronate deposition can be observed between in situ and under cell culture conditions. Since in normal marrow in situ the number of CD44 immunopositive cells was low, interactions of CD44 and hyaluronate would appear to not to play a major role in cell adhesion in the normal bone marrow. PMID:16713618

Schade, Ulrika M; Nehmann, Nina; Horny, Hans-P; Prehm, Peter; Delpech, Bertrand; Krüger, William H; Zander, Axel R; Schumacher, Udo



Conversion of bone marrow in the humerus, sternum, and clavicle: changes with age on MR images.  


To study the normal conversion of bone marrow in the humerus, sternum, and clavicle, 101 T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) studies obtained in 91 patients aged 2 days to 37 years were retrospectively evaluated. Conversion from hypointense (red) to hyperintense (yellow) bone marrow was assessed by comparison of signal intensity of the bone marrow with that of muscle and fat. Conversion began in the proximal humeral epiphysis (in 16 of 21 adequate studies [76%]), humeral diaphysis (17 of 30 adequate studies [57%]), and distal metaphysis (16 of 25 adequate studies [64%]) before age 1 year and was nearly complete in these regions (20 of 22 adequate studies [91%], 20 of 21 adequate studies [95%], and five of seven adequate studies [71%]) in examinations of children aged 1-5 years. In the proximal humeral metaphysis, conversion was seen in 21 of 22 adequate studies (95%) in children aged 1-5 years and was nearly complete in all by age 20 years. Conversion began in the sternum (six of six studies [100%] in children aged 6-10 years) and clavicle (six of eight studies [75%] in children aged 6-10 years) before age 11 years but was never complete. Bone marrow conversion in the humerus, sternum, and clavicle follows a well-defined pattern and is depicted earlier by MR imaging than one would expect on the basis of histologic data. PMID:8511291

Zawin, J K; Jaramillo, D



Alfacalcidol increases cancellous bone in low turnover, fatty marrow sites in aged, orchidectomized rats.  


The objectives of this study were to determine the responses of cancellous bone in the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), a low turnover, fatty (yellow) marrow site, to sham-aged, orchidectomy (ORX) and alfacalcidol treatment in sham-aged and ORX rats. Eighteen-month-old male sham and ORX rats were treated with 0.1 and 0.2 microg/kg alfacalcidol 5 days/wk p.o. for 12 weeks, double fluorescent labeled, and the DTM were processed for bone histomorphometry analyses. The current study found the DTM in sham-aged male rats were resistant to age-related and ORX-induced cancellous bone loss and alfacalcidol-induced bone gain, findings that differ from that in the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) and lumbar vertebral body (LVB), two high turnover, red marrow bone sites. However, alfacalcidol treatment increased DTM bone mass in ORX rats where bone turnover was elevated by androgen deficiency. These results in concert with the previously positive findings in red marrow bone sites following alfacalcidol treatment suggest that alfacalcidol is more effective in increasing cancellous bone mass in the skeletal sites with higher bone turnover. PMID:19724148

Tian, X Y; Chen, H Y; Setterberg, R B; Li, M; Jee, W S S



Red Giant Red Giant White Giant  

E-print Network

Red Giant Red Giant White Giant Red Giant White Giant White Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant Blue GiantPower Points: 9 The hottest, brightest, and most massive stars. The three stars in Orion's belt, Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka, are blue giant stars. Mass: 10 - 70 SM StarPower Points: 10 The hottest, brightest

Bechtold, Jill


Fabrication of biofunctionalized, cell-laden macroporous 3D PEG hydrogels as bone marrow analogs for the cultivation of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.  


In vitro proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is yet an unresolved challenge. Found in the bone marrow, HSCs can undergo self-renewing cell division and thereby multiply. Recapitulation of the bone marrow environment in order to provide the required signals for their expansion is a promising approach.Here, we describe a technique to produce biofunctionalized, macroporous poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels that mimic the spongy 3D architecture of trabecular bones, which host the red, blood-forming bone marrow. After seeding these scaffolds with cells, they can be used as simplified bone marrow analogs for the cultivation of HSCs. This method can easily be conducted with standard laboratory chemicals and equipment. The 3D hydrogels are produced via salt leaching and biofunctionalization of the material is achieved by co-polymerizing the PEGDA with an RGD peptide. Finally, cell seeding and retrieval are described. PMID:24875249

Rödling, Lisa; Raic, Annamarija; Lee-Thedieck, Cornelia



Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo



Marrow cell transplantation for infantile hypophosphatasia.  


An 8-month-old girl who seemed certain to die from the infantile form of hypophosphatasia, an inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), underwent the first trial of bone marrow cell transplantation for this heritable type of rickets. After cytoreduction, she was given T-cell-depleted, haplo-identical marrow from her healthy sister. Chimerism in peripheral blood and bone marrow became 100% donor. Three months later, she was clinically improved, with considerable healing of rickets and generalized skeletal remineralization. However, 6 months post-transplantation, worsening skeletal disease recurred, with partial return of host hematopoiesis. At the age of 21 months, without additional chemotherapy or immunosuppressive treatment, she received a boost of donor marrow cells expanded ex vivo to enrich for stromal cells. Significant, prolonged clinical and radiographic improvement followed soon after. Nevertheless, biochemical features of hypophosphatasia have remained unchanged to date. Skeletal biopsy specimens were not performed. Now, at 6 years of age, she is intelligent and ambulatory but remains small. Among several hypotheses for our patient's survival and progress, the most plausible seems to be the transient and long-term engraftment of sufficient numbers of donor marrow mesenchymal cells, forming functional osteoblasts and perhaps chondrocytes, to ameliorate her skeletal disease. PMID:12674323

Whyte, Michael P; Kurtzberg, Joanne; McAlister, William H; Mumm, Steven; Podgornik, Michelle N; Coburn, Stephen P; Ryan, Lawrence M; Miller, Cindy R; Gottesman, Gary S; Smith, Alan K; Douville, Judy; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Armstrong, R Douglas; Martin, Paul L



A technique for rapid isolation of bone marrow mononuclear cells using Ficoll-Metrizoate and the IBM 2991 blood cell processor.  


Marrow from seven normal donors and patients has been layered onto Ficoll-Metrizoate (FM) under pressure in the IBM 2991 blood cell processor to isolate the mononuclear cell (MNC) population prior to allogeneic transplantation or cryopreservation. This separation method, which takes less than 90 min, is a further development since our previous report detailing the use of the IBM 2991 to produce a concentrated marrow 'buffy coat' for infusion (Gilmore & Prentice, 1981). By adding FM to the system, marrow stem cells are further concentrated in a small volume with removal of unwanted granulocytes and red blood cells. This facilitates in in vitro treatment of marrow with monoclonal antibodies (Granger et al. 1982) or drugs, for either the selective elimination of malignant cells prior to autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT), or T lymphocytes in an attempt to prevent graft versus host disease (GvHD) in allogeneic BMT. Five of the seven marrows processed by this procedure have thus far been infused into lethally irradiated recipients with engraftment (allogeneic); the other two marrows have been cryopreserved. PMID:7039661

Gilmore, M J; Prentice, H G; Blacklock, H A; Janossy, G; Hoffbrand, A V



[Bone marrow aspiration. Use and benefits].  


Bone marrow aspiration is an old and well-established test procedure, the use of which may rest more on diagnostic tradition than on scientific documentation. Its use was evaluated in a Norwegian regional hospital by registering indication, presence of pathology and clinical "utility" judged from a given definition, in 200 reports on bone marrow aspiration. The result was pathological in 53%, and judged to be clinically useful in 61% of the tests. The diagnostic yield was highest for indications related to bone marrow function, and low for unspecific indications such as fever of unknown origin and elevated SR without M-component. The large number of results with pathological findings that are judged to be clinically useful raise the question of whether use of this test should be increased. PMID:1557761

Hammerstrøm, J



Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using the binding of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase /sup 3/H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Sawich, C.



Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.



Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered CXCL12 protein levels, a key regulator of hematopoietic cell homing to the bone marrow. Sublethal concentrations of VP16 and melphalan also decreased the levels of several transcripts which contribute to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen 1A1 (Col1a1). The impact of chemotherapy on message and protein levels for some targets was not always aligned, suggesting differential responses at the transcription and translation or protein stability levels. Since one of the main functions of a mature osteoblast is to synthesize ECM of a defined composition, disruption of the ratio of its components may be one mechanism by which chemotherapy affects the ability of osteoblasts to support hematopoietic recovery coincident with altered marrow architecture. Collectively, these observations suggest that the osteoblast compartment of the marrow hematopoietic niche is vulnerable to functional dysregulation by damage imposed by agents frequently used in clinical settings. Understanding the mechanistic underpinning of chemotherapy-induced changes on the hematopoietic support capacity of the marrow microenvironment may contribute to improved strategies to optimize patient recovery post-transplantation. PMID:23551534

Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.



Leptin-receptor-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells represent the main source of bone formed by adult bone marrow.  


Studies of the identity and physiological function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been hampered by a lack of markers that permit both prospective identification and fate mapping in vivo. We found that Leptin Receptor (LepR) is a marker that highly enriches bone marrow MSCs. Approximately 0.3% of bone marrow cells were LepR(+), 10% of which were CFU-Fs, accounting for 94% of bone marrow CFU-Fs. LepR(+) cells formed bone, cartilage, and adipocytes in culture and upon transplantation in vivo. LepR(+) cells were Scf-GFP(+), Cxcl12-DsRed(high), and Nestin-GFP(low), markers which also highly enriched CFU-Fs, but negative for Nestin-CreER and NG2-CreER, markers which were unlikely to be found in CFU-Fs. Fate-mapping showed that LepR(+) cells arose postnatally and gave rise to most bone and adipocytes formed in adult bone marrow, including bone regenerated after irradiation or fracture. LepR(+) cells were quiescent, but they proliferated after injury. Therefore, LepR(+) cells are the major source of bone and adipocytes in adult bone marrow. PMID:24953181

Zhou, Bo O; Yue, Rui; Murphy, Malea M; Peyer, James G; Morrison, Sean J



Could Cancer Initiate From Bone Marrow Progenitors?  

PubMed Central

Background Defining cancer stem cells and their origins is of much controversy,and constitutes a challenged knockout for cell targeting- anticancer drugs. Herein,we put forward a hypothetic model for cancer stem cells initiation from bone marrow stem cells. These later, will differentiate into an ancestral progenitor that activates a memorial program - the black box cassette- that is responsible of abnormal neo-organogenesis in the form of tumors and metastases. To approve this model, we assume that characterizing and investigating the most primitive forms of the bone marrow progenitors is required; both inside their niche and in circulation of cancer patients. PMID:25250119

Ben Nasr, Hmed; Hammami, Serria Turky; Zeghal, Khaled



[Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].  


Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M



Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long



Cellular and molecular immunotherapeutics derived from the bone marrow stroma  

E-print Network

The bone marrow contains a multipotent stromal cell, commonly referred to as a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). There has been recent interest in the clinical use of MSCs for cell-based therapy because: (1) bone marrow aspiration ...

Parekkadan, Biju



Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... enable JavaScript. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Bone Marrow Biopsy Biopsie de moelle osseuse - français ( ...


A case of pure red cell aplasia: follow-up on different immunosuppressive regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 66-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital in January 1992 for further evaluation of severe normocytic anemia. Hemoglobin (Hb) was 3.5 g\\/dl, reticulocyte count 1?. Bone marrow showed a nearly complete lack of red cell precursors, thus favoring the diagnosis of acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone was started but had to be supplemented with

M. Möller; H. Walter; H. Brass; W. Quei?er




E-print Network

25 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN BLOOD & MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Stanford University Division of Blood & Marrow Transplantation and The Stanford Cancer Center invite you to Li Ka Shing Center for Learning in Blood & Marrow Transplantation, will offer attendees an historical overview of the tremendous advances

Bejerano, Gill


Non-myeloablative bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the evolution of knowledge in the area of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) transplantation, several dogmata have been broken. We now have the following information: a) successful engraftment if allogeneic HSC bone marrow ablation of the recipient is not required; b) HSC create their own space through graft-vs.-host reactions; c) several malignancies are eradicated by the

Guillermo J Ruiz-Argüelles



Allegory in Chesnutt's Marrow of Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizes allegorical patterns controlling Chestnutt's novel, "The Marrow of Tradition," in response to criticisms concerning stereotyped characters and overplotting. Feels that Chestnutt is stating that given the death of benevolence in White society and the suicidal nature of violent Black retaliation, separatism alone offers Black Americans…

Giles, James R.; Lally, Thomas P.



Bone marrow culture in aplastic anemia.  

PubMed Central

Blood and bone marrow granulocyte colony forming units (CFUc) were assayed in 46 patients with aplastic anemia, and the serum was examined for its inhibitory action on normal CFUc growth. All patients showed a gross reduction in colonies and clusters in incidence and absolute number in the bone marrow and blood. Two proliferative abnormalities of CFUc in aplastic anaemia were identified: a significantly higher than normal cluster to colony ratio (P less than 0.05) and a higher than normal ratio of granulocytes to total aggregates in the bone marrow. Eleven out of 34 patients tested had serum inhibitory to normal CFUc. These patients were indistinguishable from the rest on haematological and CFUc culture characteristics, and no correlation between the results of CFUc assay and haematological severity was found. The results suggest that the CFUc is abnormal in aplastic anaemia, the reduction in pool size being related to a failure of self-renewal, but an immunological role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia remains unproven. The close relationship of CFUc incidence to the percentage of granulocyte precursors in the marrow, together with the failure of the CFUc assay to predict clinical severity, limits the practical use of the assay to the confirmation of diagnosis in aplastic anaemia. PMID:500837

Barrett, A J; Faille, A; Balitrand, N; Ketels, F; Najean, Y



Lung diseases after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The case histories of 72 subsequently treated patients — 44 with acute leukemia, 10 with chronic myeloid leukemia, 16 with severe aplastic anemia and 2 with neuroblastoma — were analyzed after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with respect to pulmonary diseases. Thirty-eight patients suffered from a total of 51 pulmonary complications, which led to death in 20. Of 13 patients,

H. Link; U. Reinhard; E. Walter; P. Wernet; E. M. Schneider; H. Fischbach; M. Blaurock; K. Wilms; D. Niethammer; P. Ostendorf




PubMed Central

F1 hybrid mice are capable of rejecting inbred parental strain bone marrow grafts after a single lethal exposure to X-rays. The incompatibility is genetically controlled by the Hybrid-histocompatibility-1 (Hh-1) locus in or near the D end of the Histocompatibility-2 (H-2) region. The onset of parental graft rejection begins 9–12 hr after transplantation and is completed by 24 hr. Maturation of hybrid resistance does not occur until the 22nd day of life. In adults, the resistance to parental marrow grafts can be temporarily abrogated or weakened by administration of cyclophosphamide or dead cultures of Corynebacterium parvum, acute supralethal exposures to radiation, or by split-dose irradiation with 6–37-day intervals. Parental marrow grafts elicit a transplantation reaction in irradiated F1 mice which is indistinguishable from that elicited in irradiated allogeneic (H-2-incompatible) hosts. Because of this immunogenetic similarity, the following question is raised: are the same or different alloantigens responsible for rejection of parental and allogeneic marrow grafts? In the first case, Hh-1 alleles would be recessive determinants of tissue-specific transplantation antigens, whereas in the second case they would be the determinants of parental- and tissue-specific antigens subject to genetic suppression in Hh-1 heterozygotes. Although the available evidence is not conclusive in excluding one of the two possibilities, it favors the concept that allograft reactivity to hemopoietic cells is elicited by recessive tissue-specific antigens. PMID:4942407

Cudkowicz, Gustavo; Bennett, Michael



Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments. PMID:21253121

Deeg, H. Joachim



The effect of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells on production of transgenic cloned embryos.  


The aim of this study was to develop a method for the in vitro separation and culture of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs). Arbas Cashmere gBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and cell surface markers were identified immunohistochemically. The gBMSCs were differentiated into neurocytes and osteoblasts, and the expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin was identified by immunohistochemistry. The gBMSCs and goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) were compared for transient transfection efficiency and fluorescent colony-forming efficiency with Arbas Cashmere gFFCs as a control. pDsRed2-1 encodes DsRed2, a variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed). In addition, the coding sequence for DsRed2 contains a series of silent base-pair changes for higher expression in mammalian cells. Of the gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1, one fraction was tested for pluripotency, whereas the other fraction was manipulated using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the in vitro growth status of transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 was compared. The findings showed that gBMSCs were isolated and amplified to express CD29, CD44, and CD90 through adherent culture, with no marked signs of aging after multiple passages. Expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin by gBMSCs and gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was strongly induced by neuronal and osteogenic differentiation, whereas the integrated exogenous genes did not influence pluripotency (P > 0.05). The transient transfection efficiencies of gBMSCs and gFFCs after 48 hours were not significantly different; however, the fluorescent colony-forming efficiency of gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 after G418 screening was approximately 13% higher than that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1. The convergence and cleavage rates of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 were higher than those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1, whereas their eight-cell and blastocyst rates were similar. The red fluorescent protein expression levels were higher in transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 compared with those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (48.8% vs. 31.1%, respectively) (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that DsRed2-1 messenger RNA expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs was 2.24 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). Similarly, Western blot analysis showed that DsRed2 protein expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was 1.29 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). In this study, gBMSCs were also used for somatic cell nuclear transfer and shown to provide effective nuclear donor cells for breeding new genetically modified varieties of livestock. PMID:24679907

Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Wang, Hefei; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun



Bone marrow processing for transplantation using Cobe Spectra cell separator.  


Concentration of bone marrow aspirates is an important prerequisite prior to infusion of ABO incompatible allogeneic marrow and prior to cryopreservation and storage of autologous marrow. In this paper we present our experience in processing 15 harvested bone marrow for ABO incompatible allogeneic and autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation using Cobe Spectra® cell separator. BM processing resulted in the median recovery of 91.5% CD34+ cells, erythrocyte depletion of 91% and volume reduction of 81%. BM processing using cell separator is safe and effective technique providing high rate of erythrocyte depletion and volume reduction, and acceptable recovery of the CD34+ cells. PMID:23628356

Veljkovi?, Dobrila; Nonkovi?, Olivera Šerbi?; Radonji?, Zorica; Kuzmanovi?, Miloš; Ze?evi?, Zeljko



Performing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in children: Recommended guidelines  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and bone marrow trephine biopsy are important procedures for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases in children. During BMA, bone marrow particles are obtained for analysis including microscopic morphologic evaluations and differential counts. During a trephine biopsy, a core of bone marrow is obtained and processed for the evaluation of marrow cellularity and to rule out marrow involvement by solid tumours, lymphomas or other processes. These invasive procedures should only be performed by a trained individual following a standard operating technique. There are no clear published guidelines in the paediatric literature. Hence, the purpose of the present article is to provide guidelines for the performance of BMAs and bone marrow trephine biopsies in children that will be useful for both general paediatricians and paediatric hematologists and oncologists. PMID:19436420

Abla, Oussama; Friedman, Jeremy; Doyle, John



Frequency of Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Rat Bone Marrow Exposed to 2.45 GHz Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wistar rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous, radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) field 2 hours daily, 7 days weekly, at power density 5 10 mW/cm2. Four subgroups were created in order to be irradiated 4, 16, 30 and 60 hours. Sham-exposed controls were included in the study. Animals were euthanized on the final irradiation day of each treated subgroup. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine the extent of genotoxicity after the particular treatment time. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical evaluation of data. In comparison to the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MW irradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells.

Trosic, I.; Busljeta, I.




EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...


Lifeguarding American Red Cross  

E-print Network

Lifeguarding Manual #12;American Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual The following organizations provided review of the materials and/or support American Red Cross Lifeguarding: #12;This manual is part of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding program. By itself, it does not constitute complete and comprehensive

Carter, John


How to exhaust your bone marrow.  


A 32-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of oedema and 8 kg of gained weight. The oedema decreased spontaneously over weeks and there was no evidence for a nephrotic syndrome; however, the blood tests revealed a moderate pancytopenia. The patient practiced excessive physical activity at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen in critically ill patients or those with severe malnutrition. In this case, the cause is presumed to be excessive physical activity/overtraining in combination with relatively insufficient nutrition. PMID:23813507

Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W; Kamper, Anne-Lise



CCN3 and bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCN3 expression was observed in a broad variety of tissues from the early stage of development. However, a kind of loss of\\u000a function in mice (CCN3 del VWC domain -\\/-) demonstrated mild abnormality, which indicates that CCN3 may not be critical for the normal embryogenesis\\u000a as a single gene. The importance of CCN3 in bone marrow environment becomes to be

Ken-ichi Katsube; Saki Ichikawa; Yuko Katsuki; Tasuku Kihara; Masanori Terai; Lester F. Lau; Yoshihiro Tamamura; Shin’ichi Takeda; Akihiro Umezawa; Kei Sakamoto; Akira Yamaguchi



Bone Marrow Cells and Myocardial Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years.\\u000a Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high\\u000a morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the\\u000a clinical application of HSC

Fu-sheng Wang; Cathy Trester



Dengue fever and bone marrow myelofibrosis.  


Myelofibrosis is characterized by reticulin and/or collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow stroma resulting in secondary cytopenia. In addition to clonal hematologic neoplasms, myelofibrosis may also develop in association with other clinical conditions, including hematological disorders, solid malignancies, Down syndrome, autoimmune diseases and others. We report the first case to our knowledge of myelofibrosis associated with dengue fever. We briefly describe dengue infections and hypothesize the causes of myelofibrosis in this condition. PMID:25016180

Qing, Xin; Sun, Nora; Yeh, James; Yue, Changjun; Cai, Junchao



Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3–24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or

GA Hale; HE Heslop; RA Krance; MA Brenner; D Jayawardene; DK Srivastava; CC Patrick



Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.



Intracranial haematomas following bone marrow transplantation.  


Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a known grave complication of leukaemia and has been described post mortem following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Ante mortem following BMT, the incidence and significance of ICH is not well defined. The records of 471 bone marrow transplantation recipients over 11 years at the Hadassah University Hospital Bone Marrow Transplantation Department were reviewed. The relevant data of all patients with ICH were analysed. A resolute diagnostic and treatment protocol for subdural haematomas had been employed. The indication for transplantation in 273 of the patients was leukaemia. Thirteen of these patients developed subdural haematomas within 42 days of the transplant, and nine of these haematomas were bilateral. None of the 198 patients with other malignancies or nonmalignant indications for BMT (predominantly aplastic anaemia and beta thalassaemia major) had subdural haematomas. One thalassaemia patient and three leukaemia patients had intracerebral haematomas. There was no mortality or major morbidity from the subdural haematomas, which were all successfully resolved. In contrast, all of the patients with intracerebral haematomas consequently died. Subdural haematomas occur in approximately 5% of patients with leukaemia following BMT, but the clinical outcome is relatively benign. Intracerebral haematomas are a sporadic, lethal complication following BMT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8195826

Pomeranz, S; Naparstek, E; Ashkenazi, E; Nagler, A; Lossos, A; Slavin, S; Or, R



Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.  


Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T



A clinical overview of bone marrow edema.  


Bone marrow edema (BME) is a descriptive term which identifies a specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern that can be observed in a number of clinical entities, which are often characterized by pain as their main symptom, but show significant differences in terms of histopathological findings, causal mechanisms and prognosis. Bone marrow lesions in the subchondral bone of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) seem to be associated with pain and progression of cartilage damage over time. Some histopathological studies of advanced OA have shown a prevalent fibrosis and bone marrow necrosis. BME of the subchondral bone in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts and has a predictive value of further development of erosions. In spondyloarthritis, BME of the sacroiliac joints identifies an active sacroiliitis and is associated with histological inflammation and radiographic progression, whereas the relationship between BME lesions of the spine and syndesmophyte development is still controversial. BME syndromes (BMES), such as transient osteoporosis of the hip, regional migratory osteoporosis, and transient post-traumatic BMES, are characterized by a BME pattern on MRI and a self-limiting course. The potential evolution of BMES toward osteonecrosis is still controversial. PMID:25069499

Manara, M; Varenna, M



Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern


Intractable diseases treated with intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases (ADs) and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but also mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and adipose tissue. MSCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of BM-derived-MSCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT. PMID:25364755

Li, Ming; Guo, Kuquan; Ikehara, Susumu



Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

Marziali, Marco; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido



Parathyroid hormone concentration gradients across the human bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were compared in blood drawn from the bone marrow and antecubital vein of patients\\u000a undergoing marrow biopsy for suspected hematological neoplasia. Radioimmunological analysis revealed that the bone marrow\\u000a blood had a higher PTH content than blood from the peripheral circulation. Thyroid hormone-binding globulin was not distributed\\u000a asymmetrically, showing that the gradient is PTH specific. The intact

Michael John Atkinson; Heinrich Bodenstein; Rolf-Dieter Hesch



Vertebral hyperemia associated with bone marrow insult and recovery  

SciTech Connect

A 15-year-old boy with rhabdoid sarcoma received chemotherapy, which was followed by bone marrow depression, massive nosebleeds and, finally, hematologic recovery. On both hepatobiliary and renal scintigraphy, prominent vertebral activity was present in early images. Correlation with his clinical course suggests that the findings reflect hyperemia due to marrow insult and recovery. Radionuclide imaging to detect hyperemia may be a useful probe for drug effects on hematopoietic bone marrow.

Klein, H.A.; Bolden, R.O.; Simone, F.J.



69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-print Network

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

Standiford, Richard B.


Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard



Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Summary Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, TNF) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-? or IFN-? by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6 (IL6), IL-1?, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0.001 ?g/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. PMID:23889587

Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P.; Pinto, Ligia A.



The osteogenic differentiation stimulating activity of Sea cucumber methanolic crude extraction on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Sea cucumber derived bioactive compound is considered efficient in treatment of bone disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of this extract on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSc) into osteogenic lineage. Materials and Methods: Isolated rBMMSc were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were exposed to different concentration of extract. After 21 days, Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase assay and RT-PCR were performed. The results were analyzed by ANOVA software and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Morphological methods revealed that appropriate concentrations of extract increased osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR revealed that extract without or with osteogenic medium due to osteopontin expression had a potential role in osteogenesis. Conclusion: Based on our data it concluded that S. cucumber extract stimulated Bone marrow mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteogenic lineage without existence of osteogenic medium.

Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Soltani, Mozhgan



Japanese epidemiological survey with consensus statement on Japanese guidelines for treatment of iron overload in bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Many patients with bone marrow failure syndromes need frequent transfusions of red blood cells, and most of them eventually suffer from organ dysfunction induced by excessively accumulated iron. The only way to treat transfusion-induced iron overload is iron chelating therapy. However, most patients have not been treated effectively because daily/continuous administration of deferoxamine is difficult for outpatients. Recently, a novel oral iron chelator, deferasirox, has been developed, and introduction of the drug may help many patients benefit from iron chelation therapy. In this review, we will discuss the current status of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients, and the development of Japanese guidelines for the treatment of iron overload in Japan, which were established by the National Research Group on Idiopathic Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes in Japan. PMID:18581199

Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomonaga, Masao; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakao, Shinji; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Matsumura, Itaru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Niitsu, Yoshiro; Kojima, Seiji



Selective decontamination in bone marrow transplant recipients.  

PubMed Central

Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation become immunocompromised for various reasons. Deep granulocytopenia, induced by conditioning (chemotherapy and total body irradiation), renders the patient at risk for serious bacterial and fungal infections. Our strategy for prevention of these infections by selective decontamination (SD) is the result of more than 15 years of clinical experience and research. The combination of antibiotics, used as standard SD (neomycin, polymyxin B, pipemidic acid and amphotericin B), with the application of local antimicrobial agents eliminates aerobic Gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. from the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract, while the majority of the anaerobic flora persist and support colonization resistance (CR). The antibiotics used either are not resorbed or do not yield therapeutic serum concentrations. Antibiotics which induce therapeutic serum concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, are only used for SD on a limited scale. When Gram-negative rods persist despite intake of the standard regimen, ciprofloxacin is given until these persisting rods are eliminated. If the patients cannot swallow the oral regimen, i.v. cotrimoxazole is given temporarily. Streptococcal infections are prevented by the i.v. administration of penicillin for 14 days starting on the first day after cytotoxic treatment (conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). The combination of SD and systemic prophylaxis has been shown to be adequate; the major problem then remaining is a relatively mild catheter-associated infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:1468520

Guiot, H. F.; van Furth, R.



Classification and detection of bone marrow lesions with magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical approach to bone marrow alterations is proposed that takes into account the high sensitivity and specificity of\\u000a MR imaging for the detection of marrow fat. Marrow signal intensity on T1-weighted images is assumed to reflect the balance\\u000a between fat and nonfat marrow components. Elementary patterns of marrow change include marrow depletion, infiltration, replacement\\u000a and signal void. These patterns

Bruno C. Vande Berg; Jacques Malghem; Frederic E. Lecouvet; Baudouin Maldague



Bone marrow regeneration following fractionated radiation therapy. [/sup 60/Co or HMV linear accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Eight patients were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-S colloid bone marrow scans prior to or at various intervals following megavoltage irradiation. None had marrow tumor involvement and none had chemotherapy during the study period. If reticuloendothelial marrow activity reflects hematopoietic activity, there appears to be maximal depression of marrow activity 6 months post irradiation. Total nodal irradiated patients regenerated marrow as well as local field patients despite the larger marrow volume irradiated.

Hill, D.R.; Benak, S.B.; Phillips, T.L.; Price, D.C.



Zidovudine-induced reversible pure red cell aplasia  

PubMed Central

Hematological abnormalities are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and may be directly attributable to the virus or may be caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms or drugs that cause bone marrow suppression or hemolysis. Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon hematological disorder that causes anemia. We report a 37-year-old male with HIV infection who developed PRCA 6 weeks after commencing Zidovudine and recovered following cessation of the drug. This is the first case of Zidovudine-induced PRCA reported from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20871773

Balakrishnan, Anuja; Valsalan, Rohith; Sheshadri, Shubha; Pandit, Vinay R.; Medep, Vikas; Agrawal, Ravindra Kumar



A brief introduction of the Chinese Marrow Donor Program.  


The Data Bank of Chinese Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors (Chinese Marrow Donor Program, CMDP) is operated under the guidance of Red Cross Society of China. It is in charge of the administration of propagation, organisation, mobilisation of volunteers, and the standardisation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, preliminary search, clinical transplantation, and all related activities in unrelated stem cell transplantation in China. The Advisor Committee--composed by experts in the fields of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), HLA typing, legislation, information technology and ethics--guides the development of the CMDP. The budget of CMDP mainly comes from funds of National Charity Lottery and other charities. Up to the end of 2008, 31 branch registries and HLA-typing laboratories, five high-resolution laboratories, and one quality-control laboratory were established and authorized. There are more than 950,000 donors in our data pool. The CMDP has established clinical relationship with over 100 hospitals. More than 1100 CMDP donors have donated peripheral blood stem cells to patients successfully. The CMDP has also signed cooperation agreement with five of the seven major cord blood banks in mainland China. As a result, there are over 30,000 units of cord blood available for searching in our system. This will improve the matching and using rate of cord blood. The emergence of the CMDP has filled a void in mainland China's contribution to clinical HSCT and donor search worldwide. It has performed preliminary searches for overseas patients including Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, United States, Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, Korea and Singapore, and over 50 donations have been completed. PMID:19494398

Hong, J L



The red Warba potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of the original tuber was divided longitudinally into approximately two equal parts. About one-half of the surface of the original tuber was similar to the VV'arba in that the red color was localized in the eye region immediately adjacent to the eyes. The remaining half of the surface was of a suffused red color. Scattered throughout the suffused

F. A. Krantz; A. G. Tolaas



Whence the Red Panda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the “bear-like” arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids

John J. Flynn; Michael A. Nedbal; Jerry W. Dragoo; Rodney L. Honeycutt



Importance of neurological assessment before bone marrow transplantation for osteopetrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological complications of malignant infantile osteopetrosis are well recognised; successful bone marrow transplantation, when performed early in life, can prevent or halt some of them. In a subgroup of infants osteopetrosis is associated with primary retinal degeneration and\\/or generalised neurodegeneration. Bone marrow transplantation, in spite of being successful in correcting the osseous and haematological abnormalities, does not influence the progressive

M Abinun; T Newson; P W Rowe; T J Flood; A J Cant



First Reported Case of Ehrlichia ewingii Involving Human Bone Marrow.  


A 65-year-old female with a history of multiple tick bites presented with fever and pancytopenia. Intracytoplasmic rickettsial morulae were detected on peripheral smear and bone marrow biopsy specimens, and PCR amplified Ehrlichia ewingii DNA from both specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. ewingii infection of human bone marrow. PMID:25187638

Allen, M Brandon; Pritt, Bobbi S; Sloan, Lynne M; Paddock, Christopher D; Musham, Chaitanya K; Ramos, Jeanette M; Cetin, Neslihan; Rosenbaum, Eric R



Painless transient bone marrow edema syndrome in a pediatric patient.  


Transient regional migratory osteoporosis, considered to be part of the spectrum of bone marrow edema syndrome, is a rare condition with an unknown etiology. Patients usually present with lower extremity pain, most commonly in the 4th-5th decades of life. We describe a 15-year-old male patient with type 1 Gaucher disease who presented with transient bone marrow edema syndrome with features most closely resembling regional migratory osteoporosis. The patient presented with bone marrow edema of the lateral tibial epiphysis of his right knee that was incidentally seen on routine surveillance MRI that was performed as protocol for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease on enzyme replacement therapy. At this time, the patient had no pain and physical examination was normal. Follow-up MRI of the right knee 4 months afterward showed complete resolution of the signal abnormality in the right tibial epiphysis, and repeat study 8 months later displayed a new focus of painless migratory edema of the medial tibial epiphysis of the same knee. These changes completely resolved as well. Marrow signal abnormalities in children with Gaucher disease can have a broad differential, including infection, marrow infiltration, trauma, osteonecrosis, and bone marrow edema syndrome, amongst others. Correct diagnosis of bone marrow edema syndrome is critical, as this disease process most often resolves on conservative measures. The unusual presentation of transient bone marrow edema syndrome with regional migratory osteoporosis features in a young patient with Gaucher disease is described. PMID:24893724

Joshi, Vivek; Hermann, George; Balwani, Manisha; Simpson, William L



Leukodystrophy and Bone Marrow Transplantation: Role of Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is currently the most physiologic treatment for some types of leukodystrophies. In enzyme deficiency states, replacement of defective genes with cells carrying “normal” copies of these genes offers a natural form of gene therapy. This review will cover the various disease states which may be treated using bone marrow transplantation as well as the obstacles and

Christina L. Kaufman; Suzanne T. Ildstad



The bone marrow microenvironment and leukemia: biology and therapeutic targeting  

PubMed Central

Multiple studies have demonstrated that interaction with the bone marrow stromal microenvironment contributes to the survival of leukemia cells. One explanation for this phenomenon is the interaction between the cell surface receptors CXCR4 and CXCL12. Through CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, leukemia cells migrate to microscopic niches within the bone marrow, which leads to increased proliferation and survival. Several studies have suggested that increased CXCR4 expression may portend a poor prognosis in various types of leukemia, possibly due to increased protection of leukemia cells by bone marrow stroma. A potential therapeutic strategy to overcome this stromal-mediated survival advantage is to target CXCR4. Inhibition of CXCR4 may allow leukemia cells to be released from bone marrow niches that confer resistance to chemotherapy and negate the survival benefit imparted by bone marrow stroma. PMID:21668393

Sison, Edward Allan R; Brown, Patrick



The bone marrow microenvironment and leukemia: biology and therapeutic targeting.  


Multiple studies have demonstrated that interaction with the bone marrow stromal microenvironment contributes to the survival of leukemia cells. One explanation for this phenomenon is the interaction between the cell surface receptors CXCR4 and CXCL12. Through CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, leukemia cells migrate to microscopic niches within the bone marrow, which leads to increased proliferation and survival. Several studies have suggested that increased CXCR4 expression may portend a poor prognosis in various types of leukemia, possibly due to increased protection of leukemia cells by bone marrow stroma. A potential therapeutic strategy to overcome this stromal-mediated survival advantage is to target CXCR4. Inhibition of CXCR4 may allow leukemia cells to be released from bone marrow niches that confer resistance to chemotherapy and negate the survival benefit imparted by bone marrow stroma. PMID:21668393

Sison, Edward Allan R; Brown, Patrick



Psychosocial Effects of Unrelated Bone Marrow Donation: Experiences of the National Marrow Donor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the psychosocial effects of unrelated marrow donation. Survey questionnaires were administered pre-donation, shortly post-donation, and 1 year post-donation to all donors through the National Mar- row Donor Program over a 3-year period. Univariate, bi- variate, and multivariate analyses were then performed. Donors were generally quite positive about the donation 1 year post-donation: 87% felt it

Victoria A. Butterworth; Roberta G. Simmons; Glenn Bartsch; Bryan Randall; Mindy Schimmel; David F. Stroncek



Lung function after bone marrow grafting  

SciTech Connect

Results of a prospective lung function study are presented for 48 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1978 and 1980. Patients with active disease or who were in remission following cytoreductive chemotherapy had mildly impaired gas exchange prior to grafting. After TBI and BMT all patients studied developed progressive deterioration of lung function during the first 100 days, although these changes were subclinical. Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) were associated with further worsening of restrictive ventilatory defects and diffusing capacity (D/sub L/CO). Beyond 100 days, ventilatory ability returned to normal and gas transfer improved, although it failed to reach pre-transplant levels. There was no evidence of progressive pulmonary fibrosis during the first year after grafting.

Depledge, M.H.; Barrett, A.; Powles, R.L.



Pure red cell aplasia caused by Parvo B19 virus in a kidney transplant recipient.  


Parvo B19 is a single stranded DNA virus, which typically has affinity for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and produces a severe form of anemia known as pure red cell aplasia. This condition is particularly worse in immunocompromised individuals. We herein report a young Nepali male who developed severe and persistent anaemia after kidney transplantation while being on immunosuppressive therapy. His bone marrow examination revealed morphological changes of pure red cell aplasia, caused by parvovirus B19. The IgM antibody against the virus was positive and the virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the blood. He was managed with intravenous immunoglobulin. He responded well to the treatment and has normal hemoglobin levels three months post treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report from Nepal. PMID:23478734

Baral, A; Poudel, B; Agrawal, R K; Hada, R; Gurung, S



Unrelated-donor marrow transplants: the experience of the National Marrow Donor Program.  


As of December 1994, more than 3,000 marrow transplants had been accomplished using unrelated donors provided by the National Marrow Donor Program. With more than 1.5 million donors listed in the registry, over 60% of patients now find an HLA-A,B,DR phenotypic match at the initial search. The HLA types of these patients are biased toward the common Caucasian haplotypes, but the likelihood of identifying donors for non-Caucasian patients has improved with time. Analysis of the first 462 transplants showed disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years to be approximately 40% in good-risk patients and 20% in poor-risk patients. Chronic myelogenous leukemia transplanted within the first year after diagnosis had 45% DFS. Some recent reports from individual transplant centers demonstrate results closer to those obtained with sibling donors, while a limited retrospective comparison suggests that unrelated-donor transplants are at least equivalent to and probably better than autologous transplants. A single HLA mismatch at A, B, or DR can be tolerated, but results are better with phenotypic identity. The most recent NMDP analysis has also identified younger donors and male donors as favorable variables in evaluating one-year survival of unrelated-marrow recipients. PMID:7547550

Perkins, H A; Kollman, C; Howe, C W



Comparisons of Rabbit Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation and Culture Methods In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical therapy, and various methods for isolation and cultivation of BMSCs have been reported. However, the best techniques are still uncertain. Therefore, we sought the most suitable among the four most common methods for BMSC separation from rabbits. BMSCs were obtained from untreated whole bone marrow (BM) adherent cultures, 3 volumes of red blood cells (RBC) lysed with ammonium chloride, 6 volumes of RBC lysed with ammonium chloride, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Then, isolated BMSCs were evaluated with respect to primary cell yield, number of CFU-F colonies, proliferative capacity, cell phenotype, and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Our data show that BMSCs were successfully isolated by all four methods, and each method was similar with regard to cell morphology, phenotype, and differentiation potential. However, BMSCs from untreated whole BM adherent cultures had greater primary cell yields, larger colonies, and the shortest primary culture time (P<0.05). Moreover, the 4th generation of cultured cells had the strongest proliferative activity, the fastest growth rate and the most numerous cells compared with other cell passage generations (P<0.05). In conclusion, untreated whole BM adherent cultures are best for rabbit BMSC isolation and the 4th generation of cells has the strongest proliferation capacity. PMID:24558428

Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Shi, Hongcan; Tan, Rongbang; Han, Shi; Ye, Gang; Pan, Shu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xingchen



Isolation of a preadipocyte cell line from rat bone marrow and differentiation to adipocytes.  


A unique population of rat adipocyte precursor cells was derived from normal rat bone marrow. The epitheloid-like preadipocytes were isolated from a mixed culture of bone marrow cells by a combination of differential trypsinization, enrichment by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, and differential seeding. This cell line, designated RBM-Ad, can be fully differentiated into multilocular adipocytes morphologically resembling brown adipose tissue. No changes in the differentiation pattern are observed during propagation of these cells, and they have been successfully carried and differentiated up to passage 49. Histological staining of differentiated cells with Sudan black, Sudan IV, and oil red O indicates the presence of lipids in intracellular vesicles. The nonselective beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity in both preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes. In contrast, BRL-37344, a beta 3-adrenergic receptor-specific agonist, stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and glycerol release in differentiated adipocytes, but not preadipocytes. In addition, differentiated adipocytes contain messenger RNA encoding the brown adipose-specific protein, thermogenin. Thus, this rat preadipocyte cell line can be differentiated into adipocytes that histologically and functionally resemble brown adipose tissue. PMID:7545105

Marko, O; Cascieri, M A; Ayad, N; Strader, C D; Candelore, M R



RED Facts: Paranitrophenol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2465, Paranitrophenol. Paranitrophenol, a nitrated benzene, is a nonfood use chemical that is registered for use as a fungicide to control fungal mold on leather and sp...



The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.



Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...


RED Facts: Chlorpropham.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0271, chlorpropham. Chlorpropham is a herbicide and plant growth inhibitor used to control mouseear chickweed in spinach and fruiting in ginkgo trees, reduce Botrytis i...



Induction of tolerance to a soluble antigen following irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution.  


Antigen-specific tolerance was induced in mice by lethal irradiation followed by reconstitution with syngeneic, anti-T-cell-treated bone marrow and injection of the protein antigen lysozyme. Animals tolerized with lysozyme responded normally to a second antigen, sheep red blood cells, and animals treated with the same tolerizing regimen using a different protein antigen, bovine serum albumin, responded normally to lysozyme. Challenge of the tolerant mice with lysozyme covalently coupled to LPS induced an antilysozyme response indicating that if tolerance was expressed on the B-cell level that antigen-specific B-cells were still present. These results eliminate clonal abortion and clonal selection as the mechanism of tolerance generation. The tolerance generated by this procedure is either expressed on the T-cell level or is produced by a state of B-cell clonal anergy which can be overcome by the use of antigen coupled to lipopolysaccharide. PMID:6752040

Schleimer, R P; Scibienski, R J; Vollger, H F; Benjamini, E



The humoral immune response of mouse bone marrow lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Mouse bone marrow (BM) small lymphocytes are shown to contain competent precursors for a primary haemolytic plaque forming cell (PFC) response to heterologous red blood cells and TNP in an in vitro culture system. Their response is dependent on T co-operative factors, which can be provided by irradiated spleen cells activated by concanavalin A or the supernatant of an allogeneic culture, added at the beginning or after 24 h of culture. The frequency of PFC precursors for the response to SRBC is found to be equal or higher in BM than spleen cultures. However, BM lymphocyte cultures stimulated by E. coli lipopolysaccharide show an increase of DNA synthesis but contain only few polyclonal PFC, in contrast to spleen. PMID:301118

Ryser, J E; Dutton, R W



Whence the red panda?  


The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous (based on prior modeling, as well as conflict between the results of our analyses of less and more complete data sets) conclusions about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. PMID:11083933

Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L



Romantic Red: Red Enhances Men's Attraction to Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness

Andrew J. Elliot; Daniela Niesta



Why does the bone marrow fail in Fanconi anemia?  


The inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes are a rare and diverse group of genetic disorders that ultimately result in the loss of blood production. The molecular defects underlying many of these conditions have been elucidated, and great progress has been made toward understanding the normal function of these gene products. This review will focus on perhaps the most well-known and genetically heterogeneous BMF syndrome: Fanconi anemia. More specifically, this account will review the current state of our knowledge on why the bone marrow fails in this illness and what this might tell us about the maintenance of bone marrow function and hematopoiesis. PMID:24200684

Garaycoechea, Juan I; Patel, K J



Critical role for Spi-C in the development of red pulp macrophages and splenic iron homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Tissue macrophages comprise a heterogeneous group of cell types differing in location, surface markers and function1. Red pulp macrophages are a distinct splenic subset involved in removing senescent red blood cells2. Transcription factors such as PU.1 and C/EBP? play general roles in myelomonocytic development3,4, but the transcriptional basis for producing tissue macrophage subsets remains unknown. Here we show that Spi-C, a PU.1 related transcription factor, selectively controls the development of red pulp macrophages. Spi-C is highly expressed in red pulp macrophages, but not monocytes, dendritic cells or other tissue macrophages. Spi-C?/? mice exhibit a cell-autonomous defect in the development of red pulp macrophages that is corrected by retroviral Spi-C expression in bone marrow cells, but have normal monocyte and other macrophage subsets. Red pulp macrophages highly express genes involved in capturing circulating hemoglobin and iron regulation. Spi-C?/? mice show normal trapping of red blood cells in the spleen, but fail to phagocytose these red blood cells efficiently, and develop an iron overload localized selectively to splenic red pulp. Thus, Spi-C controls development of red pulp macrophages required for red blood cell recycling and iron homeostasis. PMID:19037245

Kohyama, Masako; Ise, Wataru; Edelson, Brian T.; Wilker, Peter R.; Hildner, Kai; Mejia, Carlo; Frazier, William A.; Murphy, Theresa L.; Murphy, Kenneth M.



Factors That Influence Greeks' Decision to Register as Potential Bone Marrow Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50%

P. A. Galanis; L. D. Sparos; T. Katostaras; E. Velonakis; A. Kalokerinou



In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10?mm in diameter and 15?mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells. These data suggest that MS processing may be used to enhance the performance of marrow-derived CTPs in clinical bone regeneration procedures. Further assessment in a more stringent bone defect model is proposed. PMID:23082937

Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej



Structural characterization and radioprotection of bone marrow hematopoiesis of two novel polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.  


Two novel homogeneous polysaccharides, APS-1a and APS-3a were successfully isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis. APS-1a was composed of galactose, arabinose and glucose in a relatively molar percentage of 57.34%, 27.67% and 14.98%, and had a molecular weight of 49.0kDa, whereas APS-3a was composed of galactose, arabinose and glucose in a relatively molar percentage of 84.54%, 6.50%, and 8.96%, and had a molecular weight of 65.4kDa. APS-1a and APS-3a mainly consisted of 1,4-linked galactose, 1,3,6-linked galactose, T-galactose and T-arabinose, and the molar ratio of each linkage was different between APS-1a and APS-3a. The bioactivity analysis showed that APS-1a and APS-3a increased the thymus and spleen index, the number of red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) in peripheral blood and the cellularity of bone marrow cell numbers in irradiated mice, protected mice against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in bone marrow, suggesting that polysaccharides could be used as radioprotective agents, especially for promoting bone marrow hematopoiesis. PMID:23063893

Zhao, Lu; Wang, Yin; Shen, Han-lin; Shen, Xu-dong; Nie, Yan; Wang, Ying; Han, Ting; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Qiao-yan



Radiation protection of bone marrow lymphocytes by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The drug, MPG, when administered before irradiation, increases the radioresistance of bone marrow lymphocytes of mice to gamma rays and helps in promoting fast recovery, especially when exposed to sublethal dose.

M. R. Saini; P. Uma Devi; S. S. Yadav



[Staging and evaluation of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma].  


Staging of lymphoma is important for predicting the prognosis and deciding on the treatment strategy for each patient. The Ann Arbor classification and its Cotswolds revised version are widely used, and now comprise the standard staging system for lymphoma. Bone marrow involvement is one of the most important factors in the staging system. Pathological patterns of lymphoma cell infiltration in the marrow are categorized into the following types: 1) nodular/patchy, 2) paratrabecular, 3) interstitial, 4) diffuse, and 5) intrasinusoidal. The frequency and patterns of bone marrow involvement in association with the subtypes of lymphoma are reviewed. PET/CT analysis has become a powerful method for staging lymphoma, and may complement or substitute for bone marrow biopsy in some subtypes of lymphoma. PMID:24724403

Miyauchi, Jun; Matsumoto, Kimihiro



Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option  


... Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with a ... Transplant Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant A ...


CNS Inflammation and Bone Marrow Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow–neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow–derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45+/CCR2+/GR-1+/Iba-1+ bone marrow–derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A.; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M.; McGorray, Susan P.; Saban, Daniel R.; Boulton, Michael E.; Busik, Julia V.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B.



CNS inflammation and bone marrow neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.  


By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow-neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow-derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45(+)/CCR2(+)/GR-1(+)/Iba-1(+) bone marrow-derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M; McGorray, Susan P; Saban, Daniel R; Boulton, Michael E; Busik, Julia V; Raizada, Mohan K; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B



Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures  

SciTech Connect

To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.



Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect in the anterior maxilla.  


An unusual presentation of a focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect is documented. A definitive diagnosis could not be established on the basis of the location, history, clinical, and radiographic appearance. A biopsy provided the identity of the lesion. PMID:8233438

Gordy, F M; Crews, K M; O Carroll, M K




Microsoft Academic Search

A simple in vitro technique is described for the growth of colonies from single cell suspensions of mouse bone marrow. The system involves the plating of marrow cells in agar on feeder layers of other cells, those from 8-day-old mouse kidney and 17th day mouse embryo being shown to be the most efficient types of feeder layers.Approximalely 400 colonies per

TR Bradley; D Metcalf



Pathophysiology and Management of Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The inherited marrow failure syndromes are a diverse set of genetic disorders characterized by hematopoietic aplasia and cancer predisposition. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable and much broader than previously recognized. The medical management of the inherited marrow failure syndromes differs from that of acquired aplastic anemia or malignancies arising in the general population. Diagnostic workup, molecular pathogenesis, and clinical treatment are reviewed. PMID:20417588

Shimamura, Akiko; Alter, Blanche P.



Immune Cell Redistribution After Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of a limb transplant lies in its anatomy. It is a graft of an organ, in analogy to the kidney or heart transplant,\\u000a but in addition, it is a graft of bone marrow (BM) whose cells (BMC) do not only proliferate and mature in the graft but also\\u000a migrate to the recipient bone marrow cavities and lymphoid organs

Waldemar L. Olszewski; Marek Durlik


Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male  

PubMed Central

Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration. PMID:23682278

Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P



Determination of opiates in postmortem bone and bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone and bone marrow of a fatally poisoned heroin addict were analyzed by FPIA and GC-FID, immediately after death. A piece of the bone from the above case was buried for 1 year and analyzed by the same procedure. Morphine was detected in all specimens at concentrations of 195, 340 and 155ng\\/g for bone marrow, bone and buried bone, respectively.

N. Raikos; H. Tsoukali; S. N. Njau



The bone marrow in aplastic anaemia: Diagnostic and prognostic features  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow preparations were examined from 80 patients with aplastic anaemia. The degree of cellularity varied greatly and in a third of the cases it was normal or even hypercellular at one site of aspiration. In the severely hypoplastic marrows lymphoid cells were predominant and this situation was associated with a worse prognosis. There was no correlation between marrow lymphoid cell content and blood lymphocyte count but there was an inverse relationship between blood lymphocyte count and marrow erythroblasts and a close direct relationship between the blood neutrophil count and marrow myeloid cell content. In all cases a proportion of the erythroblasts showed morphological abnormalities. These included especially megaloblastic changes and asynchrony of nuclear-cytoplasmic maturation. There were also binucleated cells, internuclear chromatin bridges, intercellular cytoplasmic connexions, nuclear degenerative changes, namely, blurred outlines, irregular shapes, budding and fragmentation, and atypical mitotic figures. These appearances illustrate the extent to which a qualitative defect of erythropoiesis occurs as part of the haematological pattern in aplastic anaemia, and in some cases dominates the bone marrow picture. Similar cytological features were found in all cases, including five patients with Fanconi's anaemia. Images PMID:4832303

Frisch, B.; Lewis, S. M.



Improved bone marrow stromal cell adhesion on micropatterned titanium surfaces.  


Implant longevity is desired for all bone replacements and fixatives. Titanium (Ti) implants fail due to lack of juxtaposed bone formation, resulting in implant loosening. Implant surface modifications have shown to affect the interactions between the implant and bone. In clinical applications, it is crucial to improve osseointegration and implant fixation at the implant and bone interface. Moreover, bone marrow derived cells play a significant role for implant and tissue integration. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how surface micropatterning on Ti influences its interactions with bone marrow derived cells containing mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have the capability of differentiating into osteoblasts that contribute to bone growth, and therefore implant/bone integration. Hematopoietic stem cell derivatives are precursor cells that contribute to inflammatory response. By using all three cells naturally contained within bone marrow, we mimic the physiological environment to which an implant is exposed. Primary rat bone marrow derived cells were seeded onto Ti with surfaces composed of arrays of grooves of equal width and spacing ranging from 0.5 to 50 µm, fabricated using a novel plasma-based dry etching technique. Results demonstrated enhanced total cell adhesion on smaller micrometer-scale Ti patterns compared with larger micrometer-scale Ti patterns, after 24-hr culture. Further studies are needed to determine bone marrow derived cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential on micropatterned Ti, and eventually nanopatterned Ti. PMID:23367215

Iskandar, Maria E; Cipriano, Aaron F; Lock, Jaclyn; Gott, Shannon C; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Huinan



Stanford University Medical Center Blood & Marrow Transplant Program Fund Yes, I want to make a gift to the Blood and Marrow  

E-print Network

Stanford University Medical Center Blood & Marrow Transplant Program Fund Yes, I want to make a gift to the Blood and Marrow Transplant Program to support advancements in treatment and patient care: _____________________ I have enclosed a check for the Blood MarrowTransplant Program payable to Stanford University

Kay, Mark A.


Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. Results The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP, with a mean efficiency of 72% ± 4%. The vector used was derived from the simian immunodeficiency lentivirus SIVmac251, VSV-g pseudotyped and encoded eGFP under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After myeloid differentiation, GFP was detected in colony-forming cells (37% ± 10%). A previous study showed that transduction rates did not differ significantly between colony-forming cells and immature cells capable of initiating long-term cultures, indicating that progenitor cells and highly immature hematopoietic cells were transduced with similar efficiency. Blood cells producingeGFP were detected as early as three days after transplantation, and eGFP-producing granulocyte and mononuclear cells persisted for more than one year in the periphery. Conclusion The transplantation of CD34+ bone marrow cells had beneficial effects for the ex vivo proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, favoring reconstitution of the T- and B-lymphocyte, thrombocyte and red blood cell compartments. PMID:18565229

Derdouch, Sonia; Gay, Wilfried; Negre, Didier; Prost, Stephane; Le Dantec, Mikael; Delache, Benoit; Auregan, Gwenaelle; Andrieu, Thibault; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Cosset, Francois-Loic; Le Grand, Roger



Correlation of Plasma FL Expression with Bone Marrow Irradiation Dose  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ablative bone marrow irradiation is an integral part of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These treatment regimens are based on classically held models of radiation dose and the bone marrow response. Flt-3 ligand (FL) has been suggested as a marker of hematopoiesis and bone marrow status but the kinetics of its response to bone marrow irradiation has yet to be fully characterized. In the current study, we examine plasma FL response to total body and partial body irradiation in mice and its relationship with irradiation dose, time of collection and pattern of bone marrow exposure. Materials/Methods C57BL6 mice received a single whole body or partial body irradiation dose of 1–8 Gy. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 24, 48 and 72 hr post-irradiation as well as 1–3 weeks post-irradiation. FL levels were determined via ELISA assay and used to generate two models: a linear regression model and a gated values model correlating plasma FL levels with radiation dose. Results At all doses between 1–8 Gy, plasma FL levels were greater than control and the level of FL increased proportionally to the total body irradiation dose. Differences in FL levels were statistically significant at each dose and at all time points. Partial body irradiation of the trunk areas, encompassing the bulk of the hematopoietically active bone marrow, resulted in significantly increased FL levels over control but irradiation of only the head or extremities did not. FL levels were used to generate a dose prediction model for total body irradiation. In a blinded study, the model differentiated mice into dose received cohorts of 1, 4 or 8 Gy based on plasma FL levels at 24 or 72 hrs post-irradiation. Conclusion Our findings indicate that plasma FL levels might be used as a marker of hematopoietically active bone marrow and radiation exposure in mice. PMID:23505536

Sproull, Mary; Avondoglio, Dane; Kramp, Tamalee; Shankavaram, Uma; Camphausen, Kevin



Formation of red sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of red sprites that are generated in the ionosphere at an altitude of 100 km are considered. A process that leads to the formation of such plasma objects is proposed. It is demonstrated that sprites are generated by acoustic waves that give rise to vortices and gas breakdown in the presence of strong gradients of gas temperature and

A. R. Aramyan; G. A. Galechyan



Million Dollar Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel Million Dollar Red connects the lives of six women in Eastside San Jose in pursuit of a common set of desires to be beautiful, happy, and something other than what they were when they walked into Quynh's Nail Salon. The third person limited point of view shifts protagonists every time a character comes into contact with a certain

Jennifer Marie Ghastin



Florida's Red Tide Infestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Florida's west coast in 2001, threatening the wildlife of Tampa Bay's estuary. The article briefly discusses the cause of the red tide and its affect on the shellfish industry.

News, Cbs


Cincinnati Reds Lead guitar  

E-print Network

Cincinnati Reds Home run Baseball Lead guitar Rock music Concepts Webpages Attribute&Named Entities Extraction (650)723-2528 Phyllis Wattis George Murphy Foster Attributes&named entities Generation page2 Concepts Attributes&Named Entities page1 Concepts Attributes&Named Entities ... page


Why Leaves Turn Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are plant pigments found in leaves, flowers and fruits. Most strikingly, they color autumn leaves red. Over more than a century, biologists have proposed a variety of hypotheses for why colorful autumn foliage should exist, but experiments over the last decade are finally yielding definitve explanations. Anthocyanins protect leaves from damage in at least two ways---by directly shielding chloroplasts

David Lee; Kevin Gould



Red Blood Cell Clearance in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Summary Anemia is a frequently encountered problem in the critically ill patient. The inability to compensate for anemia includes several mechanisms, collectively referred to as anemia of inflammation: reduced production of erythropoietin, impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin, reduced iron availability, and increased red blood cell (RBC) clearance. This review focuses on mechanisms of RBC clearance during inflammation. We state that phosphatidylserine (PS) expression in inflammation is mainly enhanced due to an increase in ceramide, caused by an increase in sphingomyelinase activity due to either platelet activating factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, or direct production by bacteria. Phagocytosis of RBCs during inflammation is mediated via RBC membrane protein band 3. Reduced deformability of RBCs seems an important feature in inflammation, also mediated by band 3 as well as by nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and sialic acid residues. Also, adherence of RBCs to the endothelium is increased during inflammation, most likely due to increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules as well as PS on the RBC membrane, in combination with decreased capillary blood flow. Thereby, clearance of RBCs during inflammation shows similarities to clearance of senescent RBCs, but also has distinct entities, including increased adhesion to the endothelium. PMID:23801928

Straat, Marleen; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Juffermans, Nicole P.



Weather sends red tide packing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mobile Register newspaper article provides general information about the impact of a cold front on red tide in Alabama. Red tide in the area had been rising until the front passed through, killing most of the phytoplankton bloom.

Finch, Bill; Register, Mobile


Cell fusion in myeloma marrow microenvironment: role in tumor progression.  


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy characterized by uncontrolled expansion of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow that contribute to formation of multiple osteolytic bone disease and severe skeletal devastation. Recently, direct and indirect observations suggest that fusion events between cells housed within the MM marrow microenvironment often occur and may play a role in tumor progression, including myeloma bone disease (MBD). A number of cells resident in the marrow, such as myeloid progenitors and dendritic cells, have inherited fusogenicity and osteoclastogenic potential due to the expression of a number of fusogenic proteins as well as a high sensitivity to fusogenic factors produced within the MM marrow milieu. Similarly, osteoclasts (OC), as bone-resorbing multinucleated cells resulting from the fusion of marrow monocyte/ macrophages, have been reported to improperly fuse with malignant plasma cells and drive transition of these cells into OC-like cells exerting bone-resorbing capacity. Further, based on indirect cytogenetic and molecular evidence, it has been proposed that MM cells may generate a hybrid progeny with high metastatic potential and drug resistance, ultimately pointing to uncontrolled homotypic fusions that accelerate MBD progression. PMID:23237553

Cives, Mauro; Ciavarella, Sabino; Dammacco, Franco; Silvestris, Franco



Increase of bone marrow cellularity during erythropoietin treatment in myeloma.  


Treatment of myeloma-associated chronic anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has been shown to be successful in the majority of patients. We have morphometrically investigated bone marrow sections from the iliac crest of 20 anemic myeloma patients prior to rHuEPO therapy. The 15 responding patients were re-examined after three months and, if possible, after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Significant differences were found between responders and nonresponders prior to therapy. Nonresponders presented with a pronounced shift to the right in their erythroid bone marrow cell compartment and partly with higher serum levels of endogenous erythropoietin. During rHuEPO therapy, responders showed increases in all subsets of erythropoiesis and in the total amount of hemopoietic tissue. Response was accompanied by a marked drop of serum ferritin levels, a rise in serum levels of transferrin receptors and the emptying of bone marrow iron stores; the World Health Organization performance status improved. Responders tended to present with less advanced disease stages and better performance status and showed significantly longer survival times. Loss of responsiveness to rHuEPO was observed in one patient during the terminal stage of the disease. In conclusion, morphometric examination of bone marrow biopsies during the course of rHuEPO therapy showed that the response achieved in hemoglobin values was clearly mirrored in equivalent increments of the erythroid bone marrow cell compartment. PMID:8520516

Ludwig, H; Chott, A; Fritz, E; Krainer, M



Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.



Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-print Network

Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Baldwin, Ford L., University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, Little Rock. Bourgeois, W. J., Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Cox... ...................................... 10 E. A. Sonnier RED RICE CONTROL IN ALTERNATE CROPS ................................ 16 F. L. Baldwin ..# RED RICE CONTROL ..................................................lg B. A. Huey and F. L. Baldwin RED RICE HERBICIDE SCREENING TESTS...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.



Communication between bone marrow niches in normal bone marrow function and during hemopathies progression  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation, quiescence and differentiation are regulated by interactions with bone marrow (BM) niches. Two niches have been identified in the adult BM: the endosteal (close to the bone) and the perivascular niche (close to blood vessels). A vast body of literature has revealed the molecular basis for the interaction of HSCs with the two niches. However, the signals that regulate the communication between the two niches have not been well defined. Taking in consideration several clinical and experimental arguments this review highlights the molecular cues, involved in the communication between the BM niches, which regulate the basic properties of HSCs in physiological and malignant conditions. As such, it aims at clarifying the most important advances in basic and clinical research focusing on the role of different factors in the regulation of the BM microenvironment.

Lamorte, Sara; Remedio, Leonor; Dias, Sergio



The Red Brush  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of Washington University's Digital Gateway initiative, The Red Brush project is a collection of texts in Chinese from a wide range of writings from Imperial China, by and about women writers. The materials here are available in both Chinese and English, and the project was designed to complete a narrative anthology entitled "Red Brush: Women Writers of Imperial China". The site makes the original Chinese version of over 500 poems available, along with English language translations. Visitors can use the advanced search feature here, or they can also just browse around at their leisure. The materials are divided into sixteen sections, and some of the highlights include "The full elder brother" by Ban Zhao and "The color of the water" by Hai Yin.


Gastric Carcinoma with Bone Marrow Metastasis: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality. At the time of diagnosis, majority of the patients usually have unresectable or metastatic disease. The most common sites of metastases are the liver and the peritoneum, but in the advanced stages, there may be metastases to any region of the body. Bone marrow is an important metastatic site for solid tumors, and the prognosis in such cases is poor. In gastric cancer cases, bone marrow metastasis is usually observed in younger patients and in those with poorly differentiated tumors. Prognosis is worsened owing to the poor histomorphology as well as the occurrence of pancytopenia. The effect of standard chemotherapy is unknown, as survival is limited to a few weeks. This report aimed to evaluate 5 gastric cancer patients with bone marrow metastases to emphasize the importance of this condition. PMID:24765538

Bal, Öznur; Özatl?, Tahsin; Türker, ?brahim; E?bah, Onur; Demirci, Ay?e; Budako?lu, Burçin; Arslan, Ülkü Yalç?nta?; Eraslan, Emrah; Öksüzo?lu, Berna



Chemotherapy-induced bone marrow nerve injury impairs hematopoietic regeneration.  


Anticancer chemotherapy drugs challenge hematopoietic tissues to regenerate but commonly produce long-term sequelae. Chemotherapy-induced deficits in hematopoietic stem or stromal cell function have been described, but the mechanisms mediating hematopoietic dysfunction remain unclear. Administration of multiple cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy causes substantial sensory neuropathy. Here we demonstrate that chemotherapy-induced nerve injury in the bone marrow of mice is a crucial lesion impairing hematopoietic regeneration. Using pharmacological and genetic models, we show that the selective loss of adrenergic innervation in the bone marrow alters its regeneration after genotoxic insult. Sympathetic nerves in the marrow promote the survival of constituents of the stem cell niche that initiate recovery. Neuroprotection by deletion of Trp53 in sympathetic neurons or neuroregeneration by administration of 4-methylcatechol or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes hematopoietic recovery. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of adrenergic nerve protection for shielding hematopoietic niches from injury. PMID:23644514

Lucas, Daniel; Scheiermann, Christoph; Chow, Andrew; Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Barrick, Colleen; Tessarollo, Lino; Frenette, Paul S



Noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the bone marrow.  


Bone marrow is supplied by sensory and autonomic innervation. Although it is well established that hematopoiesis is regulated by cytokines and cell-to-cell contacts, the role played by neuromediators on the proliferation, differentiation and release of hematopoietic cells is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat femur bone marrow by means of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence was used to demonstrate catecholaminergic nerve fibers. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat bone marrow, providing a morphological basis for the neural modulation of hemopoiesis. PMID:12060854

Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Cavallotti, Carlo; Agostinelli, Enzo; Giuliani-Piccari, Gabriella; Sciorio, Salvatore; Cocco, Lucio; Vitale, Marco



[Participation of transfused bone marrow cells in reparative osteohistogenesis].  


The participation of skeletal tissue cell precursors in the repairing regeneration of bone tissue was studied. Bone marrow was taken from donor animals--mice of C57Bl/6-TgN(ACTbGFP) 1 Osb line (The Jackson Laboratory Bar Harbor ME USA line). Nucleated cell fraction was isolated by centrifugation on a density percoll gradient. Recipient mice C57Bl/6 line were irradiated by 7.0-7.5 Gr dose. Intravenous infusion of donor cells and osteoclasts of tibia was done after irradiation of recipient mice. Histological preparations of bone regenerate tissues were studied on 15, 30, and 60 days by confocal microscopy. Donor cells were found as skeletal tissue precursors into periost, endost, bone marrow, and as differentiated cells of newborn tissue of regenerate--osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes. The data obtained indicate that part of donor bone marrow cells are able to progressive differentiation under recipient bone fractures. PMID:16706204

Deev, R V; Tsupkina, N V; Serikov, V B; Gololobov, V G; Pinaev, G P



Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.



Primary diagnosis of Whipple's disease in bone marrow.  


Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of infectious origin caused by Tropheryma whipplei (TW). Abdominal pain and recurrent diarrhea are usually the main symptoms leading to the suspicion of a primary bowel disease. Systemic manifestations can mimic hematologic disorders. A 49-year-old man presented with fever, weight loss, long-standing arthralgia, and diarrhea. A duodenal biopsy was unremarkable. Bone marrow histology provided no evidence of a malignant hematological disorder but revealed noncaseating granulomas. TW was detected in the bone marrow trephine by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report to describe TW-associated granulomatous myelitis as the initially recognized organ manifestation of WD, proven at the molecular level. This observation is relevant for the differential diagnosis of patients with systemic symptoms and granulomatous diseases affecting the bone marrow, emphasizing that WD should be considered in cases of unexplained granulomatous myelitis, even when small bowel biopsy specimens are negative. PMID:15116337

Kröber, Stefan Martin; Kaiserling, Edwin; Horny, Hans-Peter; Weber, Achim



Formation of red sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of red sprites that are generated in the ionosphere at an altitude of 100 km are considered. A process that\\u000a leads to the formation of such plasma objects is proposed. It is demonstrated that sprites are generated by acoustic waves\\u000a that give rise to vortices and gas breakdown in the presence of strong gradients of gas temperature and

A. R. Aramyan; G. A. Galechyan



Religious red herrings.  


Brierley et al take big polarised political debates deep into the context of paediatric intensive care. They are concerned that 'deeply held belief in religion leads to children being potentially subjected to burdensome care'. However, it can be argued that they make a mistake in categorising this as a problem derived from religion, religious belief or the depth of religious conviction. Religion here is a red herring. PMID:22893531

Sheehan, Mark



Red giants seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.



Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE great red spot of Jupiter has puzzled astronomers since its discovery in 1857 (or since 1664 if it is identical with the feature seen by Robert Hooke). It is generally conceded to-day that Jupiter is approximately 80 per cent hydrogen by weight1-3, and the best modern evidence does not conflict with the assumption that hydrogen predominates in the atmosphere

Wendell C. Demarcus



Red Harvester Ants  

E-print Network

of red harvester ants may be necessary. Destruction of their nests and habitat through regular discing and mowing may eliminate them without resort- ing to use of insecticides. If pesticides are select- ed, use registered products selectively and care... pesticides must be registered and labeled for use by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Texas Department of Agriculture. The status of pesticide label clearances is subject to change and may have changed since this publication was printed. County...

Drees, Bastiaan M.



Haemopoietic cell proliferation in murine bone marrow cells exposed to extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields.  


As leukemia is one of the health hazards that is sometimes associated with exposure to extreme low frequency fields, we studied the in vitro effects of ELF fields on haemopoietic cell proliferation. First, the cytotoxic effect of 80 microT, 50 Hz magnetic fields on 3T3 cell proliferation was investigated using the neutral red test. Many chemicals are believed to cause damage because they interfere with basal or "housekeeping" cell functions. The basal cell functions are present in every cell. Non-specialized, actively dividing cells are suitable for measuring cytotoxic effects. Cytotoxic doses can be identified by exposing actively dividing cells in vitro and measuring growth inhibition caused by interference with these basal cell functions. 80 microT, 50 Hz magnetic fields caused no cytotoxicity: we were not able to demonstrate any interference with essential cell functions in the non-differentiated 3T3 cell line. Furthermore, the in vitro effects of ELF fields on murine haemopoietic and stromal stem cell proliferation were studied. Haemopoiesis is a continuous process, where mature blood cells are replaced by the proliferation and differentiation of more primitive progenitor and stem cells. Blood formation is tightly regulated by the stromal micro-environment. Exposure of murine bone marrow cells, from male and female mice, to 80 microT (50 Hz) magnetic fields showed a reduction in the proliferation and differentiation of the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (CFU-GM) compared to non-exposed bone marrow cells. The results on the effect of the ELF-field on stromal stem cell proliferation (CFU-f) are somewhat equivocal at the moment. CFU-f from female mice showed a reduction while CFU-f from male mice were not decreased. PMID:11566562

Van Den Heuvel, R; Leppens, H; Nêmethova, G; Verschaeve, L



Red Tide in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

Ely, Elenor; Ross, Neil W.; Island, Sea G.




The aim of this review is to present age-related changes in the bone marrow and thymus and their effects in later life. Age-related hematologic changes are marked by a decline in marrow cellularity, increased risk of myeloproliferative disorders and anemia, and a decline in adaptive immunity. The exact mechanisms that produce these changes remain undefined. For the most part, the changes in function that are a consequence of aging alone rarely have meaningful clinical consequences. However, in the face of the stresses induced by other illnesses, the decreased physiologic reserve can slow or prevent an appropriate response to the stressors. PMID:20072723



Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.  


The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica



Determination of opiates in postmortem bone and bone marrow.  


Bone and bone marrow of a fatally poisoned heroin addict were analyzed by FPIA and GC-FID, immediately after death. A piece of the bone from the above case was buried for 1 year and analyzed by the same procedure. Morphine was detected in all specimens at concentrations of 195, 340 and 155 ng/g for bone marrow, bone and buried bone, respectively. A loss of 54.4% of morphine concentration was observed during 1-year burial. Such findings have potential forensic value in cases of skeletonized remains. PMID:11728739

Raikos, N; Tsoukali, H; Njau, S N



National Marrow Donor Program and be the Match Key Messages, Facts & Figures  


... donor match for a life-saving marrow or umbilical cord blood transplant. People can be someone’s cure ... leukemia or lymphoma for which a marrow or umbilical cord blood transplant from an unrelated donor may ...


Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes  

E-print Network

Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene TZD rosiglitazone, which sensitizes cells to insulin and increases adipocyte metabolic functions

Toledo, University of


Bone marrow chimera experiments to determine the contribution of hematopoietic stem cells to cerebral angiogenesis.  


The generation of bone marrow chimera in mice is a valuable tool to study a variety of cellular processes. Donor bone marrow cells expressing reporter genes have been used to study the process of cell differentiation and the mechanisms involved in bone marrow cell recruitment. Bone marrow cells bearing genetic manipulation have been used in bone marrow chimeras to elucidate the role of molecules in different physiological and pathological settings. Since in the normal adult brain angiogenesis does not occur, models of brain injury like ischemia and tumor growth have been used to study the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the cerebral vasculature. This chapter describes the procedures to perform bone marrow transplantation in order to study the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to vascularization in an orthotopic glioma model. PMID:24510872

Machein, Marcia Regina; Plate, Karl H



Paris, December 20th 2006 To the Editor, Biology and Bone Marrow Transplantation  

E-print Network

Paris, December 20th 2006 To the Editor, Biology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Philippe Ratajczak-27Sep2007 Author manuscript, published in "Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2007 hemorrhage (IAH) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) highlights significant points

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Advancement of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research in North America: Priorities of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium  

PubMed Central

Advances in pediatric blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) are slowed by the small number of patients with a given disease transplanted, a lack of sufficient infrastructure to run early phase oncology protocols and studies of rare non-malignant disorders, and challenges associated with funding multi-institutional trials. Leadership of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC), a large pediatric BMT clinical trials network representing 77 active and 45 affiliated centers worldwide, met in April 2009 to develop strategic plans to address these issues. Key barriers including infrastructure development and funding, along with scientific initiatives in malignant and non-malignant disorders, cellular therapeutics, graft versus host disease, and supportive care were discussed. The PBMTC agenda for approaching these issues will result in infrastructure and trials specific to pediatrics that will run through the PBMTC or its partners, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network and the Children’s Oncology Group. PMID:20079865

Pulsipher, Michael A.; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Haight, Ann E.; Kadota, Richard; Chen, Allen R.; Frangoul, Haydar; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Jacobsohn, David A.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Mitchell, David; Nieder, Michael L.; Yanik, Gregory; Cowan, Morton J.; Soni, Sandeep; Gardner, Sharon; Shenoy, Shalini; Taylor, Douglas; Cairo, Mitchell; Schultz, Kirk R.



In vitro cultivation of Anaplasma marginale in bovine bone marrow cells  

E-print Network

donor animals Bone marrow cells from exsanguinated animals ~Ana I ~ai I -I f ct d a d infect d erythrocyte cultures Initiation of bone marrow cultures Slide preparation Infection of bone marrow cultures with A mar inale Iitit ~ noma I I ifetinof... cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca f ?13, 13. 7 parasi temi a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent parasitemias obtained from bone marrow cell cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca...

Baradji, Issa



Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-print Network

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

Chen, Yangjun



Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow could be a source of beneficial fatty acids. Previous studies on bone marrow from cattle and several wild ruminant species did not report on fatty acids of current importance. We hypothesize that marrow fatty acids of grass-fed cattle will contain high proportions of n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and vaccenic acid, and will vary according to bone type and

C. M. Murrieta; K. Fulton; L. Cordain


Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells  

E-print Network

Review Unique biomechanical interactions between myeloma cells and bone marrow stroma cells 17 October 2009 Keywords: Myeloma Bone marrow stroma cell Stiffness Niche a b s t r a c t We observed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 2.1. Isolation and expansion of bone marrow stroma cell

Athanasiou, Kyriacos


The function of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipocyte is the most abundant stromal cell phenotype in adult human bone marrow. Four hypotheses may explain their function. First, adipocytes may serve a passive role, simply occupying excess space in the bone marrow cavity. Second, they may play an active role in systemic lipid metabolism. Third, adipocytes may provide a localized energy reservoir in the bone marrow. Or

J. M. Gimble; C. E. Robinson; X. Wu; K. A. Kelly



Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE ROLE OF ALLOGENEIC lymphocytes in the eradi- cation of leukemia is well established. In mice, trans- plantation of allogeneic bone marrow eliminated leukemia, and transplantation of marrow from syngeneic donors failed.' Allogeneic marrow transplantation as a form of adoptive immunotherapy of leukemia was limited by the inevitable occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).' Patients with GVHD had fewer relapses than

Hans-Jochem Kolb; A. V. M. B. Schattenberg; John M. Goldman; Bernd Hertenstein; Niels Jacobsen; William Arcese; Per Ljungman; Augustin Ferrant; Leo Verdonck; Dietger Niederwieser; Frits van Rhee; J. Mittermuehler; T. J. M. de Witte; E. Holler; H. Ansari



The Alteration of 18F-FDG Uptake in Bone Marrow After Treatment With Interleukin 11.  


Diffuse increased F-FDG in the bone marrow can be seen with colony-stimulating factors. Here, we reported a case of idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance treated with interleukin 11. After administration of interleukin 11, both diffuse and focally increased FDG activity in the bone marrow were noted. The focal activity was histologically proven as hyperplastic bone marrow. PMID:25036016

Yi, Chang; Shi, Xinchong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhifeng; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiangsong




E-print Network

Defense Health Program DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BONE MARROW FAILURE RESEARCH PROGRAM FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 The Department of Defense Bone Marrow Failure Research Program (BMFRP of inherited and acquired bone marrow failure diseases. The BMFRP is providing the information in this pre

von der Heydt, Rüdiger


Damaged epithelia regenerated by bone marrow–derived cells in the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Here we show that bone marrow cells can repopulate the epithelia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Epithelial cells of male donor origin were distributed in every part of the gastrointestinal tract of female bone marrow transplant recipients. Donor-derived epithelial cells substantially repopulated

Ryuichi Okamoto; Tomoharu Yajima; Motomi Yamazaki; Takanori Kanai; Makio Mukai; Shinichiro Okamoto; Yasuo Ikeda; Toshifumi Hibi; Johji Inazawa; Mamoru Watanabe



The Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home of HSC Differentiation and Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized presence of the hematopoietic tissue within the protected confines of the bones provides clues to the regulatory interdependence of bone and marrow beyond the obvious advantage to the marrow: a well-shielded location from which it can produce an estimated 500 billion cells per day (16, 59). The bone marrow can be subdivided into a hematopoietic cell compartment and

Hans-Georg Kopp; Scott T. Avecilla; Andrea T. Hooper; Shahin Rafii



Alaska red: A general purpose, productive, red-skinned potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Alaska Red’ is the first red-skinned potato bred and selected in Alaska as a clone suitable for the fresh potato market.\\u000a Its parents are Alaska Clone 11-57-1-59 and ‘Red Beauty’. It is a high yielding, medium specific gravity potato with uniform\\u000a skin and eye basin color, shallow eyes, uniform oval-to-flattened shape and is very attractive. The flesh is snowy white

C. H. Dearborn



Bone Marrow Graft in Man after Conditioning by Antilymphocytic Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic bone marrow grafts carried out after previous administration of antilymphocytic serum alone were attempted in 16 patients. Of these, six had acute myeloblastic leukaemia, four acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and one a blast cell crisis in polycythaemia vera. Ten of these patients were in an overt phase of the disease and resistant to chemotherapy, while nine had complete agranulocytosis. In

G. Mathé; J. L. Amiel; L. Schwarzenberg; J. Choay; P. Trolard; M. Schneider; M. Hayat; J. R. Schlumberger; Cl. Jasmin



Sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow hemophagocytosis in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal disease characterized by abnormal activation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. The diagnosis of HLH can be established if there is a family history of HLH, or evidence of genetic defects, or if 5 of 8 clinicopathologic criteria are fulfilled. This case-control study aimed to examine the extent of hemophagocytosis on the bone marrow examination of patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for HLH. Hemophagocytosis in 6 bone marrow aspirates from 3 HLH patients was compared with 20 random control bone marrows. Macrophages with hemophagocytosis were counted using a Miller ocular disc in fields corresponding to 9,000 nucleated cells. Mean hemophagocytosis count in the HLH cases was estimated at 0.082% (range 0-0.31%), whereas in the controls it was 0.009% (range 0-0.04%). The sensitivity of hemophagocytosis was 83% with a specificity of only 60%. This demonstrates that rare hemophagocytosis can be seen in bone marrow aspirates from patients without a clinical diagnosis of HLH. It also shows that hemophagocytosis has too low a specificity to be a screening test for HLH. While the hemophagocytosis counts are significantly higher in HLH cases than in controls, overlap of the counts precludes using hemophagocytosis as a reliable indicator of HLH. A rise in the hemophagocytosis count threshold of 0.05-0.13% would increase the specificity to 100%. We suggest that the diagnostic scheme for HLH needs revision, and can be improved by addressing minimum hemophagocytosis count threshold. PMID:22371906

Goel, Suman; Polski, Jacek M; Imran, Hamayun



Central line practice in Canadian blood and marrow transplant.  


More than 800 blood cell and bone marrow transplants are performed annually in Canada to treat fatal cancers and rare blood disorders. Central vascular access is fundamental in blood and marrow transplant nursing to facilitate chemotherapy and blood product infusions. A tunnelled Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is the vascular access device-of-choice in the cell and marrow transplant population. Several practice guidelines direct nursing policy and procedure for CVC management and care. CVC insertion and removal guidelines are increasingly relevant given the widening scope of advanced practice nursing. Unresolved issues are noted among the most heavily cited CVC practice recommendations accessible via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A descriptive survey based on the CDC guidelines was conducted to identify potential variability in CVC strategies in Canadian blood and marrow transplant nursing. Survey results indicate nationwide differences in catheter site selection, educational strategies, dressing strategies, delegation of dressing changes, and volumes of flushing and locking solutions used to manage catheter patency. Variability in practice coincides with gaps in the evidence identified in practice recommendations. Future studies comparing specific care approaches to device-associated complications are needed to resolve issues and strengthen practice guidelines. PMID:24902424

Keeler, Melanie



Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of ?—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

Benk?, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benk?, Ilona



Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition that the experience of cancer can have a positive as well as a negative psychological impact. This longitudinal study sought to identify predictors of posttraumatic growth among cancer patients (N = 72) undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Greater posttraumatic growth in the posttransplant period was related to younger age; less education; greater use of positive reinterpretation, problem

Michelle R. Widows; Paul B. Jacobsen; Margaret Booth-Jones; Karen K. Fields



Activation-associated changes in blood and bone marrow neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated granulocytopoiesis and poly- morphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation via the complement system are important events in the inflam- matory response. This study tests the hypothesis that PMN of the peripheral blood and the bone marrow behave differently when stimulated with zymosan- activated plasma (ZAP). PMN were treated with ZAP and processed to determine the content and distribu- tion of F-actin,

Maria E. KIut; Beth A. Whalen; James C. Hogg


Systemic Mastocytosis: Bone Marrow Pathology, Classification, and Current Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mast cell disease (MCD) is characterized by the abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MC) in one or more organs. The diagnosis of systemic MCD is most commonly established by a thorough histological and immunohistochemical examination of a bone marrow (BM) trephine specimen. In cases with pathognomonic perivascular and -trabecular aggregates of morphologically atypical MC and significant BM

A. Pardanani



Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of

Tim A. Ahles; Denise M. Tope; Briane Pinkson; Susan Walch; Danette Hann; Marie Whedon; Bradley Dain; Julia E. Weiss; Letha Mills; Peter M. Silberfarb



Efficacy of Amlodipine in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium antagonist amlodipine may have the potential for expanded use in children owing to its physiochemistry and pharmacokinetic profile that facilitates once-daily dosing in a liquid formulation. Its safety and efficacy have not been previously evaluated in children. A retrospective analysis of 15 pediatric bone marrow transplant patients who had amlodipine incorporated into their antihypertensive drug regimen reveals significantly

Sohail Khattak; John W. Rogan; E. Fred Saunders; Jochen G. W. Theis; Gerald S. Arbus; Gideon Koren



Bone Marrow Transplantation for Cancer—An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of allogeneic and autologous bone mar- row transplants continues to grow worldwide. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has become standard therapy for many patients with leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and testicular cancer. Encouraging results of autologous BMT in treating patients with poor-risk breast cancer have led to this approach being tested in nationwide randomized trials. In order to increase



Regulatory T lymphocytes in bone-marrow transplantation  

E-print Network

CD4+ CD25+ Regulatory T lymphocytes in bone-marrow transplantation Olivier Joffrea,1 & Joost P be the treatment of choice to prevent graft-versus-host disease and allograft rejection in transplantation medicine T lymphocytes. It appears therefore attractive to use the same mechanism to induce transplantation-tolerance. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Varicella vaccination in children after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes zoster (HZ) is one of the most common complications after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children. Apart from treatment with antiviral drugs, effective prevention by active immunization with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) appears to be possible. In this study 15 patients were vaccinated with a live attenuated VZV vaccine (Varilrix) 12–23 months after BMT. The vaccine was well tolerated without

A Sauerbrei; J Prager; U Hengst; F Zintl; P Wutzler



Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

Cohen, Marie; And Others



Autologous bone marrow cells and ischemic cardiomyopathy Jerome Roncalli1  

E-print Network

1 Autologous bone marrow cells and ischemic cardiomyopathy Jerome Roncalli1 , MD, PhD, Patricia: Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: functional recovery and reverse of ischemic cardiomyopathy. A variety of adult stem and progenitor cells from different sources have already

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Role For Photodynamic Therapy In Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous exposure to the amphipathic fluorescent dye merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and light of a suitable wavelength rapidly kills leukemia, lymphoma, and neuroblastoma cells but spares normal pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Tests in several preclinical models and early results of a phase I clinical trial suggest that MC 540-mediated photosensitization may be useful for the extracorporeal purging of autologous remission bone marrow grafts.

Sieber, Fritz



Controlling the Bone Marrow Dynamics in Cancer Chemotherapy  

E-print Network

Controlling the Bone Marrow Dynamics in Cancer Chemotherapy Urszula Ledzewicz1 and Heinz Sch chemotherapy is analyzed. The model is formulated as an optimal control problem with control representing growing interest in developing and analyzing models for cancer chemotherapy (for instance, [4, 12, 17, 18

Ledzewicz, Urszula


Outcome following late marrow relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.

Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.



Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defects of the jaws.  


Twenty focal osteoporotic bone marrow defects of the jaws were analyzed clinically, histologically, and radiographically; the findings were compared with those from all known published cases. Radiologic and clinical criteria that are useful for making a definitive diagnosis are discussed, and five radiologic categories are proposed. PMID:3457122

Makek, M; Lello, G E



Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.



A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated from the standard and regional technique. The results showed the regional technique values correlated more closely to several clinical response parameters. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Bayouth, John Ellis


Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted PMID:23493495

Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Maslinski, Wlodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Warczynska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida



Late pulmonary sequelae after childhood bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Respiratory function in transplanted children is important because of the long life expectancy of bone marrow transplant recipients, particularly children. Attention is now being focused on the late sequelae of treatment on organ system function. A few papers have been published but available data are somewhat conflicting.?METHODS—A cross sectional study aimed at evaluating the late effects of transplantation on lung function was performed in a group of 52 young patients who were given autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplants during childhood for haematological malignancies.?RESULTS—No patients reported chronic respiratory symptoms. The distribution of respiratory function patterns showed that only 62% of patients had respiratory function within the normal limits; 23% had a restrictive pattern and 15% had isolated transfer factor impairment. The percentage of patients with lung function abnormalities was higher in those who (1) received a bone marrow transplant after two or three complete remissions compared with those who were transplanted immediately after the first remission (54% vs 21%; p<0.02), (2) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation rather than an autologous transplantation (45% vs 26%; p = 0.06), and (3) had a pulmonary infection compared with those without (56% vs 26%; p = 0.07).?CONCLUSIONS—In spite of the absence of chronic respiratory symptoms there is a high prevalence of children with late pulmonary sequelae after bone marrow transplantation. Regular testing is recommended after transplantation, in particular in subjects at higher risk of lung injuries, such as those receiving transplants after more than one remission, those receiving allogeneic transplants, and those having suffered from pulmonary infections. When lung function abnormalities become apparent, long term follow up is necessary to see whether they become clinically relevant. All patients should remain non-smokers after transplantation and should have active early and aggressive treatment for respiratory illnesses.?? PMID:10325917

Cerveri, I.; Zoia, M.; Fulgoni, P.; Corsico, A.; Casali, L.; Tinelli, C.; Zecca, M.; Giorgiani, G.; Locatelli, F.



Safety of bone marrow stem cell donation: a review.  


Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the first choice of treatment or an important therapeutic option for several diseases, but it is still marked by morbidity and mortality. In contrast, the donation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is considered to be a safe procedure. The invaluable ethical source of donation and its central role in transplantation implies that the greatest attention be due to the donor and to the donation process through a serious monitoring protocol for donor safety. Both the Joint Accreditation Committee and the European Committee pay particular attention to the notification of adverse events and adverse reactions. Bone marrow donation is a well established procedure, that has now been performed for >30 years. Although it does not require drug administration, there is hospital admission for 1-3 days with 7-10 days off work. The main risk is related to the anesthesia. Pain in the aspiration area, together with astenia are considered to be the most frequent side effects, as shown by the USA National Marrow Donor Program experience in 1,193 donations. In the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation analysis performed between 1993 and 2005 on 27,770 first HSCTs from bone marrow, only 1 fatal event (pulmonary embolism) and 12 serious adverse events were observed. The most frequent adverse events were cardiac. The incidence of adverse events was significantly lower (P < .05) compared with peripheral blood HSC donors, which confirms the necessity of accurate attention to donor selection and evaluation in bone marrow donation. PMID:20692441

Bosi, A; Bartolozzi, B



Red - Take a Closer Look  

PubMed Central

Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha



Improved Functional Activity of Bone Marrow Derived Circulating Progenitor Cells After Intra Coronary Freshly Isolated Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  There is growing evidence that intracoronary autologous bone marrow cells transplantation (BMCs-Tx) in patients with chronic\\u000a myocardial infarction beneficially affects postinfarction remodelling. In this randomized controlled study we analyzed the\\u000a influence of intracoronary autologous freshly isolated bone marrow cells transplantation by use of point of care system on\\u000a cardiac function and on the functional activity of bone marrow derived circulating

R. Goekmen Turan; I. Bozdag-T; J. Ortak; S. Kische; I. Akin; H. Schneider; C. H. Turan; T. C. Rehders; M. Rauchhaus; T. Kleinfeldt; C. Belu; M. Brehm; S. Yokus; S. Steiner; K. Sahin; C. A. Nienaber; H. Ince



Rescue of interferon induced bone marrow aplasia in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia by allogeneic bone marrow transplant.  


A patient with chronic phase Philadelphia chromosome positive CML, developed severe protracted bone marrow hypoplasia after interferon therapy. This complication did not respond to two courses of immunosuppressive therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin, cyclosporin A and prednisone. The patient continued to be transfusion dependent with persistence of Philadelphia chromosome. Allogeneic BMT restored normal hematopoeisis. PMID:15061216

Alabdulaaly, A; Rifkind, J; Solow, H; Messner, H A; Lipton, J H


241 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H  

E-print Network Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

Li, Tiejun


CNTO 530 functions as a potent EPO mimetic via unique sustained effects on bone marrow proerythroblast pools  

PubMed Central

Anemia as associated with numerous clinical conditions can be debilitating, but frequently can be treated via administration of epoetin-alfa, darbepoietin-alfa, or methoxy-PEG epoetin-beta. Despite the complexity of EPO-EPO receptor interactions, the development of interesting EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) also has been possible. CNTO 530 is one such novel MIMETIBODY Fc-domain dimeric EMP fusion protein. In a mouse model, single-dose CNTO 530 (unlike epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa) bolstered red cell production for up to 1 month. In 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin-paclitaxel models, CNTO 530 also protected against anemia with unique efficiency. These actions were not fully accounted for by half-life estimates, and CNTO 530 signaling events therefore were studied. Within primary bone marrow erythroblasts, kinetics of STAT5, ERK, and AKT activation were similar for CNTO 530 and epoetin-alfa. p70S6K activation by CNTO 530, however, was selectively sustained. In vivo, CNTO 530 uniquely stimulated the enhanced formation of PODXLhighCD71high (pro)erythroblasts at frequencies multifold above epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa. CNTO 530 moreover supported the sustained expansion of a bone marrow–resident KitnegCD71highTer119neg progenitor pool. Based on these distinct erythropoietic and EPOR signaling properties, CNTO 530 holds excellent promise as a new EPO mimetic. PMID:19264917

Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Houde, Estelle; Marshall, Deborah; Volk, Amy; Makropoulos, Dorie; Emerson, Christine; Pradeep, Anamika; Bugelski, Peter J.



Aplastic anemia: presence in human bone marrow of cells that suppress myelopoiesis.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow from a patient with aplastic anemia was shown by multiple criteria to have a block in early myeloid differentiation. This block was overcome in vitro by elimination of marrow lymphocytes. Furthermore, this differentiation block was transferred in vitro to normal marrow by coculturing with the patient's marrow. We suggest that some cases of aplastic anemia may be due to an immunologically based suppression of marrow cell differentiation rather than to a defect in stem cells or their necessary inductive environment. Images PMID:1085449

Kagan, W A; Ascensao, J A; Pahwa, R N; Hansen, J A; Goldstein, G; Valera, E B; Incefy, G S; Moore, M A; Good, R A



Niemann-Pick disease: sixteen-year follow-up of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a type B variant.  


Allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was carried out on a 3-year-old white caucasian girl with Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B. The donor was her unaffected brother. The patient was neurologically normal at the time of transplantation. Engraftment was based on cytogenetic studies and increased leukocyte acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. However, liver biopsies taken up to 33 months post transplantation showed only a moderate reduction in stored sphingomyelin and no significant increase in ASM activity. The post-transplantation period was complicated by severe graft-versus-host disease and a respiratory arrest. By 6 years of age, neurological involvement was observed, including bilateral cherry red spots. The proband is now severely mentally and physically disabled. Liver cirrhosis has continued to progress despite the BMT, and haematemesis due to portal hypertension occurred at 17 years of age. However, pulmonary infiltration regressed after BMT and there has been no clinical evidence of pulmonary insufficiency. PMID:14739682

Victor, S; Coulter, J B S; Besley, G T N; Ellis, I; Desnick, R J; Schuchman, E H; Vellodi, A



2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world  

E-print Network

2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world Date: October 26 (Friday) 2012 09, USA (PhD) Theodore J. Smayda Editor-in- chief, Harmful Algae Sandra E. Shumway Editor-in- chief, Harmful Algae Professor University of Rhode Island, USA University of Oslo, Norway (PhD) Professor

Jeong, Hae Jin


Cutaneous mast cell maturation does not depend on an intact bone marrow microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine whether the maturation of murine cutaneous mast cells from stem cells depends on an intact bone marrow microenvironment. Normal bone marrow cells (+/+) were infused into 2 groups of mast cell-deficient mice: WBB6F1-W/Wv mice and /sup 89/Sr-pretreated W/Wv mice. /sup 89/Sr is a long-lived bone-seeking radioisotope which provides continuous irradiation of the marrow and thereby ablates the marrow microenvironment. Skin biopsies revealed that the /sup 89/Sr-pretreated mice and the controls had repopulated their skin with mast cells equally well. Natural killer cell function was significantly depressed in the /sup 89/Sr-treated mice, confirming that the marrow microenvironment had been functionally altered. It appears that, although the precursors for cutaneous mast cells are marrow derived, they do not need an intact marrow microenvironment for maturation.

Charley, M.R.; Mikhael, A.; Sontheimer, R.D.; Gilliam, J.N.; Bennett, M.



Magna-field irradiation and autologous marrow rescue in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors  

SciTech Connect

Marrow ablative therapy has been given to pediatric patients with a variety of disseminated tumors. Eight patients with advanced neuroblastoma received autologous marrow reinfusion after intensive therapy. Three of eight are in continuous complete remission from 7 to 60 months. An additional four patients received allogeneic marrow transplantation and two remain in continuous complete response at 21 and 39 months. Intensive therapy and autologous marrow reinfusion have been applied to Ewing's sarcoma, but only preliminary results are available. Six patients with disseminated rhabdomyosarcoma and extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma received conventional chemotherapy followed by sequential hemi-body irradiation. Four of six patients received autologous marrow rescue. Their median disease-free survival is 17 months. This preliminary experience demonstrates the feasibility of using marrow ablative therapy with autologous marrow transplantation in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors. Continuing Phase II studies are required to substantiate its efficacy.

Munoz, L.L.; Wharam, M.D.; Kaizer, H.; Leventhal, B.G.; Ruymann, R.



Increased Differentiation Capacity of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aquaporin-5 Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5?/? mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5+/+ mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5?/? and AQP5+/+ mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPAR?2, C/EBP?, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5?/? -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5?/? BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5?/? mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5+/+ than AQP5?/? BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao



Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.  


In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong



Ambiguous Red Shifts  

E-print Network

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

Carl E. Wulfman



Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)



Red microchip VECSEL array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

Hastie, Jennifer E.; Morton, Lynne G.; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D.; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.



Red microchip VECSEL array.  


We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array. PMID:19498743

Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles



Red flag for plants.  


According to the World Conservation Unit Red List of Threatened Plants, 12.5% or 34,000 of the plant species are at risk of extinction. This comprehensive scientific assessment revealed that of the 270,000 known species, 33,789 are at risk of disappearing, with 91% of these plants found in a single country. These include plants known to have medicinal value and those that provide valuable timber. The loss of each species results in less access to critical genetic material that contributes to producing harder and healthier crops for human and animal consumption. Despite this comprehensive assessment, the 12.5% figure is a conservative estimate, with species included in the research being only vascular plants. To conserve the plant species, this article emphasizes the need for more interactions between governments, scientific institutions, botanical gardens, and conservation organizations. PMID:12295949

Brackett, D



Extremely red radio galaxies  

E-print Network

At least half the radio galaxies at z>1 in the 7C Redshift Survey have extremely red colours (R-K>5), consistent with stellar populations which formed at high redshift (z>5). We discuss the implications of this for the evolution of massive galaxies in general and for the fraction of near-IR-selected EROs which host AGN, a result which is now being tested by deep, hard X-ray surveys. The conclusion is that many massive galaxies undergo at least two active phases: one at z~5 when the black hole and stellar bulge formed and another at z~1-2 when activity is triggered by an event such as an interaction or merger.

Chris J. Willott; Steve Rawlings; Katherine M. Blundell



The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. METHODS: To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow.

Fahir Ozkalemkas; R?dvan Ali; Vildan Ozkocaman; Tulay Ozcelik; Ulku Ozan; Hulya Ozturk; Ender Kurt; Turkkan Evrensel; Omer Yerci; Ahmet Tunali



Effects of a hybrid micro/nanorod topography-modified titanium implant on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin ?1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. Results The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. Conclusion This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo. PMID:23345973

Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Zihui; Huang, Qingfeng; Xu, Ling; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Yuqin; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan



Maintenance of red blood cell integrity by AMP-activated protein kinase alpha1 catalytic subunit.  


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. We previously showed that AMPKalpha1-/- mice develop moderate anemia associated with splenomegaly and high reticulocytosis. Here, we report that splenectomy of AMPKalpha1-/- mice worsened anemia supporting evidence that AMPKalpha1-/- mice developed a compensatory response through extramedullary erythropoiesis in the spleen. Transplantation of bone marrow from AMPKalpha1-/- mice into wild-type recipients recapitulated the hematologic phenotype. Further, AMPKalpha1-/- red blood cells (RBC) showed less deformability in response to shear stress limiting their membrane flexibility. Thus, our results highlight the crucial role of AMPK to preserve RBC integrity. PMID:20670625

Foretz, Marc; Guihard, Soizic; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Fauveau, Véronique; Couty, Jean-Pierre; Andris, Fabienne; Gaudry, Murielle; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoit



High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient. PMID:23585968

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.



Tide pushing shellfishers into red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

Hampson, Rick; Today, Usa


Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL  

E-print Network

/Gates Residence Hall or Talkington Hall lots. Today's events · Rec center, residence halls, Student Wellness Advising Important one-on-one time for student and advisor Useful events to build your knowledge as a resource for your student #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Dismissal to Academic Colleges #12;RED RAIDER

Rock, Chris


Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group Squirrelpox  

E-print Network

Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group SSG Report 1st March 2012 Squirrelpox Sero-positive grey squirrels. Concerns are also rising that there may be outbreaks of pox in red squirrel populations which have gone/ pox testing efforts. Grey Squirrel Control Several local communities have successfully accessed


A computer-based reporting system for bone marrow evaluation.  


A computerized system of reporting results of bone marrow examination has been implemented at The University of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, since 1975. All results are entered via the keyboard of cathode-ray tube (CRT) consoles and are instantly available to the attending physician in CRTs strategically located throughout the institution in patient-related areas. Differential counts are available within two to three hours after aspiration. Description of clot sections and smear, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis are completed within 24 hours. Permanent reports are also printed by the computer at regular intervals during the day. The physician can ask the computer for results on a given day or for a cumulative summary displayed in tabular or plot form. This system has proven efficient and rapid, not only for direct reporting of bone marrow examination results but also for storage and retrieval of patient information. PMID:637046

Youness, E; Drewinko, B



Cytogenetic effects of benzimidazoles in mouse bone marrow.  


The cytogenetic effects of three benzimidazoles, i.e., benomyl, methyl thiophanate and methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC), were studied in mouse bone marrow cells by analyzing three genetic endpoints: micronuclei, structural chromosome aberrations plus or minus gaps, and aneugenic effects (hyperdiploidy or polyploidy). In general, the effects were small, but it was observed that benomyl and MBC significantly induced micronuclei as well as aneugenic effects, hyperdiploidy (no metaphases with more than one or two extra chromosomes, 2n + 1 or 2n + 2, were observed) and polyploidy (4n). The induction of chromosome gaps and breaks was less evident. Methyl thiophanate significantly induced micronuclei, but it was less effective than benomyl and MBC. Our results showed that micronuclei are a good indicator of aneugenic effects in mouse bone marrow cells. A curvilinear trend test has been devised to fit the curves originating from the time-dependent responses. PMID:7683764

Barale, R; Scapoli, C; Meli, C; Casini, D; Minunni, M; Marrazzini, A; Loprieno, N; Barrai, I



Enzyme histochemical analysis on cryostat sections of human bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

A recently developed procedure, that has been shown to be suitable for detailed immunohistological analysis, has been used to prepare cryostat sections of bone marrow to investigate whether enzyme-histochemical techniques are also feasible on such material. A selected group of enzymes, some of which are inhibited or destroyed in paraffin- or plastic-embedded samples, have been demonstrated. The morphological details obtained were satisfactory in the preparations. The enzymes were dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (for T lymphocytes); tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (for hairy cell leukaemia); acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase (for macrophages and monocytes); ATPase and 5'nucleotidase (for B lymphocytes); and peroxidase or chloroacetate esterase (for granulocytic cells). In these preparations strong enzyme activities were shown. In adjacent sections the immunological analysis of membrane markers could also be performed contributing to a comprehensive study of the normal and malignant bone marrow cells. Images PMID:7142430

Chilosi, M; Pizzolo, G; Janossy, G; Bofill, M; Fiore-Donati, L



Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and tissue stem cells (TSCs) to generate functional ? cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM. PMID:23671865

Li, Ming; Ikehara, Susumu



Erythropoietin resistance as a result of oxalosis in bone marrow.  


Anemia is an important cause of morbidity in patients suffering from chronic renal failure, and erythropoietin is a milestone of anemia treatment. Various factors may cause erythropoietin resistance. Herein, we describe the case of 32-year-old man who presented with anemia and weakness. He developed progressive renal failure secondary to recurrent kidney stones. One year before admission, he developed anemia for which he had been treated with erythropoietin. However, the anemia persisted. Examination of bone marrow biopsy specimen showed that the marrow was extensively replaced with oxalate crystals and fibrous connective tissue with severe decrease of hematopoietic cells. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the first case in the literature describing the association between the oxalate deposition and EPO resistance. PMID:15909602

Sahin, G; Acikalin, M F; Yalcin, A U



Expect the unexpected: unusual neurological presentation of bone marrow sarcoidosis.  


Bone marrow granulomas are rare and, when they occur, sarcoidosis is an uncommon etiology. This report describes a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a five-month history of bilateral lower limb paresis. His paresis was associated with urinary and fecal incontinence and impotence, but without any loss of sensations. Head, chest, abdominal, and pelvic CT scans and MRI images, and a full-body Gallium 67 scan were all within normal limits. A CT-guided biopsy of the L1-L2 vertebral bodies showed non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level was elevated. A diagnosis of bone marrow sarcoidosis was made after other differential diagnoses were excluded. PMID:24751456

Alahdab, Fares



Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages accumulate in the human bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites requires formation and development of gametocytes, yet all but the most mature of these sexual parasite forms are absent from the blood circulation. We performed a systematic organ survey in pediatric cases of fatal malaria to characterize the spatial dynamics of gametocyte development in the human host. Histological studies revealed a niche in the extravascular space of the human bone marrow where gametocytes formed in erythroid precursor cells and underwent development before reentering the circulation. Accumulation of gametocytes in the hematopoietic system of human bone marrow did not rely on cytoadherence to the vasculature as does sequestration of asexual-stage parasites. This suggests a different mechanism for the sequestration of gametocytes that could potentially be exploited to block malaria transmission. PMID:25009232

Joice, Regina; Nilsson, Sandra K.; Montgomery, Jacqui; Dankwa, Selasi; Egan, Elizabeth; Morahan, Belinda; Seydel, Karl B.; Bertuccini, Lucia; Alano, Pietro; Williamson, Kim C.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Taylor, Terrie E.; Milner, Danny A.; Marti, Matthias



Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.



Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi



Giant eosinophil colonies from cultures of bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To date, the small size and slow growth of eosinophil colonies in vitro has hampered study of cloned eosinophils. We found\\u000a enhanced eosinophil colony size and numbers in methylcellulose cultures of bone marrow cells utilizing defined supplemented\\u000a bovine calf serum (DSBCS) in combination with EL4 conditioned medium (EL4-CM). At days 9, 16 and 23 significantly more eosinophil\\u000a colonies and more

J. H. Butterfield; D. Weiler



Bone marrow–derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that transplantation of adult bone marrow–derived cells expressing c-kit reduces hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced pancreatic damage. Although quantitative analysis of the pancreas revealed a low frequency of donor insulin-positive cells, these cells were not present at the onset of blood glucose reduction. Instead, the majority of transplanted cells were localized to ductal and islet structures, and their

David Hess; Li Li; Matthew Martin; Seiji Sakano; David Hill; Brenda Strutt; Sandra Thyssen; Douglas A Gray; Mickie Bhatia



Thymopoietic and bone marrow response to murine Pneumocystis pneumonia.  


CD4(+) T cells play a key role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection. To define the role of naïve CD4(+) T cell production through the thymopoietic response in host defense against Pneumocystis infection, Pneumocystis murina infection in the lung was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice with and without prior thymectomy. Pneumocystis infection caused a significant increase in the number of CCR9(+) multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation, an increase in populations of earliest thymic progenitors (ETPs) and double negative (DN) thymocytes in the thymus, and recruitment of naïve and total CD4(+) T cells into the alveolar space. The level of murine signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (msjTRECs) in spleen CD4(+) cells was increased at 5 weeks post-Pneumocystis infection. In thymectomized mice, the numbers of naïve, central memory, and total CD4(+) T cells in all tissues examined were markedly reduced following Pneumocystis infection. This deficiency of naïve and central memory CD4(+) T cells was associated with delayed pulmonary clearance of Pneumocystis. Extracts of Pneumocystis resulted in an increase in the number of CCR9(+) MPPs in the cultured bone marrow cells. Stimulation of cultured bone marrow cells with ligands to Toll-like receptor 2 ([TLR-2] zymosan) and TLR-9 (ODN M362) each caused a similar increase in CCR9(+) MPP cells via activation of the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. These results demonstrate that enhanced production of naïve CD4(+) T lymphocytes through the thymopoietic response and enhanced delivery of lymphopoietic precursors from the bone marrow play an important role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection. PMID:21343353

Shi, Xin; Zhang, Ping; Sempowski, Gregory D; Shellito, Judd E



Combining erythropoeitin and bone marrow stromal cell therapy after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Erythropoietin (EPO) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve outcome after stroke. EPO may improve\\u000a outcome after stroke through its actions on blood progenitor cells, angiogenesis, or direct action in the CNS. BMSCs may improve\\u000a outcome after stroke by regeneration, altering plasticity of viable cells, or prevention of cell death. Sorting out these\\u000a potential modes

Laura J. Arias; Shaoyi Chen; Bingren Hu; Thomas J. Sick



Thymopoietic and Bone Marrow Response to Murine Pneumocystis Pneumonia?  

PubMed Central

CD4+ T cells play a key role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection. To define the role of naïve CD4+ T cell production through the thymopoietic response in host defense against Pneumocystis infection, Pneumocystis murina infection in the lung was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice with and without prior thymectomy. Pneumocystis infection caused a significant increase in the number of CCR9+ multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation, an increase in populations of earliest thymic progenitors (ETPs) and double negative (DN) thymocytes in the thymus, and recruitment of naïve and total CD4+ T cells into the alveolar space. The level of murine signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (msjTRECs) in spleen CD4+ cells was increased at 5 weeks post-Pneumocystis infection. In thymectomized mice, the numbers of naïve, central memory, and total CD4+ T cells in all tissues examined were markedly reduced following Pneumocystis infection. This deficiency of naïve and central memory CD4+ T cells was associated with delayed pulmonary clearance of Pneumocystis. Extracts of Pneumocystis resulted in an increase in the number of CCR9+ MPPs in the cultured bone marrow cells. Stimulation of cultured bone marrow cells with ligands to Toll-like receptor 2 ([TLR-2] zymosan) and TLR-9 (ODN M362) each caused a similar increase in CCR9+ MPP cells via activation of the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. These results demonstrate that enhanced production of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes through the thymopoietic response and enhanced delivery of lymphopoietic precursors from the bone marrow play an important role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection. PMID:21343353

Shi, Xin; Zhang, Ping; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Shellito, Judd E.



Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than

A. Baranov; R. P. Gale; A. Guskova; E. Piatkin; G. Selidovkin; L. Muravyova; R. E. Champlin; N. Danilova; L. Yevseeva; L. Petrosyan



Isolated intraspinal relapse of neuroblastoma after autologous bone marrow transplantation.  


Neuroblastoma may present with spinal cord compression due to dumbbell extension of thoracic or abdominal disease. Isolated intraspinal involvement as the sole site of relapse is rare. Two infants with poor-prognosis stage IV neuroblastoma presented early after high-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplant with isolated spinal relapse heralded by misleading symptoms. The rarity of such isolated relapses is reviewed, and an etiologic hypothesis is proposed. PMID:7947018

Frappaz, D; Bouffet, E; Thiesse, P; Mottolese, C; Artiges, V; Grabois, M; Combaret, V; Desuzinges, C; Favrot, M; Brunat Mentigny, M



Patient reports of complications of bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, significant improvements have been made in the management of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and other\\u000a potentially life-threatening complications of ablative chemotherapy. While these complications are of particular concern to\\u000a physicians, patients receiving ablative therapy for bone marrow or blood stem cell transplants are often troubled by other\\u000a side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and mouth sores. The

L. A. Bellm; J. B. Epstein; A. Rose-Ped; P. Martin; H. J Fuchs



Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases  

PubMed Central

Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua



T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.



Breast Cancer Studies Raise Doubts Over Bone Marrow Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 15, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released long-awaited preliminary results of five studies on bone marrow transplants for women with advanced breast cancer. Considered a last resort, the painful and costly procedure involves ultrahigh doses of chemotherapy which destroy the patient's bone marrow which must then be replaced by a transplant or marrow-restoring stem cells. Four of the five studies found no difference in survival rates of patients who had high-dose chemotherapy with transplants, and those who had lower doses of chemotherapy. The fifth study, from South Africa, did find a benefit for women with positive lymph nodes. Critics of the transplant therapy argue that the studies show thousands of women have needlessly undergone excruciating and expensive procedures. However, because the five studies are so different, attacking tumors in different ways and involving women in different stages of breast cancer, the NCI and others have asserted that this is far from the last word on the subject, and the NCI has plans to fund fifteen additional studies. The sites listed provide information about breast cancer treatments.

De Nie, Michael W.



Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases.  


Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua



Mobilised bone marrow-derived cells accelerate wound healing.  


Massive skin defects caused by severe burn and trauma are a clinical challenge to surgeons. Timely and effective wound closure is often hindered by the lack of skin donor site. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to 'differentiate' into multiple tissue cells. In this study we focused on the direct manipulation of endogenous BMDCs, avoiding the immunocompatibility issues and complicated cell isolation, purification, identification and amplification procedures in vitro on wound repair. We found that mobilisation of the BMDCs into the circulation significantly increased the amount of BMDCs at the injury site which in turn accelerated healing of large open wound. We used a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model to track BMDCs and to investigate their role in full-thickness skin excisional wounds. We have shown that bone marrow mobilisation by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) exerted multiple beneficial effects on skin repair, both by increasing the engraftment of BMDCs into the skin to differentiate into multiple skin cell types and by upregulating essential cytokine mRNAs critical to wound repair. The potential trophic effects of G-CSF on bone marrow stem cells to accelerate wound healing could have a significant clinical impact. PMID:22734442

Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Shi-Zhao; Han, Shu; Xia, Zhao-Fan



Red Marks the Spot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the image.

JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.



Primary splenic histiocytic sarcoma complicated with prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia and secondary bone marrow involvement: a unique surgical case presenting with splenomegaly but non-nodular lesions  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 67-year-old Japanese female was followed up due to prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia with non-response to steroid therapy for 4?years, but recent progressive pancytopenia, hypo-albuminemia, and hypo-?-globulinemia were presented. An abdominal CT scan revealed heterogeneously enhanced splenomegaly without any nodular lesions. A splenectomy was performed, and gross examination showed markedly hyperemic red pulp, weighing 760?g, accompanied by multiple foci of peripheral anemic infarction. Surprisingly, microscopic findings exhibited a diffuse proliferation of medium-sized to large tumor cells having pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly within the sinuses and cords of the red pulp, which occasionally displayed conspicuous hemophagocytosis and vascular permeation. In immunohistochemistry, these atypical cells were specifically positive for CD68 (KP-1), CD163, and lysozyme, which was consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of the spleen. Subsequently, section from the aspiration of bone marrow showed infiltration of the neoplastic cells associated with erythrophagocytosis 2?months after the operation, but never before it. Therefore, primary splenic HS presenting with secondary bone marrow involvement was conclusively diagnosed. Since early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the HS patients with poor outcomes, splenic HS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases with chronic thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: PMID:23075171



How red is the red autumn leaf herring and did it lose its red color?  

PubMed Central

The term “red herring” is commonly used to oppose a proposed hypothesis considered a logical fallacy. Pointing to problems in hypotheses is essential to science, and the use of the title red herring stimulates people to think. However, some hypotheses are later proven to be true, losing their red herring status. Others remain with the red herring tag.   A very famous and currently broadly accepted (sometimes with specific reservations) evolutionary signaling hypothesis that faced a very strong opposition was Zahavi's “handicap principle.”1 One of the most significant scientists in theoretical ecology and evolution, the late John Maynard Smith strongly opposed it,2 and only with the passing years gradually accepted it.3 Only 15 y later, when a mathematical solution for the problem was demonstrated,4 its status was changed. The case of Zahavi's handicap principle is an important lesson that the herring may not always be so red, but rather pink. PMID:22112457

Holopainen, Jarmo K.



Red or uncomfortable eye.  

PubMed Central

1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.



Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.  


In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela




E-print Network

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN 2006­2011 #12;#12;S C O T T I S H R E D S Q U I R R E L A C T I O.1 Background 1 1.2 Action Plan Working Group 1 1.3 Issues affecting the conservation of the red squirrel 1 1.2 Timescale and partnership working 3 2.3 Rationale 3 2.4 Key actions 4 2.4.1 Establish and monitor the red


An assay for serum cytotoxicity against erythroid precursor cells in pure red cell aplasia.  


Several reports have indicated that a circulating serum inhibitor (antibody) is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). In the present study, the pathophysiologic significance of this inhibitor was assessed according to the status of erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. So far, direct proof for the antibody acting against erythroid stemcells was lacking. Employing an "in vitro" assay, erythroid colony forming cell (CFU-e) numbers in PRCA marrow were quantified and the cytotoxic effect of PRCA serum on CFU-e was investigated. It was revealed that the CFU-e population size in the marrow of PRCA patients was severely reduced; at the same time the relative number of myeloid colony forming cells was normal. The serum was demonstrated to contain a factor cell which was cytotoxic to CFU-e, in the presence of complement. The results indicate that inhibition of erythropoiesis in PRCA is achieved by a complement dependent plasma factor which eliminates or inactivates CFU-e and which constitutes an effective block at the precursor cell level in the differentiation pathway of the erythroid line. The data present a practical assay for measuring cytotoxic factors affecting erythroid stem cells. PMID:597564

Löwenberg, B; Ghio, R



Zebrafish ETV7 regulates red blood cell development through the cholesterol synthesis pathway.  


ETV7 is a human oncoprotein that cooperates with E?-MYC to promote pre-B-cell leukemia in mice. It is normally expressed in the bone marrow and fetal liver and is upregulated in primary leukemia, suggesting that it is involved in proper hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. ETV7 has been deleted in most rodents, but is conserved in all other vertebrates, including the zebrafish, Danio rerio. In this report, we characterize the function of the zebrafish etv7 gene during erythropoiesis. Our results demonstrate that etv7 regulates the expression of the zebrafish lanosterol synthase (lss) gene, an essential gene in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Furthermore, morpholino knockdown of etv7 leads to loss of hemoglobin-containing red blood cells, a phenotype that can be rescued by injection of exogenous cholesterol. We conclude that etv7 is essential for normal red blood cell development through regulation of the lss gene and the cholesterol synthesis pathway. PMID:24357328

Quintana, Anita M; Picchione, Fabrizio; Klein Geltink, Ramon I; Taylor, Michael R; Grosveld, Gerard C



{delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C., catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)



A Novel Murine Elastase Saccular Aneurysm Model for Studying Bone Marrow Progenitor-Derived Cell-Mediated Processes in Aneurysm Formation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although there are several large-species animal models for saccular aneurysms, there is a need for a simple, reproducible saccular aneurysm model in mice. OBJECTIVE To develop a murine saccular aneurysm model, which replicates key characteristics that occur in the formation of human cerebral aneurysms. METHODS Elastase is applied extravascularly to the right common carotid artery. We induced saccular aneurysm formation by our method in C57BL/6 mice (n = 30). Aneurysms and control arteries (left common carotid arteries) were harvested at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks postinjury (n = 10 for each time point), measured, and stained for elastin content. To demonstrate BMP-derived cell recruitment to the aneurysms, bone marrow from UBC-gfp transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated C57BL/6 recipients to create C57BL/6.gfp chimeras. Additionally, bone marrow from DsRed transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated C57BL/6 recipients to create C57BL/6.DsRed chimeras, and bone marrow from B5/EGFP transgenic mice was transplanted into irradiated FVB recipients to create FVB.gfp chimeras. The elastase injury or sham operations were performed in the C57BL/6.gfp, C57BL/6.DsRed, and FVB.gfp chimeras. Aneurysms and sham vessels were harvested at 3 weeks and examined for BMP-derived cell recruitment. Additionally, aneurysms were stained for matrix metalloproteinase-9, which is overexpressed in human cerebral aneurysm tissue. RESULTS Aneurysms consistently demonstrated significant loss of elastin in the vessel wall and had significantly larger diameters than control vessels (591 ± 238 µm vs 328 ± 61µm; P = .003 for aneurysms 3 weeks postinjury). Aneurysms from C57BL/6.gfp, FVB.gfp, and C57BL/6.DsRed chimeras consistently revealed significant BMP-derived cell recruitment in the aneurysm wall that was not seen in sham-operated vessels nor in control left common carotid arteries. Aneurysms demonstrated overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. CONCLUSION We describe a novel murine elastase saccular aneurysm model that replicates the histopathology and BMP-derived cell–mediated processes that will be a valuable instrument for studying the cell-mediated processes in cerebral aneurysm formation. PMID:20173550

Hoh, Brian L.; Velat, Gregory J.; Wilmer, Erin N.; Hosaka, Koji; Fisher, Robert C.; Scott, Edward W.



Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher



Treatment of hairy-cell leukemia with chemoradiotherapy and identical-twin bone-marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with progressive hairy-cell leukemia and a normal genetically identical twin presented an opportunity to determine the sensitivity of this disease to high-dose alkylating-agent chemotherapy and total-body irradiation, since the marrow aplasia induced could potentially be overcome by reconstitution with normal marrow stem cells from the twin. After such therapy the patient rapidly recovered normal marrow function with no

Martin A. Cheever; Alexander Fefer; Philip D. Greenberg; Frederick Appelbaum; James O. Armitage; C. Dean Buckner; G. E. Sale; Rainer Storb; Robert P. Witherspoon; E. Donnall Thomas



Treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type B by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  


Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was carried out on a 3 year old girl with Niemann-Pick disease type B. Successful engraftment was achieved, and nine months after the procedure there was definite clearing of the sphingomyelin from the liver and pronounced clearing from the bone marrow. Any patient with Niemann-Pick disease type B complicated by early or severe hepatic impairment should be considered for bone marrow transplantation. PMID:3121020

Vellodi, A; Hobbs, J R; O'Donnell, N M; Coulter, B S; Hugh-Jones, K



Role of immobilization of irradiated rats in the protective effect of bone marrow shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were exposed to X-radiation to study the influence of immobilization and shielding of part of bone marrow during exposure on survival. It is concluded that (1) the beneficial effect of the stress factor (created by the immobilization of rats during exposure) can aggregate with the effect of bone marrow shielding and, under certain conditions, imitate the latter; and (2) the probability of the protective effect of immobilization should be taken into account when assessing the influence of bone marrow shielding.

Gronskaya, N. F.; Strelin, G. S.



Reduced Osteoclastogenesis and RANKL Expression in Marrow from Women Taking Alendronate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alendronate (AL) is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about the effects\\u000a of AL administration on osteoclast differentiation from human marrow progenitor cells. We used marrow discarded during orthopedic\\u000a surgery to test the hypothesis that cultures of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs) from subjects receiving AL (+AL) may\\u000a differ from control subjects with

Behnam EslamiShuanhu; Shuanhu Zhou; Inge Van Eekeren; Meryl S. LeBoff; Julie Glowacki



Stem cell component therapy: supplementation of unmanipulated marrow with CD34 enriched peripheral blood stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven patients with hematologic malignancies and two with aplastic anemia were treated using unmanipulated marrow and immunoselected CD34+ blood cells. Donors began G-CSF (10 ?g\\/kg) injections 1 day after undergoing bone marrow harvest. Blood stem cells were collected on day 5 of G-CSF. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were depleted via CD34-positive selection. If, after marrow and blood harvest, less than 2.0

RK Burt; TM Kuzel; M Fishman; M Brush; M Villa; C Welles; S Rosen; AE Traynor



Positive indium-III bone marrow scan in metastatic breast carcinoma. Case report  

SciTech Connect

Indium is generally presumed to localize in the bone marrow within the erythroid cell line. Fibrosis, inflammation, lymphoma, extended field radiation, chemotherapy, or combinations of both treatment modalities generally depress the uptake of indium by the marrow in a complex fashion. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma and pancytopenia in which the In-111 scan appeared qualitatively similar to a Tc-99m MDP bone scan. Findings were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy.

LaManna, M.M.; Hyzinski, M.; Swami, V.K.; Parker, J.A.



Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma



Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set

Karen L. Masters; Moein Mosleh; A. Kathy Romer; Robert C. Nichol; Steven P. Bamford; Kevin Schawinski; Chris J. Lintott; Dan Andreescu; Heather C. Campbell; Ben Crowcroft; Isabelle Doyle; Edward M. Edmondson; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Anze Slosar; Alexander S. Szalay; Jan Vandenberg



Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-print Network

of Department) December 1992 ABSTRACT Jamaican Red Clay Tobacco Pipes. (December 1992) Kenan Paul Heidtke, B. A. , Texas Lutheran College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. L. Hamilton This thesis is a study of the red clay tobacco pipes which are found... with a special emphasis on pipes recovered from the important English colonial city of Port Royal. Until it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, Port Royal was the most important English city in the Caribbean. The goals...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul



Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



Amodiaquine induced agranulocytosis: inhibition of colony growth in bone marrow by antimalarial agents.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow was cultured in vitro for colonies of granulocytes and macrophages five months after a patient had recovered from amodiaquine induced agranulocytosis. The addition of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and sulfadoxine to the culture was followed by a dose dependent inhibition of colony growth in the patient's marrow but not in normal control bone marrow. Colony growth was, however, unaffected by proguanil, pyrimethamine, and quinine. These findings show that in vitro marrow culture may have important predictive value in some cases of drug induced agranulocytosis. PMID:3082409

Rhodes, E G; Ball, J; Franklin, I M



An appraisal of bone marrow biopsy in assessment of sick dogs.  

PubMed Central

Dogs were classified into a number of disease categories according to hematological, cytological and serochemical changes. Aspiration and core bone marrow biopsies were examined in 128 dogs in the various disease categories and compared to marrow samples in 36 dogs which appeared clinically normal. Differential cell counts on bone marrow smears were examined in relation to the blood variables in all animals. Blood and bone marrow data (group means) were compared among the normal and disease groups. Anemia, responsive and poorly responsive was the most frequent blood abnormality. Most dogs in the thrombocytopenia group had increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the marrow but two dogs had a marked decrease. The frequency of serious alteration of marrow production of the erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic series was less than anticipated. Marrow hemopoiesis was not significantly compromised in dogs with lymphoma or in dogs with other types of cancer. Bone marrow examination was necessary for the diagnosis of myelofibrosis and pancytopenia and was very helpful in the groups with insufficient change in the blood to permit a definitive diagnosis to be made. The myeloid-erythroid ratio was a useful indicator of marrow response while the erythroid maturation index and the myeloid maturation index were useful for identification of altered patterns of maturation (ineffective hemopoiesis). The reticulocyte response in absolute numbers is the most efficient and clinically relevant measure of erythroid response. PMID:3986679

Hoff, B; Lumsden, J H; Valli, V E



Salmonella in broiler carcass bone marrow and neck skin: potential sources for ground chicken contamination.  

E-print Network

??Possible routes for Salmonella contamination of ground chicken are through grinding chicken parts containing contaminated neck skin and bone marrow internalized with Salmonella. The objective… (more)

Wu, Diezhang



Experimental stroke-induced changes in the bone marrow reveal complex regulation of leukocyte responses.  


Stroke induces a systemic response that involves rapid activation of inflammatory cascades, followed later by immunodepression. Experimental stroke-induced responses in the bone marrow, which is the primary source of circulating monocytes and granulocytes, have not been investigated previously. We show that cerebral ischaemia induced early (4 ?hours) release of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow, which was associated with rapid systemic upregulation of CXCL1 (a ligand for CXCR2) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, a key cytokine involved in the mobilisation of bone marrow leukocytes. This process involves rapid activation of nuclear factor-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bone marrow myeloid cells. T-cell numbers in the bone marrow increased after stroke, and bone marrow cells did not show suppressed cytokine response to bacterial endotoxin stimulation in vitro. Stroke-induced laterality observed in the brain stem and in the bone marrow indicates direct involvement of the autonomic nervous system in stroke-induced cell mobilisation. We also show that systemic inflammatory changes and leukocyte responses in the bone marrow are profoundly affected by both anaesthetic and surgical stress. We conclude that stroke influences leukocyte responses in the bone marrow through multiple mechanisms and suggest that preclinical studies should take into consideration the effect of surgical manipulation in experimental models of stroke. PMID:21045863

Denes, Adam; McColl, Barry W; Leow-Dyke, Sophie F; Chapman, Katie Z; Humphreys, Neil E; Grencis, Richard K; Allan, Stuart M; Rothwell, Nancy J



Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Lawton, C.A.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))



Differentiating Functional Roles of Gene Expression from Immune and Non-immune Cells in Mouse Colitis by Bone Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

To understand the role of a gene in the development of colitis, we compared the responses of wild-type mice and gene-of-interest deficient knockout mice to colitis. If the gene-of-interest is expressed in both bone marrow derived cells and non-bone marrow derived cells of the host; however, it is possible to differentiate the role of a gene of interest in bone marrow derived cells and non- bone marrow derived cells by bone marrow transplantation technique. To change the bone marrow derived cell genotype of mice, the original bone marrow of recipient mice were destroyed by irradiation and then replaced by new donor bone marrow of different genotype. When wild-type mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to knockout mice, we could generate knockout mice with wild-type gene expression in bone marrow derived cells. Alternatively, when knockout mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to wild-type recipient mice, wild-type mice without gene-of-interest expressing from bone marrow derived cells were produced. However, bone marrow transplantation may not be 100% complete. Therefore, we utilized cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules (CD45.1 and CD45.2) as markers of donor and recipient cells to track the proportion of donor bone marrow derived cells in recipient mice and success of bone marrow transplantation. Wild-type mice with CD45.1 genotype and knockout mice with CD45.2 genotype were used. After irradiation of recipient mice, the donor bone marrow cells of different genotypes were infused into the recipient mice. When the new bone marrow regenerated to take over its immunity, the mice were challenged by chemical agent (dextran sodium sulfate, DSS 5%) to induce colitis. Here we also showed the method to induce colitis in mice and evaluate the role of the gene of interest expressed from bone-marrow derived cells. If the gene-of-interest from the bone derived cells plays an important role in the development of the disease (such as colitis), the phenotype of the recipient mice with bone marrow transplantation can be significantly altered. At the end of colitis experiments, the bone marrow derived cells in blood and bone marrow were labeled with antibodies against CD45.1 and CD45.2 and their quantitative ratio of existence could be used to evaluate the success of bone marrow transplantation by flow cytometry. Successful bone marrow transplantation should show a vast majority of donor genotype (in term of CD molecule marker) over recipient genotype in both the bone marrow and blood of recipient mice. PMID:23052552

Koon, Hon Wai; Ho, Samantha; Cheng, Michelle; Ichikawa, Ryan; Pothoulakis, Charalabos



Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in bone marrow transplant patients.  

PubMed Central

Infection is a frequent cause of death in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. Although lymphocyte dysfunction has been observed in a few such patients, no systematic study of neutrophil function has yet been reported. Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated by a 51Cr-radioassay after bone marrow transplantation in 34 patients with acute leukemia or aplastic anemia. The response to a chemotactic stimulus (C5a) was severely depressed (less than 35% of normal) in 18 patients, moderately depressed (35-65% of normal) in an additional 6, and normal in 10 subjects. The mean response in the absence of graft vs. host disease and antithymocyte globulin administration was 73.3+/-9.2% (SE) in contrast to 29.7+/-9.6% (P is less than 0.01) in patients with graft vs. host disease treated with antithymocyte golbulin. Both graft vs. host disease and antithymocyte globulin were implicated since the presence of either factor alone was associated with depressed chemotaxis (31.1+/-4.9% for graft vs. host disease, P is less than 0.01; 17.0+/-7.8% for antithymocyte globulin, P is less than 0.02). When normal neutrophils were incubated with antithymocyte globulin in vitro, their chemotactic response was markedly suppressed in the absence of a cytotoxic effect. Transplant patients with defective chemotaxis experienced significantly more infections than those with normal chemotaxis, and analysis of specific etiologic agents showed that this was predominantly related to bacterial pathogens. Chemotactic inhibitors were detected in the sera of seven patients and elevated IgE levels were found in nine subjects, eight of whom had graft vs. host disease. Generation of chemotactic activity by endotoxin activation of serum was reduced in five patients. The results demonstrate a severe defect in neutrophil chemotaxis in some bone marrow transplant patients and suggest that neutrophil dysfunction may predispose to infection in such patients. PMID:777029

Clark, R A; Johnson, F L; Klebanoff, S J; Thomas, E D



Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

Schettini, Raimondo


The Red Planet Mars is noticeable  

E-print Network

in apparent linear features. 2. Dark grey, when viewed next to red, appears green (red and green are complementary colors). Mars is not a red planet with green vegetation outlining water canals. Mars is a red planet with dark grey regions. #12;#12;The Dream is Smashed Mariner 4, 1965 #12;Mariner 6, 1967 Meridiani

Walter, Frederick M.


[Graves-Basedow disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation].  


One severe aplastic anaemia case who presented autoimmune thyroid disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is described. A 19 year old Polish girl developed Graves' hyperthyroidisms 19 months after allogeneic BMT for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) donated from her brother. Her serum was positive for thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (aTPO) while her brother remained euthyroid, seronegative for TSAb, and showed no clinical signs of thyroid pathology. The genetic studies of lymphocytes FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and analysis of STR (short tandem repeated) fragments suggested, that lymphocytes responsible for hyperthyroidisms were of donor origin. PMID:17133320

Jakubas, Beata; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Darczuk, Andrzej; Gil, Justyna



Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early osteogenic potency of stromal cells. These results indicate that spaceflight factors had no significant damaging effects on the murine bone marrow mononuclears. These observations are consistent with previously made assumption of moderate and reversible stress reaction of mammals on spaceflight conditions. This work was supported by Program of Basic Research of IMBP RAS

Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra


Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at E-mail:

Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan



GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this possibility, we established bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from GATA2 conditional knockout mice. Differentiation of GATA2-deficient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes induced accelerated oil-drop formation. Further, GATA2 loss- and gain-of-function analyses based on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells confirmed that decreased and increased GATA2 expression accelerated and suppressed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to adipocytes, respectively. Microarray analysis of GATA2 knockdowned human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells revealed that 90 and 189 genes were upregulated or downregulated by a factor of 2, respectively. Moreover, gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, and the number of G1/G0 cells increased after GATA2 knockdown. Concomitantly, cell proliferation was decreased by GATA2 knockdown. When GATA2 knockdowned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as adipocytes were cocultured with CD34-positive cells, hematopoietic stem cell frequency and colony formation decreased. We confirmed the existence of pathological signals that decrease and increase hematopoietic cell and adipocyte numbers, respectively, characteristic of aplastic anemia, and that suppress GATA2 expression in hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25150255

Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo



Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

Mengel, C. E.



Characterizing warfare in red teaming.  


Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul



Growth in children following irradiation for bone marrow transplantation.  


Longitudinal height data from 46 pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients, including 18 with aplastic anemia (AA), 19 with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and 9 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), were analyzed to assess growth posttransplantation. Patients were prepared for BMT with high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by 7.5 Gy single-dose irradiation; AA patients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), and leukemia patients received total body irradiation (TBI). AA patients demonstrated reduced height posttransplant as reflected in a negative mean standard deviation score. The observed reduction was statistically significant only at 3 years following transplant. In contrast, leukemia patients showed a significant loss in relative height that was first visible at 1 year post-BMT and continued until at least 4 years post-BMT. Mean growth velocities in the leukemia patients were significantly below median for the 3 years following transplant. With a median follow-up of 4 years, antithymocyte globulin plus steroids in combination with methotrexate as graft vs. host prophylaxis was associated with less severe growth suppression than methotrexate alone, while there were no significant associations between growth during the first 2 years following transplant and prepubertal status at transplant (as defined by age), graft vs. host disease, thyroid or gonadal function, or previous therapies received by the leukemia patients. Children undergoing marrow transplantation, particularly those receiving TBI, are at significant risk of subsequent growth suppression. PMID:2665547

Bushhouse, S; Ramsay, N K; Pescovitz, O H; Kim, T; Robison, L L



Current insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.  


Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) encompasses a heterogeneous and complex group of genetic disorders characterized by physical malformations, insufficient blood cell production, and increased risk of malignancies. They often have substantial phenotype overlap, and therefore, genotyping is often a critical means of establishing a diagnosis. Current advances in the field of IBMFSs have identified multiple genes associated with IBMFSs and their pathways: genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, such as those associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; genes involved in telomere maintenance, such as dyskeratosis congenita genes; genes encoding neutrophil elastase or neutrophil adhesion and mobility associated with severe congenital neutropenia; and genes involved in DNA recombination repair, such as those associated with Fanconi anemia. Early and adequate genetic diagnosis is required for proper management and follow-up in clinical practice. Recent advances using new molecular technologies, including next generation sequencing (NGS), have helped identify new candidate genes associated with the development of bone marrow failure. Targeted NGS using panels of large numbers of genes is rapidly gaining potential for use as a cost-effective diagnostic tool for the identification of mutations in newly diagnosed patients. In this review, we have described recent insights into IBMFS and how they are advancing our understanding of the disease's pathophysiology; we have also discussed the possible implications they will have in clinical practice for Korean patients. PMID:25210520

Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kim, Myungshin



The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

Lawless, Desales



Prevention of diabetes in rats by bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and ketonemia often develop abruptly in previously normal young "BB" rats. The syndrome mimics human juvenile diabetes closely and is, thus, appropriate for assessing pancreatic transplantation. Transplantation of islet cells from closely histocompatible Wistar Furth (WF) donor resulted in permanent normoglycemia when immunosuppression with ALS was given. However, when islet cells from nondiabetic "BB" donors were transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed diabetic "BB" recipients, only transient normoglycemia followed. Transplantation of WF islets cells also failed in diabetic "BB" rats which were tolerant of WF antigens, again suggesting destruction of transplanted islet cells by the original disease process-possibly autoimmunity. Evidence for autoimmunity was strengthened by the finding that newly diabetic "BB" rats could be rendered normoglycemic by immunosuppression. Since genetic susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune diabetes is unique to some members of the "BB" stock, an attempt was made to alter their vulnerability by modifying their cellular immune system. Accordingly, 50 million bone marrow cells from WF donors were inoculated into half the newborn members of "BB" litters, leaving the littermates as unmodified controls. Most bone marrow recipients were protected, only four of 37 (10.8%) ever becoming diabetic, while the incidence of diabetes in noninoculated littermates was 22 of 39 (56.4%). The ultimate goal in human diabetes, which also seems very likely to be an autoimmune disease, may not be replacement of destroyed islet cells but identification of potentially susceptible children and prevention of islet destruction by immunologic manipulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6791599

Alinaji; Silvers, W K; Bellgrau, D; Anderson, A O; Plotkin, S; Barker, C F



Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow  

PubMed Central

In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48? putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48? cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity. PMID:23188081

Wang, Lin; Benedito, Rui; Bixel, M Gabriele; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Savendahl, Lars; Haigh, Jody J; Snippert, Hugo; Clevers, Hans; Breier, Georg; Kiefer, Friedemann; Adams, Ralf H



Increased expression of TIGIT on CD4+ T cells ameliorates immune-mediated bone marrow failure of aplastic anemia.  


Aplastic anemia (AA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cell activation is suspected to play an important role. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor, which exhibits inhibitory functions on the immune response. However, its role in AA has not been clearly determined. In the current study, we showed that the frequency of TIGIT-positive CD4(+) T cells was reduced in the vast majority of AA patients (85%, 17/20). In TIGIT-silenced human CD4(+) T cells, stimulation of agonistic anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody significantly facilitated cell proliferation, increased production of IL-2 and IFN-?, and inhibited production of IL-10. However, in TIGIT-overexpressed human CD4(+) T cells, cell proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-? were significantly hindered; in contrast, the secretion of IL-10 was improved. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that T-bet expression in human CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased by TIGIT overexpression, but only slightly altered by TIGIT knockdown. In mouse models, lentivirus-mediated TIGIT-overexpressed CD4(+) T cell transfer significantly rescued the decreased red blood cell count, attenuated the increase in serum INF-? and TNF-? levels, and lengthened the median survival time. The mRNA levels of CD34, stem cell factor (SCF), and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in bone marrow mononuclear cells were also up-regulated. In conclusion, increased expression of TIGIT could inhibit the function of CD4(+) T cells in vitro and ameliorate immune-mediated bone marrow failure of AA in vivo providing a new potential strategy for the treatment of AA. PMID:24905442

Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jianhong; Zhou, Xingchun; Liang, Rong; Bai, Qingxian; Yang, Lan; Gu, Hongtao; Gao, Guangxun; Dong, Baoxia; Zhu, Huafeng; Chen, Xiequn



In vitro comparison of aged and young osteogenic and hemopoietic bone marrow stem cells and their derivative colonies.  


The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether there were differences in the number and size of osteogenic and hemopoietic colonies derived from bone marrow stem cells of aged and young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using a Ficoll-Paque gradient, stem cells were harvested from aged male rats 18 to 22 months old and young adult males 55 days of age. Single cell suspensions from the red marrow of the long bones were cultured 14 days in vitro and subsequent colonies were assessed by light microscopy for number and size. A computerized histomorphometric linear measuring system was utilized to assess colony area in square millimeters. The results clearly show that young animals have a statistically significant increased cellular potential for osteogenic and hemopoietic colony formation. Cultures from aged animals showed an average formation of 0.45 +/- 0.6863 osteogenic colonies while those from younger animals had an average of 3.6 +/- 2.3523 osteogenic colonies per 3 million cells plated. Hemopoietic colonies from aged animal cell cultures numbered 5.25 +/- 2.2449 while those from the young animals averaged 8.23 +/- 3.3601 per 3 million cells plated. The difference in size of the osteogenic and hemopoietic colonies between age groups was not statistically significant. The area of osteogenic colonies derived from aged animals measured 0.1244 +/- 0.0891 mm2, while those derived from the young animals averaged 0.1276 +/- 0.0518 mm2. Hemopoietic colonies from the aged cells measured 0.0759 +/- 0.0514 mm2, while hemopoietic colonies from the young animal cells measured 0.06010 +/- 0.0180 mm2. The results of this study may have implications for consideration in the cellular healing aspects of aged versus young individuals. PMID:8708948

Dodson, S A; Bernard, G W; Kenney, E B; Carranza, F A



[Bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy manifested by visual disturbance].  


In October 1996, a 26-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of acute myeloblastic leukemia, FAB subtype M1. Treatment with combined chemotherapy achieved a complete remission (CR). In May 1997, the patient received an allogenic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from an HLA-identical sibling donor. Cyclosporine (CsA) and short-term methotrexate were given for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Successful engraftment was obtained and signs of acute or chronic GVHD never developed. Five months after BMT, the patient experienced low-grade fever and blurred vision. Retinal examination demonstrated intraretinal hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, and retinal detachments, which were presumably attributable to multiple thrombosis of retinal microvessels. The patient also exhibited hemolytic anemia with red cell fragmentation, thrombocytopenia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and renal impairment, and was thus given a diagnosis of BMT-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (BMT-TM). Discontinuation of CsA and administration of ticlopidine and prednisolone induced successful recovery from BMT-TM. Three months after the onset of BMT-TM, however, the patient experienced generalized clonic-tonic seizures with consciousness loss. Single-photon-emission computed tomography revealed blood-flow disturbances in the brain, suggesting the recurrence of microthrombosis. Accordingly, multiple transfusions of fresh frozen plasma were administered together with dipyridamole and aspirin. The patient gradually recovered and remained asymptomatic through the following 13 months. Currently, early diagnosis of BMT-TM is considered to be difficult. We suggest that careful examination of the ocular base may be useful for the early detection of BMT-TM. PMID:10695395

Nakai, K; Tajima, K; Kishimoto, Y; Katsura, K; Kawamura, M; Yamamoto, Y; Hanada, M; Zen, K; Amakawa, R; Fujimoto, M; Fukuhara, S



In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25?µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and ?-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5?µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5?µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15?µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15?µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licinio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.



Parathyroid hormone enhances hematopoietic expansion via upregulation of cadherin-11 in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.  


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates hematopoiesis in mouse models. The involvement of osteoblasts in this process has been well investigated; however, the effects of PTH on human hematopoiesis and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are unclear. Here, we show that BM-MSCs contribute to the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of PTH via upregulation of cadherin-11 (CDH11). When culture-expanded human BM-MSCs were stimulated with PTH, their ability to expand cocultured CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) was enhanced. Furthermore, when PTH-treated BM-MSCs were subcutaneously implanted into NOD/SCID mice, the induction of hematopoietic cells was enhanced. Culture-expanded human BM-MSCs expressed CDH11, and the level of CDH11 expression increased following PTH stimulation. Depletion of CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs using small interfering RNA abolished the enhancement of HPC expansion by PTH-treated BM-MSCs. In lethally irradiated mice that underwent BM transplantation, CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs was higher and survival was better in PTH-treated mice than in control mice. The number of hematopoietic cells in BM and the number of red blood cells in peripheral blood were higher in PTH-treated mice than in control mice. Our results demonstrate that PTH stimulates hematopoiesis through promoting the upregulation of CDH11 expression in BM-MSCs, at least in part. PTH treatment may be an effective strategy to enhance the ability of BM-MSCs to support hematopoiesis. PMID:24648356

Yao, Hisayuki; Miura, Yasuo; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Miura, Masako; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Akihiro; Iwasa, Masaki; Sato, Atsushi; Hishita, Terutoshi; Higashi, Yayoi; Kaneko, Hitomi; Ashihara, Eishi; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Hirai, Hideyo; Maekawa, Taira



Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle related to internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and joint effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion may predict the diagnostic group of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle. Materials and Methods: The relationship between bone marrow edema and TMJ disc displacement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion was analyzed in MRIs

Iris Brandlmaier; Christoph Schmid; Stefan Bertram; Ansgar Rudisch



Cigarette Smoking Causes Sequestration of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Released from the Bone Marrow in Lung Microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic cigarette smoke exposure causes a neutrophilia asso- ciated with a shortening of the mean transit time of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) though the post- mitotic pool of the marrow. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that PMN newly re- leased from bone marrow by smoke exposure preferentially sequestered in pulmonary

Takeshi Terashima; Maria E. Klut; Dean English; Jennifer Hards; James C. Hogg; Stephan F. van Eeden


Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro- gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS- 2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other

A. T. Ichiki; L. A. Gibson; T. L. Jago; K. M. Strickland; D. L. Johnson; R. D. Lange; Z. Allebban



Smad3 signaling activates bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in renal fibrosis.  


Recent studies have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived fibroblasts contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney are incompletely understood. As TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling has been shown to have an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis, we investigated the role of Smad3 in the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney following obstructive injury using Smad3-knockout mice and Smad3-null monocytes. Compared with wild-type mice, Smad3-knockout mice accumulated significantly fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney after obstructive injury. Furthermore, Smad3-knockout mice exhibited less myofibroblast activation and expressed less ?-SMA in the obstructed kidney. Consistent with these findings, genetic deletion of Smad3 reduced total collagen deposition and suppressed the expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, wild-type mice engrafted with Smad3(-/-) bone marrow cells displayed fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney with obstructive injury and showed less severe renal fibrosis compared with wild-type mice engrafted with Smad3(+/+) bone marrow cells. In cultured monocytes, TGF-?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad3 deficiency abolished TGF-?1-induced expression of ?-SMA and extracellular matrix proteins. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Smad3 signaling has an essential role in the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney during the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. PMID:24614197

Chen, Jiyuan; Xia, Yunfeng; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yanlin



Bone marrow infection caused by Actinobacillus ureae in a rheumatoid arthritis patient.  


A patient with rheumatoid arthritis is described who presented with low-grade fever for 3 months, in whom Actinobacillus ureae was cultured from bone marrow aspirate. Fever responded favourably to penicillin therapy. It is the first reported isolation of A. ureae from bone marrow. PMID:9459406

Avlami, A; Papalambrou, C; Tzivra, M; Dounis, E; Kordossis, T



Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

E-print Network

Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation D. Denison mechanism to deliver a functional gene to a deficient liver. Bone marrow-derived hepatocytes are rare and without a defined contribution to liver function. Con- sequently, the clinical significance of BMT

Ford, James


Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells express glial markers and stimulate nerve regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can trans-differentiate into neuronal phenotypes. We examined the differentiation of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in culture and during nerve regeneration. MSCs from adult rats were exposed to glial growth factor (GGF) to stimulate glial differentiation. Subsequently differentiated MSCs were retrovirally labelled with green fluorescent protein and transplanted into 1 cm nerve conduits in the rat

Mel Tohill; Cristina Mantovani; Mikael Wiberg; Giorgio Terenghi



Therapeutic window for treatment of cortical ischemia with bone marrow-derived cells in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of treatment with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) was evaluated in different therapeutic windows in a rat model of focal ischemia induced by thermocoagulation of the blood vessels in the left motor, somestesic, and sensorimotor cortices. We also compared the therapeutic benefits between BMMCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). BMMCs and MSCs were obtained from

Andréia de Vasconcelos dos Santos; Juliana da Costa Reis; Bruno Diaz Paredes; Louise Moraes; Jasmin; Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães; Rosalia Mendez-Otero



Ontogeny of the Heavy Chain Immunoglobulin Repertoire in Fetal Liver and Bone Marrow1  

Microsoft Academic Search

cell development occurs in the fetal liver during embry- onic development and is subsequently maintained in the bone marrow of adult animals. In late mouse embryos, fetal liver and bone marrow coexist as major lymphopoietic or- gans. Ig gene rearrangement is an essential step in this process and has been extensively characterized using A-MuLV-transformed cell lines (1, 2) as well

Sylvie Delassus; Sylvie Darche; Philippe Kourilsky; Ana Cumano


CD6Depleted Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Acute Leukemia in First Complete Remission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate timing of bone marrow transplantation cells from donor marrow. No pre- or posttransplant immune (BMT) for adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) suppressive medications for GVHD prophylaxis were admin- and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is controversial. Al- istered. The actuarial estimated risk of grade 2 to 4 acute though allogeneic transplantation results in a lower risk of GVHD

Robert J. Soiffer; Diane Fairclough; Michael Robertson; Edwin Alyea; Kenneth Anderson; Arnold Freedman; Lini Bartlett-Pandite; David Fisher; Robert L. Schlossman; Richard Stone; Christine Murray; Andrea Freeman; Karen Marcus; Peter Mauch; Lee Nadler; Jerome Ritz


A probable role for trail-induced apoptosis in the pathogenesis of marrow failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a syndrome of hematopoietic failure involving increased apoptosis of stem cells. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms participated in the process of marrow failure, we created an in vitro model of hematopoietic cell suppression, by continuous addition of TNF-? and IFN-? in an vitro long-term bone marrow culture system. An up-regulation of Fas expression was

Theodora Kakagianni; Nikolaos C. Giannakoulas; Eleni Thanopoulou; Anastasia Galani; Sotiria Michalopoulou; Alexandra Kouraklis-Symeonidis; Nicholas C. Zoumbos



Cryptococcososis of bone marrow: a case report with review of literature.  


Cryptococcus has been increasingly seen as a pathogen with the growing incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cryptococcosis commonly presents with pulmonary, CNS or skin involvement. Bone marrow involvement of Cryptococci has been rarely reported. We are reporting a case of bone marrow Cryptococcosis in a 50-year-old Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) positive male, with review of literature. PMID:24596754

B R, Ashwini; Raghupathi, Ar; A, Srinarthan



Microanalytical study of thorium 232 deposits in bone marrow and liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analytical microscopy was used to study the distribution and chemical composition of thorium deposits in bone marrow and liver after injection of thorium dioxide and thorium nitrate. Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) was identified as being localized in bone marrow macrophages of a patient who had undergone cerebral arteriography forty two years ago. Large thorotrast deposits were also present in liver

Ph. Hallegot; P. Galle



Severity of anaemia is associated with bone marrow haemozoin in children exposed to Plasmodium falciparum.  


There are no large-scale ex vivo studies addressing the contribution of Plasmodium falciparum in the bone marrow to anaemia. The presence of malaria parasites and haemozoin were studied in bone marrows from 290 anaemic children attending a rural hospital in Mozambique. Peripheral blood infections were determined by microscopy and polymerase chain reactions. Bone marrow parasitaemia, haemozoin and dyserythropoiesis were microscopically assessed. Forty-two percent (123/290) of children had parasites in the bone marrow and 49% (111/226) had haemozoin, overlapping with parasitaemia in 83% (92/111) of cases. Sexual and mature asexual parasites were highly prevalent (62% gametocytes, 71% trophozoites, 23% schizonts) suggesting their sequestration in this tissue. Sixteen percent (19/120) of children without peripheral infection had haemozoin in the bone marrow. Haemozoin in the bone marrow was independently associated with decreased Hb concentration (P = 0·005) and was more common in dyserythropoietic bone marrows (P = 0·010). The results of this ex vivo study suggest that haemozoin in the bone marrow has a role in the pathogenesis of malarial-anaemia through ineffective erythropoiesis. This finding may have clinical implications for the development of drugs targeted to prevent and treat malarial-anaemia. PMID:24386973

Aguilar, Ruth; Moraleda, Cinta; Achtman, Ariel H; Mayor, Alfredo; Quintó, Llorenç; Cisteró, Pau; Nhabomba, Augusto; Macete, Eusebio; Schofield, Louis; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara



Tumor-marrow index. A means of laboratory evaluation of antineoplas- tic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A tumor-marrow index (TMI) to be used in the laboratory evaluation of anticancer agents has been defined as that dose causing 50 per cent destruction of the marrow\\/dose causing 80 per cent suppression of tumor growth in the same animal. Eighteen com- pounds (eleven antifolic acid analogs, six alkylating agents, and one antipurine) were studied, and the doses causing




Optimal Controls for a Model with Pharmacokinetics Maximizing Bone Marrow in Cancer Chemotherapy  

E-print Network

Optimal Controls for a Model with Pharmacokinetics Maximizing Bone Marrow in Cancer Chemotherapy model for the depletion of bone marrow under cancer chemotherapy is analyzed as an optimal control of the pharmacokinetic equations on the dosages. 1 Introduction Although mathematical models for cancer chemotherapy have

Ledzewicz, Urszula


A comparative study of diazepam levels in bone marrow versus serum, saliva and brain tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The distribution of diazepam in biological fluids and tissues of rats was examined 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after intraperitoneal administration by using a radioimmunoassay with specific anti-diazepam antibody. The diazepam levels in serum, saliva, brain and bone marrow decreased over a period of 2h and levelled off 4h after administration. The diazepam concentration in bone marrow was

T. Takatori; S. Tomii; K. Terazawa; M. Nagao; M. Kanamori; Y. Tomaru



Moffitt research finds no survival advantage for stem cell versus bone marrow transplant

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, and colleagues in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a two-year clinical trial comparing two-year survival probabilities for patients transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow stem cells from unrelated donors and found no survival advantage for one method over the other.


Intermediate-Luminosity Red Transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermediate-luminosity red transients (ILRTs) are a recently recognized class of stellar eruptions with maximum luminosities between those of classical novae and supernovae. During their outbursts, which generally last a few months, they typically evolve to extremely red colors, completely unlike novae. Prototypes include the M31 "Red Variable" of 1988, V838 Mon, SN 2008S, V1309 Sco, the M99 optical transient of 2010, and the 2008 and 2010 ILRTs in the nearby spiral NGC 300. I will present recent developments in the study of ILRTs. At present, it appears that there are (at least) two separate evolutionary channels leading to ILRT outbursts: mergers of close binaries (accounting for ILRTs in old populations and possibly V838 Mon), and eruptions on stars of about 8-12 Msun, possibly due to electron-capture SNe (accounting for ILRTs in young populations).

Bond, Howard E.; Humphreys, R. M.; Bedin, L. R.; Bonanos, A.; Davidson, K.; Monard, B.; Prieto, J.; Walter, F.



Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis and neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia in rats  

E-print Network

Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis online 9 March 2012 Keywords: Hypoxic preconditioning Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell Transplantation for promoting cell survival after transplantation. The present investigation examined the hypothesis

Hayar, Abdallah


Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet  

SciTech Connect

EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

Not Available



Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

Cooke, Robert W.



Suppression of marrow stromal cells and microenvironmental damage following sequential radiation and cyclophosphamide. [Mice  

SciTech Connect

Persistent defects in marrow stroma may contribute to hemopoietic insufficiency in patients treated with combined modality therapy for malignancy. To assess the bone marrow failure following combined therapy, mice received intraperitoneal administration of four weekly doses of cyclophosphamide, 160 mg/kg (CY) one week after 1500 rad at one, two, four and six months post-irradiation. Leg irradiation alone suppressed the repopulation to about 75% of normal and cyclophosphamide alone suppressed to 80% of normal. To directly assess the damage of sequential 1500 rad LI + CY on the microenvironment, marrow stromal cells were flushed from the femoral marrow and cultured as adherent cell colonies. They were suppressed to less than 30% of normal for three months following combined modality treatment. We conclude that multiple courses of cyclophosphamide starting one week after 1500 rad LI produced persistent damage to the microenvironment reflected by decreased marrow stromal cells and faile fraction of pions.

Wathen, L.M.; Knapp, S.A.; DeGowin, R.L.



Marrow Fat and the Bone Microenvironment: Developmental, Functional, and Pathological Implications  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow adipogenesis is a normal physiologic process in all mammals. However, its function is unknown. The mesenchymal stem cell is the marrow precursor for adipocytes as well as osteoblasts, and PPAR? is an essential differentiation factor for entrance into the fat lineage. Mouse models have provided significant insight into the molecular cues that define stromal cell fate. In humans, accelerated marrow adipogenesis has been associated with aging and several chronic conditions including diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Newer imaging techniques have been used to determine the developmental time course of fat generation in bone marrow. However, more studies are needed to understand the interrelationship among hematopoietic, osteoblastic, and adipogenic cells within the marrow niche. PMID:19392647

Rosen, Clifford J.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Pino, Ana Maria



Fetuin in human bone marrow: detection in foetal tissue and patients with mastocytosis.  


Fetuin, a foetal protein of unknown function, has been shown to be expressed in both the immune and nervous systems, especially during development. Here, we show for the first time, that fetuin is abundantly present in many cells of the foetal human bone marrow, but is restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage in the adult. Fetuin's immunoreactivity increased considerably in adult human bone marrow in some pathological conditions, particularly in mastocytosis and was also increased in bone marrows in some cases of acute leukaemias, especially in acute myeloid leukaemia. This increase in the presence of fetuin in neoplastic bone marrows is not reflected by an increased level of circulating fetuin. This last observation contradicts earlier suggestions that fetuin is specifically reduced in cancer patients. A consistent increase in fetuin immunoreactivity in bone marrow of most cases of mastocytosis, as demonstrated in this paper, could become a useful tool in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:11931384

Dziegielewska, K M; Horny, H P; Valent, P; Habgood, M D; Schumacher, U



Bone marrow metastasis of colon cancer as the first site of recurrence: A case report  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow metastasis from solid tumors is usually accepted as not only incurable, but as fatal. Colon cancer is a relatively rare malignancy that involves the bone marrow, and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies in the literature reporting only bone marrow metastasis of colon cancer as the first presentation of relapse. The present study reports the case of a 74-year-old female patient treated by resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIc colon cancer who presented with severe thrombocytopenia with intracranial hemorrhage, and the bone marrow was first and only site of metastasis. There was no evidence of skeletal metastasis. The clinical course was extremely aggressive and the patient succumbed ten days after admission, finally being diagnosed in the postmortem examination. The present study also discusses bone marrow metastasis of solid tumors, with particular respect to the diagnostic difficulties of such rare cases. PMID:25364447




Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?  

PubMed Central

The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard



A comparative study of diazepam levels in bone marrow versus serum, saliva and brain tissue.  


The distribution of diazepam in biological fluids and tissues of rats was examined 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after intraperitoneal administration by using a radioimmunoassay with specific anti-diazepam antibody. The diazepam levels in serum, saliva, brain and bone marrow decreased over a period of 2 h and levelled off 4 h after administration. The diazepam concentration in bone marrow was much higher than in serum, saliva and brain, suggesting an accumulation of diazepam in this tissue. This indicates that bone marrow could be a very useful material for the detection of diazepam in skeletonized remains. The diazepam concentrations in bone marrow, serum, saliva and brain showed a linear relationship (r = 0.860-0.997), indicating that a valid estimate of diazepam concentration in blood can be made from bone marrow samples. PMID:1931735

Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Terazawa, K; Nagao, M; Kanamori, M; Tomaru, Y



76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...of the Port, Marine Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...



Bilateral diffuse pulmonary ectopic ossification after marrow allograft in a dog. Evidence for allotransplantation of hemopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

In light of recent studies showing successful transplantation of both bony and stromal elements by marrow transplantation, we report an unexpected phenomenon occurring in a canine radiation chimera. Nine hundred fifty-six days after a successful and uneventful DLA-matched marrow allograft, a dog suddenly died of respiratory failure. Autopsy revealed extensive ossification of the lungs with multiple sites of trilineage marrow engraftment. The entire complement of bony elements can apparently be allografted using marrow grafting techniques.

Sale, G.E.; Storb, R.



Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-print Network

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha


Peripheral infusion of rat bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells leads to homing in acute lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitors for both epithelial and endothelial cells have been observed in the lung. Besides mature endothelial cells (EC) that compose the adult vasculature, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are supposed to be released from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood after stimulation by distinct inflammatory injuries. Homing of ex vivo generated bone marrow-derived EPC into the injured

Christian M Kähler; Jutta Wechselberger; Wolfgang Hilbe; Andreas Gschwendtner; Daniela Colleselli; Harald Niederegger; Eva-Maria Boneberg; Gilbert Spizzo; Albrecht Wendel; Eberhard Gunsilius; Josef R Patsch; Jürg Hamacher



Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin  

E-print Network

Review Bone marrow stem cell transplant into intra-bone cavity prevents type 2 diabetes: Role progenitors in diabetic subjects are well known phenomena. We hypothesized that transplantation of bone marrow with induction of HO-1 (a cytoprotective antioxidant system) in the recipient, would further improve bone marrow

Abraham, Nader G.


Allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL): results of a provincial strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the bone marrow transplant centers in Ontario agreed to a strategy for the treatment of patients with NHL. Suitable patients would undergo autotransplant but be referred for allotransplant if they had persistent marrow involvement or an inadequate marrow\\/stem cell harvest. Data of all patients were recorded in a database. We reviewed this database to compare these transplant modalities

AD Schimmer; S Jamal; H Messner; A Keating; J Meharchand; L Huebsch; I Walker; A Benger; S Gluck; A Smith



Minimal Residual Disease May Predict Bone Marrow Relapse in Patients With Hairy Cell Leukemia Treated With 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal residual disease (MRD) can be detected in bone marrow core biopsies of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) after treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of MRD predicts bone marrow relapse. We studied paraffin- embedded bone marrow core biopsies from 39 patients with HCL in complete

Susan Wheaton; Martin S. Tallman; David Hakimian; LoAnn Peterson



Crosstalk between CXCR4/SDF-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 pathways regulates neutrophil retention in the bone marrow 1  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil retention in and release from the bone marrow is a critical process that remains incompletely understood. Previous work has implicated the CXCR4/SDF-1 chemokine axis in the marrow retention of neutrophils, yet the adhesion pathways responsible for this retention are unknown. Since ?4?1 integrin (VLA-4) and its ligand VCAM-1 play a central role in the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, and developing neutrophils in the marrow, we investigated whether this integrin might be involved in marrow neutrophil retention and release. Here we show that VLA-4 is expressed on murine marrow neutrophils and decreases with maturation, while blockade of this integrin leads to the release of marrow neutrophils. Marrow neutrophils adhere via VLA-4 to VCAM-1, which is expressed on marrow endothelium and stroma, and inhibition of VCAM-1 causes release of marrow neutrophils. Furthermore, SDF-1 (CXCL12) signaling through neutrophil CXCR4 augments VLA-4 adhesion to VCAM-1 in vitro, an effect that is blocked by pre-incubation with pertussis toxin. In vivo blockade of both CXCR4 and ?4 causes synergistic release of marrow neutrophils, showing that crosstalk between CXCR4 and VLA-4 modulates marrow retention of these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the VLA-4/VCAM adhesion pathway is critical in the retention and maturation-controlled release of neutrophils from the marrow, while providing an important link between the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling axis and the adhesion events that govern this process. PMID:19109194

Petty, Joseph M.; Lenox, Christopher C.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Suratt, Benjamin T.



Late effects in children after bone marrow transplantation: a review.  


Since the number of children receiving a bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and becoming long-term survivors continues to increase, more attention has to be paid to detect long-term side effects in these unique patients. Follow-up studies to timely identify these untoward sequelae are a matter of particular concern for pediatricians due to the longer life expectancy of children cured by BMT. The more frequently recognized sequelae affecting lung, eyes, brain and the endocrine system have been analyzed in this review. The majority of long-term side effects could be related to the conditioning regimens employed to prepare children before marrow transplantation and radiotherapy has been indicated as the most important agent determining deleterious toxicities. Most children receiving BMT present a decreased growth velocity and this growth impairment is especially observed in patients receiving total body irradiation (TBI) and prophylactic cranial irradiation prior to marrow transplant. Growth hormone deficiency could be demonstrated in the majority of patients with a reduced growth rate, even though an impairment of liver somatomedin production or a direct radiation-induced skeletal dysplasia could not be excluded. Overt and compensated hypothyroidism have been reported after TBI and patients given single dose radiotherapy are at greater risk with an overall incidence of thyroid function abnormalities approaching 30-40%. Delayed puberty development was reported in boys and girls after a TBI-containing conditioning regimen, whereas patients given BMT for severe aplastic anaemia presented a normal puberty. The absence of pubertal growth spurt contributes to the growth impairment of prepubertal children. In post-pubertal patients amenorrhea, azoospermia and gonadal failure can be observed after radiotherapy and several patients can require hormonal substitutive therapy. Skin and mucosal abnormalities referred to teguments involvement by chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Moreover, alopecia or abnormal pigmentation of the skin are observed in patients given busulfan as part of their myeloablative therapy. Cataracts are a well recognized complication of children receiving ionizing radiations and chronic steroid therapy. Again, posterior subcapsular cataracts occur more frequently in patients given TB1 as single exposure. Decreased lacrimal gland function, with impairment of tear production is another late effect of irradiation to the eye. Lung function abnormalities are not rare after transplant and may cause late mortality and morbidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8314162

Locatelli, F; Giorgiani, G; Pession, A; Bozzola, M



[Indications, technique and risks in bone marrow transplantation in adulthood].  


The option of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) significantly improved prognosis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies aged less than 50 years. Allogeneic BMT using the marrow of an HLA-identical family member still provides the most effective method of BMT. Conventional indications for this form of BMT are chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute leukemias presenting with adverse risk factors, myelodysplastic syndromes and severe aplastic anemia. If performed early in the disease course (e.g. during the chronic phase of CML or first remission of acute leukemia and MDS) allogeneic BMT cures 50 to 60% of patients. About 20% die of therapy related complications, e.g. graft versus host disease (GvHD), fatal infections or venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and about 20% of patients succumb to relapse of their hematologic disorder. 80% presenting with severe aplastic anemia can be cured, if allogeneic BMT is performed soon after diagnosis without previous immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions. BMT with the marrow of a matched unrelated donor or autologous BMT are increasingly used as alternative procedures. A rate of lethal complications as high as 50% hinders rapid extension of BMT with unrelated donors. Therefore, this form of BMT should be restricted to young patients with leukemias, who cannot achieve long-term remission with conventional chemotherapy (in case of acute leukemias) or alpha-interferon (in case of CML). Reconstitution of hematopoiesis is more rapid after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) compared with autologous BMT. Therefore, PBSCT will replace autologous BMT in most cases. Most favourable results of PBSCT have been reported in patients with malignant lymphomas after relapse or inferior response to primary induction therapy. Due to the higher relapse rate autologous BMT is inferior to allogeneic BMT in leukemia patients. Trials are required to clarify the potential role of myeloablative therapy with stem cell support in the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Many of the preliminary results already published are unsatisfactory and data of larger trials are still lacking. Therefore, BMT or PBSCT cannot be recommended generally for the therapy of patients with solid tumors. PMID:8643901

Heyll, A; Söhngen, D; Minning, H; Meckenstock, G; Aul, C; Schneider, W



Gillian Slovo's Red dust (2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gillian Slovo's novel Red dust reads for the most part as a formulaic novel combining for its representation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission elements of courtroom drama and detective fiction. It offers a now standard sardonic view of the central tenets of the TRC, ironically addressing the reversals of power of post-apartheid South Africa, and posing useful if not

Dorothy Driver



Red Means Go Structural Engineering  

E-print Network

education · Technology impact on learning and behavior · Considerations for structural education & practice said. "All others, bring data." ~Margaret Spellings~ Secretary of Education #12;Red Means Go Industrial. · Collaboration Webs Collaboration no longer calls for expensive equipment · Mobile Broadband Each year more


Leukemia diagnosis in murine bone marrow transplantation models.  


The mouse is the most commonly used experimental animal, and a wide range of tumor types can arise in their hematopoietic system. Therefore, for research scientists and graduate students working in the field of experimental hematology, immunology, and cancer research, there is an urgent need for well-established protocols for the preparation of histology and cytology for leukemia diagnosis. Moreover, the criteria for the classification of hematopoietic neoplasms often vary between different laboratories. In this chapter, we describe diagnosis and analysis of leukemia in murine bone marrow transplantation models based primarily on the findings of the histology and cytology of hematopoietic and infiltrated tissues, peripheral blood smear, and immunophenotyping by FACS analysis. PMID:19110635

Li, Zhixiong; Modlich, Ute; Anjali, Mishra



Changes in autoimmune thyroid disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  


Autoimmune diseases can be transmitted and eliminated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). There have been several cases of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) occurring after BMT, but AITD remission has been rarely reported. We present four cases in which the remission or transfer of AITD occurred after an allogeneic BMT. Two patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) showed evidence of remission of Hashimoto's thyroiditis which they had before allogeneic BMT. One patient with SAA, which developed during treatment with propylthiouracil for Graves' disease, underwent allogeneic BMT and showed evidence of Graves' disease remission following BMT. In one patient, new AITD occurred after an allogeneic BMT from an HLA-matched sibling who already had AITD. These cases support the evidence that the immune system is newly reconstituted after BMT, and severe autoimmune disease can be an indication for BMT. To fully understand the real changes in autoimmune status after BMT, long-term prospective studies are necessary. PMID:11498746

Lee, W Y; Oh, E S; Min, C K; Kim, D W; Lee, J W; Kang, M I; Min, W S; Cha, B Y; Lee, K W; Son, H Y; Kang, S K; Kim, C C



Non-infectious pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a successful and recognised treatment option for patients with a number of haematological and non-haematological malignant and non-malignant conditions. Pulmonary complications both infectious and non-infectious are common after BMT. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to pulmonary complications, including the type and duration of immunological defects produced by the underlying disease and treatment, the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the conditioning regimens employed. These complications are classified as early or late, depending on whether they occur before or after 100 days from transplantation. Early non-infectious pulmonary complications typically include pulmonary oedema, upper airway complications, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, cytolytic thrombi, and pleural effusion. Bronchiolitis obliterans, veno-occlusive disease, and secondary malignancies occur late after BMT. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, GVHD, and radiation induced lung injury can occur in early or late period after BMT. PMID:12151565

Khurshid, I; Anderson, L



Identification of a hypoxic population of bone marrow cells  

SciTech Connect

A technique using collagenase has been devised to release and separate, with reproducibility, hematopoietic cells (HC) from various microenvironments of mouse femurs. HC were assayed by an in vitro gel culture technique used traditionally to score granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFU-C). CFU-C which resided in the medullary cavity and endosteal regions were sensitive to ionizing radiation and resistant to misonidazole (MISO) cytotoxicity. CFU-C which resided within the compact bone were resistant to ionizing radiation and sensitive to the cytotoxic action of MISO. These results suggest that HC which reside in the bone are hypoxic and retain clonogenic potential. When animals were exposed to various treatments with MISO followed by myelotoxic doses of cyclophosphamide (CTX) or total body irradiation (TBI), the LD/sub 50/ of both agents was significantly reduced. This result suggests that a hypoxic component of HC could be important in the regenerative process within the marrow after such myelotoxic trauma.

Allalunis, M.J.; Chapman, J.D.; Turner, A.R.



Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.  


At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited. PMID:15685919

Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne



Splenic Angiosarcoma Presenting With Jaundice, Ascites and Bone Marrow Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

A middle aged chronic alcoholic presented with deep jaundice, markedly enlarged and tender spleen with leukoerythroblastic blood picture and bone marrow biopsy showing mild fibrosis. He was tested negative for HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses. Besides very high serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase was raised four times the normal value. Contrast enhanced CT showed enlarged spleen and liver with multiple heterogenous lesions in spleen and tiny hypo-dense lesions in liver. In hospital, he developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome and succumed to his illness. At autopsy spleen weighed 5200 gms and variegated in appearance due to large areas of necrosis and whitish tumour nodules. Histology revealed morphology of an angiosarcoma. Liver was also infiltrated by the tumour mainly in and around portal tract areas. PMID:18521385

Singh, Virinder; Varma, Subhash



Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect mimicking a mandibular cystic lesion.  


An unusual presentation of a focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect (FOBMD) of the mandible mimicking a cystic lesion is documented. A definitive diagnosis could be established only on the basis of the histopathologic evaluation. A 66-year-old Brazilian woman was referred by her dentist for well-defined radiolucency of the mandibular molar region suggesting a cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. The computed tomography scan confirmed that the lesion did not affect the corticals. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of FOBMD. The diagnostic difficulty in the current case is obvious, because FOBMD, usually exhibiting an ill-defined radiolucency, is seldom suspected preoperatively when a differential diagnosis is considered for focal well-defined radiolucent areas in the jaws. PMID:24978688

Almeida, Luciana Yamamoto; Kato, Rogério Bentes; Ribeiro, Michel Campos; León, Jorge Esquiche



Bone Marrow Transplantation for Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa  

PubMed Central

Background Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an incurable, often fatal mucocutaneous blistering disease caused by mutations in COL7A1, the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7). On the basis of preclinical data showing biochemical correction and prolonged survival in col7?/? mice, we hypothesized that allogeneic marrow contains stem cells capable of ameliorating the manifestations of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in humans. Methods Between October 2007 and August 2009, we treated seven children who had recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with immunomyeloablative chemotherapy and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. We assessed C7 expression by means of immunofluorescence staining and used transmission electron microscopy to visualize anchoring fibrils. We measured chimerism by means of competitive polymerase-chain-reaction assay, and documented blister formation and wound healing with the use of digital photography. Results One patient died of cardiomyopathy before transplantation. Of the remaining six patients, one had severe regimen-related cutaneous toxicity, with all having improved wound healing and a reduction in blister formation between 30 and 130 days after transplantation. We observed increased C7 deposition at the dermal–epidermal junction in five of the six recipients, albeit without normalization of anchoring fibrils. Five recipients were alive 130 to 799 days after transplantation; one died at 183 days as a consequence of graft rejection and infection. The six recipients had substantial proportions of donor cells in the skin, and none had detectable anti-C7 antibodies. Conclusions Increased C7 deposition and a sustained presence of donor cells were found in the skin of children with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term risks and benefits of such therapy in patients with this disorder. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT00478244.) PMID:20818854

Wagner, John E.; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; McGrath, John A.; Hordinsky, Maria; Keene, Douglas R.; Riddle, Megan J.; Osborn, Mark J.; Lund, Troy; Dolan, Michelle; Blazar, Bruce R.; Tolar, Jakub



MSC Therapy Attenuates Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Murine Bone Marrow Transplant  

PubMed Central

Rationale Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in chronic inflammatory disease. Objective Administration of MSCs was evaluated for the ability to ameliorate OB in mice using our established allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Methods Mice were lethally conditioned and received allogeneic bone marrow without (BM) or with spleen cells (BMS), as a source of OB-causing T-cells. Cell therapy was started at 2 weeks post-transplant, or delayed to 4 weeks when mice developed airway injury, defined as increased airway resistance measured by pulmonary function test (PFT). BM-derived MSC or control cells [mouse pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) or lung fibroblasts (LFs)] were administered. Route of administration [intratracheally (IT) and IV] and frequency (every 1, 2 or 3 weeks) were compared. Mice were evaluated at 3 months post-BMT. Measurements and Main Results No ectopic tissue formation was identified in any mice. When compared to BMS mice receiving control cells or no cells, those receiving MSCs showed improved resistance, compliance and inspiratory capacity. Interim PFT analysis showed no difference in route of administration. Improvements in PFTs were found regardless of dose frequency; but once per week worked best even when administration began late. Mice given MSC also had decreased peribronchiolar inflammation, lower levels of hydroxyproline (collagen) and higher frequencies of macrophages staining for the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) marker CD206. Conclusions These results warrant study of MSCs as a potential management option for OB in lung transplant and BMT recipients. PMID:25272285

Raza, Kashif; Price, Andrew P.; Meyer, Carolyn; Matson, Amy; Ehrhardt, Michael J.; Fogas, Samuel; Tolar, Jakub; Hertz, Marshall I.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela



Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme linked immunosorbent assay PMID:10889818

Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D



Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story  

PubMed Central

Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 1010 RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin



Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.  


Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin



Red blood cell morphology in sickle cell anemia as determined by image processing analysis: the relationship to painful crises.  


Red blood cell morphology was studied in the peripheral blood of adults with sickle cell anemia to determine if changes occur during painful crises. Image processing of the cells with an automated system of red blood cell analysis was used. Four groups of cells were observed: normocytes, macrocytes, target cells, and cells with the shape of irreversibly sickled cells. During asymptomatic periods, the percentages of these cells differed in each individual but were typical for that individual and generally were stable. During crises, macrocytosis occurred and the concentration of irreversibly sickled cells showed greater fluctuation. The macrocytosis most likely reflected a marrow response to increased hemolysis and demonstrated that the increased red blood cell destruction observed during pain crises may be more extensive than previously considered. Changes in the concentration of irreversibly sickled cells during crises were not consistent and could not be used as an indicator of a crisis. Image processing with automated red blood cell analysis allows for accurate assessment of all the morphologic groups of red blood cells in patients with sickle cell anemia and compares well with standard methods for measuring the concentration of irreversibly sickled cells. PMID:6846257

Westerman, M P; Bacus, J W



Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made


7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....



Red Turpentine Beetle: Innocuous Native Becomes  

E-print Network

Corresponding author Keywords Dendroctonus valens, invasive species, invasiveness, IPM, Leptographium, pines Abstract The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae variations that are inherited as a unit INTRODUCTION The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens Le


Age-related marrow adipogenesis is linked to increased expression of RANKL.  


With advancing age bone marrow is progressively replaced with adipose tissue, accompanied by a concomitant decline in bone mass and strength. The mechanism underlying the increase in marrow fat and bone destruction remains elusive. We found that on the way of adipogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells, receptor activator for NF-?B ligand (Rankl) expression was induced, concomitantly with a down-regulation of osteoprotegerin, which prompted us to hypothesize that cells at a preadipocyte stage express RANKL. This concept was supported by the findings that the early adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP? and C/EBP?, but not the late factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, bind to the Rankl promoter and stimulate Rankl gene transcription. In fact, when cells isolated from the bone marrow of aging mice were analyzed by flow cytometry, we found that cells expressing the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1 were RANKL-positive, and the number of these cells was increased with aging, with concomitant down-regulation of osteoprotegerin, and most importantly, that these RANKL(+)/Pref-1(+) marrow cells were capable of generating osteoclasts from bone marrow macrophages. Thus, the capacity of cells at a pre-adipocyte stage to express RANKL via C/EBP? and C/EBP? and to support osteoclastogenesis may account partly for the co-progression of fatty marrow and bone destruction with aging. PMID:24753250

Takeshita, Sunao; Fumoto, Toshio; Naoe, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kyoji



Bone Marrow and Karyotype Findings of Patients with Pancytopenia in Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Pancytopenia is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders. The main prognostic factor for predicting outcome and response to treatment is based on the underlying cause. To detect the root cause of this problem, depending on other accompanied signs or symptoms, the need for bone marrow examination and other advanced work ups is different at least at the practical level. This study focuses on the karyotype abnormality and to demonstrate the ability of this complimentary study in diagnosis and prognosis of such patients. Methods: In this cross sectional study, bone marrow aspiration samples of all patients with Pancytopenia underwent cytogenetic investigation on bone marrow aspiration. Gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software.  Results: Among the 100 eligible patients, 67% revealed hypercellular, 19% had hypocellular and 13% had normocellular marrow. Most common causes of pancytopenia were myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (33%), MDS vs. megaloblastic anemia (23%) and acute leukemia (18%). Thirty one patients had karyotype abnormality in which majority (13 patients) were diagnosed as MDS followed by 11 patients with acute leukemia. Conclusion: Beside bone marrow examination, there is a need for more supplementary studies like karyotyping to detect the exact cause of pancytopenia. It is concluded that cytogenetic study on bone marrow aspiration can be a complementary test in diagnosis of pancytopenic patients. However, there are also cases where diagnosis even with implementing bone marrow examination and cytogenetic analysis is not possible. Such patients require more clinical follow-up and investigation. PMID:25031485

Safaei, Akbar; Shokripour, Mansoureh; Omidifar, Navid



Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche.  


The cellular constituents forming the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow are unclear, with studies implicating osteoblasts, endothelial and perivascular cells. Here we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), identified using nestin expression, constitute an essential HSC niche component. Nestin(+) MSCs contain all the bone-marrow colony-forming-unit fibroblastic activity and can be propagated as non-adherent 'mesenspheres' that can self-renew and expand in serial transplantations. Nestin(+) MSCs are spatially associated with HSCs and adrenergic nerve fibres, and highly express HSC maintenance genes. These genes, and others triggering osteoblastic differentiation, are selectively downregulated during enforced HSC mobilization or beta3 adrenoreceptor activation. Whereas parathormone administration doubles the number of bone marrow nestin(+) cells and favours their osteoblastic differentiation, in vivo nestin(+) cell depletion rapidly reduces HSC content in the bone marrow. Purified HSCs home near nestin(+) MSCs in the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice, whereas in vivo nestin(+) cell depletion significantly reduces bone marrow homing of haematopoietic progenitors. These results uncover an unprecedented partnership between two distinct somatic stem-cell types and are indicative of a unique niche in the bone marrow made of heterotypic stem-cell pairs. PMID:20703299

Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Michurina, Tatyana V; Ferraro, Francesca; Mazloom, Amin R; Macarthur, Ben D; Lira, Sergio A; Scadden, David T; Ma'ayan, Avi; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Frenette, Paul S



Mesenchymal stem cells are mobilized from the bone marrow during inflammation  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great therapeutic potential for the treatment of various immune mediated diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Systemic administration of MSCs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, was shown to reduce the infiltration of T cells, B cells, and macrophages into the CNS. Whether endogenous MSCs are mobilized and potentially modulate the severity of disease is not known. Here we show that during the acute phase of EAE, MSCs numbers in the bone marrow were severely reduced, which restored to control levels during the progressive phase of the disease. The number of bone marrow MSCs inversely correlated with the number of both CD4 and CD8 T cells present in the bone marrow indicating a link between activated T cells and MSC mobilization. Analysis of CD70-transgenic mice, which have a constitutively activated immune system and elevated number of activated T cells in the bone marrow, showed severely reduced number of bone marrow MSCs. Transfer of T cells that were activated through their CD27 receptor reduced the number of bone marrow MSCs dependent on IFN-y. These data provide a mechanism by which MSCs can be mobilized from the bone marrow in order to contribute to tissue repair at a distant location. PMID:23459632

Koning, Jasper J.; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E.; Nolte, Martijn A.; Mebius, Reina E.



CCR2 Regulates the Uptake of Bone Marrow-Derived Fibroblasts in Renal Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that bone marrow-derived fibroblasts contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts into the kidney are incompletely understood. Bone marrow-derived fibroblasts express the chemokine receptor - CCR2. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CCR2 participates in the recruitment of fibroblasts into the kidney during the development of renal fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived collagen-expressing GFP+ fibroblasts were detected in the obstructed kidneys of chimeric mice transplanted with donor bone marrow from collagen ?1(I)-GFP reporter mice. These bone marrow-derived fibroblasts expressed PDGFR-? and CCR2. CCR2 knockout mice accumulated significantly fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors expressing the hematopoietic marker-CD45 and the mesenchymal markers-PDGFR-? or procollagen I in the obstructed kidneys compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, CCR2 knockout mice displayed fewer bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts and expressed less ?-SMA or FSP-1 in the obstructed kidneys compared with wild-type mice. Consistent with these findings, genetic deletion of CCR2 inhibited total collagen deposition and suppressed expression of collagen I and fibronectin. Moreover, genetic deletion of CCR2 inhibits MCP-1 and CXCL16 gene expression associated with a reduction of inflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage infiltration, suggesting a linear interaction between two chemokines/ligand receptors in tubular epithelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CCR2 signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis through regulation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. These data suggest that inhibition of CCR2 signaling could constitute a novel therapeutic approach for fibrotic kidney disease. PMID:24130892

Xia, Yunfeng; Entman, Mark L.; Wang, Yanlin



Influence of early zoledronic Acid administration on bone marrow fat in ovariectomized rats.  


Although the primary target cell of bisphosphonates is the osteoclast, increasing attention is being given to other effector cells influenced by bisphosphonates, such as osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes. Early zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment to ovariectomized (OVX) rats has been found to fully preserve bone microarchitecture over time. However, little is known regarding the influence of ZA on marrow adipogenesis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the ability of early administration of ZA in restoring marrow adiposity in an estrogen-deficient rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SHAM), OVX + vehicle, and OVX + ZA groups (n=10/group). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and water/fat magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment to assess bone mineral density and marrow fat fraction. Serum biochemical markers, bone remodeling, and marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The expression levels of osteoblast, adipocyte, and osteoclast-related genes in bone marrow were assessed using RT-PCR. The OVX rats showed marked bone loss, first detected at 12 weeks, but estrogen deficiency resulted in a remarked increase in marrow fat fraction, first detected at 6 weeks compared with the SHAM rats (all P < .001). Similarly, the OVX rats had a substantially larger percent adipocyte area (+163.0%), mean diameter (+29.5%), and higher density (+57.3%) relative to the SHAM rats. Bone histomorphometry, levels of osteoclast-related gene expression, and a serum resorption marker confirmed that ZA significantly suppressed bone resorption activities. Furthermore, ZA treatment returned adipocyte-related gene expression and marrow adipocyte parameters toward SHAM levels. These data suggest that a single dose of early ZA treatment acts to reverse marrow adipogenesis occurring during estrogen deficiency, which may contribute to its capacity to reduce bone loss. PMID:25243855

Li, Guan-Wu; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Nian, Hua; Shi, Xiao



An Animal Model of Chronic Aplastic Bone Marrow Failure Following Pesticide Exposure in Mice  

PubMed Central

The wide use of pesticides for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes and evaluation of their subsequent effect is of major concern for public health. Human exposure to these contaminants especially bone marrow with its rapidly renewing cell population is one of the most sensitive tissues to these toxic agents represents a risk for the immune system leading to the onset of different pathologies. In this experimental protocol we have developed a mouse model of pesticide(s) induced hypoplastic/aplastic marrow failure to study quantitative changes in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell (BMHSC) population through flowcytometric analysis, defects in the stromal microenvironment through short term adherent cell colony (STACC) forming assay and immune functional capacity of the bone marrow derived cells through cell mediated immune (CMI) parameter study. A time course dependent analysis for consecutive 90 days were performed to monitor the associated changes in the marrow’s physiology after 30th, 60th and 90th days of chronic pesticide exposure. The peripheral blood showed maximum lowering of the blood cell count after 90 days which actually reflected the bone marrow scenario. Severe depression of BMHSC population, immune profile of the bone marrow derived cells and reduction of adherent cell colonies pointed towards an essentially empty and hypoplastic marrow condition that resembled the disease aplastic anemia. The changes were accompanied by splenomegaly and splenic erythroid hyperplasia. In conclusion, this animal model allowed us a better understanding of clinico-biological findings of the disease aplastic anemia following toxic exposure to the pesticide(s) used for agricultural and industrial purposes. PMID:24855541

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Chaklader, Malay; Basak, Pratima; Das, Prosun; Das, Madhurima; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Dutta, Ranjan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata



Marrow cell genetic phenotype change induced by human lung cancer cells.  


Microvesicles have been shown to mediate varieties of intercellular communication. Work in murine species has shown that lung-derived microvesicles can deliver mRNA, transcription factors, and microRNA to marrow cells and alter their phenotype. The present studies evaluated the capacity of excised human lung cancer cells to change the genetic phenotype of human marrow cells. We present the first studies on microvesicle production by excised cancers from human lung and the capacity of these microvesicles to alter the genetic phenotype of normal human marrow cells. We studied 12 cancers involving the lung and assessed nine lung-specific mRNA species (aquaporin, surfactant families, and clara cell-specific protein) in marrow cells exposed to tissue in co-culture, cultured in conditioned media, or exposed to isolated lung cancer-derived microvesicles. We assessed two or seven days of co-culture and marrow which was unseparated, separated by ficoll density gradient centrifugation or ammonium chloride lysis. Under these varying conditions, each cancer derived from lung mediated marrow expression of between one and seven lung-specific genes. Microvesicles were identified in the pellet of ultracentrifuged conditioned media and shown to enter marrow cells and induce lung-specific mRNA expression in marrow. A lung melanoma and a sarcoma also induced lung-specific mRNA in marrow cells. These data indicate that lung cancer cells may alter the genetic phenotype of normal cells and suggest that such perturbations might play a role in tumor progression, tumor recurrence, or metastases. They also suggest that the tissue environment may alter cancer cell gene expression. PMID:21864488

Del Tatto, Michael; Ng, Thomas; Aliotta, Jason M; Colvin, Gerald A; Dooner, Mark S; Berz, David; Dooner, Gerri J; Papa, Elaine F; Hixson, Douglas C; Ramratnam, Bharat; Aswad, Bassam I; Sears, Edmund H; Reagan, John; Quesenberry, Peter J



3, 383408, 2006 The northern Red  

E-print Network

BGD 3, 383­408, 2006 The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page in balance? ­ Implications of deep vertical mixing for the nitrogen budget in the northern Red Sea, including The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,**  

E-print Network

139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web -- response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

Jeffay, Kevin


27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...



Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones



Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley



Host bone marrow-derived IL-12 enhances donor T cell engraftment in a mouse model of bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Donor cell engraftment is critical for the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplants. Graft failure is a result of donor cells either failing to engraft initially or being eliminated at later time points. Donor cell engraftment is facilitated by donor T cells, which eliminate residual host hemato-lymphoid effector cells such as NK cells and T cells. Methods We aimed to explore the role of host hematopoietic cell derived IL-12 on donor cell engraftment in a murine model of BMT. We established radiation chimeras by transplanting C57BL6/J (B6) mice with BM from either congenic B6 mice or IL-12p40 KO mice. These WT ? WT or IL-12 KO ? WT chimeras then underwent a secondary transplant with allogeneic (FVB) BM. Survival, engraftment, donor T cell expansion, cytokine production by donor T cells, as well as expression of stimulatory markers on donor T cells was analyzed. Results Mice whose residual host hematopoietic cells were capable of producing IL-12 had modestly higher survival, higher donor T cell engraftment, and significantly higher donor erythroid engraftment. We have also found that an increased number of donor T cells in IL-12 KO ? WT chimeras have a regulatory phenotype, expressing FoxP3, producing lower levels of TNF-?, higher levels of IL-10, and expressing higher levels of ICOS as well as PD-1 on CD4+ T cells. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of a beneficial role of IL-12 production by host cells in the context of bone marrow engraftment in a murine model of BMT. These findings support the clinical use of exogenous IL-12 for use in settings where graft failure is of concern. PMID:24580829



Heart and kidney transplantation using total lymphoid irradiation and donor bone marrow in mongrel dogs  

SciTech Connect

Heart and kidney allografts showed markedly prolonged survival in unrelated mongrel dogs following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow without any other immunosuppression. In every animal the heart survived longer than the kidney. Placing the kidney allograft in the abdomen with the bone marrow given intraperitoneally doubled kidney survival over placement in the neck, but heart survival was equally prolonged in the abdomen or neck. Splenectomy before TLI or after TLI, but just before transplantation, almost completely eliminated the prolonged survival of both heart and kidney allografts. Thus there is suggestive evidence that TLI plus bone marrow from the donor may be valuable for transplantation in man, particularly heart transplantation.

Kahn, D.R.; Dufek, J.H.; Hong, R.; Caldwell, W.L.; Thomas, F.J.; Kolenda, D.R.; Swanson, D.K.; Struble, R.A.



Bone marrow origin of Ia-positive cells in the medulla rat thymus  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated rats were reconstituted with bone marrow from F1 hybrids. Ia antigen of donor-bone marrow origin was detected by an immunoperoxidase technique on cryostat sections and found predominantly in the medulla of rat thymus 2 wk after reconstitution. These Ia-bearing cells increased in number with time after reconstitution, but the Ia on the cortical epithelial cells remained of host origin. The nature of the bone marrow-derived cells and their implication for major histocompatibility complex restriction are discussed.

Barclay, A.N.; Mayrhofer, G.



Focal osteoporotic hematopoietic bone marrow defect formation around a dental implant: a case report.  


Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defects usually appear as asymptomatic radioluencies in the edentulous posterior mandible of middle-aged women. The exact causative factor in the majority of focal osteoporotic bone marrow defects is still unknown. Because of their radiological similarity with many intraosseous lesions, accurate diagnosis is possible only with histopathological examination. A focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect that occurred 2 years postoperatively apical to an implant is presented with clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. According to the literature scan, this is the first case report of this phenomenon caused by a dental implant. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2011;26:e1-e4. PMID:21365033

Sencimen, Metin; Delilbasi, Cagri; Gulses, Aydin; Okcu, Kemel Murat; Gunhan, Omer; Varol, Altan



Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-print Network

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net- work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally


Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group  

E-print Network

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group


Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Nanoscopy  

E-print Network

Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ABSTRACT Far-red fluorescent proteins are required for deep-tissue and whole-animal imaging and multicolor labeling in the red wavelength range

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.


Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-print Network

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net­ work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally


RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.


Red Nodule on the Breast  

PubMed Central

A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola. PMID:23112361

Colucci, Roberta; Galeone, Massimiliano; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Pinzi, Cinzia; Bellandi, Serena; Moretti, Silvia



Red nodule on the breast.  


A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola. PMID:23112361

Colucci, Roberta; Galeone, Massimiliano; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Pinzi, Cinzia; Bellandi, Serena; Moretti, Silvia



Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.


Clifford the Big Red Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS Kids has companion sites for their programs that offer a number of activities for young users. This one features everyone's favorite enormous, bright-red pooch, Clifford. At Clifford's site, visitors can play a matching game, read a story, print a cut-out dog house, and print out pages to color. The site also offers some Clifford video clips. THe site is compact, easy to navigate, and well suited for their target audience.



Toxic Blooms: Understanding Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online seminar reviews the topic of red tides in four sessions, which review the effect HABs have on public health, wildlife and the economy; describe common harmful algal species and their toxins; identify poisoning symptoms; compare methods of treatment if poisoned; describe some potential methods to control HABs; and identify research areas where information on HABs is still inadequate. After completing the sessions, an optional knowledge test is provided based on the seminar material.

Anderson, Don; The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Fathom



Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in 1998, the number of pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) cases in patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) increased dramatically. Most cases were observed in patients treated with epoetin alfa pro- duced outside the United States. The peak was observed in 2002; since then, the PRCA incidence has declined. Many factors are likely to have contributed to this up-

Francesco Locatelli; Lucia Del Vecchio; Pietro Pozzoni


Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).  

E-print Network

809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

Liang, Y. Daniel


Expression of the red fluorescent protein DsRed-Express in filamentous ascomycete fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently reported red fluorescent protein DsRed from the reef coral Discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. To facilitate expression of DsRed in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pDsRed-Express (Clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, pPgpd-DsRed, containing the constitutive Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. This vector was used

Lisbeth Mikkelsen; Sabrina Sarrocco; Mette Lübeck; Dan Funck Jensen



Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color.  


The color properties (CIE Lab, hue, and chroma) of 90 red grapefruit juices were studied by tristimulus reflectance measurement for two growing seasons. Juices were prepared from six red grapefruit cultivars including Ruby Red, Rio Red, Star Ruby, Ray Ruby, Flame, and Marsh Red grown in Florida. Very wide varietal and seasonal variations on juice color were observed, and most notably, CIE a values varied widely from -1.41 to 9.06 (CV = 82.6%). Lycopene is the major colored pigment in red cultivars with lesser amounts of beta-carotene as determined by HPLC on a carotenoid C(30) column with gradient elution using MeOH and MTBE. The highest correlation coefficients (r = 0.963) found between CIE a values and lycopene contents in juices from all cultivars combined suggest the possibility that the CIE a value would be a good indicator for pigmentation in red grapefruit juice. PMID:10820051

Lee, H S



Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children with Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases  


... Sept. 25, 2013 Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic ... know for sure 9 patients Understanding Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants What are hematopoietic stem cells? Hematopoietic stem ...


The Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home of HSC Differentiation and Mobilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bone marrow vasuclar niche consists of a network of thin-walled and fenestrated sinusoidal vessels whose integrity is maintained and supported by surrounding hematopoietic cells. However, this dependence is highly reciprocal.

Hans-Georg Kopp (Cornell University, Weill Medical College Institute of Genetic Medicine); Scott T. Avecilla (Cornell University, Weill Medical College Institute of Genetic Medicine); Andrea T. Hooper (Cornell University, Weill Medical College Institute of Genetic Medicine); Shahin Rafii (Weill Medical College, Cornell University Institute of Genetic Medicine)



A new histochemical method to assess and evaluate potential bone marrow damage from therapeutic substances.  


A new model is presented for assessing and evaluating the influence of bone-marrow-damaging substances in mice. Qualitative and quantitative results of histological, histochemical and enzyme histochemical studies facilitate the assessment of bone marrow damage in terms of extent and intensity. Bone marrow taken from the right femur of treated animals was embedded in renal tissue of controls for subsequent work-up in different techniques. From each of the experimental groups specimens from 10 animals were frozen in liquid nitrogen, specimens from another 10 animals were fixed in buffered formalin. Assessment and evaluation of changes was performed after the required histologic and histochemical staining (nucleic acid). Results were correlated with the cytology of bone marrow smears sampled from the left femur of each respective animal. Damage was visualized, in smear cytology or in histologic and histochemical preparations, and quantified by microphotometry and special staining for cytochrome oxidase activity. PMID:7263293

Ciplea, A G; Mayer, D



Self-assembling peptide hydrogels modulate in vitro chondrogenesis of bovine bone marrow stromal cells  

E-print Network

Our objective was to test the hypothesis that self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds provide cues that enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were encapsulated within two ...

Kopesky, Paul Wayne


The National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... all patients to receive the bone marrow or umbilical cord blood transplant they need, when they need ... to 9 million donors and nearly 145,000 umbilical cord blood units, the largest and most racially ...


Osseous Metaplasia and Bone Marrow Elements in a Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia and bone marrow elements is a relatively rare event in these tumors. We discuss pathological differential diagnosis for this tumor with a review of the literature on this unusual case. PMID:23119220

Ozkanli, Seyma; Yildirim, Asif; Zemheri, Ebru; Keskin, Sarp Korcan; Basok, Erem Kaan



Bone marrow fat: linking adipocyte-induced inflammation with skeletal metastases.  


Adipocytes are important but underappreciated components of bone marrow microenvironment, and their numbers greatly increase with age, obesity, and associated metabolic pathologies. Age and obesity are also significant risk factors for development of metastatic prostate cancer. Adipocytes are metabolically active cells that secrete adipokines, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators; influence behavior and function of neighboring cells; and have a potential to disturb local milleu and dysregulate normal bone homeostasis. Increased marrow adiposity has been linked to bone marrow inflammation and osteoporosis of the bone, but its effects on growth and progression of prostate tumors that have metastasized to the skeleton are currently not known. This review focuses on fat-bone relationship in a context of normal bone homeostasis and metastatic tumor growth in bone. We discuss effects of marrow fat cells on bone metabolism, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. Special attention is given to CCL2- and COX-2-driven pathways and their potential as therapeutic targets for bone metastatic disease. PMID:24398857

Hardaway, Aimalie L; Herroon, Mackenzie K; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Podgorski, Izabela



Morphologic and radiological observations on the earliest bone marrow formation in human embryos and fetuses.  


Morphologic and radiologic studies were undertaken on 26 human embryos and fetuses to determine the stage and site of the earliest bone marrow formation. Up to the 10th week of gestation, primary bone marrow is not present anywhere although the intramembranous ossification occurs in the maxilla and mandible and also in the middle portion of the clavicle. At the 11th week of gestation, X-ray examination showed in two fetuses the bone formation in the clavicle, scapula, maxilla, mandible, and the diaphysis of the long bones. Serial sections of these fetuses revealed that the primary bone marrow occurs first in the middle portion of the clavicle. From a series of our embryological studies, the concept of the mononuclear phagocyte system which involves the bone-marrow-derived monocytic origin of tissue macrophages, is not accepted, at least, on the origin of Kupffer cells in human fetal livers. PMID:6624441

Enzan, H; Hara, H; Izumi, T; Ohkita, T



Imaging Therapeutic Response in Human Bone Marrow Using Rapid Whole-Body MRI  

PubMed Central

Whole-body imaging of therapeutic response in human bone marrow was achieved without introduced contrast agents using diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging of physiologic water. Bone marrow disease was identified relative to the strong overlying signals from water and lipids in other anatomy through selective excitation of the water resonance and generation of image contrast that was dependent upon differential nuclear relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients. Three-dimensional displays were generated to aid image interpretation. The geometric distortion inherent in echo-planar imaging techniques was minimized through the acquisition of multiple axial slices at up to 12 anatomic stations over the entire body. Examples presented include the evaluation of therapeutic response in bone marrow during cytotoxic therapy for leukemia and metastatic prostate cancer and during cytokine administration for marrow mobilization prior to stem cell harvest. PMID:15562475

Ballon, Douglas; Watts, Richard; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Lis, Eric; Morris, Michael J.; Scher, Howard I.; Ulug, Aziz M.; Jakubowski, Ann A.



Study of Cancer Susceptibility Among Patients with Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

Persons with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) tend to have a very high risk of developing certain cancers. Researchers are assembling a study population that includes IBMFS patients and their family members.


Molecular substrate design for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of marrow connective tissue progenitors  

E-print Network

A multi-faceted approach was applied to the molecular design of substrates for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from human bone marrow aspirates. The basic ...

Au, Ada



Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.  


Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi



NCI Study Launched on Rare Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Disorders and Cancer Risk

The National Cancer Institute is launching the largest North American study of its kind to focus on people with rare inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) and their immediate family members.


NCI-CCR Pediatric Oncology Branch: Blood and Marrow Transplant - Staff

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Referrals For Patients For Physicians For Prospective Trainees For Scientists News Quick Links Home Referring a Patient Patients and Families Scientific Programs - Blood & Marrow


What to Expect Before a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  


... Expect Before a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Finding a Donor If you're going to ... body. HLA Tissue Typing People having stem cell transplants are matched with donors through a test called ...


Hepatic Parenchymal Replacement in Mice by Transplanted Allogeneic Hepatocytes Is Facilitated by Bone Marrow  

E-print Network

Hepatic Parenchymal Replacement in Mice by Transplanted Allogeneic Hepatocytes Is Facilitated. A desirable alternative therapeutic option is hepatocyte transplantation (HT), but this approach is similarly with prior bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Donor hepatocytes were derived from human al- pha(1

Ford, James


Inflammatory lesions in the bone marrow of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a morphological perspective  

PubMed Central

The synovial tissue stands at the epicenter of joint pathology in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As a primary target of the disease, studies on the synovium have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. Recent work has, however, revealed the importance of a previously unseen anatomic compartment in direct contact with the joint space, namely the subchondral bone marrow. Bone marrow edema (BME) visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is clinically meaningful in both early and late RA as it associates with future development of bone erosions and poor functional outcomes. Although the histopathologic correlates of MRI-based BME in early RA remain obscure, studies in advanced disease are consistent in describing lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates within the subchondral marrow cavity of affected joints. In this review, we discuss the nature of bone marrow lesions in patients with RA, analyze their relationship with synovitis, and explore their potential contribution to the pathological processes of the disease. PMID:23270711



Discovery of novel anti-inflammatory proteins inspired by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell secretions  

E-print Network

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may soon become the first FDA-approved stem cell therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Our lab originally hypothesized that much of the therapeutic activity of MSCs may ...

Milwid, Jack Miles



Cytogenetic risk assessment of etoposide from mouse bone marrow.  


Increased clinical applications of the anticancer drug etoposide (a non-intercalative epipodophyllotoxin derivative) and the frequent induction of a second malignancy, particularly leukaemia, in post-etoposide-treated cancer survivors warrant detailed genotoxicity testing of etoposide. The genotoxicity test results available on etoposide are either primarily in in vitro test systems or in lower organisms after treatment with unusually high doses, or after chronic exposures, having little extrapolative value to humans. Therefore, a cytogenetic risk assessment study on etoposide in mouse in vivo was undertaken after a low dose (in accordance with the human therapeutic dose) single exposure. The cytogenetic toxicity of etoposide was assessed from bone marrow of mouse at three separate endpoints: chromosomal aberration and mitotic index studies at 24 h post-treatment and the micronucleus test (MNT) at 30 h post-treatment. The flame drying technique using colchicine, hypotonic sodium citrate, methanol-glacial acetic acid and Giemsa was followed for the preparation of slides for the metaphase chromosomal aberration and mitotic index studies and a simple technique was followed for the MNT. Although induction of chromosomal aberrations, excluding gaps, per 100 metaphases by 10 and 15 mg kg(-1) etoposide was not significant statistically, 20 mg kg(-1) of etoposide induced a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations in female (P < or = 0.01) and male (P < or = 0.05) mice. There was no significant change in the induced percentages of dividing cells by any of the doses of etoposide tested. The micronucleus induction also was not significant statistically with the lowest dose but it was significant in female (P marrow after a single treatment with such low doses. However, the drug did not interfere with cell cycle progression. Although it is a DNA-non-intercalating agent, etoposide is known for its interference in the activity of DNA topoisomerase IIalpha enzyme, particularly in the proliferative cells where the concentration and activity of the enzyme are greater. This might be the reason for the induction of leukaemia in post-etoposide-treated cancer survivors. Therefore, it has become absolutely necessary to make etoposide target-specific, i.e. specific to the topoisomerase II enzymes of cancerous cells. PMID:15052606

Choudhury, Ramesh C; Palo, Anil K; Sahu, Prajyoti



Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  


Between January 1989 and July 1995 the search for an unrelated donor (UD) was started for 379 consecutive Italian patients with Philadelphia positive (Ph+) chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). 89 (23%) were transplanted. The overall probability of transplant before and after December 1991 was 16% and 49%, respectively (P=0.0001), and average interval between search activation and graft was 23 months and 13 months, respectively (P=0.0001). Disease-free survival (DFS) following 60 consecutive transplants performed before February 1996 was 41.5% at 48 months and was 64% for patients grafted after January 1993. In univariate analysis, five variables had a favourable effect on DFS: year of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after 1993 (P=0.0002), HLA-DRB1 donor/recipient (D/R) match (P=0.0006), total body irradiation (TBI) containing regimen (P=0.0006), graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis including 'early' cyclosporin before the transplant, and a marrow cell dose > 3 x 10(8)/kg of recipient body weight (P=0.04). Multivariate analysis confirmed that HLA identity (P=0.006), TBI-containing regimen (P=0.0001) and 'early cyclosporin' (P=0.04) were associated with higher DFS. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 67% in patients grafted before January 1993 and 30% in patients grafted subsequently (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis confirmed DRB1 identity (P=0.03) and TBI-containing regimen (P=0.0005) to be independent factors predictive of low TRM. This suggests that the outcome of patients transplanted from an HLA DRB1 matched donor, after a TBI-containing preparative regimen, is similar to results recently reported in patients transplanted from geno-identical siblings. These results indicate that the search should be initiated at diagnosis for patients < 45 years of age and UD BMT should be considered early in the disease course for those with an available DRB1-matched unrelated donor. PMID:9695972

Dini, G; Lamparelli, T; Rondelli, R; Lanino, E; Barbanti, M; Costa, C; Manfredini, L; Guidi, S; Rosti, G; Alessandrino, E P; Locatelli, F; Marenco, P; Soligo, D; Di Bartolomeo, P; Aversa, F; La Nasa, G; Busca, A; Majolino, I; De Laurenzi, A; Bacigalupo, A



Total marrow irradiation using Helical TomoTherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical dose response data of human tumours are limited or restricted to a radiation dose range determined by the level of toxicity to the normal tissues. This is the case for the most common disseminated plasma cell neoplasm, multiple myeloma, where the maximum dose deliverable to the entire bony skeleton using a standard total body irradiation (TBI) technique is limited to about 12 Gy. This study is part of scientific background of a phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial for multiple myeloma using image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) to deliver high dose to the entire volume of bone marrow with Helical TomoTherapy (HT). This relatively new technology can deliver highly conformal dose distributions to complex target shapes while reducing the dose to critical normal tissues. In this study tools for comparing and predicting the effectiveness of different approaches to total marrow irradiation (TMI) using HT were provided. The expected dose response for plasma cell neoplasms was computed and a radiobiological evaluation of different treatment cohorts in a dose escalating study was performed. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models were applied to an actual TMI treatment plan for a patient and the implications of using different longitudinal field widths were assessed. The optimum dose was ˜39 Gy for which a predicted tumour control of 95% (+/-3%) was obtained, with a predicted 3% (0, 8%) occurrence of radiation pneumonitis. Tissue sparing was seen by using smaller field widths only in the organs of the head. This suggests it would be beneficial to use the small fields in the head only since using small fields for the whole treatment would lead to long treatment times. In TMI it may be necessary to junction two longitudinally adjacent treatment volumes to form a contiguous planning target volume PTV. For instance, this is the case when a different SUP-INF spatial resolution is required or when the PTV length exceeds the bed travel distance. In this work, the dosimetric challenges associated with junctioning longitudinally adjacent PTVs with HT were analyzed and the feasibility of PTV junctioning was demonstrated. The benefits of spatially dividing or splitting the treatment into a few sub-treatments along the longitudinal direction were also investigated.

Garcia-Fernandez, Lourdes Maria


Gamma Radiation Induces Micronucleated Reticulocytes in 3-D Bone Marrow Bioreactors in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3-D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3-D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th to 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 and 32 hours post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5 – 2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3-D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro. PMID:19786117

Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Hyrien, Ollivier; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau



In VitroChondrogenesis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture system that facilitates the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells has been developed. Cells obtained in bone marrow aspirates were first isolated by monolayer culture and then transferred into tubes and allowed to form three-dimensional aggregates in a chemically defined medium. The inclusion of 10?7M dexamethasone in the medium induced chondrogenic differentiation of cells within

Brian Johnstone; Thomas M. Hering; Arnold I. Caplan; Victor M. Goldberg; Jung U. Yoo



Cell fusion is the principal source of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that haematopoietic stem cells might have unexpected developmental plasticity, highlighting therapeutic potential. For example, bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes can repopulate the liver of mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency and correct their liver disease. To determine the underlying mechanism in this murine model, we performed serial transplantation of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes. Here we show by Southern blot analysis that the repopulating hepatocytes

Xin Wang; Holger Willenbring; Yassmine Akkari; Yumi Torimaru; Mark Foster; Muhsen Al-Dhalimy; Eric Lagasse; Milton Finegold; Susan Olson; Markus Grompe



Perivascular Microglial Cells of the CNS are Bone Marrow-Derived and Present Antigen in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question in the study of immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS) concerns the identity of the parenchymal cells that function as the antigen-presenting cells in that organ. Rat bone marrow chimeras and encephalitogenic, major histocompatability-restricted T-helper lymphocytes were used to show that a subset of endogenous CNS cells, commonly termed ``perivascular microglial cells,'' is bone marrow-derived.

William F. Hickey; Hiromitsu Kimura



Generation of Functional Clonal Cell Lines from Human Bone Marrow Stroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five clonal human bone marrow stromal cell lines were isolated from the adherent cell populations in long-term liquid cultures after transfection with the recombinant plasmid pSV3gpt. All the cell-line feeder layers and their conditioned media stimulated the proliferation of committed granulomonocytic stem cells (CFUc) from human bone marrow. The size and number of early erythroid stem cell (BFUe)-derived colonies were

Kenichi Harigaya; Hiroshi Handa



Acute bone marrow edema of the hip: role of MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bone marrow edema of the hip is a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and clinicians. Marrow edema is often seen\\u000a in patients with hip pain and restriction of motion. In patients with acute non-traumatic hip pain, whose radiographs are\\u000a negative or inconclusive, MR imaging is the imaging study of choice. MR imaging is the most sensitive and specific imaging

Apostolos H. Karantanas



The first-appearance of neutrophils in the human fetal bone marrow cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to define the time of first-appearance of neutrophils within the developing human bone marrow cavity, and to compare this with the time of appearance of G-CSF and its receptor (G-CSF-R) at that site. We hypothesized that the onset of G-CSF production is an initiation signal for neutrophil production within the marrow cavity, and that therefore G-CSF mRNA and

William B Slayton; Yan Li; Darlene A Calhoun; Sandra E Juul; Jose Iturraspe; Raul C Braylan; Robert D Christensen



Diffuse bone marrow sarcoid-like reaction associated with renal cell carcinoma.  


Sarcoid-like reaction has been documented in association with several types of malignancy, including renal cell carcinoma. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma and concomitant non-caseating granulomas distributed diffusely throughout the bone marrow. The granulomas resolved after nephrectomy. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of a sarcoid-like reaction primarily involving the bone marrow in association with renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25052538

Madden, Timothy F; Baccei, Steven J



Stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicenter investigation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with sickle cell disease was conducted that included 27 European and North American transplant centers. Fifty-nine patients who ranged in age from 3.3 to 15.9 years (median, 10.1 years) received HLA-identical sibling marrow allografts between September 1991 and April 2000. Fifty-five patients survive, and 50 survive free from sickle cell

M. C Walters; M Patience; W Leisenring; Z. R Rogers; V. M Aquino; G. R Buchanan; I. A. G Roberts; A. M Yeager; L Hsu; T Adamkiewicz; J Kurtzberg; E Vichinsky; B Storer; R Storb; K. M Sullivan



Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow cells possess a broad differentiation potential, being able to form new liver cells, cardiomyocytes and neurons. Several groups have attributed this apparent plasticity to `transdifferentiation'. Others, however, have suggested that cell fusion could explain these results. Using a simple method based on Cre\\/lox recombination to detect cell fusion events, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived

Manuel Alvarez-Dolado; Ricardo Pardal; Jose M. Garcia-Verdugo; John R. Fike; Hyun O. Lee; Klaus Pfeffer; Carlos Lois; Sean J. Morrison; Arturo Alvarez-Buylla



The Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen Disparity on Cyclosporine Neurotoxicity after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We examined the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and the development of cyclosporine (CyA) neurotoxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and determined the frequency and imaging characteristics of CyA neurotoxicity in these patients. METHODS: Records of 87 patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation were reviewed. Eight patients who presented with visual disturbance and\\/or seizures

Wendy E. Zimmer; J. Maurice Hourihane; Henry Z. Wang; Jeffery R. Schriber



Autologous bone marrow transplantation after histologic transformation of indolent B cell malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after transformation is controversial. We have retrospectively analyzed patients with chemosensitive disease and a history of follicular lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia\\/small lymphocytic lymphoma who underwent high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with anti-B cell monoclonal antibody-purged autologous marrow for DLBCL. Between

Jonathan W Friedberg; Donna Neuberg; John G Gribben; Peter Mauch; Kenneth C Anderson; Robert J Soiffer; Tak Takvorian; David C Fisher; Robert Schlossman; Haddie Jallow; Caroline Kuhlman; Jerome Ritz; Arnold S Freedman



Molecular relapse in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients after bone marrow transplantation detected by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relapse of chronic myelogenous leukemia after bone marrow transplantation can be detected by using clinical, cytogenetic, or molecular tools. A modification of the polymerase chain reaction can be used in patients to detect low levels of the BCR-ABL-encoded mRNA transcript, a specific marker for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Early detection of relapse after bone marrow transplantation could potentially alter treatment decisions.

C. L. Sawyers; L. Timson; S. S. Clark; O. N. Witte; R. Champlin; E. S. Kawasaki



Bone marrow origin of Ia-positive cells in the medulla rat thymus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiated rats were reconstituted with bone marrow from F1 hybrids. Ia antigen of donor-bone marrow origin was detected by an immunoperoxidase technique on cryostat sections and found predominantly in the medulla of rat thymus 2 wk after reconstitution. These Ia-bearing cells increased in number with time after reconstitution, but the Ia on the cortical epithelial cells remained of host origin.

A. N. Barclay; G. Mayrhofer



Comparison of rat mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, synovium, periosteum, adipose tissue, and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly being reported as occurring in a variety of tissues. Although MSCs from human\\u000a bone marrow are relatively easy to harvest, the isolation of rodent MSCs is more difficult, thereby limiting the number of\\u000a experiments in vivo. To determine a suitable cell source, we isolated rat MSCs from bone marrow, synovium, periosteum, adipose,\\u000a and muscle

Hideya Yoshimura; Takeshi Muneta; Akimoto Nimura; Akiko Yokoyama; Hideyuki Koga; Ichiro Sekiya



Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in patients with pulmonary disease secondary to bone marrow transplantation.  


This study presents four patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation and subsequently developed pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, hitherto reported as an idiopathic condition. All presented clinically with pneumothorax and subpleural fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography. In addition to the expected obliterative bronchiolitis, histopathology showed coexistent subpleural changes, and the relationship of pathology in multiple anatomic compartments in post bone marrow transplantation pulmonary disease is discussed. PMID:21822205

von der Thüsen, Jan H; Hansell, David M; Tominaga, Masaki; Veys, Paul A; Ashworth, Michael T; Owens, Catherine M; Nicholson, Andrew G



A blinded study of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine the inter-rater reliability of bone marrow examinations and to identify distinguishing morphological features of ITP bone marrows under controlled conditions. Methods Histological slides of bone marrow biopsy specimens and aspirates from 32 adult patients with severe primary ITP who had failed a median of two treatments, and 51 non-thrombocytopenic controls were retrieved from hospital archives. Slides were arranged in random order in a slide box and coded. Blinded to the diagnosis and platelet counts, three independent hematopathologists were asked to identify the ITP bone marrows and to evaluate megakaryocyte number, morphology, and distribution. Results Overall chance-corrected agreement on ITP classification among the three raters was poor [kappa (?) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.22–0.38]. Raters were generally unable to correctly identify the ITP bone marrows from controls. Increased number of megakaryocytes, while an uncommon finding, was more frequent among ITP patients compared with controls (6/32, 18.8%; vs. 2/51, 3.9%; P = 0.05), and abnormal megakaryocyte morphology often led individual raters to reach a diagnosis of ITP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow examinations were 24% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms methodologically that bone marrow examinations are unreliable and frequently non-diagnostic in ITP. Thus, they are not useful for patients with typical disease. Rare subsets of patients with severe ITP demonstrated unique features such as increased number of megakaryocytes. PMID:23140198

Mahabir, Vishwanath K.; Ross, Catherine; Popovic, Snezana; Sur, Mona Lisa; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Lim, Wendy; George, James N.; Wang, Grace; Cook, Richard J.; Toltl, Lisa J.; Nazi, Ishac; Kelton, John G.; Arnold, Donald M.



Use of FK506 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for rat hind limb allografts?  

PubMed Central

Dark Agouti rat donor hind limbs were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis rat recipients to verify the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration and functional recovery of allotransplanted limbs in the microenvironment of immunotolerance. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were intramuscularly (gluteus maximus) injected with FK506 (tacrolimus) daily, and were transplanted to the injured nerves. Results indicated that the allograft group not receiving therapy showed severe rejection, with transplanted limbs detaching at 10 days after transplantation with complete necrosis. The number of myelinated axons and Schwann cells in the FK506 and FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells groups were significantly increased. We observed a lesser degree of gastrocnemius muscle degeneration, and increased polymorphic fibers along with other pathological changes in the FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group. The FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group showed significantly better recovery than the autograft and FK506 groups. The results demonstrated that FK506 improved the immune microenvironment. FK506 combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration, and improved sensory recovery and motor function in hind limb allotransplant. PMID:25337114

Song, Youxin; Wang, Zhujun; Wang, Zhixue; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Bin



Therapeutic impact of erythropoietin-encapsulated liposomes targeted to bone marrow on renal anemia.  


Bone marrow is a key element in the diagnosis of disorders of erythropoiesis, including anemia, and a potential target in their treatment. However, because efficient delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to bone marrow is difficult, such delivery is achieved by administering drugs in large quantities that often have adverse effects. Here, we achieved selective delivery of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) to bone marrow, via its encapsulation in liposomes with l-glutamic acid, N-(3-carboxy-1-oxopropyl)-, 1,5-dihexadecyl ester (SA) (liposome-EPO). The result, in a rabbit model of renal anemia, was a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis, better than with rHuEPO alone. Also, we determined that liposome-EPO delivery to bone marrow depended on specific uptake by bone marrow macrophages because of the presence of SA. These results indicate both that liposome-EPO is a new, promising erythropoietin-stimulating agent and that liposomes with SA have potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in diseases originating from bone marrow. PMID:25255196

Miyazaki, Yuri; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Sou, Keitaro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Miyakawa, Toshikazu; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru



Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.  


Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D



Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.



Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D/sub 0/ values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F/sub 1/+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D/sup 0/ value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.



Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.



Diabetic retinopathy is associated with bone marrow neuropathy and a depressed peripheral clock.  


The present epidemic of diabetes is resulting in a worldwide increase in cardiovascular and microvascular complications including retinopathy. Current thinking has focused on local influences in the retina as being responsible for development of this diabetic complication. However, the contribution of circulating cells in maintenance, repair, and dysfunction of the vasculature is now becoming appreciated. Diabetic individuals have fewer endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in their circulation and these cells have diminished migratory potential, which contributes to their decreased reparative capacity. Using a rat model of type 2 diabetes, we show that the decrease in EPC release from diabetic bone marrow is caused by bone marrow neuropathy and that these changes precede the development of diabetic retinopathy. In rats that had diabetes for 4 mo, we observed a dramatic reduction in the number of nerve terminal endings in the bone marrow. Denervation was accompanied by increased numbers of EPCs within the bone marrow but decreased numbers in circulation. Furthermore, denervation was accompanied by a loss of circadian release of EPCs and a marked reduction in clock gene expression in the retina and in EPCs themselves. This reduction in the circadian peak of EPC release led to diminished reparative capacity, resulting in the development of the hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy, acellular retinal capillaries. Thus, for the first time, diabetic retinopathy is related to neuropathy of the bone marrow. This novel finding shows that bone marrow denervation represents a new therapeutic target for treatment of diabetic vascular complications. PMID:19934019

Busik, Julia V; Tikhonenko, Maria; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Opreanu, Madalina; Yakubova, Nafissa; Caballero, Sergio; Player, Danny; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Afzal, Aqeela; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Sochacki, Andrew; Hasty, Stephanie; Li Calzi, Sergio; Kim, Sungjin; Duclas, Shane K; Segal, Mark S; Guberski, Dennis L; Esselman, Walter J; Boulton, Michael E; Grant, Maria B



Hemophagocytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology: Single Center Experience in North Himalayan Region of India  

PubMed Central

Background: The differentiation of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with other causes of hemophagocytosis is essential as HLH is life-threatening condition and requires definite clinical and biochemical criteria for its diagnosis. Aim: The present study was conducted to study hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirates and to observe if there is any difference on bone marrow examination between HLH and non HLH cases showing hemophagocytosis. Materials and Methods: The study reviewed all the cases of bone marrow aspirate for evidence of hemophagocytosis in which at least three smears and 500 nucleated cells were observed for every case. The cases were provisionally diagnosed as HLH according to the proposed HLH diagnostic criteria, 2009. Results: A total of 80 cases showed hemophagocytosis in the present study with infections followed by HLH being the most common cause. Pancytopenia and erythroid hyperplasis were common hematological presentation. Moderate to severe hemophagocytosis was observed in HLH cases while mild grade in non HLH cases. Conclusion: The study concludes that hemophagocytosis even if observed in single cell should always be documented in the bone marrow reports. It may be the only indicator of subtle infection in the marrow. Pancytopenia and higher grade of hemophagocytosis on bone marrow examination may be helpful in establishing an early differentiation of HLH and non HLH cases. PMID:25328776

Chandra, H; Chandra, S; Kaushik, RM; Bhat, NK; Shrivastava, V



Repopulation of the Irradiation Damaged Lung with Bone Marrow-derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Aim The effect of lung irradiation on reduction of lung stem cells and repopulation with bone marrow-derived cells was measured. Materials and Methods Expression of green fluorescent protein positive cells (GFP+) in the lungs of thoracic irradiated FVB/NHsd mice (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN, USA) was determined. This was compared to the repopulation of bone marrow-derived cells found in the lungs from naphthalene treated male FVB/NHsd mice and gangciclovir (GVC) treated FeVBN GFP+ male marrow chimeric HSV-TK-CCSP. The level of mRNA for lung stem cell markers clara cell (CCSP), epithelium 1 (FOXJ1) and surfactant protein C (SP-C), and sorted single cells positive for marrow origin epithelial cells (GFP+ CD45?) was measured. Results The expression of pulmonary stem cells as determined by PCR was reduced most by GCV, then naphthalene, and least by thoracic irradiation. Irradiation, like GCV, reduced mRNA expression of CCSP, CYP2F2, and FOXJ1, while naphthalene reduced that of CCSP and CYP2F2. Ultrastructural analysis showed GFP+ pulmonary cells of bone marrow origin, with the highest frequency being found in GCV-treated groups. Conclusion Bone marrow progenitor cells may not participate in the repopulation of the lung following irradiation. PMID:22210711

Bernard, Mark E.; Kim, Hyun; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Stone, Brandon; Salimi, Umar; Rwigema, Jean-Claude; Epperly, Michael W.; Shen, Hongmei; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Cao, Shaonan; Zhang, Xichen; Wang, Hong; Stolz, Donna B.; Greenberger, Joel S.



Autologous bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy and irradiation in dogs with spontaneous lymphomas. [. gamma. rays  

SciTech Connect

Thirty dogs with spontaneous lymphomas were administered two to six cycles of chemotherapy and were randomized into 3 groups to receive 800 rads of total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Of 10 dogs irradiated after chemotherapy-induced remission and infused with remission marrow (group 1), 8 (80%) had successful grafts and experienced remissions lasting 62 to 1024 days. Of 9 dogs irradiated during remission and infused with remission marrow mixed with autologous tumor cells (group 2), 6 (66%) had remission lasting 15 to 45 days. Eleven dogs with progressive tumor growth (relapse) following chemotherapy were irradiated and infused with remission marrow (group 3). Tumor remission lasting 39 to 350 days was observed in 5 dogs (45%) in this group, and 6 dogs died in less than 30 days. Dogs in groups 1 to 3 had median survival times of 216, 60, and 45 days, respectively. The prolonged survival times for dogs in group 1 compared to dogs in groups 2 and 3 suggest that protocols involving irradiation and autologous marrow grafting in this model would be most effective when these protocols are applied to animals having a minimum tumor burden at the time of irradiation and when the grafting is done with tumor-free autologous marrow.

Bowles, C.A. (Hazleton Labs. of America, Vienna, VA); Bull, M.; McCormick, K.; Kadin, M.; Lucas, D.



Autologous Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Human Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

The liver is the current site of choice for pancreatic islet transplantation, even though it is far from being ideal. We recently have shown in mice that the bone marrow (BM) may be a valid alternative to the liver, and here we report a pilot study to test feasibility and safety of BM as a site for islet transplantation in humans. Four patients who developed diabetes after total pancreatectomy were candidates for the autologous transplantation of pancreatic islet. Because the patients had contraindications for intraportal infusion, islets were infused in the BM. In all recipients, islets engrafted successfully as shown by measurable posttransplantation C-peptide levels and histopathological evidence of insulin-producing cells or molecular markers of endocrine tissue in BM biopsy samples analyzed during follow-up. Thus far, we have recorded no adverse events related to the infusion procedure or the presence of islets in the BM. Islet function was sustained for the maximum follow-up of 944 days. The encouraging results of this pilot study provide new perspectives in identifying alternative sites for islet infusion in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, this is the first unequivocal example of successful engraftment of endocrine tissue in the BM in humans. PMID:23733196

Maffi, Paola; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Nano, Rita; Sordi, Valeria; Melzi, Raffaella; Mercalli, Alessia; Scavini, Marina; Esposito, Antonio; Peccatori, Jacopo; Cantarelli, Elisa; Messina, Carlo; Bernardi, Massimo; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Staudacher, Carlo; Doglioni, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Secchi, Antonio; Piemonti, Lorenzo