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1

Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of

G M Kendall; T P Fell; J D Harrison

2009-01-01

2

Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography  

SciTech Connect

A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

3

660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600–1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. PMID:25206807

Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

2014-01-01

4

Clinical Significance of Fragmented Red Cells after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the clinical significance of the presence of fragmented red cells (FRC) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation\\u000a (BMT), we measured the incidence and degree of FRC and their relationships to clinical features. The percentages of FRC (%FRC)\\u000a were measured in 50 patients on weeks-2,0,2,4,6,8,10, and 12. The %FRC in pre-BMT patients (mean, 0.52%; range, 0.04%–1.56%)\\u000a was higher than in

Heiwa Kanamori; Yumiko Takaishi; Maki Takabayashi; Masatsugu Tanaka; Satoshi Yamaji; Naoto Tomita; Katsumichi Fujimaki; Shin Fujisawa; Shinichiro Watanabe; Michio Matsuzaki; Yoshiaki Tshigatsubo

2003-01-01

5

Successful treatment of refractory acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

This case describes a 16-year-old woman treated successfully by a bone marrow transplant from her HLA-identical brother for refractory acquired pure red cell aplasia. Conditioning was as for severe aplastic anaemia with cyclophosphamide 4 x 50 mg/kg and antithymocyte globulin. Complete donor type engraftment at 3 months reversed to full autologous reconstitution at 2 years with normal haemopoiesis. The potential implications on pathogenesis of the disease as well as on treatment of autoimmune disorders by stem cell transplantation are discussed. PMID:10382963

Müller, B U; Tichelli, A; Passweg, J R; Nissen, C; Wodnar-Filipowicz, A; Gratwohl, A

1999-06-01

6

The proliferative capacity of pure red cell aplasia bone marrow cells.  

PubMed Central

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a heterogeneous disorder. Immunologic abnormalities have recently been uncovered suggesting that both cell-mediated and humoral immune mechanisms may be of etiological importance in PRCA. Utilizing a technique for the cloning of bone marrow erythroid precursors, we determined the in vitro proliferative capacity of erythroid cells obtained from 21 patients with PRCA. Bone marrow cells from one group of patients produced normal or increased numbers of erythroid colonies while the in vitro proliferative capacity of bone marrow cells from a second group was characterized by subnormal erythroid colony formation. Sera obtained from the former group was frequently associated with demonstrable serum inhibitors of erythropoiesis, while PRCA in the latter group was probably the consequence of intrinsic erythroid stem cell defects or pathologic cellular interactions with nonerythroid regulatory cells. This survey of a relatively large population of patients with PRCA provides evidence for the multiple causative mechanisms that can be operative in the production of PRCA. PMID:7269642

Katz, L. J.; Hoffman, R.; Ritchey, A. K.; Dainiak, N.

1981-01-01

7

Doses to the red bone marrow of young people and adults from radiation of natural origin.  

PubMed

Natural radiation sources comprise cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhaled isotopes of radon with their decay products. These deliver doses to all organs and tissues including red bone marrow (RBM), the tissue in which leukaemia is thought to originate. In this paper we calculate the age-dependent annual RBM doses from natural radiation sources to young people and to adults at average levels of exposure in the UK. The contributions to dose are generally less complex than in the case of doses to foetuses and young children where it is necessary to take into account transfer of radionuclides across the placenta, intakes in mother's milk and changes in gut uptake in young infants. However, there is high uptake of alkaline earths and of similar elements in the developing skeleton and this significantly affects the doses from radioisotopes of these elements, not just in the teens and twenties but through into the fifth decade of life. The total equivalent dose to the RBM from all natural sources of radiation at age 15 years is calculated to be about 1200  µSv a year at average UK levels, falling to rather less than 1100  µSv per year in later life; the gentle fall from the late teens onwards reflects the diminishing effect of the high uptakes of radioisotopes of the alkaline earths and of lead in this period. About 60% of the equivalent dose is contributed by the low linear energy transfer (LET) component. Radionuclides in food make the largest contribution to equivalent doses to RBM and much the largest contribution to the absorbed dose from high LET radiation (mainly alpha particles). PMID:21865611

Kendall, G M; Fell, T P

2011-09-01

8

Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (?3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

2014-04-01

9

Differentiation between Focal Malignant Marrow-Replacing Lesions and Benign Red Marrow Deposition of the Spine with T2*-Corrected Fat-Signal Fraction Map Using a Three-Echo Volume Interpolated Breath-Hold Gradient Echo Dixon Sequence  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility of T2*-corrected fat-signal fraction (FF) map by using the three-echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo (VIBE) Dixon sequence to differentiate between malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of vertebrae. Materials and Methods We assessed 32 lesions from 32 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging after being referred for assessment of a known or possible vertebral marrow abnormality. The lesions were divided into 21 malignant marrow-replacing lesions and 11 benign red marrow depositions. Three sequences for the parameter measurements were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR imaging scanner as follows: three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence for FF; conventional T1-weighted imaging for the lesion-disc ratio (LDR); pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images for the contrast-enhancement ratio (CER). A region of interest was drawn for each lesion for parameter measurements. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the parameters and their sensitivities and specificities at the most ideal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were obtained. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were respectively compared between FF and CER. Results The AUCs of FF, LDR, and CER were 0.96, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. In the comparison of diagnostic performance between the FF and CER, the FF showed a significantly larger AUC as compared to the CER (p = 0.030), although the difference of sensitivity (p = 0.157) and specificity (p = 0.157) were not significant. Conclusion Fat-signal fraction measurement using T2*-corrected three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence is feasible and has a more accurate diagnostic performance, than the CER, in distinguishing benign red marrow deposition from malignant bone marrow-replacing lesions. PMID:25469090

Kim, Yong Pyo; Kannengiesser, Stephan; Paek, Mun-Young; Chung, Tae-Sub; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

2014-01-01

10

Distinct, strict requirements for Gfi-1b in adult bone marrow red cell and platelet generation.  

PubMed

The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Gfi-1b is essential for erythroid and megakaryocytic development in the embryo. Its roles in the maintenance of bone marrow erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis have not been defined. We investigated Gfi-1b's adult functions using a loxP-flanked Gfi-1b allele in combination with a novel doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene that efficiently mediates recombination in the bone marrow. We reveal strict, lineage-intrinsic requirements for continuous adult Gfi-1b expression at two distinct critical stages of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Induced disruption of Gfi-1b was lethal within 3 wk with severely reduced hemoglobin levels and platelet counts. The erythroid lineage was arrested early in bipotential progenitors, which did not give rise to mature erythroid cells in vitro or in vivo. Yet Gfi-1b(-/-) progenitors had initiated the erythroid program as they expressed many lineage-restricted genes, including Klf1/Eklf and Erythropoietin receptor. In contrast, the megakaryocytic lineage developed beyond the progenitor stage in Gfi-1b's absence and was arrested at the promegakaryocyte stage, after nuclear polyploidization, but before cytoplasmic maturation. Genome-wide analyses revealed that Gfi-1b directly regulates a wide spectrum of megakaryocytic and erythroid genes, predominantly repressing their expression. Together our study establishes Gfi-1b as a master transcriptional repressor of adult erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis. PMID:24711581

Foudi, Adlen; Kramer, Daniel J; Qin, Jinzhong; Ye, Denise; Behlich, Anna-Sophie; Mordecai, Scott; Preffer, Frederic I; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Orkin, Stuart H; Hock, Hanno

2014-05-01

11

Distinct, strict requirements for Gfi-1b in adult bone marrow red cell and platelet generation  

PubMed Central

The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Gfi-1b is essential for erythroid and megakaryocytic development in the embryo. Its roles in the maintenance of bone marrow erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis have not been defined. We investigated Gfi-1b’s adult functions using a loxP-flanked Gfi-1b allele in combination with a novel doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene that efficiently mediates recombination in the bone marrow. We reveal strict, lineage-intrinsic requirements for continuous adult Gfi-1b expression at two distinct critical stages of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Induced disruption of Gfi-1b was lethal within 3 wk with severely reduced hemoglobin levels and platelet counts. The erythroid lineage was arrested early in bipotential progenitors, which did not give rise to mature erythroid cells in vitro or in vivo. Yet Gfi-1b?/? progenitors had initiated the erythroid program as they expressed many lineage-restricted genes, including Klf1/Eklf and Erythropoietin receptor. In contrast, the megakaryocytic lineage developed beyond the progenitor stage in Gfi-1b’s absence and was arrested at the promegakaryocyte stage, after nuclear polyploidization, but before cytoplasmic maturation. Genome-wide analyses revealed that Gfi-1b directly regulates a wide spectrum of megakaryocytic and erythroid genes, predominantly repressing their expression. Together our study establishes Gfi-1b as a master transcriptional repressor of adult erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis. PMID:24711581

Foudi, Adlen; Kramer, Daniel J.; Qin, Jinzhong; Ye, Denise; Behlich, Anna-Sophie; Mordecai, Scott; Preffer, Frederic I.; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Orkin, Stuart H.

2014-01-01

12

Bone Marrow Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... with the stem cells or how they develop. Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect ...

13

Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (?17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 × 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa.

Goodsitt, Mitchell M., E-mail: goodsitt@umich.edu; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Shen, Jincheng [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Schipper, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wilderman, Scott [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chun, Se Young [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

14

RESEARCH INTO THE ADAPTATION OF BONE MARROW CELLS OF THE RED SERIES TRANSPLANTED IN ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeled bone marrow, administered intravenously or intra-osseously to ; dogs, apes, and rats, matured until it reached its terminal stage. The evidence ; thereto was the appearance of activity in the erythrocytes of the recipients. ; Erythrocyte activity was recorded with scintillation counters and by ; autoradiography. (auth);

G. I. Kozinets; G. V. Sukyasyan

1961-01-01

15

Comparison of mathematical models for red marrow and blood absorbed dose estimation in the radioiodine treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastatic and recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma is preferably treated with 131I, whose administered activity is limited by red marrow (RM) toxicity, originally correlated by Benua to a blood absorbed dose higher than 2?Gy. Afterward a variety of dosimetric approaches has been proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the Benua formula with the ones of other three blood and RM absorbed dose formulae. Materials and methods have been borrowed by the dosimetric protocol of the Italian Internal Dosimetry group and adapted to the routine of our centre. Wilcoxon t-tests and percentage differences have been applied for comparison purposes. Results are significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other, with an average percentage difference between Benua versus other results of ?22%. The dosimetric formula applied to determine blood or RM absorbed dose may contribute significantly to increase heterogeneity in absorbed dose and dose–response results. Standardization should be a major objective.

Miranti, A.; Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Gino, E.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

2015-02-01

16

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

17

Simultaneous administration of TPO and G-CSF after cytoreductive treatment of rhesus monkeys prevents thrombocytopenia, accelerates platelet and red cell reconstitution, alleviates neutropenia, and promotes the recovery of immature bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Simultaneous treatment with human thrombopoietin (TPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was evaluated in a placebo-controlled rhesus monkey study using 5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) to induce 3 weeks of pancytopenia. Daily administration of TPO (10 microg/kg/day injected subcutaneously [sc] days 1-21 after TBI) promoted platelet and reticulocyte recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs and a rapid recovery to normal levels. Platelet transfusions were not required in these animals, in contrast to controls, and hemoglobin levels stabilized rapidly. TPO treatment did not influence neutrophil counts. G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day sc days 1-21) stimulated neutrophil regeneration and had no effect on platelet levels. Simultaneous treatment with TPO and G-CSF was as effective as treatment with TPO alone in preventing thrombocytopenia, although with the former regimen platelet levels did not rise to the supranormal levels seen with the latter. Neutrophil recovery was greatly augmented compared with G-CSF treatment alone, resulting in a less profound nadir and a recovery that started much earlier, as did monocyte, CD11b+, CD16+, and CD56+ cell reconstitution. In addition, TPO strongly promoted the recovery of bone marrow cellularity and granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells: The number of bone marrow CD34+ cells was greater by two orders of magnitude in TPO-treated animals than in controls in the second week of treatment, whereas G-CSF by itself had no influence. In the third week after TBI an elevation of LDH1 values was observed in TPO-treated monkeys concurrent with normoblastosis; both of these findings were attributed to rapid erythropoiesis. TPO had no effect on hemostasis parameters. Adverse TPO and/or G-CSF effects were not observed. This study demonstrates that simultaneous TPO and G-CSF treatment after cytoreductive treatment prevents thrombocytopenia, accelerates platelet and red cell reconstitution, alleviates neutropenia, and promotes the recovery of immature bone marrow cells. The effect on CD34+ GM progenitor cells may explain the augmented G-CSF responses in TPO-treated monkeys; it also suggests that TPO may become a key growth factor in the design of treatment regimens to accelerate both immature bone marrow and mature blood cell reconstitution after cytoreductive therapy. PMID:9293906

Neelis, K J; Dubbelman, Y D; Qingliang, L; Thomas, G R; Eaton, D L; Wagemaker, G

1997-09-01

18

Bone marrow examination in cases of pancytopenia.  

PubMed

This study was carried to identify the causes of pancytopenia and to find out the bone marrow morphology in cases of pancytopenia. It was a cross sectional study conducted over a period of two years in the Department of Pathology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Bone marrow aspiration smears of patients fulfilling the criteria of pancytopenia were examined. The data obtained were analyzed using measures of central tendency. One hundred and forty eight cases underwent bone marrow aspiration and it constituted 15.74% of total cases. Mean age was 30 years (range, 1-79 years). 42 cases were children (28.37%). Male: female ratio was 1.5:1. The commonest cause was hypoplastic bone marrow seen in 43 cases (29%) followed by megaloblastic anemia in 35 cases (23.64%), and hematological malignancy in 32 cases (21.62%). Erythroid hyperplasia was seen in 29 cases (19.6%) and normal bone marrow was seen in 5 cases (3.38%). There was one case each of Niemann-Pick disease and metastatic neuroblastoma in children and chronic pure red cell aplasia and leishmaniasis in adults. Acute leukemia was the commonest hematological malignancy. In children, commonest finding was hypoplastic bone marrow (38.1%) while in adults megaloblastic anemia (30.18%) was commonest finding followed by hypoplastic anemia (25.47%). In present study bone marrow examination was able to establish diagnosis in 77% of cases. Hypoplastic marrow was the commonest diagnosis, followed by megaloblastic anemia, and hematological malignancies. PMID:18552886

Jha, A; Sayami, G; Adhikari, R C; Panta, A D; Jha, R

2008-01-01

19

Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

2012-07-01

20

Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children. PMID:22750636

Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

2012-07-21

21

Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

2014-01-01

22

Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.  

PubMed

Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

2014-01-01

23

Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from 225 g to 300 g, appeared to have no substantial effect for the estimated absorbed dose.

Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

2012-07-15

24

A STUDY OF PREDICTED BONE MARROW DISTRIBUTION ON CALCULATED MARROW DOSE FROM EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURES USING TWO SETS OF IMAGE DATA FOR THE SAME INDIVIDUAL  

PubMed Central

Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation, but red bone marrow cannot be distinguished from yellow bone marrow by normal radiographic means. When using a computational model of the body constructed from computed tomography (CT) images for radiation dose, assumptions must be applied to calculate the dose to the red bone marrow. This paper presents an analysis of two methods of calculating red bone marrow distribution: 1) a homogeneous mixture of red and yellow bone marrow throughout the skeleton, and 2) International Commission on Radiological Protection cellularity factors applied to each bone segment. A computational dose model was constructed from the CT image set of the Visible Human Project and compared to the VIP-Man model, which was derived from color photographs of the same individual. These two data sets for the same individual provide the unique opportunity to compare the methods applied to the CT-based model against the observed distribution of red bone marrow for that individual. The mass of red bone marrow in each bone segment was calculated using both methods. The effect of the different red bone marrow distributions was analyzed by calculating the red bone marrow dose using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code for parallel beams of monoenergetic photons over an energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV, cylindrical (simplified CT) sources centered about the head and abdomen over an energy range of 30 keV to 1 MeV, and a whole-body electron irradiation treatment protocol for 3.9 MeV electrons. Applying the method with cellularity factors improves the average difference in the estimation of mass in each bone segment as compared to the mass in VIP-Man by 45% over the homogenous mixture method. Red bone marrow doses calculated by the two methods are similar for parallel photon beams at high energy (above about 200 keV), but differ by as much as 40% at lower energies. The calculated red bone marrow doses differ significantly for simplified CT and electron beam irradiation, since the computed red bone marrow dose is a strong function of the cellularity factor applied to bone segments within the primary radiation beam. These results demonstrate the importance of properly applying realistic cellularity factors to computation dose models of the human body. PMID:19430219

Caracappa, Peter F.; Chao, T. C. Ephraim; Xu, X. George

2010-01-01

25

Bone marrow hypoplasia complicating tacrolimus (FK506) therapy.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus (FK506)-induced hematological toxicity, which has rarely been reported in transplant recipients, may result in anemia episodes, reported mainly in kidney and heart transplant recipients, sporadic cases of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome, red cell aplasia (4 reported cases), and generalized bone marrow suppression (only 1 reported case). We describe a case of a liver transplant recipient with pancytopenia that appeared during immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus. This patient suffered from progressive anemia, leukopenia with severe neutropenia, and mild thrombocytopenia; bone marrow biopsy showed hypoplasia (20% of cellularity) without dysplasia. Bone marrow recovery was made possible by suspending tacrolimus and changing to immunosuppression with cyclosporine A, despite the two drugs being very similar in their mechanism of immunosuppression. Contrary to previously reported cases (pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow hypoplasia), the recovery of hemoglobin and neutrophil values was slow after tacrolimus suspension, even though in the first month transfusions were no longer necessary. PMID:15005339

Nosari, Annamaria; Marbello, Laura; De Carlis, Luciano G; De Gasperi, Andrea; Muti, Giuliana; Mancini, Valentina; Morra, Enrica

2004-02-01

26

Bone marrow involvement and obstructive jaundice in Farber lipogranulomatosis: clinical and autopsy report of a new case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We report a case of Farber lipogranulomatosis in a girl with hepatosplenomegaly, macular cherry-red spot, and subcutaneous nodules who developed liver dysfunction with jaundice and ascites, and myelophthisic anaemia because of infiltration of bone marrow with storage cells. Acid ceramidase assay confirmed the diagnosis. We conclude that the bone marrow dysfunction and cherry-red spot are features of type IV

M. J. M. Nowaczyk; A. Feigenbaum; M. M. Silver; J. Callahan; A. Levin; V. Jay

1996-01-01

27

Finding lncRNAs in bone marrow and fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells in mice  

E-print Network

Red blood cell development is crucial to the survival of all mammals and occurs primarily in the liver during embryogenesis and then in the bone marrow during adulthood. In spite of the different microenvironments of the ...

Garza-Galindo, Alec G

2014-01-01

28

BONE MARROW STORAGE: CURRENT CONCEPTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for the collection and storage of human bone marrow are ; described. Two methods of marrow storage were investigated, namely, nutrient ; media and protective freezing. The marrow is aspirated from the donor, diluted ; with an equal volume of nutrient solution, collected in a storage vessel, and ; immediately refrigerated at 4 deg C. Preliminary results with this

A. M. Pappas; V. P. Perry; T. E. Wheeler; G. W. Hyatt

1961-01-01

29

Overview of marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references.

Thomas, E.D.

1985-12-01

30

Bone marrow transplantation in sickle cell anaemia.  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell anaemia is still responsible for severe crippling and death in young patients living in developing countries. Apart from prophylaxis and treatment of infections, no active treatment can be safely proposed in such areas of the world. Therefore a bone marrow transplantation was performed in 12 patients staying in Belgium and planning to return to Africa. Twelve patients, aged between 11 months and 23 years (median 4 years), underwent a HLA identical bone marrow transplantation. The conditioning regimen included oral busulphan for four consecutive days (4 mg/kg) followed by four days of intravenous cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg). In 10 patients the engraftment was rapid and sustained. A further patient suffered transient red cell hypoplasia and another underwent a second bone marrow transplantation from the same donor at day 62 because of graft rejection. All patients are alive and well with a follow up ranging from 9-51 months (median 27 months). In all cases a complete cessation of vaso-occlusive episodes and haemolysis was observed as was a change in the haemoglobin pattern in accordance with the donor's electrophoretic pattern. PMID:1953001

Vermylen, C; Cornu, G; Philippe, M; Ninane, J; Borja, A; Latinne, D; Ferrant, A; Michaux, J L; Sokal, G

1991-01-01

31

Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin  

PubMed Central

Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385745

Özçivici, Engin

2013-01-01

32

Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control

33

Bone marrow stem cells.  

PubMed

The "mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)" are cells adherent in the bone marrow, which can be isolated to induce differentiation. In contrast to the "embryonic stem cells" whose goal is to develop a new organism, the "MSC adult stem cells" can participate in tissue growth and repair throughout postnatal life. Addition of 5-azacytidine to MSCs in vitro induces the gradual increase in cellular size and begins spontaneous beatings, thereafter differentiating into cardiomyocytes. The "Methods" and "Protocols" to induce structural and functional maturations of MSCs, thus to achieve "Cellular Cardiomyoplasty," are described. With appropriate media, differentiations of MSCs to various kinds of cells such as chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes are also achievable. PMID:23807784

Duong, Minh Ngoc; Ma, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Ray C J

2013-01-01

34

Viability of T lymphocytes survived in frozen-thawed human bone marrow.  

PubMed

To know immunocompetence of cryopreserved human bone marrow, an optimal condition for cryopreservation of hemopoietic stem cells was determined on the basis of in vitro colony formation. Viability or immune function of frozen-thawed bone marrow lymphocytes was evaluated by spontaneous rosette formation and sheep red blood cells and mixed lymphocyte culture activity. It was demonstrated that the thawed marrow cells could form E rosettes and respond to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte culture equally or more than those before freezing. Stimulating activity of cryopreserved marrow cells in mixed lymphocyte culture was not altered through a freeze-thawing process. These observations suggest that bone marrow lymphocytes may survive without losing their immunocompetence after freezing as well as hemopoietic stem cells. PMID:147531

Harada, M; Ishino, C; Hattori, K

1978-04-01

35

Red clover  

MedlinePLUS

Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

36

Red Clover  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Clover Common Names: red clover, cow clover, meadow clover, wild clover Latin ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, what the science says, potential ...

37

Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases.

Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

1982-02-01

38

KSC CENTER DIRECTOR ACCEPTS PLAQUE FOR RECORD-SETTING BONE MARROW DONOR REGISTRATION DRIVE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kennedy Space Center's Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive Chairman Dr. George A. Martin and Center Director Jay Honeycutt (left to right) accept a plaque from the Leukemia Society of America's Associate Executive Director Martin Bernstine and the American Red Cross' Southeast Regional Director Jeff Koenreich. Representatives from the American Red Cross and the Leukemia Society of America came to KSC to honor those involved in the record-setting Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive held here earlier this year. Over 900 potential donors were added to the National Bone Marrow Registry as a result of the KSC drive. The drive established a new record for the most people registered in a single day for the American Red Cross in the three state region of which Florida is a part.

1996-01-01

39

Effect of syngeneic marrow injection upon recovery in sub- and near-lethally irradiated mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice were given sub-lethal (200-600 cGy) or near-lethal (800 cGy) whole body irradiation and the effect of injecting syngeneic marrow on subsequent hematopoietic recovery was studied. Marrow cell injection enhanced erythropoietic recovery after sub-lethal irradiation as reflected in hematocrit values and rate of appearance of /sup 59/Fe-labeled red cells in blood. However, this enhanced erythropoiesis was only seen in the spleen, and /sup 59/Fe uptake in marrow was reduced. When the irradiation dose was kept constant and the marrow dose increased from 10(5) to 10(6) to 10(7) cells, there was a somewhat erratic increase in spleen /sup 59/Fe and a decrease in marrow /sup 59/Fe uptake. When marrow cell number was kept constant and the dose of irradiation was increased from 200 to 400 to 600 to 800 cGy, there was an exponential increase in spleen /sup 59/Fe uptake but the marrow /sup 59/Fe uptake changed from depressed after lower doses to increased after 800 cGy. Cell injection after sub-lethal irradiation did not increase or decrease granulocytopoiesis. Injection of irradiated marrow cells also reduced marrow erythropoiesis and this was evident after both sub- and near-lethal irradiation. However, injection of irradiated cells did not increase splenic erythropoiesis. Following splenectomy, the depressed marrow erythropoiesis attending injection of viable cells was virtually eliminated but no increase was seen. These data suggest that the injection of autologous or syngeneic marrow may not be effective as a means of accelerating hematopoietic recovery after irradiation unless near-lethal or lethal dose have been received.

Boggs, S.S.; Boggs, D.R.; Patrene, K.D.

1989-06-01

40

Bone marrow transplantation: a review.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation represents the technical application of basic immunologic principles to the treatment of a variety of neoplastic and allied disorders that originate in the bone marrow. The results have improved during the past 15 years, being most striking for the treatment of the acute and chronic leukemias. The promise of autologous bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of leukemias and solid tumors is awaiting the perfection of techniques for the effective removal of residual neoplastic cells as well as more effective therapy. The use of this technique at its present stage of development for the treatment of benign hematologic disorders, which cause severe morbidity (ie, thalassemia or sickle cell anemia), is controversial, raises serious ethical issues, and cannot be recommended routinely at this time. Complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and opportunistic infections are discussed. PMID:2664196

Hardy, R. E.; Ikpeazu, E. V.

1989-01-01

41

Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

MedlinePLUS

What are the IBMFS disorders? Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Dyskeratosis Congenita Fanconi Anemia Pearson Syndrome Severe Congenital Neutropenia Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii Other Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Amegakaryocytic ...

42

[Bone marrow scanning (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Personal experience of Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid in the scintiscanning of bone marrow is reported. The method offers technical advantages over other methods and superior protection, while its only limitation is that it does not permit a dynamic study of hematopoiesis. Four pathologic scans typical of four groups of diseases may be distinguished. Further, metastatic bone marrow localisations can be diagnosed much earlier and more precisely than by radiography. PMID:1162751

Salvatore, M; Muto, V; Tarallo, L; Stanzione, R

1975-01-01

43

Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21275831

Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

2011-01-01

44

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

45

Birthmarks - red  

MedlinePLUS

Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. They ... There are two main categories of birthmarks. Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

46

Red clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

47

Red Sea  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast ... the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium erythraeum , found in the sea turn reddish-brown when ...

2013-04-16

48

Decreased bone anabolic effect of basic fibroblast growth factor at fatty marrow sites in ovariectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the bone anabolic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at hematopoietic (red) and fatty (yellow) marrow sites in ovariectomized (ovx) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to ovariectomy or sham surgery at 3 months of age and maintained untreated for 2 months after surgery. Three groups of ovx rats were

S Pun; R. L Dearden; A. M Ratkus; H Liang; T. J Wronski

2001-01-01

49

Olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine-related bone marrow suppression: A possible drug-drug interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with refractory Crohn's disease had two separate episodes of bone marrow suppression while receiving 50 to 75 mg 6-mercaptopurine a day and 1000 to 1750 mg olsalazine a day. This adverse reaction necessitated dose reduction of 6-mercaptopurine on the first occasion and withdrawal of 6-mercaptopurine and olsalazine on the second occasion. The patient's red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase

Lionel D. Lewis; Carol L. Szumlanski; Diane M. Otterness; Lynne Lennard; Richard M. Weinshilboum; David W. Nierenberg

1997-01-01

50

Red blood cell decreases of microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

Johnson, P. C.

1985-01-01

51

A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ra-223, an ?-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metasteses of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. Methods The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. Results The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histograms results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e., the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 Gy to 20 Gy. Conclusion The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the absorbed fraction method of dose calculation. PMID:22546715

Hobbs, Robert F; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J; Bolch, Wesley E; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D; Sgouros, George

2012-01-01

52

Bone marrow and the control of immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow is thought to be a primary hematopoietic organ. However, accumulated evidences demonstrate that active function and trafficking of immune cells, including regulatory T cells, conventional T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, are observed in the bone marrow. Furthermore, bone marrow is a predetermined metastatic location

Ende Zhao; Huanbin Xu; Lin Wang; Ilona Kryczek; Ke Wu; Yu Hu; Guobin Wang; Weiping Zou

2012-01-01

53

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If ...

54

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department of Fisheries and Oceans

55

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

56

Bone marrow and the control of immunity  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow is thought to be a primary hematopoietic organ. However, accumulated evidences demonstrate that active function and trafficking of immune cells, including regulatory T cells, conventional T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, are observed in the bone marrow. Furthermore, bone marrow is a predetermined metastatic location for multiple human tumors. In this review, we discuss the immune network in the bone marrow. We suggest that bone marrow is an immune regulatory organ capable of fine tuning immunity and may be a potential therapeutic target for immunotherapy and immune vaccination. PMID:22020068

Zhao, Ende; Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Lin; Kryczek, Ilona; Wu, Ke; Hu, Yu; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

2012-01-01

57

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

58

Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs  

SciTech Connect

Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.

Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

1986-07-01

59

Bone marrow derived cells in the tumour microenvironment contain cells with primitive haematopoietic phenotype  

PubMed Central

Abstract Infiltration of bone marrow derived cells is part of the angiogenic switch required for uncontrolled tumour growth. However, the nature of the tumour-infiltrating cells from bone marrow has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the phenotype of bone marrow derived cells within a tumour, we employed the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) murine tumour model. We followed bone marrow derivation of tumour-infiltrating cells through transplantation of CD45.2 bone marrow cells into pre-irradiated CD45.1 mice. We found robust CD45.2 donor type chimerism in bone marrow and blood of CD45.1 recipient tumour-bearing mice. Flow cytometric analysis of LLC tumours showed, in addition to previously described pro-angiogenic CD45+VEGFR2+‘endothelial progenitor cells’ (EPC), or CD45+Tie2+‘Tie2-expressing monocytes’ (TEM), incorporation of donor type lineage marker negative (Lin?) and Lin?Sca1+ undifferentiated haematopoietic cell types. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the extravasal location of the primitive haematopoietic cells. Flow-cytometric sorting of bone marrow cells and subsequent analysis in haematopoietic colony-forming assays revealed that cells with a Lin?Sca1+ phenotype, which were initially negative for VEGFR2 and Tie2, gave rise to VEGFR2+ and/or Tie2+ cells. Moreover, Lin? bone marrow cells pre-labelled with the membrane dye PKH26 (a red fluorochrome) and transplanted i.v. into tumour-bearing mice were found to extravasate and incorporate into LLC tumours within 24 hrs. Thus, primitive haematopoietic precursors which are thought to be precursors of EPC and TEMs, constitute a part of the tumour microenvironment. This makes them an attractive target cell population for tumour-directed cellular therapies. PMID:19765171

Deak, Erika; Göttig, Stephan; Rüster, Brigitte; Paunescu, Virgil; Seifried, Erhard; Gille, Jens; Henschler, Reinhard

2010-01-01

60

Periostin and bone marrow fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periostin is a secreted protein that shares structural homology with the insect axon guidance protein fasciclin 1. Periostin\\u000a is expressed predominantly in collagen-rich fibrous connective tissues that are subjected to constant mechanical stresses.\\u000a We have shown previously that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Here, we investigated\\u000a the relationship between periostin and bone marrow (BM)

Eijiro Oku; Taisuke Kanaji; Yuka Takata; Koichi Oshima; Ritsuko Seki; Satoshi Morishige; Rie Imamura; Korenori Ohtsubo; Michitoshi Hashiguchi; Koichi Osaki; Kazuaki Yakushiji; Kohji Yoshimoto; Hideaki Ogata; Hirofumi Hamada; Kenji Izuhara; Michio Sata; Takashi Okamura

2008-01-01

61

Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There

W. James Knickerbocker; Noel F. Quenville

1982-01-01

62

Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

1997-01-01

63

Short survival of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells in murine sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several transgenic murine models for sickle cell anemia have been developed that closely reproduce the biochemical and physiological disorders in the human disease. A comprehensive characteriza- tion is described of hematologic parame- ters of mature red blood cells, reticulo- cytes, and red cell precursors in the bone marrow and spleen of a murine sickle cell model in which erythroid cells

Kitty de Jong; Renee K. Emerson; James Butler; Jacob Bastacky; Narla Mohandas; Frans A. Kuypers

2010-01-01

64

Effects of glucan on bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow damage represents a significant problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, it is clear that the pharmacologic protection against bone marrow damage is of considerable interest, since the development of novel and effective medical approaches to combat radiation or cytotoxic damage are of major importance not only to the medical field but also to several industries and the military. This review represents a summary of our knowledge of the effects of various glucans on bone marrow protection. PMID:25332994

Vannucci, Luca; Vetvicka, Vaclav

2014-01-01

65

Red Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

66

Amelioration of severe hereditary spherocytosis in nonablated adult mice by marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Human severe hereditary spherocytosis (sHS) is life threatening and transfusion dependent. sHS is lethal within 6 days of birth for 99% of jaundiced (ja/ja) mice, making these mice excellent models for early therapeutic interventions. Nonablated ja/ja neonates simultaneously transfused and given intravenous injections of normal marrow become chimeric for donor cells. Significant improvement of red blood cell parameters occurs but is temporary because the donor marrow-derived cells gradually disappear from the circulation. The average lifespan, however, is increased to 8.7 months. We postulate that donor cells are diluted by rapidly proliferating host cells during postnatal growth. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining whether treatment of adults improves long-term therapy. Nonablated ja/ja adults rescued by a single neonatal transfusion were injected intravenously with 1 x 10(10) normal, genetically marked donor marrow cells/kg body weight. Donor cell implantation and blood parameters were monitored periodically and tissue histopathology was determined at necropsy.sHS recipients with 100% donor erythroid cells have significantly improved red blood cell counts throughout life when compared with ja/ja controls transfused once at birth. Total serum iron and bilirubin levels are corrected in ja/ja marrow recipients. Donor-implanted HS mice necropsied at 16 to 21 months of age have normal mean cell hemoglobin concentration and dramatically decreased tissue iron deposits. Reticulocyte counts but not red cell counts normalize, suggesting the HS mice reset their response to hypoxia. Nonablative transplantation performed after cessation of host postnatal red blood cell amplification can be therapeutic long term for transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemias. PMID:10989199

Barker, J E; Deveau, S; Wandersee, N J

2000-08-01

67

Cell Stem Cell Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs  

E-print Network

of cultured cells (Sacchetti et al., 2007). Similar multipotent MSCs can be isolated from mouse bone marrowCell Stem Cell Article Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs Are Dynamic, Fate-Restricted Participants Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA 4Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 1350 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA

Mootha, Vamsi K.

68

Liver from Bone Marrow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. We have investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical

Neil D. Theise; Manjunath Nimmakayalu; Rebekah Gardner; Peter B. Illei; Glyn Morgan; Lewis Teperman; Octavian Henegariu; Diane S. Krause

2000-01-01

69

Composite scaffolds composed of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix and marrow clots promote marrow cell retention and proliferation.  

PubMed

Various biomaterials have been investigated in attempts to improve the mechanical stability of marrow clots derived from microfracture to obtain repaired tissue closely resembling hyaline cartilage. The goal of this study was to investigate the retention, adhesion, proliferation, and cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production of marrow clot-derived cells within a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived (BMSC-d) ECM/marrow clot composite scaffold. We fabricated BMSC-dECM/marrow clot composite scaffolds and kept them in chondrogenic medium in vitro for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. Unmodified marrow clots were used as a control. The BMSC-dECM/marrow clot composite scaffold exhibited a porous structure suitable for cell attachment and growth and further maintained cell viability. The DNA content measurements revealed that more cells proliferated in the BMSC-dECM/marrow clot composite scaffolds over time than in the marrow clots. Furthermore, the histologic, immunohistochemical, and western blot results demonstrated that the BMSC-dECM/marrow clot composite scaffold produced more hyaline-like cartilage and less fibrocartilage than the marrow clot in culture. Taken together, these findings indicate that the porous BMSC-dECM/marrow clot composite scaffold promotes the retention, attachment, and proliferation of cells from the marrow clot, and thus can stabilize the marrow clot to support chondrogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25410417

Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Xu, Yan; Mao, Fengyong; Yao, Qingqiang; Jin, Chengzhe; Gu, Qiangrong; Wang, Liming

2014-11-19

70

Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca˛?].  

PubMed

The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca(2+) levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca(2+)](o) on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca(2+)](o) enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca(2+)](o) induces an increase in [Ca(2+)](i). An intracellular Ca(2+) chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca(2+)](o) in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca(2+) in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca(2+)](o) induces an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions. PMID:22695113

Hashimoto, Ryota; Katoh, Youichi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Itoh, Seigo; Iesaki, Takafumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Yuji; Okada, Takao

2012-07-13

71

Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

Colnot, C. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States)]. E-mail: colnotc@orthosurg.ucsf.edu; Huang, S. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States); Helms, J. [Stanford University, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

2006-11-24

72

THE FACTORS CONCERNED IN THE APPEARANCE OF NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CORPUSCLES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD  

PubMed Central

1. Increase in circulatory rate caused by hard exercise has no power to dislocate nucleated red cells from the bone marrow either in normal, in anemic, in hyperplastic, or in anemic and hyperplastic animals. 2. In anemic and hyperplastic animals pseudocrises of nucleated red cells can be produced at certain periods by hard exercise, but careful analysis leads inevitably to the conclusion that the increase in these cells is merely a more accurate expression of circulatory content at the time of the procedure. 3. Section of the vasomotor nerves to the four limbs with consequent dilatation of the marrow vessels and increased blood flow through the tissue does not result in the freeing of nucleated red cells from the bone marrow. PMID:19868203

Drinker, Cecil K.; Drinker, Katherine R.; Kreutzmann, Henry A.

1918-01-01

73

Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Links Related Topics Aplastic Anemia Bone Marrow Tests Sickle Cell Anemia Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI ... ahs), aplastic anemia (uh-NEE-me-uh), and sickle cell anemia . In these diseases, the body doesn' ...

74

Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)  

Cancer.gov

A study of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), a group of rare genetic blood disorders that include Fanconi Anemia, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia, and Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii.

75

Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

Many compounds that possess sulfhydryl groups have been shown to protect bone marrow from radiation injury. The most effective thiol radioprotective agent is ethiofos (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothoic acid or WR-2721). The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using binding of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase {sup 3}H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L.; Sawich, C.

1989-01-01

76

The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, R?dvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

2005-01-01

77

T lymphoid differentiation in human bone marrow  

PubMed Central

The unique role of the thymus in the development of T cells was established >4 decades ago. To elucidate how uncommitted lymphoid progenitor cells are instructed to migrate from bone marrow to the thymus to undergo T lymphoid differentiation, we generated and analyzed a genome-wide gene expression profile of CD7+ CD10+ human bone marrow T cell lineage precursors (TLPs) by using the serial analysis of gene expression technique. Unexpectedly, the serial analysis of gene expression profile identified a high number of (pre-) T cell receptor antigen (TCR)-related transcripts in bone marrow TLPs. To determine the configuration of the TCR? locus in these cells at a quantitative level, we sorted and analyzed bone marrow TLPs from five donors by single-cell PCR. Similar proportions of TLPs harbored TCR? germ-line alleles, D-J, or V-DJ gene rearrangements. Thus, bone marrow TLPs are heterogenous with respect to TCR? rearrangement status, suggesting an active recombination machinery that is consistent with the expression of RAG1, RAG2, and TdT in this population. As a hallmark of ongoing TCR? V-DJ rearrangement, we could amplify broken-ended recombination-signal sequence DNA intermediates from bone marrow TLPs, but not from mature T cells by ligation-mediated PCR. Approximately half of the TCR? rearrangements were compatible with the expression of a functional pre-TCR, which is in agreement with surface expression of pre-T? on bone marrow TLPs as shown by confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry. At a frequency <0.5% of mononucleated cells in human bone marrow, this population is rare, yet it exemplifies T lymphoid differentiation in the human already before immigration into the thymus. PMID:12738882

Klein, Florian; Feldhahn, Niklas; Lee, Sanggyu; Wang, Hui; Ciuffi, Fiammetta; von Elstermann, Mirko; Toribio, María L.; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria; Barath, Varun Singh; Krönke, Martin; Wernet, Peter; Rowley, Janet D.; Müschen, Markus

2003-01-01

78

Hyaluronate and its receptors in bone marrow.  

PubMed

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, which are mediated by cell adhesion molecules, play a fundamental role during many cellular processes including growth, differentiation, cell migration and cancer metastasis. One molecule playing a major role in these processes is the CD44 surface receptor, which is expressed in a wide range of cells including many cells of the hemopoietic system, where it mediates the interaction with its major ligand, hyaluronate. However, little is known about CD44 and hyaluronate in bone marrow and this was investigated immunohistochemically in trephine biopsies and in cultivated human bone marrow stromal cells. In biopsy specimens, patches of hyaluronate deposition were detected in the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, most of the areas of the ECM were devoid of hyaluronate. Single mast cells and lymphocytes scattered throughout the marrow were CD44 immunopositive. Marrow-derived stromal cells (MDSC) expanded in cell culture were immunopositive for CD44, hyaluronate synthase, and hyaluronate. Hence, a marked difference between CD44 immunolocalisation and hyaluronate deposition can be observed between in situ and under cell culture conditions. Since in normal marrow in situ the number of CD44 immunopositive cells was low, interactions of CD44 and hyaluronate would appear to not to play a major role in cell adhesion in the normal bone marrow. PMID:16713618

Schade, Ulrika M; Nehmann, Nina; Horny, Hans-P; Prehm, Peter; Delpech, Bertrand; Krüger, William H; Zander, Axel R; Schumacher, Udo

2006-01-01

79

Computerized quantification of bone tissue and marrow in stained microscopic images.  

PubMed

Stained histological images assist physicians to identify different types of tissues or cells and their architectures. They can be applied on the diagnosis of various diseases and the assessment of treatment effects. Osteoporosis is an aging disease that reduces the density of bones and increases the risk of bone fracture. Literatures indicate that osteoporosis is associated with the ratio of trabecular bone tissues and bone marrow cells, and bones in osteoporosis patients consist of a significantly higher marrow fat content. Interactive segmentation of bone tissue and different types of bone marrow cells in high-resolution histological images, however, is a very tedious and labor-intensive process. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic algorithm to quantify the areas of different tissues such as the trabecular bones and yellow and red marrow cells. This image segmentation method consists of a series of mathematical morphological operation steps based on both the color and morphology features of tissues and was implemented in Matlab. The results obtained from the proposed method have been verified by comparing with those obtained interactively from an experienced histotechnician (Pearson correlation coefficient > 0.94, P < 0.001). The result suggests that the proposed algorithm can effectively assist physicians to quantify stained bone histological images. PMID:22899564

Shi, Lin; Liu, Shangping; Wang, Defeng; Wong, Hing-Lok; Huang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Griffith, James F; Leung, Ping-Chung; Ahuja, Anil T

2012-10-01

80

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

81

Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.

82

Fabrication of biofunctionalized, cell-laden macroporous 3D PEG hydrogels as bone marrow analogs for the cultivation of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.  

PubMed

In vitro proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is yet an unresolved challenge. Found in the bone marrow, HSCs can undergo self-renewing cell division and thereby multiply. Recapitulation of the bone marrow environment in order to provide the required signals for their expansion is a promising approach.Here, we describe a technique to produce biofunctionalized, macroporous poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels that mimic the spongy 3D architecture of trabecular bones, which host the red, blood-forming bone marrow. After seeding these scaffolds with cells, they can be used as simplified bone marrow analogs for the cultivation of HSCs. This method can easily be conducted with standard laboratory chemicals and equipment. The 3D hydrogels are produced via salt leaching and biofunctionalization of the material is achieved by co-polymerizing the PEGDA with an RGD peptide. Finally, cell seeding and retrieval are described. PMID:24875249

Rödling, Lisa; Raic, Annamarija; Lee-Thedieck, Cornelia

2014-01-01

83

Floatation of Decalcified Bone Marrow Core Biopsy – A Clue to Marrow Hypocellularity  

PubMed Central

Background : Examination of bone marrow plays a pivotal role in the practice of haematology. It can be evaluated by three ways – bone marrow aspiration smears (BMA), bone marrow touch imprints (BMI) and bone marrow biopsy (BMB). BMB sections are considered to be the gold standard for assessing overall marrow cellularity. Aim and Objective: To evaluate the correlation, if any, between bone marrow cellularity and floatation pattern of the core biopsy specimen, after proper decalcification. Setting and Design: This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi over a period of 26 months. Materials and Methods: Specimens of BMA, BMI and BMB were collected from 182 cases. The core biopsy specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours, and were decalcified in 5% formic acid for 12 hours. The properly decalcified core biopsy samples were then put into adequate-sized container filled with 10% buffered formalin, and floatation pattern was documented. Statistical Analysis: All the observations were evaluated using simple and basic statistical tools, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value. Chi square test was applied for obtaining statistical correlation i.e. p-value. Results: Out of 182 core biopsy specimens, 32.4% (n=59) floated, while rests sank. Out of the 59 floating core biopsies, 57 were hypocellular. Seven core biopsies, among 123 specimens that sank, were hypocellular. The sensitivity and specificity of floatation pattern for hypocellular marrow were 89.2% and 99.1%, respectively. A strong correlation (p-value <0.001) between the floatation pattern and bone marrow cellularity was obtained. Conclusion: Assessment of floatation pattern of properly decalcified marrow core specimen is reliable for assessing marrow hypocellularity. PMID:25653955

Das, Subhajit; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2014-01-01

84

Seeing Red  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

2008-01-01

85

Abnormal bone marrow histopathology in paediatric mastocytosis.  

PubMed

The diagnostic criteria for paediatric mastocytosis are largely based on adult studies and bone marrow findings are not well described in children. We evaluated use of the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of systemic disease in paediatric mastocytosis. In addition, we identified unique clinico-histopathological features within the biopsies. One hundred and thirteen children with paediatric mastocytosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health between 1986 and 2013. Complete bone marrow evaluations were performed in 50 cases. Seven children had repeat procedures. Bone marrows were analysed by histopathology, flow cytometry and for KIT D816V. Bone marrow biopsies displayed mild atypical haematopoietic maturation, increased haematogones and hypocellularity in a sub-set of patients with urticaria pigmentosa, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis and indolent systemic mastocytosis. Hypocellularity was most pronounced in those with urticaria pigmentosa. Haematogones were highest, on average, in patients with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis or mastocytomas. There was no evidence of peripheral blood cytopenias, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasm or leukaemia within this cohort. The WHO criteria are applicable for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis in paediatrics. Although unsuspected bone marrow findings typically seen in myeloproliferative disorders are frequent in paediatric mastocytosis, patients within this study remained clinically stable without progression to a more aggressive variant. PMID:25429914

Carter, Melody C; Metcalfe, Dean D; Clark, Alicia S; Wayne, Alan S; Maric, Irina

2015-03-01

86

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

87

Bone Marrow Injury Induced via Oxidative Stress in Mice by Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Objective Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant has been classified as a human leukemogen. However, toxicity of formaldehyde in bone marrow, the target site of leukemia induction, is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate bone marrow toxicity (bone marrow pathology, hematotoxicity) and underlying mechanisms (oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis) in formaldehyde-exposed mice. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to formaldehyde (0, 0.5, and 3.0 mg/m3) by nose-only inhalation for 8 hours/day, over a two week period designed to simulate a factory work schedule, with an exposure-free “weekend” on days 6 and 7, and were sacrificed on the morning of day 13. Counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 0.5 mg/m3 (43%, 7%, and 39%, respectively) and 3.0 mg/m3 (52%, 27%, and 43%, respectively) formaldehyde exposure, while platelet counts were significantly increased by 109% (0.5 mg/m3) and 67% (3.0 mg/m3). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione s-transferase theta 1 expression), inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B, tomour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta), and apoptosis (activity of cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in bone marrow tissues were induced at one or both formaldehyde doses mentioned above. Conclusions/Significance Exposure of mice to formaldehyde by inhalation induced bone marrow toxicity, and that oxidative stress, inflammation and the consequential apoptosis jointly constitute potential mechanisms of such induced toxicity. PMID:24040369

McHale, Cliona; Li, Rui; Zhang, Luoping; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Shumao

2013-01-01

88

Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents  

SciTech Connect

The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using the binding of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase /sup 3/H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Sawich, C.

1989-06-01

89

To Evaluate the Role of Bone Marrow Aspiration and Bone Marrow Biopsy in Pancytopenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Pancytopenia is not a disease entity but a triad of findings that may result from various disease processes, primarily or secondarily involving the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy evaluation along with good clinical correlation is of utmost importance to evaluate the causes of pancytopenia and planning further investigations. Aims: The present study was a prospective clinicohaematological study undertaken to analyse the various causes of pancytopenia by evaluating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and correlating with clinical findings, complete blood counts and peripheral blood picture. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of pancytopenia were included in the study in which relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed simultaneously in all cases. Perl’s stain was done in all cases and special stains like MPO, PAS and reticulin were also done wherever necessary. Results and Conclusion: The maximum cases of pancytopenia were in the age group of 10 to 30 y with male preponderance. Aplastic anaemia was found to be the most common aetiology of pancytopenia followed by normoblastic erythroid hyperplasia, megaloblastic anaemia, acute leukemias, myelofibrosis, lymphoid neoplasia and iron deficiency anaemia. It was concluded from the study that although the advantages of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy differ, both are complimentary to each other and should be performed simultaneously for a complete bone marrow work up and evaluation. It is only through the correlation of clinical, hematological and bone marrow examination findings that proper evaluation and management of patients of pancytopenia can be made. PMID:25584228

Desalphine, Melina; Gupta, Parmod Kumar; Kataria, Amarjit Singh

2014-01-01

90

Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (espańol) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Bone Marrow Biopsy Biopsie de moelle osseuse - français ( ...

91

Cellular and molecular immunotherapeutics derived from the bone marrow stroma  

E-print Network

The bone marrow contains a multipotent stromal cell, commonly referred to as a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). There has been recent interest in the clinical use of MSCs for cell-based therapy because: (1) bone marrow aspiration ...

Parekkadan, Biju

2008-01-01

92

Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

Rosse, C

1980-01-01

93

The "starfield" pattern of cerebral fat embolism from bone marrow necrosis in sickle cell crisis.  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease may manifest with cerebrovascular and systemic complications. Sickle crisis that results in avascular necrosis of long bones with resultant cerebral fat embolism syndrome is rare and has a characteristic "starfield" pattern on MRI. This "starfield" MRI pattern should raise suspicion for sickle cell crisis in patients without a known history of the disease, which can lead to earlier sickle cell red blood cell exchange transfusion and treatment. We present a case of a male who presented emergently with acute seizure, coma with a characteristic MRI pattern, which lead to the diagnosis of avascular bone marrow necrosis and cerebral fat embolism syndrome from sickle cell crisis. PMID:25829988

Dhakal, Laxmi P; Bourgeois, Kirk; Barrett, Kevin M; Freeman, William D

2015-04-01

94

The “Starfield” Pattern of Cerebral Fat Embolism From Bone Marrow Necrosis in Sickle Cell Crisis  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease may manifest with cerebrovascular and systemic complications. Sickle crisis that results in avascular necrosis of long bones with resultant cerebral fat embolism syndrome is rare and has a characteristic “starfield” pattern on MRI. This “starfield” MRI pattern should raise suspicion for sickle cell crisis in patients without a known history of the disease, which can lead to earlier sickle cell red blood cell exchange transfusion and treatment. We present a case of a male who presented emergently with acute seizure, coma with a characteristic MRI pattern, which lead to the diagnosis of avascular bone marrow necrosis and cerebral fat embolism syndrome from sickle cell crisis PMID:25829988

Dhakal, Laxmi P.; Bourgeois, Kirk; Barrett, Kevin M.

2015-01-01

95

Bone Marrow Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is now becoming a powerful strategy for the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases. Using various animal models for autoimmune diseases, we have previously found that allogeneic BMT (not autologous BMT) can be used to treat autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immune thrombocytic purpura, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), chronic glomerulonephritis,

Susumu Ikehara

1998-01-01

96

SHC Business Confidential Blood & Marrow Transplant  

E-print Network

SHC Business Confidential Blood & Marrow Transplant ICU Utilization Project Stanford BMT Symposium September 12, 2008 #12;2SHC Business Confidential Communication #12;3SHC Business Confidential Defining These factors can result in over utilization of the ICU for non-beneficial care #12;4SHC Business Confidential

Ford, James

97

The effect of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells on production of transgenic cloned embryos.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a method for the in vitro separation and culture of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs). Arbas Cashmere gBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and cell surface markers were identified immunohistochemically. The gBMSCs were differentiated into neurocytes and osteoblasts, and the expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin was identified by immunohistochemistry. The gBMSCs and goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) were compared for transient transfection efficiency and fluorescent colony-forming efficiency with Arbas Cashmere gFFCs as a control. pDsRed2-1 encodes DsRed2, a variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed). In addition, the coding sequence for DsRed2 contains a series of silent base-pair changes for higher expression in mammalian cells. Of the gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1, one fraction was tested for pluripotency, whereas the other fraction was manipulated using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the in vitro growth status of transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 was compared. The findings showed that gBMSCs were isolated and amplified to express CD29, CD44, and CD90 through adherent culture, with no marked signs of aging after multiple passages. Expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin by gBMSCs and gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was strongly induced by neuronal and osteogenic differentiation, whereas the integrated exogenous genes did not influence pluripotency (P > 0.05). The transient transfection efficiencies of gBMSCs and gFFCs after 48 hours were not significantly different; however, the fluorescent colony-forming efficiency of gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 after G418 screening was approximately 13% higher than that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1. The convergence and cleavage rates of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 were higher than those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1, whereas their eight-cell and blastocyst rates were similar. The red fluorescent protein expression levels were higher in transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 compared with those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (48.8% vs. 31.1%, respectively) (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that DsRed2-1 messenger RNA expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs was 2.24 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). Similarly, Western blot analysis showed that DsRed2 protein expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was 1.29 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). In this study, gBMSCs were also used for somatic cell nuclear transfer and shown to provide effective nuclear donor cells for breeding new genetically modified varieties of livestock. PMID:24679907

Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Wang, Hefei; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-06-01

98

MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow  

PubMed Central

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. PMID:17021706

Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M.

2006-01-01

99

MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow.  

PubMed

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. PMID:17021706

Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M

2007-03-01

100

Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin  

SciTech Connect

Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice.

Xie, S.S.; Inazawa, M.; Sinha, N.; Sawada, S.; Vergidis, R.; Diener, E.

1987-12-01

101

Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse.  

PubMed

In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were severely depleted. Histopathologically, hemorrhage in the cerebellar parenchyma, hemosiderin deposition and hemorrhage in the heart, necrosis and telangiectasia in liver, pulmonary parenchymal cysts, spermatogenic germ cells necrosis, atrophy and hemorrhage in testis, oligospermia and hemorrhage in the epididymis, and atrophy of BM, thymus and spleen were observed. In conclusion, autoimmune-like complications such as hematological value change, BM dysplasia and systemic hemorrhage appear to be the lethal cause of the mouse transplanted with mock-transduced BM. PMID:19934605

Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Chang Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lim, Sun Hwa; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Chung, Moon Koo; Son, Hwa Young

2009-12-01

102

American Red Cross  

MedlinePLUS

... so is the threat of severe weather. The Red Cross has apps that give you the information ... emergencies. Keep matches and lighters away from children. Red Cross working with Hispanic community to help them ...

103

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  

MedlinePLUS

... Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is the world's largest humanitarian ... member National Societies . As part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, our work is ...

104

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

105

A clinical overview of bone marrow edema.  

PubMed

Bone marrow edema (BME) is a descriptive term which identifies a specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern that can be observed in a number of clinical entities, which are often characterized by pain as their main symptom, but show significant differences in terms of histopathological findings, causal mechanisms and prognosis. Bone marrow lesions in the subchondral bone of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) seem to be associated with pain and progression of cartilage damage over time. Some histopathological studies of advanced OA have shown a prevalent fibrosis and bone marrow necrosis. BME of the subchondral bone in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts and has a predictive value of further development of erosions. In spondyloarthritis, BME of the sacroiliac joints identifies an active sacroiliitis and is associated with histological inflammation and radiographic progression, whereas the relationship between BME lesions of the spine and syndesmophyte development is still controversial. BME syndromes (BMES), such as transient osteoporosis of the hip, regional migratory osteoporosis, and transient post-traumatic BMES, are characterized by a BME pattern on MRI and a self-limiting course. The potential evolution of BMES toward osteonecrosis is still controversial. PMID:25069499

Manara, M; Varenna, M

2014-01-01

106

Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

2014-01-01

107

Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism. PMID:25408852

Marziali, Marco; Isgrň, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido

2014-01-01

108

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

109

Bone marrow transfusions in previously irradiated, hematologically normal syngeneic mice  

SciTech Connect

Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.

Brecher, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.

1981-03-01

110

New perspectives on bone marrow contrast agents and molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of bone marrow provides a noninvasive diagnosis of the vascularity, cell quantity, and composition of the normal and pathological bone marrow. This article reviews new and evolving techniques for bone marrow MR imaging with a special focus on translational and clinical applications. Evaluations of bone marrow perfusion with standard small molecular contrast agents and, more recently, with macromolecular contrast agents are currently being applied for therapy monitoring. Cell-specific contrast agents are expected to improve the sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow MR imaging. Novel cellular and molecular imaging techniques for the depiction of cell metabolism and specific biochemical pathways are discussed. Cell tracking techniques may allow specific diagnoses of inflammatory processes as well as monitoring of novel therapies based on stem cells. Future developments of fusion imaging techniques and bifunctional contrast agents are directed to combine comprehensive information about bone marrow structure and function with targeted and image-guided therapies. PMID:19455477

Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Mohanty, Arpan; Cuenod, Charles; Pichler, Bernd; Link, Thomas

2009-06-01

111

Human bone marrow adiposity is linked with serum lipid levels not T1-diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased marrow adiposity is often associated with bone loss. Little is known about the regulation of marrow adiposity in humans. Marrow adiposity is increased in several mouse models including T1-diabetic mice, which also display bone loss. However, the impact of metabolic disease on marrow adiposity in humans has yet to be examined. This study measured bone marrow adiposity levels with

Jill M. Slade; Lindsay M. Coe; Ron A. Meyer; Laura R. McCabe

112

Rapid communication Predominant fusion of bone marrow-derived cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Here we address the capacity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to trans-differentiate into mature myocytes under the physiological stimulus of exercise training. Methods: For this purpose, we have transplanted bone marrow from mice ubiquitously expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) into host mice that have been subjected to a prolonged program of exercise. Results: In all successful bone marrow

Jacob Andrade; Jason T. Lam; Monica Zamora; Chengqun Huang; Diego Franco; Noemi Sevilla; Peter J. Gruber; Jonathan T. Lu; Pilar Ruiz-Lozano

113

Long-Term Culture of Human Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been described for the long-term culture of human bone marrow cells in liquid medium. Hematopoiesis, as measured by the production of granulocytic-macrophage progenitor cells (CFUc), continued for at least 20 weeks and was dependent upon the presence of a marrow-derived adherent layer of cells. As in the case of murine marrow liquid cultures, the adherent layer consisted

Suzanne Gartner; Henry S. Kaplan

1980-01-01

114

The role of bone marrow transplantation following nuclear accidents.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells are extremely sensitive to damage by ionizing radiation. At high doses of radiation, toxicity to the bone marrow may be operationally irreversible. Insufficient functional hematopoietic stem cells remain or irradiated individuals cannot survive sufficiently long enough for functional stem cell recovery. Both situations can be approached by bone marrow transplantation. This review considers the possible uses and limitations of bone marrow transplantation following nuclear accidents. PMID:3332150

Gale, R P

1987-06-01

115

Marrow Fat and Bone: Review of Clinical Findings  

PubMed Central

With growing interest in the connection between fat and bone, there has been increased investigation of the relationship with marrow fat in particular. Clinical research has been facilitated by the development of non-invasive methods to measure bone marrow fat content and composition. Studies in different populations using different measurement techniques have established that higher marrow fat is associated with lower bone density and prevalent vertebral fracture. The degree of unsaturation in marrow fat may also affect bone health. Although other fat depots tend to be strongly correlated, marrow fat has a distinct pattern, suggesting separate mechanisms of control. Longitudinal studies are limited, but are crucial to understand the direct and indirect roles of marrow fat as an influence on skeletal health. With greater appreciation of the links between bone and energy metabolism, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between marrow fat and bone. It is well established that levels of marrow fat are higher in older adults with osteoporosis, defined by either low bone density or vertebral fracture. However, the reasons for and implications of this association are not clear. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship to bone. PMID:25870585

Schwartz, Ann V.

2015-01-01

116

Purification of functional eosinophils from human bone marrow.  

PubMed

Eosinophils are granulocytic leukocytes that are best known for their involvement in host immune defense and pathologic states. More recently, they have also been shown to play a role in regulation of murine plasma cell homeostasis in the bone marrow, which prompted our investigation of human bone marrow eosinophils. However, effective methods to isolate eosinophils from human bone marrow thereby allowing comparisons with circulating eosinophils have not yet been described. Herein we describe the development of a novel, cost effective protocol for the purification of eosinophils from human bone marrow that allows us to obtain bone marrow eosinophils of near 100% purity after an 8-day culture system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bone marrow eosinophils have characteristics similar to blood eosinophils, including the expression of IL-5R?, the presence of eosinophil-specific granules, and similar activation kinetics upon phorbol myristate acetate and high-dose IL-5 stimulation. While migratory responses toward the chemokine CXCL12 differed between purified bone marrow and freshly isolated blood eosinophils, migratory responses were similar upon comparison of bone marrow eosinophils with blood eosinophils cultured ex vivo for 8 days prior to assay. Interestingly, a concurrent upregulation of CXCR4 expression was not observed in these cultured blood eosinophils. Taken together, we have overcome the existing challenges to the study of bone marrow eosinophils through our novel strategy for cell purification and have thus enabled future investigations of these cells and their role(s) in human health and disease. PMID:23085531

Wong, Tina W; Jelinek, Diane F

2013-01-31

117

Pharmacokinetics and red cell utilization of 52Fe/59Fe-labelled iron polymaltose in anaemic patients using positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

Parenteral iron-polysaccharide complexes are increasingly applied. The pharmacokinetics of iron sucrose have been assessed by our group using positron emission tomography (PET). A single intravenous injection of 100 mg iron as iron (III) hydroxide-polymaltose complex, labelled with a tracer in the form of 52Fe/59Fe, was similarly assessed in six patients using PET for about 8 h. Red cell utilization was followed for 4 weeks. Iron polymaltose was similarly distributed to the liver, spleen and bone marrow. However, a larger proportion of this complex was rapidly distributed to the bone marrow. The shorter equilibration phase for the liver, about 25 min, indicates the minimal role of the liver for direct distribution. Splenic uptake also reflected the reticuloendothelial handling of this complex. Red cell utilization ranged from 61% to 99%. Despite the relatively higher uptake by the bone marrow, there was no saturation of marrow transport systems at this dose level. In conclusion, high red cell utilization of iron polymaltose occurred in anaemic patients. The major portion of the injected dose was rapidly distributed to the bone marrow. In addition, the reticuloendothelial uptake of this complex may reflect the safety of polysaccharide complexes. Non-saturation of transport systems to the bone marrow indicated the presence of a large interstitial transport pool, which might possibly be transferrin. PMID:12614222

Beshara, Soheir; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Lĺngström, Bengt; Antoni, Gunnar; Danielson, Bo G; Lundqvist, Hans

2003-03-01

118

Processing of Human Cord Blood by Three Different Procedures for Red Blood Cell Depletion and Mononuclear Cell Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Human cord blood (CB) is an important source of stem cells which may be used for hematopoietic reconstitution as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. Banking of CB would be accomplished by removing red blood cells (RBC) and plasma from CB collections. Our aim was to compare three different procedures for CB processing. Materials and Methods: Poligeline,

Paolo Perutelli; Silvia Catellani; Lucia Scarso; Giorgio Dini

1999-01-01

119

Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Summary Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, TNF) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-? or IFN-? by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6 (IL6), IL-1?, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0.001 ?g/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. PMID:23889587

Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P.; Pinto, Ligia A.

2013-01-01

120

Pure red cell aplasia--report of 11 cases from eastern Nepal.  

PubMed

There were eleven cases of pure red cell aplasia diagnosed over a period of 2 years (January 2000-December 2001). All the patients had anemia with pallor and weakness being the presenting complaints. Hematological profile depicted normocytic normochromic anemia, reticulocytopenia and marked paucity of erythroid precursors on bone marrow aspiration and biopsy studies. In the present study, one case was of congenital pure red cell aplasia, in one other case of pyrexia of unknown origin, no definitive diagnosis could be made. Other associated diseases seen with pure red cell aplasia were thymoma, septicemia, protein energy malnutrition, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, acute myeloid leukemia, tuberculosis and hepatitis C. The association of pure red cell aplasia with haematologic malignancies is rare. There are very few case reports on pure red cell aplasia with hepatitis C. PMID:15025285

Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Agarwal, Anshoo; Lakhey, Mamta; Ansari, Javed; Rani, Sudha

2003-07-01

121

Autologous bone marrow transplantation by photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous exposure of Merocyanine 540 dye containing cultured tumor cells to 514-nm laser light (93.6 J/cm2) results in virtually complete cell destruction. Under identical conditions, 40% of the normal progenitor (CFU-GM) cells survive the treatment. Laser- photoradiation treated, cultured breast cancer cells also were killed, and living tumor cells could not be detected by clonogenic assays or by anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody method. Thus, laser photoradiation therapy could be useful for purging of contaminating tumor cells from autologous bone marrow.

Gulliya, Kirpal S.

1992-06-01

122

Bone marrow content measured in radioimmune bone marrow scintigraphy: intra- and inter-observer variability.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the possible quantification of vertebral residual bone marrow content relative to the bone marrow content of a non-irradiated vertebra. This method is based on the vertebral count activity, measured using radioimmune bone marrow scintigraphy. First, however, we had to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. In three patients who underwent radioimmune bone marrow scintigraphy, two independent observers measured the count density in 51 (15 lumbar and 36 thoracic) vertebrae using a manually drawn region of interest. To evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability, we calculated the means and standard deviations of the differences between measurements. Bland-Altman plots were drawn for all vertebrae as well as for three subgroups of vertebrae (the upper thoracic spine, D1-D6; the lower thoracic spine, D7-D12; and the lumber spine, L1-L5). For all vertebrae, the mean (+/- S.D.) difference, expressed as a percentage of the overall mean, was -0.44 +/- 3.3% for observer 1 and -0.3 +/- 2.1% for observer 2 for intra-observer variability; inter-observer variability varied from 0.55 +/- 3.9% to 1.28 +/- 3.7%. On the Bland-Altman plots, the data points were evenly distributed above and below the 0-line and the linear regression equations matched the line of equality almost perfectly. This pattern was observed for all the vertebrae as well as for the subgroups of vertebrae. In conclusion, our results show that the intra- and inter-observer variabilities are not great, confirming that this technique is simple and robust and can be used for further quantification of bone marrow content in the axial skeleton. PMID:10404526

Roland, J; Brans, B; Vervaet, A; Goor, C; Servais, J; de Meyere, P; van den Wijngaert, D; Vandevivere, J; Scalliet, P

1999-05-01

123

Selective decontamination in bone marrow transplant recipients.  

PubMed Central

Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation become immunocompromised for various reasons. Deep granulocytopenia, induced by conditioning (chemotherapy and total body irradiation), renders the patient at risk for serious bacterial and fungal infections. Our strategy for prevention of these infections by selective decontamination (SD) is the result of more than 15 years of clinical experience and research. The combination of antibiotics, used as standard SD (neomycin, polymyxin B, pipemidic acid and amphotericin B), with the application of local antimicrobial agents eliminates aerobic Gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. from the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract, while the majority of the anaerobic flora persist and support colonization resistance (CR). The antibiotics used either are not resorbed or do not yield therapeutic serum concentrations. Antibiotics which induce therapeutic serum concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, are only used for SD on a limited scale. When Gram-negative rods persist despite intake of the standard regimen, ciprofloxacin is given until these persisting rods are eliminated. If the patients cannot swallow the oral regimen, i.v. cotrimoxazole is given temporarily. Streptococcal infections are prevented by the i.v. administration of penicillin for 14 days starting on the first day after cytotoxic treatment (conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). The combination of SD and systemic prophylaxis has been shown to be adequate; the major problem then remaining is a relatively mild catheter-associated infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:1468520

Guiot, H. F.; van Furth, R.

1992-01-01

124

Migration of bone marrow stem cells in ischaemic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in the management of haematological malignancy and solid cancer, but its role in neurodegenerative conditions remains uncertain. We hypothesize that: (1) ventricular delivery of bone marrow stem cells improves functional outcome in experimental ischaemia of the mouse brain; and (2) this improved outcome is due to migration of bone marrow stem

W. S. Poon; G. Lu; K. S. Tsang; X. L. Zhu; G. G. Chen; H. K. Ng

125

Leukodystrophy and Bone Marrow Transplantation: Role of Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is currently the most physiologic treatment for some types of leukodystrophies. In enzyme deficiency states, replacement of defective genes with cells carrying “normal” copies of these genes offers a natural form of gene therapy. This review will cover the various disease states which may be treated using bone marrow transplantation as well as the obstacles and

Christina L. Kaufman; Suzanne T. Ildstad

1999-01-01

126

Merkel Cell Carcinoma Developing after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for haematopoietic malignancies have an increased risk of developing secondary malignancies. It has been estimated that the incidence of secondary cancer is 4.2 times higher than of primary cancer in the general population. Potential risk factors associated with the development of secondary cancers in bone marrow recipients include the use of an alkylating agent in

Montserrat Gilaberte; Ramon M. Pujol; Jordi Sierra; Xavier Matias-Guiu; Josep Isern; Pere Serret; Luis De Andrés; Agustin Alomar

2000-01-01

127

The bone marrow constitutes a reservoir of pericyte progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult bone marrow is a rich reservoir of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem and pro- genitor cells. Mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to injured or ischemic tissue or tumors endorse the initiation and maintenance of angiogenic processes in the adult by incorporat- ing endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) into the de- veloping vasculature and by recruiting accessory hematopoietic cells. Recent

Chrystelle Lamagna; Gabriele Bergers

2006-01-01

128

Gelatinous Degeneration of the Bone Marrow in Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa is a chronic psychiatric process characterized by a restrictive disorder in alimentary habits. Hematologic alterations in the peripheral blood include cytopenias involving one or more hematopoietic lineages. Morphologic changes in the bone marrow and stereologic alterations in bone marrow adiopocytes may also be observed in anorexia nervosa. We present a 12-year-old girl who had chronic anorexia and one

Shih-Hsiang Chen; Iou-Jih Hung; Chien-Feng Sun

129

Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: Characterization and Clinical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow stroma consists of a heterogeneous population of cells that provide the structural and physiological support for hematopoietic cells. Additionally, the bone marrow stroma contains cells with a stem-cell-like character that allows them to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipocytes, and hematopoietic supporting tissues. Several experimental approaches have been used to characterize the development and functional nature of these

P. H. Krebsbach; S. A. Kuznetsov; P. Bianco; P. Gehron Robey

1999-01-01

130

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature suggested that cells of the microenvironment of tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression profiling and phenotypic and functional studies in three groups of individuals: patients with MM, patients with monoclonal

J Corre; K Mahtouk; M Attal; M Gadelorge; A Huynh; S Fleury-Cappellesso; C Danho; P Laharrague; B Klein; T Rčme; P Bourin

2007-01-01

131

Bone marrow changes following treatment of renal anemia with erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow changes following treatment of renal anemia with erythropoietin. In 14 severely anemic patients with end-stage renal disease and chronic hemodialysis the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on hemopoiesis was investigated. Bone marrow biopsies were taken before and after four and 26 months of treatment with EPO to evaluate quantitative and qualitative changes of histomorphology. EPO induced normalization

Jörg H Horina; Christine R Schmid; Johannes M Roob; Hanns M Winkler; Michael A Samitz; Heinz F Hammer; Helmut Pogglitsch; Guenter J Krejs

1991-01-01

132

A retrospective study of the incidence and classification of bone marrow disorder in cats (1996–2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-year retrospective study of bone marrow reports was conducted to evaluate the incidence and classification of feline bone marrow disorders. Bone marrow reports from 203 cats were reviewed. Blood smears, bone marrow aspiration smears, bone marrow core biopsy specimens, and case records were reviewed for all cats with the exception of those bone marrows reported to be nondiagnostic or

Douglas J. Weiss

2006-01-01

133

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone  

E-print Network

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow as part of the immune system and as a filter #12;Cells of the Immune System Cells destined to become workings of the immune system, while others are cytotoxic and directly contact infected cells and destroy

Morante, Silvia

134

Early reconstitution of haematopoiesis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a prospective histopathological study of bone marrow biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study early haematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation bone marrow biopsy specimens taken in the third week after transplantation were evaluated. Cellularity was highly variable; localisation of the various cell lineages and the ratios of myeloid cells to erythroid cells were abnormal. Clustering of cells of the same lineage in the same stage of maturation was prominent. The bone

H van den Berg; P M Kluin; J M Vossen

1990-01-01

135

Blood-marrow mixtures in irradiated mice, effect of blood injection on bone marrow transplantation in lethally irradiated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has been presented that a radiosensitive, immunologically ; competent cell is present in the blood of normal mice. When injected into an ; irradiated homologous bone marrow-treated mouse, this cell causes or contributes ; to the death of the recipient. If isologous blcod cells are used, death results ; from rejection of the grafted homologous marrow. When homologous blood

J. W. Goodman; C. C. Congdon

1961-01-01

136

Whence the Red Panda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the “bear-like” arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids

John J. Flynn; Michael A. Nedbal; Jerry W. Dragoo; Rodney L. Honeycutt

2000-01-01

137

Red Clover Breeding Progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

138

Expression of p53 and Ki67 Antigen in Bone Marrow Giant Proerythroblasts Associated With Human Parvovirus B19 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant proerythroblasts are hallmarks of human parvovirus B19 infection. We attempted to characterize these cells in 5 patients\\u000a with parvovirus B19-induced pure red cell aplasia using immunostaining of paraffin-embedded bone marrow sections with antibodies\\u000a against erythroid-lineage-specific proteins, viral capsid antigen VP-1, and apoptosis- and cell-cycle-related proteins. Giant\\u000a proerythroblasts are immunohistochemically consistent with early erythroid precursors of cells in the differentiation

Yoshito Sadahira; Takashi Sugihara; Yoshihito Yawata

2001-01-01

139

Bone-Marrow-Derived Side Population Cells for Myocardial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Bone-marrow-derived stem cells have displayed the potential for myocardial regeneration in animal models as well as in clinical trials. Unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) population is a heterogeneous group of cells known to include a number of stem cell populations. Cells in the side population (SP) fraction have a high capacity for differentiation into multiple lineages. In the current study, we investigated the role of murine and human bone-marrow-derived side population cells in myocardial regeneration. In these studies, we show that mouse bone-marrow-derived SP cells expressed the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, following culture with neonatal cardiomyocytes and after delivery into the myocardium following injury. Moreover, the number of green-fluorescent-protein-positive cells, of bone marrow side population origin, increased progressively within the injured myocardium over 90 days. Transcriptome analysis of these bone marrow cells reveals a pattern of expression consistent with immature cardiomyocytes. Additionally, the differentiation capacity of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated peripheral blood stem cells were assessed following injection into injured rat myocardium. Bone marrow mononuclear cell and side population cells were both readily identified within the rat myocardium 1 month following injection. These human cells expressed human-specific cardiac troponin I as determined by immunohistochemistry as well as numerous cardiac transcripts as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Both human bone marrow mononuclear cells and human side population cells augmented cardiac systolic function following a modest drop in function as a result of cryoinjury. The augmentation of cardiac function following injection of side population cells occurred earlier than with bone marrow mononuclear cells despite the fact that the number of side population cells used was one tenth that of bone marrow mononuclear cells (9 × 105 cells per heart in the MNC group compared to 9 × 104 per heart in the SP group). These results support the hypotheses that rodent and human-bone-marrow derived side population cells are capable of acquiring a cardiac fate and that human bone-marrow-derived side population cells are superior to unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells in augmenting left ventricular systolic function following cryoinjury. PMID:20559985

Sadek, Hesham A.; Martin, Cindy M.; Latif, Shuaib S.; Garry, Mary G.

2015-01-01

140

Pure red cell aplasia caused by Parvo B19 virus in a kidney transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Parvo B19 is a single stranded DNA virus, which typically has affinity for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and produces a severe form of anemia known as pure red cell aplasia. This condition is particularly worse in immunocompromised individuals. We herein report a young Nepali male who developed severe and persistent anaemia after kidney transplantation while being on immunosuppressive therapy. His bone marrow examination revealed morphological changes of pure red cell aplasia, caused by parvovirus B19. The IgM antibody against the virus was positive and the virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the blood. He was managed with intravenous immunoglobulin. He responded well to the treatment and has normal hemoglobin levels three months post treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report from Nepal. PMID:23478734

Baral, A; Poudel, B; Agrawal, R K; Hada, R; Gurung, S

2012-01-01

141

A case of parvovirus B19-induced pure red cell aplasia in a child following heart transplant.  

PubMed

We describe a case of an 11-year-old boy who underwent orthotopic heart transplant for dilated cardiomyopathy. He developed a normocytic, normochromic anaemia with a low reticulocyte count 1 month after transplant. A bone marrow biopsy was performed, which showed a mildly hypocellular bone marrow with few red blood cell precursors with giant pro-erythroblasts indicative of a pure red cell aplasia. Parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction in the blood was positive 2 months after transplant. Intravenous immunoglobulin administration resulted in a resolution of the anaemia over several months. Unexplained pure red cell aplasia in immunosuppressed patients should alert one to the possibility of parvovirus B19 infection. PMID:24555951

Kelleher, Eoin; McMahon, Corrina; McMahon, Colin J

2015-02-01

142

Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

143

Marrow failure: a window into ribosome biology.  

PubMed

Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and dyskeratosis congenita are inherited syndromes characterized by marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Genetic and molecular studies have uncovered distinct abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis underlying each of these 3 disorders. How defects in ribosomes, the essential organelles required for protein biosynthesis in all cells, cause tissue-specific abnormalities in human disease remains a question of fundamental scientific and medical importance. Here we review the overlapping and distinct clinical features of these 3 syndromes and discuss current knowledge regarding the ribosomal pathways disrupted in each of these disorders. We also explore the increasing complexity of ribosome biology and how this informs our understanding of developmental biology and human disease. PMID:25237201

Ruggero, Davide; Shimamura, Akiko

2014-10-30

144

The Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  

PubMed Central

In spite of the rarity of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), they represent diseases for which the molecular pathogenesis may be elucidated. Their study and presentation of the details of their molecular biology and biochemistry is warranted not only for appropriate diagnosis and management of afflicted patients but also because they lend clues to the normal physiology of the normal hematopoiesis and, in many cases, mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Several themes have emerged within each subsection of IBMFS, including the ribosomopathies that entail both ribosome assembly as well as ribosomal RNA processing. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway itself has become interdigitated with the familial breast cancer syndromes. The sections that follow present a more detailed analysis of the diseases that account for the majority of IBMFS diagnoses. PMID:24237972

Chirnomas, S. Deborah; Kupfer, Gary M

2013-01-01

145

Publication bias in blood and marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Only a small proportion of abstracts lead to full publication. Abstracts with "positive" results are more likely to be published than other abstracts, leading to publication bias. To date, this issue has not been examined in the blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) literature. We hypothesized that because BMT centers are often based at academic centers, the proportion of abstracts leading to publication will be high. All abstracts presented at the Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group biannual meetings in 2002, 2004, and 2006 were reviewed and categorized by study type, funding source, single-center or multicenter study, form of presentation, and positive or negative results, using the authors' definitions. To determine publication, each reference was searched on multiple databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL) by first, second, and final author names. Two authors performed abstract categorization and searching, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Of the 141 abstracts reviewed, only 43 were published (30.4%). Twenty-one studies were published from 2002 (36.8%), compared with 12 from 2004 (24.0%) and 10 from 2006 (29.4%) (P = .35). Neither positive results nor the number of involved centers were associated with the likelihood of publication. Clinical studies (retrospective or prospective) were more likely to be published than nonclinical studies (P = .014). Funded studies and oral presentations were more likely to be published (P = .009 and .004, respectively). A low rate of publication is seen in the field of BMT. Studies with clinical outcomes, externally funded studies, and studies presented orally were more likely to be published. However, there was no publication bias in favor of studies with positive results. Publication bias should be evaluated further at larger BMT meetings, and efforts should be made to encourage full publication of scientific abstracts. PMID:21130176

Saeed, Mahwash; Paulson, Kristjan; Lambert, P; Szwajcer, David; Seftel, Matthew

2011-06-01

146

Bone marrow replacement in the treatment of hemolytic disease in mice  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow replacement therapy following whole-body x- or gamma-irradiation has until now proven to be of limited value in the treatment of individuals with hemolytic disease. The large doses of radiation required for destruction of defective erythropoietic tissues coupled with their resultant high mortality appears to limit its usefulness. Techniques have been developed by the authors to limit the extent of exposure and to improve survival following irradiation. These techniques include shielding of all parts of the body except the hind limbs, prophylactic use of antibiotics, and preparatory blood transfusion to suppress the development of indigenous defective erythrocytes. Using these combined techniques we were able to establish high rates of survival, successful engraftment, and long-term clinical improvement in mice with several hemolytic disorders emanating from hereditary defects in spectrin production and incorporation. Evidence is presented indicating that complete bone marrow replacement occurs even in nonirradiated portions of the erythron and that only donor type red blood cells appear in the circulation.

Bernstein, S.E.; Deveau, S.A. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (USA))

1989-11-01

147

Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered as the most promising cells source for bone engineering. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors play important roles in bone mass turnover. The aim of this study is to test if activation of CB2 receptor by chemical agonist could enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone BM-MSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining and real time PCR were performed to test the osteogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was carried out to examine the mineralization. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to study the role of CB2 receptor in osteogenic differentiation. Results showed activation of CB2 receptor increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes, and enhanced deposition of calcium in extracellular matrix. Knockdown of CB2 receptor by siRNA inhibited ALP activity and mineralization. Results of immunofluorescent staining showed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase is reduced by knocking down of CB2 receptor. Finally, bone marrow samples demonstrated that expression of CB2 receptor is much lower in osteoporotic patients than in healthy donors. Taken together, data from this study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays important role in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Lack of CB2 receptor may be related to osteoporosis. PMID:25685815

Sun, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ai-Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Xing; Yu, Ai-Wen

2015-01-01

148

Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night.

Tabatabai, R.N.

1984-01-01

149

Isolation of a preadipocyte cell line from rat bone marrow and differentiation to adipocytes.  

PubMed

A unique population of rat adipocyte precursor cells was derived from normal rat bone marrow. The epitheloid-like preadipocytes were isolated from a mixed culture of bone marrow cells by a combination of differential trypsinization, enrichment by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, and differential seeding. This cell line, designated RBM-Ad, can be fully differentiated into multilocular adipocytes morphologically resembling brown adipose tissue. No changes in the differentiation pattern are observed during propagation of these cells, and they have been successfully carried and differentiated up to passage 49. Histological staining of differentiated cells with Sudan black, Sudan IV, and oil red O indicates the presence of lipids in intracellular vesicles. The nonselective beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity in both preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes. In contrast, BRL-37344, a beta 3-adrenergic receptor-specific agonist, stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and glycerol release in differentiated adipocytes, but not preadipocytes. In addition, differentiated adipocytes contain messenger RNA encoding the brown adipose-specific protein, thermogenin. Thus, this rat preadipocyte cell line can be differentiated into adipocytes that histologically and functionally resemble brown adipose tissue. PMID:7545105

Marko, O; Cascieri, M A; Ayad, N; Strader, C D; Candelore, M R

1995-10-01

150

PRIMARY MARROW DERIVED STROMAL CELLS: ISOLATION AND MANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) are relatively rare cells difficult to visualize in marrow biopsies or detect in aspirated marrow. Under specific conditions MSC can be expanded in vitro and the population can give rise to several mesenchymal lineages. “MSC” also refers to mesenchymal stem cells which implies that all cells in the population are multipotent. It is generally agreed that while there may be a few multipotent stem cells in an MSC population the majority are not stem cells. In either case MSC do not produce hematopoietic cells. Although MSCs have been isolated and characterized from several tissues, bone marrow is their most common source for research and clinical use. Primary MSC populations can be derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells with relative ease, but it is important to recognize the cellular heterogeneity within a culture and how this may vary from donor to donor. In this chapter, we will describe methodology to derive primary MSCs from bone marrow screens, an otherwise discarded byproduct of bone marrow harvests used for clinical transplantation. We will also describe some useful techniques to characterize and manipulate MSCs – both primary and immortalized cell lines. PMID:23959984

Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Pillai, Manoj M

2013-01-01

151

Primary marrow-derived stromal cells: isolation and manipulation.  

PubMed

Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are relatively rare cells difficult to visualize in marrow biopsies or detect in aspirated marrow. Under specific conditions MSC can be expanded in vitro and the population can give rise to several mesenchymal lineages. "MSC" also refers to mesenchymal stem cells which implies that all cells in the population are multipotent. It is generally agreed that while there may be a few multipotent stem cells in an MSC population the majority are not stem cells. In either case MSCs do not produce hematopoietic cells. Although MSCs have been isolated and characterized from several tissues, bone marrow is their most common source for research and clinical use. Primary MSC populations can be derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells with relative ease, but it is important to recognize the cellular heterogeneity within a culture and how this may vary from donor to donor. In this chapter, we describe methodology to derive primary MSCs from bone marrow screens, an otherwise discarded by-product of bone marrow harvests used for clinical transplantation. We also describe some useful techniques to characterize and manipulate MSCs-both primary and immortalized cell lines. PMID:23959984

Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Pillai, Manoj M

2013-01-01

152

Hematopathology: SC14-1 CHALLENGES IN BONE MARROW PATHOLOGY.  

PubMed

Bone marrow diagnosis presents unique challenges: distinction between benign and neoplastic conditions may be subtle and the pathologist must effectively incorporate information from several morphologic modalities (trephine biopsy, aspirate smear, peripheral blood smear) as well as a myriad of ancillary testing results. In this Short Course, several difficult diagnostic scenarios will be explored using actual clinical cases that illustrate key points in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow diseases. These will include hypocellular bone marrow (in which distinction between hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia may be difficult), fibrotic bone marrow, and marrow lymphoid infiltrates, with discussion of both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas. Hypercellular bone marrow raises distinct differential diagnoses depending on whether the patient is cytopenic or presents with elevated counts, and can reflect a myeloid neoplasm or various reactive conditions in either situation. An accurate diagnosis relies on understanding the spectrum of diseases that can produce specific patterns in the bone marrow and awareness of clues that help distinguish among the differential diagnostic possibilities. Depending on the clinical context, the pathology may variably weigh morphology, clinical information, and ancillary test results in arriving at the final diagnosis. PMID:25188096

Hasserjian, Robert P; Wang, Sa A

2014-10-01

153

Effects of low level light irradiation on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells derived from rat bone marrow.  

PubMed

Low level light irradiation (LLLI) was found to exert positive effects on various cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LLLI on the migration of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rbMSCs). Light irradiation was applied at the energy density of 4 J/cm(2) using red (630 nm) and near infrared (NIR, 850 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). Wound healing assay showed both red and NIR light irradiation increased cell mobility. Red and NIR light enhanced transmembrane migration of rbMSCs up to 292.9% and 263.6% accordingly. This agreed with enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 enhanced by irradiation. F-actin accumulation and distribution correlated to increased migration in light-irradiated MSCs. Reactive oxygen species production as well as the expression of pFAK and pNF-?B were elevated after red and NIR LLLI. The study demonstrated that red and NIR LLLI increased rbMSCs migration and identified the phosphorylation of FAK and NF-?B as critical steps for the elevated cell migration upon LLLI. PMID:24110639

Li, Wen-Tyng; Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Po-Ya

2013-01-01

154

Leukocyte-marrow scintigraphy in hyperostosis frontalis interna.  

PubMed

Hyperostosis frontalis interna is the term used to describe the thickening of the frontal bones of the skull. This thickening of the frontal bones is accompanied by an increase in the diploic space which results in an increased quantity of hematopoietically active marrow. Increased frontal bone uptake of labeled leukocytes has been reported in this condition, and the symmetric appearance of this activity may suggest its benign etiology. We have encountered a case of hyperostosis frontalis interna in which the uptake of labeled leukocytes was asymmetric and marrow scintigraphy confirmed that the activity seen was due to marrow not infection. PMID:9255168

Torres, M A; Palestro, C J

1997-08-01

155

Salicylideneamino-2-thiophenol enhances osteogenic differentiation through the activation of MAPK pathways in multipotent bone marrow stem cell.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass due to an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. Therefore, the identification of specific stimulators of bone formation is of therapeutic significance in the treatment of osteoporosis. Salicylideneamino-2-thiophenol (Sal-2) consists of two benzene rings, has been reported to possess antioxidant activity, and is an effective remedy for fever and rheumatic diseases. However, until now the effects of osteoblastic bone formation by Sal-2 were unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Sal-2 on osteogenic differentiation of multipotent bone marrow stromal stem cells by alizarin red S staining for osteogenic differentiation, RT-PCR and western blot for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and signaling pathways, FACS analysis and immunofluorescence staining for CD44 and CD51 expression, calcium assays, and immunofluorescence staining for signaling pathways. We found that Sal-2 enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of multipotent bone marrow stromal stem cells. Sal-2 treatment induced the expression and activity of ALP, and enhanced the levels of CD44 and CD51 expression as well as Ca2+ content, in multipotent bone marrow stromal stem cells. Moreover, we found that Sal-2-induced osteogenic differentiation and expression of osteogenesis-related molecules involve the activation of the MAPK and nuclear factor-?B pathways. Our findings provide insight into both the mechanism and effects of Sal-2 on osteogenic differentiation and demonstrate that Sal-2 may be a beneficial adjuvant in stimulating bone formation in osteoporotic diseases. PMID:22228489

Kim, Hyung Keun; Park, Kyung Soon; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Dae Sung; Shin, Jung-Woog; Yoon, Taek Rim

2012-06-01

156

Pharmacokinetics and red cell utilization of iron(III) hydroxide-sucrose complex in anaemic patients: a study using positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection of 100 mg iron hydroxide-sucrose complex labelled with a tracer in the form of 52Fe/59Fe was followed in six anaemic patients for a period ranging from 6 to 8 3 h using positron emission tomography (PET). Red cell utilization of the labelled iron was followed for 4 weeks. PET data showed radioactive uptake by the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The uptake by the macrophage-rich spleen demonstrated the reticuloendothelial uptake of this iron preparation, with subsequent effective release of that iron for marrow utilization. Red cell utilization, followed for 4 weeks, ranged from 59% to 97%. The bone marrow influx rate constant was independent of blood iron concentration, indicating non-saturation of the transport system in bone marrow. This implied that higher doses of the iron complex can probably be used in the same setting. A higher influx rate into the marrow compared with the liver seemed to be consistent with higher red cell utilization. This would indicate that early distribution of the injected iron complex may predict the long-term utilization. PMID:10050711

Beshara, S; Lundqvist, H; Sundin, J; Lubberink, M; Tolmachev, V; Valind, S; Antoni, G; Lĺngström, B; Danielson, B G

1999-02-01

157

The pathophysiology of pure red cell aplasia: implications for therapy.  

PubMed

To determine the utility of marrow culture in defining the natural history and therapeutic response of pure red cell aplasia we have studied 37 patients. Patients were evaluated at the University of Washington before specific therapies (n = 21) or at the time of treatment failure in = 16). Evaluation included a medical and drug exposure history, a physical examination, a chest x-ray or computed tomography to rule out thymoma, lymphocyte immunophenotype studies, anti-nuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor determinations, marrow cytogenetics, and marrow progenitor cell cultures. Retrospective Southern analyses to detect human parvovirus B19 was performed in the 27 patients for whom sera was stored. Clinical follow-up was obtained to document therapeutic responses. Normal burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) growth (>30 bursts/10(5) marrow mononuclear cells [MMNC]) in culture proved an outstanding predictor of clinical response, as 27 of 29 individuals with normal frequencies of erythroid bursts in culture responded to immunomodulating therapies (sensitivity 96%, specificity 78%, predictive value 93%, P = .0001 with two-tailed chi square analysis). Overall, 28 patients responded to either immunomodulating therapies or drug withdrawal. Twenty-four patients obtained a normal hematocrit (complete response [CR] and 4 additional patients became transfusion independent (partial response). Although responding patients often required several therapies, 20 of 24 (83%) patients who obtained a CR have sustained a normal hematocrit without maintenance therapy at the time of last follow-up (median 5 years). In contrast, of 8 patients with poor in vitro BFU-E growth (<6 bursts/10(5) MMNC), 7 failed to respond to any therapy and all died (median survival time 17 months). Our data suggest that in individuals, from whom BFU-E mature appropriately in culture, immunosuppressive drugs should be used sequentially until a CR is obtained and a durable remission is the expected outcome. PMID:8639856

Charles, R J; Sabo, K M; Kidd, P G; Abkowitz, J L

1996-06-01

158

The Red Queen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful. From Evolution: Why Sex?

2003-09-26

159

Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

160

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro after transfection with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a variety of adult cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is briefly active during differentiation and induces mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into nerve cells. In this study, we cloned human BDNF to generate a recombinant pcDNA3.1(-)-BDNF vector and transfected the vector into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We selected these cells with Geneticin-418 to obtain BDNF-BMSCs, which were induced with retinoic acid to obtain induced BDNF-BMSCs. The transfected cells displayed the typical morphology and surface antigen profile of fibroblasts and were observed to express clusters of differentiation 29, 44, and 90 (observed in matrix and stromal cells), but not clusters of differentiation 31, 34, and 45 (observed in red blood cells and endothelial cells), via flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells secreted more BDNF than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Immunocytochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that non-induced BDNF-BMSCs maintained a higher proliferative capacity and expressed higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nestin, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acid protein than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. An additional increase was observed in the induced BDNF-BMSCs compared to the non-induced BDNF-BMSCs. This expression profile is characteristic of neurocytes. Our data demonstrate that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the BDNF gene can differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro, which may enable the generation of sufficient quantities of nerve-like cells for treatment of neuronal diseases. PMID:25773996

Liu, Qianxu; Cheng, Guangui; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhan, Shujie; Xiong, Binbin; Zhao, Xiaoming

2015-03-01

161

2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world  

E-print Network

2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world Date: October 26 (Friday) 2012 09 on Red tides Time Topic Speaker Organization 8:50-9:10 Registration 9:10-9:20 Welcome 9:20-10:00 Forecasting the New England red tide : Current status, and ongoing efforts Don Anderson Woods Hole Oceanogr. i

Jeong, Hae Jin

162

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None; )

2007-09-23

163

Aurora Australis, Red Crown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

1991-01-01

164

Whence the red panda?  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous (based on prior modeling, as well as conflict between the results of our analyses of less and more complete data sets) conclusions about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. PMID:11083933

Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

2000-11-01

165

Bone marrow engraftment: histopathology of hematopoietic reconstitution following allogeneic transplantation in CML patients.  

PubMed

Following myelo-ablative treatment and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) histopathological features assumed to exert a significant impact on engraftment have been rarely investigated systematically. This review is focused on immunohistochemical and morphometric techniques involving nucleated erythroid precursors, resident macrophages and their various subsets, megakaryocytes and finally argyrophilic (reticulin-collagen) fibers. Regarding standardized intervals of examination in the postgraft sequential trephine biopsies a pronounced reduction in cellularity was obvious and accompanied by a decrease in the quantity of erythro- and megakaryopoiesis. A significant correlation between the number of erythroid precursors and CD68+-macrophages could be determined in the areas of regenerating hematopoiesis. This finding is in keeping with the important functional role of the centrally localized mature macrophages during erythropoiesis. A relevant pretransplant reduction of the red cell lineage and an early to advanced reticulin fibrosis were correlated with a low hemoglobin level (anemia) and splenomegaly and furthermore associated with a significant delay to reach transfusion independence. This result was supported by corresponding findings in biopsy specimens performed shortly after day 30 following BMT (standard interval for assessment of engraftment). Samples revealed an enhancement of fiber density and a conspicuous decrease in the amount of erythropoiesis in the small fraction of patients who did not conform with the usually accepted criteria for successful hematopoietic reconstitution. Considering the compartment of histiocytic reticular cells the recurrence of Pseudo-Gaucher cells (PCGs) in the engrafted donor marrow was remarkable and most prominently expressed in the first two months following BMT. This feature was presumed to be functionally linked with a pronounced degradation of cell debris in the sequel of myelo-ablative therapy (scavenger macrophages). According to planimetric measurements in the postgraft bone marrow the atypical dwarf-like CD61+-megakaryocytes characteristic for CML disappeared. On the other hand, normalization of megakaryocyte size and nuclear lobulation were absent in sequential examination of the few patients developing a leukemic relapse. In a number of patients with manifest myelofibrosis at onset, an initial regression after BMT was followed by an insidiously occurring retrieval which was concentrated on the areas of reconstituting hematopoiesis. Similar to its relevant pretransplant association the postgraft reappearance of myelofibrosis was significantly correlated with the quantity of CD61+-megakaryocytes. Altogether a number of histological features in the pre-and postgraft bone marrow exhibited significant correlations with each other and thus indicated functional relationships. Moreover, quantity of erythropoiesis and amount of reticulin fibers (myelofibrosis) exerted a significant impact on engraftment status. PMID:11193198

Thiele, J; Kvasnicka, H M; Beelen, D W; Leder, L D; Schaefer, U W

2001-01-01

166

Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option  

MedlinePLUS

... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with ... you have had, and your overall health. Transplant as a Treatment When a bone marrow or cord ...

167

Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

1980-11-01

168

Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures  

SciTech Connect

To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.

1984-01-01

169

Who Needs a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant?  

MedlinePLUS

... Links Related Topics Aplastic Anemia Bone Marrow Tests Sickle Cell Anemia Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI ... blood diseases, such as thalassemias , aplastic anemia , and sickle cell anemia Certain immune-deficiency diseases, such as ...

170

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Niches and Regenerative Medicine  

E-print Network

1 Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Niches and Regenerative Medicine Inauguraldissertation zur are a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, but suffer from a rapid loss of differentiation potential during

Amrhein, Valentin

171

THE GROWTH OF MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple in vitro technique is described for the growth of colonies from single cell suspensions of mouse bone marrow. The system involves the plating of marrow cells in agar on feeder layers of other cells, those from 8-day-old mouse kidney and 17th day mouse embryo being shown to be the most efficient types of feeder layers.Approximalely 400 colonies per

TR Bradley; D Metcalf

1966-01-01

172

Effect of marrow perforation on the sheep temporomandibular joint.  

PubMed

The effect of surgically perforating the mandibular condyle to allow synovial fluid to contact the marrow was examined in 5 sheep temporomandibular joints. The surgical defect showed replacement of the marrow with fibro-osseous tissue and subcortical cysts. A vertical, central osteophyte emerged from the perforation, causing attenuation or perforation of the disc and temporal surface proliferation. These changes were radiographically and histologically similar to advanced osteoarthritis. This supports the concept that intraarticular micro or macrofracture may result in osteoarthritis. PMID:1402055

Ishimaru, J I; Kurita, K; Handa, Y; Goss, A N

1992-08-01

173

Circulating Bone Marrow Cells Can Contribute to Neointimal Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the source of smooth muscle-like cells during vascular healing, C57BL\\/6 (Ly 5.2) female mice underwent whole body irradiation followed by transfusion with 106 nucleated bone marrow cells from congenic (Ly 5.1) male donors. Successful repopulation (88.4 ± 4.9%) by donor marrow was demonstrated in the female mice by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated A20.1\\/Ly 5.1 monoclonal antibody after 4

Chih-lu Han; Gordon R. Campbell; Julie H. Campbell

2001-01-01

174

Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. Results The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP, with a mean efficiency of 72% ± 4%. The vector used was derived from the simian immunodeficiency lentivirus SIVmac251, VSV-g pseudotyped and encoded eGFP under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After myeloid differentiation, GFP was detected in colony-forming cells (37% ± 10%). A previous study showed that transduction rates did not differ significantly between colony-forming cells and immature cells capable of initiating long-term cultures, indicating that progenitor cells and highly immature hematopoietic cells were transduced with similar efficiency. Blood cells producingeGFP were detected as early as three days after transplantation, and eGFP-producing granulocyte and mononuclear cells persisted for more than one year in the periphery. Conclusion The transplantation of CD34+ bone marrow cells had beneficial effects for the ex vivo proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, favoring reconstitution of the T- and B-lymphocyte, thrombocyte and red blood cell compartments. PMID:18565229

Derdouch, Sonia; Gay, Wilfried; Nčgre, Didier; Prost, Stéphane; Le Dantec, Mikael; Delache, Benoît; Auregan, Gwenaelle; Andrieu, Thibault; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Cosset, François-Loďc; Le Grand, Roger

2008-01-01

175

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds as estimated through TNF alpha release indicates its potential as future biopolymeric graft material. Rat bone marrow cells cultured on scaffolds for 28 days under static conditions in osteogenic and adipogenic media respectively led to induction of differentiation. Proliferation and spreading of fibroblasts and bone marrow cells on silk scaffolds were observed to be dependent on scaffold porosity as revealed through confocal microscopic observations. Histological analysis shows osteogenic differentiation within silk scaffolds resulting in extensive mineralization in the form of deposited nodules as observed through intense Alizarin Red S staining. Similarly, adipogenesis was marked by the presence of lipid droplets within scaffolds on staining with Oil Red O. Real-time PCR studies reveal higher transcript levels for osteopontin (Spp1), osteocalcin (Bglap2) and osteonectin (Sparc) genes under osteogenic conditions. Similarly, upregulated adipogenic gene expression was observed within A. mylitta and B. mori scaffolds under adipogenic conditions for Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte binding protein (aP2) genes. The results suggest suitability of silk fibroin protein 3D scaffolds as natural biopolymer for potential bone and adipose tissue engineering applications. PMID:19577292

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-10-01

176

A modified method for human bone marrow filtration prior to bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

A technique is described for filtering harvested bone marrow using disposable materials, namely a 4 x 4 inch piece of sterile gauze that is gently packed into the barrel of a 60-ml plastic disposable syringe, which is connected directly to a blood collection bag. The filtration of marrow directly into the collection bag eliminates additional filtration steps and therefore may potentially reduce the incidence of inadvertent microbial contamination. In this study we describe this filtering technique and compare it to the method described by Thomas and Storb. Numbers of granulopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM) and erythropoietic progenitors (BFU-E), total white cell counts, percentage of cells positive for the CD3 (OKT3) lymphocyte surface membrane marker, and volume changes were studied following filtration by each method. The two techniques were shown to be comparable in terms of these parameters. Furthermore, when compared with historical controls, this method resulted in a reduced incidence of microbial contamination compared to filtration using successive stainless steel screens. PMID:2647193

Neudorf, S; Hendrixson, M; Hammond, J; Harris, R; Hake, D; Jones, M; Pietryga, D; Sambrano, J

1989-01-01

177

Red Cabbage Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students take advantage of the natural ability of red cabbage juice to perform as a pH indicator to test the pH of seven common household liquids. Then they evaluate the accuracy of the red cabbage indicator, by testing the pH of the liquids using an engineer-designed tool, pH indicator strips. Like environmental engineers working on water remediation or water treatment projects, understanding the chemical properties (including pH) of contaminants is important for safeguarding the health of environmental water sources and systems.

GK-12 Program,

178

Pure red cell aplasia.  

PubMed

The presentation and clinical course of pure red cell aplasia in 5 patients are described. In 3 of them no concomitant diseases were present, in 1 the condition was associated with the presence of a thymoma, and the remaining patient was suffering from a lymphocytic lymphoma. Pregnancy led to a recurrence of the disorder in 2 patients. The fact that 4 of the patients exhibited unequivocal evidence of other auto-immune disturbances adds further support to the concept that pure red cell aplasia itself has an auto-immune basis. PMID:989625

Skikne, B S; Lynch, S R; Bezwoda, W R; Bothwell, T H; Bernstein, R; Katz, J

1976-08-14

179

Red Cross Swimming Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

Vlasich, Cynthia

1989-01-01

180

Canadian Red Cross.  

PubMed

The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

Lavender, Colleen

2008-01-01

181

Human Red Cell Peptidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for characterizing peptidases in terms of electrophoretic behaviour in starch gel and of substrate specificity is described. A survey of red cells from a large number of people has revealed genetically determined variants of two of these enzymes. Separate loci appear to be involved.

W. H. P. Lewis; Harry Harris

1967-01-01

182

CHINOOK RED RASPBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Chinook' is a new primocane fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore. released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station, the Washington State University A...

183

Red and Black Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the student to play the game of red and black, by betting on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until either a target is reached or the player is ruined. The target, initial fortune, and trial win probability can be varied.

Kyle Siegrist

184

Florida's Red Tide Infestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Florida's west coast in 2001, threatening the wildlife of Tampa Bay's estuary. The article briefly discusses the cause of the red tide and its affect on the shellfish industry.

CBS News

185

'Saanich' Red Raspberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

186

SRED: Stabilized RED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mechanism we call "SRED" (Stabilized Random Early Drop). Like RED (Random Early Detection) SRED pre-emptively discards packets with a load-dependent probability when a buffer in a router in the Internet or an Intranet seems congested. SRED has an additional feature that over a wide range of load levels helps it stabilize its buffer occupation at a

Teunis J. Ott; T. V. Lakshman; Larry H. Wong

1999-01-01

187

The Red Scare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Scare describes the time in American History following World War II when tension between Americans and other Communist countries, specifically the Soviet Union, were threateningly high. Each county was equipped for, yet fearful of an atomic war. The United States government tried to use this fear to motivate the American public to become mobilized. American citizens were encouraged

Allison Ellis

2012-01-01

188

Red sea drillings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

Ross, D.A.; Whitmarsh, R.B.; Ali, S.A.; Boudreaux, J.E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R.L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P.R.

1973-01-01

189

'Vintage' Red Raspberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

190

'Valley Red' Strawberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

191

Williams's “The Red Wheelbarrow”  

Microsoft Academic Search

a red wheel barrow\\u000aglazed with rain water\\u000abeside the white chickens. (1923)\\u000aX. J. Kennedy's note in his Introduction to Poetry helps readers understand a critical question about William Carlos Williams's \\

Hal Blythe; Charlie Sweet

2001-01-01

192

Cells Derived from Young Bone Marrow Alleviate Renal Aging  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less ?-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show ?-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor ?. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney. PMID:21965376

Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji

2011-01-01

193

Hematopoietic bone marrow recovery after radiation therapy: MRI evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to detect the increase of adipocytes in the hematopoietic bone marrow that occurs as a consequence of radiotherapy and is indicative of the loss of myeloid tissue. By monitoring this process, it is also possible to determine the recovery of the bone marrow. The amount of viable hematopoietic tissue plays a fundamental role in determining whether the patient is able to undergo further antineoplastic therapy, particularly chemotherapy. We examined 35 patients who had been treated with radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (12), uterine cervix carcinoma (nine), ovarian dysgerminoma (six), testicular seminoma (four), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (four). We observed that radiation-induced modifications of the MRI pattern in the bone marrow are tightly linked to two parameters; the administered radiation dose and the length of time passed after the treatment. Bone marrow recovery was observed only when patients were treated with doses lower than 50 Gy. The earlier radiation-induced modifications of the bone marrow MRI pattern occurred 6 to 12 months after irradiation, and they were most evident 5 to 6 years after the treatment. From 2 to 9 years after radiotherapy, we observed partial recovery. Complete recovery, when it occurred, was observed only 10 to 23 years after the treatment. Our results indicate that MRI studies are likely to be useful in the assessment of radiation-induced injuries.

Casamassima, F.; Ruggiero, C.; Caramella, D.; Tinacci, E.; Villari, N.; Ruggiero, M. (Univ. of Firenze (Italy))

1989-05-01

194

Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection  

SciTech Connect

Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes.

Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

1984-08-01

195

Acquired pure red cell aplasia in Japan.  

PubMed

We reviewed the clinical features of 150 patients with acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in Japan. There were 35 patients with acute type and 115 with chronic type PRCA. Of the acute PRCA patients, 17 had human parvovirus B19 infection. Drug-induced PRCA was demonstrated in 7 patients. Of the 115 patients with chronic PRCA, 51 patients were classified as primary and 64 cases were associated with miscellaneous diseases such as thymoma, a variety of hematological disorders and collagen diseases. Among the hematological disorders, PRCA was most frequently seen in granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPD). The erythroid colony growth patterns from bone marrow were variable. The serum erythropoietin level was high in most patients. Various kinds of treatment were tried for the chronic PRCA cases. Cyclosporin A (CyA) was the most effective form of treatment and the response rate was 82% (31/38). Twenty-three of 37 patients (62%) responded to bolus methylprednisolone therapy. The largest number of patients were treated with oral prednisolone, and the therapy was effective in 27 of the 55 (49%). The response rate to cyclophosphamide was only 29% (5/17), but in combination with prednisolone, half of the patients (7/14) responded to the therapy. CyA is recommended as the first-line therapy for acquired chronic PRCA. PMID:9338617

Mamiya, S; Itoh, T; Miura, A B

1997-10-01

196

Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification  

MedlinePLUS

... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Red blood cell antibodies are proteins produced by the ...

197

Weather sends red tide packing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Mobile Register newspaper article provides general information about the impact of a cold front on red tide in Alabama. Red tide in the area had been rising until the front passed through, killing most of the phytoplankton bloom.

Bill Finch

198

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN  

E-print Network

.4.7 Promote the strategy and raise awareness of red squirrel conservation 7 2.4.8 Monitor and assess progress broadleaf species, can benefit red squirrel conservation. However, in situations where large

199

Spectrum of pure red cell aplasia in adult population of north-west India.  

PubMed

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare haematological disorder characterised by selective inhibition of red cell precursors in the bone marrow. We conducted a retrospective analysis of nine cases of PRCA seen in our adult haematology clinic from January 2000 to December 2003. All patients had baseline hemogram, bone marrow examination, CT scan of chest, autoimmune and infectious disease markers. The diagnosis of PRCA was made on bone marrow examination showing normal granulocytic and megakaryocytic series with erythroblastopenia. The age range was 14-68 years (median: 40 years) and a male to female ratio of 3 : 1. In five patients, the aetiology of PRCA could not be identified with available investigations and were labelled as primary PRCA. The secondary causes of PRCA included three cases of thymoma and one case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Out of nine patients, three patients had died and two lost to follow-up. At the last available follow-up till December 2006, three patients (one secondary and two primary PRCA) are maintaining normal haemoglobin and one patient still has active disease. The retrospective review shows that causes and outcome of PRCA in the developing world are different to those seen in the West. PMID:18616874

Malhotra, Pankaj; Muralikrishna, G K; Varma, Neelam; Kumari, Savita; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Jain, Sanjay; Varma, Subhash

2008-04-01

200

Communication between bone marrow niches in normal bone marrow function and during hemopathies progression  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation, quiescence and differentiation are regulated by interactions with bone marrow (BM) niches. Two niches have been identified in the adult BM: the endosteal (close to the bone) and the perivascular niche (close to blood vessels). A vast body of literature has revealed the molecular basis for the interaction of HSCs with the two niches. However, the signals that regulate the communication between the two niches have not been well defined. Taking in consideration several clinical and experimental arguments this review highlights the molecular cues, involved in the communication between the BM niches, which regulate the basic properties of HSCs in physiological and malignant conditions. As such, it aims at clarifying the most important advances in basic and clinical research focusing on the role of different factors in the regulation of the BM microenvironment.

Lamorte, Sara; Remédio, Leonor; Dias, Sergio

2009-01-01

201

Primary diagnosis of Whipple's disease in bone marrow.  

PubMed

Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of infectious origin caused by Tropheryma whipplei (TW). Abdominal pain and recurrent diarrhea are usually the main symptoms leading to the suspicion of a primary bowel disease. Systemic manifestations can mimic hematologic disorders. A 49-year-old man presented with fever, weight loss, long-standing arthralgia, and diarrhea. A duodenal biopsy was unremarkable. Bone marrow histology provided no evidence of a malignant hematological disorder but revealed noncaseating granulomas. TW was detected in the bone marrow trephine by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report to describe TW-associated granulomatous myelitis as the initially recognized organ manifestation of WD, proven at the molecular level. This observation is relevant for the differential diagnosis of patients with systemic symptoms and granulomatous diseases affecting the bone marrow, emphasizing that WD should be considered in cases of unexplained granulomatous myelitis, even when small bowel biopsy specimens are negative. PMID:15116337

Kröber, Stefan Martin; Kaiserling, Edwin; Horny, Hans-Peter; Weber, Achim

2004-04-01

202

The bone marrow at the crossroads of blood and immunity  

PubMed Central

Progenitor cells that are the basis for all blood cell production share the bone marrow with more mature elements of the adaptive immune system. Specialized niches within the bone marrow guide and, at times, constrain the development of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and lineage-restricted immune progenitor cells. Specific niche components are organized into distinct domains to create a diversified landscape in which specialized cell differentiation or population expansion programmes proceed. Local cues that reflect the tissue and organismal state affect cellular interactions to alter the production of a range of cell types. Here, we review the organization of regulatory elements in the bone marrow and discuss how these elements provide a dynamic means for the host to modulate stem cell and adaptive immune cell responses to physiological challenges. PMID:22193770

Scadden, David T.

2014-01-01

203

Receptor conversion in carcinoma breast metastatic to the bone marrow.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the first in the incidence of malignancies among women. The documented frequency of osseous metastasis from breast cancer is about 12.8 %. Although breast cancer cells have been documented in the bone marrow in autopsy, haematological manifestations due to metastatic disease to the marrow is rare. The prognosis of these cases is dismal and improper management worsen the condition further. IHC for ER, PR & Her 2/neu status plays a vital role in ascertaining the treatment protocol both in primary tumors as well as metastatic or recurrent tumors. Receptor conversion has been documented in metastatic and recurrent cases. We report a case of 65 year female with a history of ER, PR positive and Her 2/neu negative carcinoma breast 3˝ years back, presented with anemia and low back ache diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma to bone marrow with receptor conversion. PMID:25332613

Santosh, T; Patro, M K; Nayak, J; Bal, A K; Choudhury, A; Behera, B; Mishra, D P

2014-09-01

204

Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells by bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized microenvironments (niches) in the bone marrow. The stem cell niche is thought to provide signals that support key HSC properties, including self-renewal capacity and long-term multilineage repopulation ability. The stromal cells that comprise the stem cell niche and the signals that they generate that support HSC function are the subjects of intense investigation. Here, we review the complex and diverse stromal cell populations that reside in the bone marrow and examine their contribution to HSC maintenance. We highlight recent data suggesting that perivascular chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL)12-expressing mesenchymal progenitors and endothelial cells are key cellular components of the stem cell niche in the bone marrow. PMID:24210164

Anthony, Bryan A; Link, Daniel C

2014-01-01

205

Gastric Carcinoma with Bone Marrow Metastasis: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality. At the time of diagnosis, majority of the patients usually have unresectable or metastatic disease. The most common sites of metastases are the liver and the peritoneum, but in the advanced stages, there may be metastases to any region of the body. Bone marrow is an important metastatic site for solid tumors, and the prognosis in such cases is poor. In gastric cancer cases, bone marrow metastasis is usually observed in younger patients and in those with poorly differentiated tumors. Prognosis is worsened owing to the poor histomorphology as well as the occurrence of pancytopenia. The effect of standard chemotherapy is unknown, as survival is limited to a few weeks. This report aimed to evaluate 5 gastric cancer patients with bone marrow metastases to emphasize the importance of this condition. PMID:24765538

Bal, Öznur; Özatl?, Tahsin; Türker, ?brahim; E?bah, Onur; Demirci, Ay?e; Budako?lu, Burçin; Arslan, Ülkü Yalç?nta?; Eraslan, Emrah; Öksüzo?lu, Berna

2014-01-01

206

Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

1982-04-01

207

Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process  

SciTech Connect

Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.

2004-01-10

208

Florida Red Tide Current Status  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Fish and Wildlife Research Institute website provides links to several Florida-based red tide sites. These sites include the current status of Florida's red tide, a photo gallery of red tide distribution maps, and regional Florida red tide statuses. The site expands further on its research and contains information on the Florida manatee, Florida panther, freshwater, geographic information systems/mapping, habitat, saltwater and wildlife. This is a nice resource for a broad overview of Florida ecosystems and natural resources.

209

Jaw and Long Bone Marrows Have a Different Osteoclastogenic Potential  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts, the multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, arise through fusion of precursors from the myeloid lineage. However, not all osteoclasts are alike; osteoclasts at different bone sites appear to differ in numerous respects. We investigated whether bone marrow cells obtained from jaw and long bone differed in their osteoclastogenic potential. Bone marrow cells from murine mandible and tibiae were isolated and cultured for 4 and 6 days on plastic or 6 and 10 days on dentin. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed by counting the number of TRAP+ multinucleated cells. Bone marrow cell composition was analyzed by FACS. The expression of osteoclast- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes was studied by qPCR. TRAP activity and resorptive activity of osteoclasts were measured by absorbance and morphometric analyses, respectively. At day 4 more osteoclasts were formed in long bone cultures than in jaw cultures. At day 6 the difference in number was no longer observed. The jaw cultures, however, contained more large osteoclasts on plastic and on dentin. Long bone marrow contained more osteoclast precursors, in particular the myeloid blasts, and qPCR revealed that the RANKL:OPG ratio was higher in long bone cultures. TRAP expression was higher for the long bone cultures on dentin. Although jaw osteoclasts were larger than long bone osteoclasts, no differences were found between their resorptive activities. In conclusion, bone marrow cells from different skeletal locations (jaw and long bone) have different dynamics of osteoclastogenesis. We propose that this is primarily due to differences in the cellular composition of the bone site-specific marrow. PMID:20862464

de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Schoenmaker, Ton; Azari, Azin; Katchburian, Eduardo; Cerri, Paulo S.; de Vries, Teun J.

2010-01-01

210

Antimalarial red cells.  

PubMed

It is difficult to overestimate the evolutionary pressures exerted over the past few thousand years by endemic malaria. For most of hominid evolution, these parasites probably caused little morbidity and mortality. However, as Livingstone (1964, 1967, 1971) has pointed out, the advent of slash and burn horticulture and associated sedentary living patterns dramatically changed this situation. For many human populations, endemic malaria became an evolutionary emergency. In such pressing circumstances, genetic traits which ordinarily would carry with them an intolerable genetic load actually increase in frequency. Thus, although a few antimalarial red cell characteristics such as Duffy negativity are evidently innocuous, the majority of malaria-selected traits are not. Ovalocytosis, the abnormal hemoglobins and G-6-PD deficiencies are all quite deleterious in the homo- or hemizygote. This, more than anything else, bespeaks the extraordinary evolutionary pressures exerted by malaria. Needless to say, the mechanisms by which these various red cell traits protect are incompletely known. Although our discussion of such mechanisms has revolved about parasite/host cell relationships, the actual antimalarial effect may involve more distal interactions, especially of infected erythrocytes with the immune and reticuloendothelial systems. Protection exerted by modifications of such interactions would not be revealed by in vitro culture experiments upon which we rely for much of our information. For example, as normal red cells age and senesce, they express novel surface antigens which are recognized by specific immunoglobulins (Kay, 1983). Cells which have bound such antibodies are likely recognized and destroyed rapidly by the reticuloendothelial system. The expression of such senescence antigens may be hastened in already abnormal cells subject to the additional burden of an internal parasite. Therefore, it is quite possible that congenital defects of the red cell membrane, hemoglobin and metabolism may afford protection against malaria via immunologic mechanisms rather than by blocking penetration or predisposing the cell to spontaneous intravascular lysis. To be successful in the mammalian host, erythrocytic phase of malaria must recognize and attach to the host red cell, successfully penetrate, and replicate within. Remarkably, there are antimalarial red cells which impair each one of these individual steps. In this case, the ingenuity of natural selection has been almost--but not quite--a match for that of the malaria parasite. PMID:6390455

Eaton, J W; Wood, P A

1984-01-01

211

Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

212

Red Knots at Delaware Bay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Red knots, an at-risk shorebird, at Delaware Bay. Red knots like to feed on horseshoe crab eggs to refuel after their marathon migrations of some 10,000 miles. Declines of horseshoe crabs and red knots seem to be related....

213

Red Hat MRG Matthew Farrellee  

E-print Network

Red Hat MRG Matthew Farrellee Grid Technical Lead, Engineering Manager #12;Outline Background MRG Status Condor and Deltacloud Condor/Red Hat Collaboration Condor at 10K+ scale #12;Background · Red Hat is investing in a set of defining technologies, actively being developed in conjunction

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

214

Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

215

Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

2014-09-01

216

Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected children, report of three cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow abnormalities in HIV infected adults include hypocellularity, myelodysplasia and poor marrow recovery. Data in children is limited. We report a series of three HIV infected with varied bone marrow abnormalities. First child was a 7-year-old boy with pulmonary tuberculosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow examination showed hypoplastic marrow. He succumbed to his disease within seven days of hospitalization. Second child was a three and a half year old girl who had severe anemia and her bone marrow examination showed dyserythropoiesis. Third child was a 7-year-old boy who had splenic abscesses and pancytopenia and bone marrow examination showed myelofibrosis with increased plasma cells. He also succumbed due to a fatal pulmonary bleed. Thus, advanced HIV disease in children can lead to bone marrow suppression in form of hypoplasia or myelofibrosis which can be fatal. PMID:24778674

Shah, Ira; Murthy, Anuradha

2014-01-01

217

What to Expect After a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... What To Expect After a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant You’ll stay in the hospital for ... or even months after your blood and marrow stem cell transplant. Your doctors will want to be sure ...

218

Clover, red (Trifolium pratense).  

PubMed

Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important forage legume, a population of red clover with high potential for regeneration in tissue culture has been developed. Here we provide a detailed procedure for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of genotypes derived from this regenerable population. We have successfully used this methodology to express ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes as well as for hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous genes for polyphenol oxidase and a transferase crucial in phaselic acid accumulation. PMID:25300845

Sullivan, Michael L; Quesenberry, Kenneth H

2015-01-01

219

The Red Brush  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of Washington University's Digital Gateway initiative, The Red Brush project is a collection of texts in Chinese from a wide range of writings from Imperial China, by and about women writers. The materials here are available in both Chinese and English, and the project was designed to complete a narrative anthology entitled "Red Brush: Women Writers of Imperial China". The site makes the original Chinese version of over 500 poems available, along with English language translations. Visitors can use the advanced search feature here, or they can also just browse around at their leisure. The materials are divided into sixteen sections, and some of the highlights include "The full elder brother" by Ban Zhao and "The color of the water" by Hai Yin.

220

Religious red herrings.  

PubMed

Brierley et al take big polarised political debates deep into the context of paediatric intensive care. They are concerned that 'deeply held belief in religion leads to children being potentially subjected to burdensome care'. However, it can be argued that they make a mistake in categorising this as a problem derived from religion, religious belief or the depth of religious conviction. Religion here is a red herring. PMID:22893531

Sheehan, Mark

2013-09-01

221

Great Red Spot (GRS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

222

Red and Black Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the red and black experiment in which a player bets on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until a target fortune is reached or the player is ruined. The initial fortune, target fortune, and trial win probability can be varied, and the user can select either of two basic strategies: timid play or bold play.

Kyle Siegrist

223

The Amazing Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

2014-09-18

224

Red Tide Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of South Florida web site contains links to the article "Tiny Toxic Terrors: Harmful Algal Blooms" and four computer-based activities that teach students about various aspects of red tide. Activities include: "Where could they be?," "Is it a plant or animal cell?," "What is bioluminescence?," and "How does plankton shape affect plankton movement?" Each activity contains hyperlinks to pertinent materials, maps, and information to complete the activity.

Making Waves

225

Red giants seismology  

E-print Network

The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to \\emph{paparazze} the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

Mosser, B; Belkacem, K

2013-01-01

226

In vitro cultivation of Anaplasma marginale in bovine bone marrow cells  

E-print Network

donor animals Bone marrow cells from exsanguinated animals ~Ana I ~ai I -I f ct d a d infect d erythrocyte cultures Initiation of bone marrow cultures Slide preparation Infection of bone marrow cultures with A mar inale Iitit ~ noma I I ifetinof... cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca f ?13, 13. 7 parasi temi a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent parasitemias obtained from bone marrow cell cultures inoculated with Ana lasma mar inale infected erythrocytes ca...

Baradji, Issa

1986-01-01

227

Red Tide in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

Elenor Ely

228

Donor CD8 cells prevent allogeneic marrow graft rejection in mice: potential implications for marrow transplantation in humans  

PubMed Central

Numerous experimental models have demonstrated that graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) does not occur in irradiation chimeras when the graft does not contain mature, immunocompetent T lymphocytes, but clinical studies have shown that T cell depletion of donor marrow can be associated with a greatly increased risk of graft failure. We have developed a model where engraftment of (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ)F1 (B6C3) marrow in 800-cGy-irradiated (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J)F1 (CB6) recipients depends on the presence of donor T cells in the graft. Recipients transplanted with 5.0 x 10(6) marrow cells depleted of T lymphocytes showed host lymphoid and myeloid reconstitution, whereas recipients transplanted with the same marrow plus 2.5 x 10(5) purified donor T cells showed donor reconstitution. Adding as few as 0.5 x 10(5) CD8- enriched donor T cells to marrow grafts containing 5.0 x 10(6) T cell- depleted donor cells was sufficient to enable donor reconstitution, while surviving recipients transplanted with the same marrow and 0.5- 2.5 x 10(5) CD4-enriched donor cells showed only host reconstitution. To address the question of whether donor CD4 cells could facilitate engraftment under conditions where GVHD would not represent a limiting factor, engraftment of bm1 marrow was tested in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-disparate B6.Ly5a recipients. Results indicated that the donor CD8-enriched population was at least fivefold more active than the CD4-enriched population for facilitating allogeneic marrow engraftment in this strain combination. Thus, the lymphokines and MHC class II-specific cytotoxic T cells generated by CD4 cells were relatively ineffective for enhancing engraftment, possibly reflecting the fact that the host T cells that contain effectors responsible for causing rejection do not express MHC class II antigens. The ability of donor CD8 cells to facilitate engraftment could reflect the activity of a cytokine uniquely elaborated after recognition of an MHC class I disparity. More likely, the graft- enhancing effect of donor CD8 cells may result from the generation of MHC class I-specific or class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells that recognize the host CD4 and CD8 cells responsible for causing rejection. The possibility remains that other mechanisms such as veto inactivation of host T cells by donor CD8 cells may also contribute to the graft- enhancing effect. PMID:8101864

1993-01-01

229

Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE ROLE OF ALLOGENEIC lymphocytes in the eradi- cation of leukemia is well established. In mice, trans- plantation of allogeneic bone marrow eliminated leukemia, and transplantation of marrow from syngeneic donors failed.' Allogeneic marrow transplantation as a form of adoptive immunotherapy of leukemia was limited by the inevitable occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).' Patients with GVHD had fewer relapses than

Hans-Jochem Kolb; A. V. M. B. Schattenberg; John M. Goldman; Bernd Hertenstein; Niels Jacobsen; William Arcese; Per Ljungman; Augustin Ferrant; Leo Verdonck; Dietger Niederwieser; Frits van Rhee; J. Mittermuehler; T. J. M. de Witte; E. Holler; H. Ansari

1995-01-01

230

Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation might be an effective method to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow transplantation could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and whether high-dose total body irradiation followed by high-dose bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating diabetic mice. Diabetic mice after multiple low doses of streptozotocin injection were irradiated followed by infusion with approximately 1×107 bone marrow mononuclear cells intravenously. Before and after bone marrow transplantation, fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, pancreatic histology, and the examination of insulin and glucagon in islets were processed. All recipients returned to near euglycemic within 1 week after undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No mice became hyperglycemia again during investigation period. The change of serum insulin, glucose tolerance test, pancreatic histology and the expression of insulin and glucagon in recipient islets after bone marrow transplantation all revealed islets regeneration and significant amelioration when compared respectively with those of diabetic mice without bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation contributed to reduce blood glucose, prevent further blood glucose hike in diabetic recipients, and promote islets regeneration. High-dose total body irradiation in combination with high-dose bone marrow monoclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:25197419

Lv, Cheng-Lan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

2014-01-01

231

Marrow stromal cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty: Feasibility and potential clinical advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Marrow stromal cells are mesenchymal stem cells able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that marrow stromal cells, when implanted into myocardium, can undergo milieu-dependent differentiation and express cardiomyogenic phenotypes in vivo. Methods: Isogenic adult rats were used as donors and recipients to simulate autologous transplantation. Marrow stromal cells isolated from donor leg bones were

Jih-Shiuan Wang; Dominique Shum-Tim; Jacques Galipeau; Edgar Chedrawy; Nicoletta Eliopoulos; Ray C.-J. Chiu

2000-01-01

232

Perivascular Niche of Postnatal Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Bone Marrow and Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cell populations have previously been identified in adult bone marrow and dental pulp that are capable of regenerating the bone marrow and dental pulp microenvironments, respectively. Here we show that these stem cell populations reside in the microvasculature of their tissue of origin. Human bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated

SONGTAO SHI; STAN GRONTHOS

2003-01-01

233

Clonal analysis in vitro of osteogenic differentiation of marrow CFU-F  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fibroblastic colonies, each of which is derived from a single precursor cell (CFU-F), are formed when suspensions of marrow cells are cultured in vitro. The ability of marrow CFU-F to differen- tiate in vitro was investigated using the ex- pression of alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker for osteogenic differentiation. In cultures of rabbit marrow cells the colonies formed

M. E. OWEN; J. CAV; C. J. JOYNER

234

Erythropoietic reconstitution, macrophages and reticulin fibrosis in bone marrow specimens of CML patients following allogeneic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinicopathological study was conducted on 351 bone marrow trephine biopsies derived from 124 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at standardized endpoints before and after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The purpose was to investigate quantitative changes of the nucleated erythroid precursor cell population and other associated features such as resident bone marrow macrophages and myelofibrosis and to elucidate

J Thiele; HM Kvasnicka; DW Beelen; B Pilgram; A Rose; L-D Leder; UW Schaefer

2000-01-01

235

Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Bone marrow transplantation might be an effective method to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow transplantation could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and whether high-dose total body irradiation followed by high-dose bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating diabetic mice. Diabetic mice after multiple low doses of streptozotocin injection were irradiated followed by infusion with approximately 1×10(7) bone marrow mononuclear cells intravenously. Before and after bone marrow transplantation, fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, pancreatic histology, and the examination of insulin and glucagon in islets were processed. All recipients returned to near euglycemic within 1 week after undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No mice became hyperglycemia again during investigation period. The change of serum insulin, glucose tolerance test, pancreatic histology and the expression of insulin and glucagon in recipient islets after bone marrow transplantation all revealed islets regeneration and significant amelioration when compared respectively with those of diabetic mice without bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation contributed to reduce blood glucose, prevent further blood glucose hike in diabetic recipients, and promote islets regeneration. High-dose total body irradiation in combination with high-dose bone marrow monoclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:25197419

Lv, Cheng-Lan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

2014-01-01

236

Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs. PMID:24655375

2014-01-01

237

Bone marrow transplantation in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, OMIM 242900) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem childhood disorder characterized by short stature, renal failure, T-cell immunodeficiency, and hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents. SIOD is associated with biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1), which encodes a DNA stress response enzyme with annealing helicase activity. Two features of SIOD causing much morbidity and mortality are bone marrow failure and T-cell deficiency with the consequent opportunistic infections. To address the safety and efficacy of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in SIOD we reviewed the outcomes of the only five SIOD patients known to us in whom bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been attempted. We find that only one patient survived the transplantation procedure and that the existing indicators of a good prognosis for bone marrow transplantation were not predictive in this small cohort. Given these observations, we also discuss some considerations for the poor outcomes. PMID:23950031

Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Lange, Jonas; Asakura, Yumi; Cochat, Pierre; Massella, Laura; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

2013-01-01

238

Neurologic Complications After Allogeneic Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARROW transplantation from HLA-identical siblings is effective therapy in children with nonmalignant disorders, including aplastic anemia, congenital immunode- ficiency syndromes, thalassemia major, and certain inborn errors of metabolism.',2 Its use in the treatment of sickle cell anemia has been limited to date but initial reports confirm that bone marrow transplantation is curative treatment for this di~order.~\\

Mark C. Walters; Keith M. Sullivan; Francoise Bernaudin; Gerard Souillet; Jean-Pierre Vannier; F. Leonard Johnson; Carl Lenarsky; Darleen Powars; Nancy Bunin; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong; Donna Wall; G. Michel; E. Plouvier; P. Bodigoni; P. Lutz; Jean E. Sanders; Dana C. Matthews; Frederick R. Appelbaum; Rainer Storb

1995-01-01

239

Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

1978-01-01

240

Notch signaling and the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been increased interest in the regulatory interactions between osteoblasts and cells in the surrounding bone marrow microenvironment. The proximity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with osteoblastic cells first suggested regulatory interactions, and recent data have highlighted the role of osteoblastic cells in providing a HSC niche. Reports have indicated that direct contact is necessary to mediate the

Jonathan M. Weber; Laura M. Calvi

2010-01-01

241

Bone-marrow haematopoietic-stem-cell niches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stem cells hold many promises for future clinical applications and regenerative medicine. The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the best-characterized somatic stem cell so far, but in vitro expansion has been unsuccessful, limiting the future therapeutic potential of these cells. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the composition of the HSC bone-marrow microenvironment, known as the HSC niche.

Anne Wilson; Andreas Trumpp

2006-01-01

242

Yeast stimulation of bone marrow mitosis for cytogenetic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a simple, dependable method for stimulating bone marrow mitosis in small mammals. Subcutaneous injections of a suspension of active baker’s yeast may elevate the mitotic index as much as six times or more. Additionally, the metaphases obtained are easily spread when air dried, and the chromosomes are readily banded. This method should prove useful to investigators who wish

M. R. Lee; F. F. B. Elder

1980-01-01

243

Anabolic Steroids and Bone Marrow Toxicity During Therapy with Methotrexate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the anabolic steroids nandrolone decanoate and oxymetholone on the peripheral blood haemoglobin, total leucocyte and platelet counts was studied in a controlled trial in which patients received standardized chemotherapy for one form of malignant disease. The results indicate that these agents have no protective effect on bone marrow suppression during cytotoxic chemotherapy. It was observed that the

R G Rawbone; K D Bagshawe

1972-01-01

244

Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-06-01

245

Generation of Eosinophils from Cryopreserved Murine Bone Marrow Cells  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineage–committed progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5. PMID:25551463

Schollaert, Kaila L.; Stephens, Michael R.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

2014-01-01

246

Autologous bone marrow cells and ischemic cardiomyopathy Jerome Roncalli1  

E-print Network

clinical trials. Keywords Heart failure, Ischemic cardiomyopathy, MRI, Cardiac cell therapy, Mesenchymal cell therapy in this population has shown enormous promise to provide benefit to patients.A variety-scale clinical studies underscored the potential effects of cell-based therapy largely by using bone marrow cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Energy level and sleep quality following bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While problems with sleep and energy level (ie fatigue) are commonly reported during recovery from bone marrow transplantation (BMT), little in-depth information regarding these two problem areas in BMT patients is available. Using both questionnaire and telephone interview methods, information regarding current sleep and energy level problems was obtained from 172 adult BMT survivors drawn from five different BMT treatment

MA Andrykowski; JS Carpenter; CB Greiner; EM Altmaier; TG Burish; JH Antin; R Gingrich; MJ Cordova; PJ Henslee-Downey

1997-01-01

248

Bone Marrow Graft in Man after Conditioning by Antilymphocytic Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic bone marrow grafts carried out after previous administration of antilymphocytic serum alone were attempted in 16 patients. Of these, six had acute myeloblastic leukaemia, four acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and one a blast cell crisis in polycythaemia vera. Ten of these patients were in an overt phase of the disease and resistant to chemotherapy, while nine had complete agranulocytosis. In

G. Mathé; J. L. Amiel; L. Schwarzenberg; J. Choay; P. Trolard; M. Schneider; M. Hayat; J. R. Schlumberger; Cl. Jasmin

1970-01-01

249

Combination chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to bone marrow.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine patients with metastatic breast cancer underwent examination of their bone marrow as part of their staging workup. Thirty-one (39%) showed no evidence of bone marrow involvement (BM-); 48 (61%) were found to have bone marrow metastases (BM+). Both groups of patients were treated with intensive chemotherapy with 5-FU, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and nonspecific immunotherapy with BCG, methanol extraction residue, or Levamisole. The groups were comparable in age, race, menopausal status, and disease-free interval; however, the BM+ group had a higher proportion of patients with dominant osseous disease and a somewhat lower overall tumor burden. Ten of 21 patients in the BM+ group treated with 100% of the calculated dose of chemotherapy are still alive, compared with only three of 27 patients treated with lower doses. A similar dose response was observed in the BM- group. Myelosuppression was more common and more severe in the BM+ group. Hematologic support, i.e., packed erythrocytes and platelet transfusions, was required in 60% of BM+ patients, as opposed to 26% of BM-. Infectious complications were also higher in the BM+ group, in which five episodes of sepsis and two infectious deaths were observed. These results suggest that metastatic breast cancer patients with bone marrow invasion achieve excellent palliation with aggressive high-dose chemotherapy. Higher morbidity requiring aggressive supportive care suggests that these patients should be treated by physicians and centers experienced in their management. PMID:7237395

Rodriguez-Kraul, R; Hortobagyi, G N; Buzdar, A U; Blumenschein, G R

1981-07-15

250

Trichosporon species infection in bone marrow transplanted patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichosporon species are emerging as opportunistic agents that cause systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant are submitted to intense and prolonged periods of neutropenia and consequently to several risk factors to fungal infections as the use of broad spectrum antibiotics and invsive devices. Two cases of fungal infecitons caused by Trichosporon asahii var. asahii and T.

M. Luiza Moretti-Branchini; Kazutaka Fukushima; Angélica Z Schreiber; Kazuko Nishimura; Priscila M. O Papaiordanou; Pl??nio Trabasso; Reiko Tanaka; Makoto Miyaji

2001-01-01

251

Neurokinin-1 Receptor Signalling Impacts Bone Marrow Repopulation Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Tachykinins are a large group of neuropeptides with both central and peripheral activity. Despite the increasing number of studies reporting a growth supportive effect of tachykinin peptides in various in vitro stem cell systems, it remains unclear whether these findings are applicable in vivo. To determine how neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) deficient hematopoietic stem cells would behave in a normal in vivo environment, we tested their reconstitution efficiency using competitive bone marrow repopulation assays. We show here that bone marrow taken from NK-1R deficient mice (Tacr1?/?) showed lineage specific B and T cell engraftment deficits compared to wild-type competitor bone marrow cells, providing evidence for an involvement of NK-1R signalling in adult hematopoiesis. Tachykinin knockout mice lacking the peptides SP and/or HK-1 (Tac1?/?, Tac4?/? and Tac1?/?/Tac4?/? mice) repopulated a lethally irradiated wild-type host with similar efficiency as competing wild-type bone marrow. The difference between peptide and receptor deficient mice indicates a paracrine and/or endocrine mechanism of action rather than autocrine signalling, as tachykinin peptides are supplied by the host environment. PMID:23516556

Berger, Alexandra; Frelin, Catherine; Shah, Divya K.; Benveniste, Patricia; Herrington, Robert; Gerard, Norma P.; Zúńiga-Pflücker, Juan-Carlos; Iscove, Norman N.; Paige, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

252

PHENOTYPE OF RECOVERING LYMPHOID CELL POPULATIONS AFTER MARROW TRANSPLANTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little question that the study of recovering lymphoid cell populations following bone marrow transplantation is important to the understanding of the biology of transplantation. With a full understanding of the types of cells, their sequence of appearance, and their relationship to such clinical situations as graft- vs.-host disease (GVHD) ~ and graft rejection, it is likely that it

KENNETH A. AULT; JOSEPH H. ANTIN; DAVID GINSBURG; STUART H. ORKIN; JOEL M. RAPPEPORT; MARY LOU KEOHAN; PAULA MARTIN; BRIAN R. SMITH

1985-01-01

253

Anaplasma platys in Bone Marrow Megakaryocytes of Young Dogs  

PubMed Central

Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. In the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors of two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that A. platys can infect megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes. PMID:24622106

De Tommasi, A. Sara; Baneth, Gad; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

2014-01-01

254

Toxicity of bone marrow in dentists exposed to nitrous oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the bone marrow of 21 dentists who habitually used nitrous oxide in their surgeries was investigated. Exposure to nitrous oxide was measured with an atmospheric sampling device, and each dentist was invited to fill in a questionnaire giving details of medical history, diet, and intake of alcohol. During the trial a full neurological and haematological investigation was

B Sweeney; R M Bingham; R J Amos; A C Petty; P V Cole

1985-01-01

255

BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ARE ABNORMAL IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author contributions: CJ and MK performed the experiments and participated in the writing of the paper AM participated in the design of the research and the writing of the paper GM contributed to new analytical tools and gave technical assistance with the experiments HA collected bone marrow samples and clinical data FS gave technical assistance with the experiments DC and

Corre Jill; Mahtouk Karčne; Attal Michel; Gadelorge Mélanie; Huynh Anne; Fleury Sandrine; Danho Clotaire; Laharrague Patrick; Klein Bernard; Rčme Thierry

2007-01-01

256

Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution (P = 0.001), band and segmented cells (P = 0.021), and lymphoid cells (P = 0.029) than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78), and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3%) followed by respiratory failure (10%). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P = 0.001) and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P = 0.004) megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group), as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P = 0.011), were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:25802835

Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lu, Kuan-Ying; Hu, Ching-Chih; Huang, Wen-Hung; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

2015-01-01

257

Systemic aspects of allergic disease: Bone marrow responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with allergic diseases, allergen provocation can activate a systemic response that provokes inflammatory cell production by the bone marrow. After release and differentiation of progenitor cells, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells are typically recruited to tissues in atopic individuals. An understanding at the molecular level of the signaling process that leads to these systemic responses between the target

Judah A. Denburg; Roma Sehmi; Hiroko Saito; Jeong Pil-Seob; Mark D. Inman; Paul M. O’Byrne

2000-01-01

258

Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of ?—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

Benk?, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benk?, Ilona

2008-12-01

259

Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis  

SciTech Connect

To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of {gamma}--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD{sub 50} values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

Benko', Klara [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged LtD, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei bld. 98., H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary)

2008-12-08

260

Psychosocial Predictors of Immune Response Following Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the relationship between some psychosocial variables (depression, anxiety, stress, coping strategies, social support, optimism, rationality, and need for harmony) and clinical parameters indicative of immunological response after bone marrow transplantation (BMT; day of engraftment, number of infections and hemoglobin level) while controlling for demographic variables (age, educative level, civil state, and time from cancer diagnosis). Thirty-one post

Ángeles Pulgar; Sergio Garrido; Antonio Alcalá; Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso

2012-01-01

261

Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition that the experience of cancer can have a positive as well as a negative psychological impact. This longitudinal study sought to identify predictors of posttraumatic growth among cancer patients (N = 72) undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Greater posttraumatic growth in the posttransplant period was related to younger age; less education; greater use of positive reinterpretation, problem

Michelle R. Widows; Paul B. Jacobsen; Margaret Booth-Jones; Karen K. Fields

2005-01-01

262

Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E-selectin provides an effective approach for tissue-specific drug delivery to the bone marrow. Tumor growth in the bone can be effectively inhibited by blockage of the STAT3 signaling. PMID:24818768

Mai, Junhua; Huang, Yi; Mu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Guodong; Xu, Rong; Guo, Xiaojing; Xia, Xiaojun; Volk, David E; Lokesh, Ganesh L; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2014-08-10

263

CNTO 530 functions as a potent EPO mimetic via unique sustained effects on bone marrow proerythroblast pools  

PubMed Central

Anemia as associated with numerous clinical conditions can be debilitating, but frequently can be treated via administration of epoetin-alfa, darbepoietin-alfa, or methoxy-PEG epoetin-beta. Despite the complexity of EPO-EPO receptor interactions, the development of interesting EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) also has been possible. CNTO 530 is one such novel MIMETIBODY Fc-domain dimeric EMP fusion protein. In a mouse model, single-dose CNTO 530 (unlike epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa) bolstered red cell production for up to 1 month. In 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin-paclitaxel models, CNTO 530 also protected against anemia with unique efficiency. These actions were not fully accounted for by half-life estimates, and CNTO 530 signaling events therefore were studied. Within primary bone marrow erythroblasts, kinetics of STAT5, ERK, and AKT activation were similar for CNTO 530 and epoetin-alfa. p70S6K activation by CNTO 530, however, was selectively sustained. In vivo, CNTO 530 uniquely stimulated the enhanced formation of PODXLhighCD71high (pro)erythroblasts at frequencies multifold above epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa. CNTO 530 moreover supported the sustained expansion of a bone marrow–resident KitnegCD71highTer119neg progenitor pool. Based on these distinct erythropoietic and EPOR signaling properties, CNTO 530 holds excellent promise as a new EPO mimetic. PMID:19264917

Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Houde, Estelle; Marshall, Deborah; Volk, Amy; Makropoulos, Dorie; Emerson, Christine; Pradeep, Anamika; Bugelski, Peter J.

2009-01-01

264

The osteogenic differentiation stimulating activity of Sea cucumber methanolic crude extraction on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Sea cucumber derived bioactive compound is considered efficient in treatment of bone disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of this extract on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSc) into osteogenic lineage. Materials and Methods: Isolated rBMMSc were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were exposed to different concentration of extract. After 21 days, Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase assay and RT-PCR were performed. The results were analyzed by ANOVA software and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Morphological methods revealed that appropriate concentrations of extract increased osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR revealed that extract without or with osteogenic medium due to osteopontin expression had a potential role in osteogenesis. Conclusion: Based on our data it concluded that S. cucumber extract stimulated Bone marrow mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteogenic lineage without existence of osteogenic medium. PMID:25422758

Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Soltani, Mozhgan

2014-01-01

265

PLANT BIOLOGY: Seeing Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Although flavonoids contribute to the red, violet, and blue pigmentation of many flowers and seeds, their biosynthetic pathway is still being elucidated. In their Perspective, Bartel and Matsuda discuss new work (Xie et al.) revealing that the biosynthetic enzyme BANYULS is important for regulating the relative amounts of two types of flavonoids, the anthocyanins and the condensed tannins, both of which are powerful antioxidants that confer health benefits on humans when eaten.

Bonnie Bartel (Rice University; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)

2003-01-17

266

Red Spot Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

267

Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: differentiation between tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to differentiate normal, hypercellular, and neoplastic bone marrow based on its MR enhancement after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxides in patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system. Eighteen patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system underwent MRI of the spine before and after infusion of ferumoxides ( n=9) and ferumoxtran ( n=9) using T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and short tau inversion recovery sequences (STIR). In all patients diffuse or multifocal bone marrow infiltration was suspected, based on iliac crest biopsy and imaging such as conventional radiographs, MRI, and positron emission tomography. In addition, all patients had a therapy-induced normocellular ( n=7) or hypercellular ( n=11) reconversion of the normal non-neoplastic bone marrow. The MRI data were analyzed by measuring pre- and post-contrast signal intensities (SI) of hematopoietic and neoplastic marrow and by calculating the enhancement as deltaSI(%) data and the tumor-to-bone-marrow contrast as contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Changes in bone marrow signal intensity after iron oxide administration were more pronounced on STIR images as compared with T1- and T2-weighted TSE images. The STIR images showed a strong signal decline of normal and hypercellular marrow 45-60 min after iron oxide infusion, but no or only a minor signal decline of neoplastic bone marrow lesions; thus, deltaSI% data were significantly higher in normal and hypercellular reconverted marrow compared with neoplastic bone marrow lesions ( p<0.05). Additionally, the contrast between focal or multifocal neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and normal bone marrow, quantified by CNR data, increased significantly on post-contrast STIR images compared with precontrast images ( p<0.05). Superparamagnetic iron oxides are taken up by normal and hypercellular reconverted bone marrow, but not by neoplastic bone marrow lesions, thereby providing significantly different enhancement patterns on T2-weighted MR images; thus, superparamagnetic iron oxides are useful to differentiate normal and neoplastic bone marrow and to increase the bone marrow-to-tumor contrast. PMID:12042968

Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Rummeny, Ernst J; Ihssen, Bettina; Kienast, Joachim; Link, Thomas M

2002-06-01

268

The Usefulness of Measurement of Whole Body Count in Assessing Bone Marrow Metastasis in Cancer Patients with Increased Periarticular Bone Uptake on Follow-up Bone Scan: A Comparison with Bone Marrow Scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Increased periarticular uptake could be associated with peripheral bone marrow expansion in cancer patients with axial bone marrow metastasis. We compared bone scan and bone marrow scan to investigate whether the increased whole body count in patients with increased periarticular uptake on bone scan is useful in the diagnosis of axial marrow metastasis, and evaluate the role of additional

Seongchan Jin; Yun Young Choi

269

The use of multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting to characterize native human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).  

PubMed

This chapter describes a method for identification, phenotypic analysis, and cell sorting of rare mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow (BM) aspirates. The native BM MSC population is identified based on the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) phenotype. The method consists of three related procedures: Procedure 1 involves a microbead-based pre-enrichment step. Two other procedures describe direct flow cytometric analysis of MSCs following the isolation of the mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction (Procedure 2) or more rapidly, following a simple ammonium chloride-based red cell lysis (Procedure 3). Recently described multi-lineage transcript expression in the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) cells suggests that the native BM MSC fraction could be further subdivided into functionally distinct subpopulations. The present protocols are hoped to help MSC biologists to enter this exciting field of research and to take it forward towards a better understanding of MSC biology in vivo. PMID:25388391

Boxall, Sally; Jones, Elena

2015-01-01

270

Red - Take a Closer Look  

PubMed Central

Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

2014-01-01

271

www.vopen.net 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H  

E-print Network

www.vopen.net Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

Li, Tiejun

272

The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. METHODS: To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow.

Fahir Ozkalemkas; R?dvan Ali; Vildan Ozkocaman; Tulay Ozcelik; Ulku Ozan; Hulya Ozturk; Ender Kurt; Turkkan Evrensel; Omer Yerci; Ahmet Tunali

2005-01-01

273

The red ear syndrome  

PubMed Central

Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

2013-01-01

274

Effects of a hybrid micro/nanorod topography-modified titanium implant on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin ?1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. Results The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. Conclusion This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo. PMID:23345973

Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Zihui; Huang, Qingfeng; Xu, Ling; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Yuqin; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

2013-01-01

275

Determination of effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer conditions to support chondrogenic differentiation processes in human primary bone marrow aspirates.  

PubMed

The genetic modification of freshly aspirated bone marrow may provide convenient tools to enhance the regenerative capacities of cartilage defects compared with the complex manipulation of isolated progenitor cells. In the present study, we examined the ability and safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 vectors to deliver various reporter gene sequences in primary human bone marrow aspirates over time without altering the chondrogenic processes in the samples. The results demonstrate that successful rAAV-mediated gene transfer and expression of the lacZ and red fluorescent protein marker genes were achieved in transduced aspirates at very high efficiencies (90-94%) and over extended periods of time (up to 125 days) upon treatment with hirudin, an alternative anticoagulant that does not prevent the adsorption of the rAAV-2 particles at the surface of their targets compared with heparin. Application of rAAV was safe, displaying neither cytotoxic nor detrimental effects on the cellular and proliferative activities or on the chondrogenic processes in the aspirates especially using an optimal dose of 0.5?mg?ml(-1) hirudin, and application of the potent SOX9 transcription factor even enhanced these processes while counteracting hypertrophic differentiation. The current findings demonstrate the clinical value of this class of vector to durably and safely modify bone marrow aspirates as a means to further develop convenient therapeutic approaches to improve the healing of cartilage defects. PMID:25338919

Rey-Rico, A; Frisch, J; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

2015-01-01

276

Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.  

PubMed

In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong

2013-09-01

277

Women, alcohol, and red cells.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse is known to increase erythrocyte mean cell volume mainly as a consequence of direct toxic effect on the developing red cell. The influence of alcohol on other red cell parameters is unclear. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to examine the consequences of different alcohol amounts on red cell parameters among women. We compared red cell parameters between female alcoholics, heavy drinkers, and controls. Controls (n = 138) and heavy drinkers (n = 65) consisted of consecutive 40- and 45-year-old women participating in the health screening, and alcoholics (n = 73) of consecutive women coming to a detoxification clinic. Alcoholics had significantly smaller erythrocyte counts (p < 0.01), and higher erythrocyte mean cell volume values (p < 0.001), reticulocyte counts (p < 0.01), and red cell distribution width values (p < 0.001) than controls. No difference between these groups was found, however, in hemoglobin distribution width value. The only red cell difference between controls and heavy drinkers was erythrocyte mean cell volume, which was significantly higher among heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In alcoholics, red cell distribution width values were even more often increased (in 44%) than erythrocyte mean cell volume values (in 34%). This increase in red cell distribution width was not solely explained by iron deficiency or liver disease. Chronic alcohol abuse not only affects erythrocyte mean cell volume values, but also leads to anisocytosis seen in blood count as an increased red cell distribution width value. PMID:7847601

Seppä, K; Sillanaukee, P

1994-10-01

278

Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the effects of SPIO particles on the signal intensity of the bone marrow of the vertebra spine in patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with normal liver tissue and 56 patients with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after intravenous SPIO administration, using a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were applied: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression and a T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver, vertebra bone and paraspinal muscle were obtained. The SNR value change in each patient group and the SNR value difference between the two groups were evaluated. For assessment of statistical significance, Student's t-test with a level of p < 0.05 was applied. No significant differences in the SNR values of the liver and bone marrow between the two groups could be seen with any of the three sequences precontrast. Using the T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence in the noncirrhotic liver group, pre- and postcontrast comparisons of the SNR values of the liver and bone marrow indicated a decrease of approximately -44.3% (p = 0.02) and increase of approximately 15.3% (p = 0.04), respectively. No significant change was seen in the cirrhotic liver group. With the T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence, a significant decrease of the SNR value of the liver and the bone marrow in both groups was seen. With the T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence, the signal intensity decrease of the normal liver tissue was approximately -65.6% (p = 0.00), in cirrhotic liver tissue the decrease was -29.9% (p = 0.02). The SNR values of the bone marrow showed a decrease of -27.8% (p = 0.04) in the noncirrhotic liver group, whereas in the cirrhotic liver group it was only -11.3% and statistically not significant. The effect of SPIO particles on the liver and bone marrow is significantly less in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:10997443

Hundt, W; Petsch, R; Helmberger, T; Reiser, M

2000-01-01

279

Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Summary Bone marrow (BM) cells may transdifferentiate into circulating fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in organ fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the contribution and functional roles of BM-derived cells in murine cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis. C57/BL6 female mice wild-type (WT) or Col 1?1r/r male BM transplant, received supraphysiological doses of cerulein to induce pancreatic fibrosis. The CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and pancreatic tissue were examined by in situ hybridization for Y chromosome detection. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, the degree of Sirius red staining and the levels of Col 1?1 mRNA were quantified. The Y chromosome was detected in the nuclei of PB CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes, confirming that circulating fibrocytes can be derived from BM. Co-expression of ?-smooth muscle actin illustrated that fibrocytes can differentiate into myofibroblasts. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, degree of collagen deposition and pro-collagen I mRNA expression were higher in the mice that received Col 1?1r/r BM, (cells that produce mutated, collagenase-resistant collagen) compared to WT BM, indicating that the genotype of BM cells can alter the degree of pancreatic fibrosis. Our data indicate that CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes in the PB can be BM-derived, functionally contributing to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in mice by differentiating into myofibroblasts. PMID:22283686

Lin, Wey-Ran; Inatomi, Osamu; Lee, Chung Y; Kallis, Yiannis N; Otto, William R; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Alison, Malcolm R

2012-01-01

280

Effects of salinomycin on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Various hypotheses on the origin of cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist, including that CSCs develop from transformed human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). Since the polyether antibiotic salinomycin selectively kills CSCs, the present study aims to elucidate the effects of salinomycin on normal hBMSC. The immunophenotype of hBMSC after salinomycin exposure was observed by flow cytometry. The multi-differentiation capacity of hBMSC was evaluated by Oil Red O and van Kossa staining. Cytotoxic effects of salinomycin were monitored by the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. Furthermore, spheroid formation and migration capacity were assessed. There were no differences in the immunophenotype and multi-differentiation capacity of hBMSC induced by salinomycin treatment. Cytotoxic effects were observed at concentrations of 30 ?M and above. Neither the migration capability nor the ability to form spheroids was affected. Essential functional properties of hBMSC were unaffected by salinomycin. However, dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects could be observed. Overall, low dose salinomycin showed no negative effects on hBMSC. Since mesenchymal stem cells from various sources respond differently, further in vitro studies are needed to clarify the effect of salinomycin on tissue-specific stem cells. PMID:23410960

Scherzed, A; Hackenberg, S; Froelich, K; Rak, K; Technau, A; Radeloff, A; Nöth, U; Koehler, C; Hagen, R; Kleinsasser, N

2013-04-26

281

Recognization of receptors on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells bound with Pholiota nameko polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Three major active polysaccharides isolated from Pholiota nameko (PNPS), including PNPS-1, PNPS-2 and PNPS-3, had been proved to inhibit the maturation of the murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). This paper recognized the affinity bind between PNPS and the five receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, Dectin-1 and Mannose receptor) on BMDCs, using the bio-layer interferometry (BLI)-based biosensor technology developed by ForteBio on Octet RED system (Fortebio, Inc.). From the primary binding experiment, the gradient binding experiment and the inhibition binding experiment between the receptor proteins and PNPS, combined with the binding experiment between PNPS and the BMDCs membranes, we found that PNPS-1, PNPS-2 and PNPS-3 presented strong affinity bind with both TLR2 and Dectin-1 on BMDCs, only PNPS-3 with Mannose receptor. These data confirmed that PNPS could interact with TLR2, Dectin-1 and Mannose receptor that were very important for the affinity bind of these receptors and PNPS, which triggered the further stimulation on BMDCs. PMID:25158288

Li, Haiping; Tao, Yongqing; Zhao, Pei; Ban, Xiaopan; Zhi, Dexian; Li, Guoliang; Wang, Fenlin; Yang, Xiaoli; Huai, Lihua

2015-01-01

282

Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation  

SciTech Connect

We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereas the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.

Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.L. (Fraunhofer-Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

1989-08-01

283

[Clinical effects of packed red blood cells transfusion according to storage life and time of transfusion].  

PubMed

It was studied 66 males aged 39.5±5.3 years with hemorrhagic shock II degree. Gas composition of arterial and venous blood was studied twice (before and after transfusion). It was revealed that succinct transfusion of packed red blood cells (to 2 doses) with storage life to 3 days after bleeding stop and hypovolemia filling is the most effective correction of hemorrhagic shock II degree. Replacement therapy in operating room in condition of stopped bleeding and unrepaired hypovolemia is burdening factor because it does not conducive to transfer of oxygen at the tissue level and inhibits stimulation of bone marrow in response to hypoxia. PMID:25146544

Lukach, V N; Orlov, Iu P; Dolgikh, V T; Dolgikh, T I; Glushenko, A V; Ivanov, A V

2014-01-01

284

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

285

Angry Red Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mystery puts the reader in control, Mission Control, as he/she helps with a simulated flight to Mars. In this simulation, four "bionauts" are sealed into identical pods containing plants, animals and water. The goal is for them to survive for six months receiving no water, food or air from outside. The reader monitors the conditions in each pod, simulating Misson Control back on Earth. This story begins on the 34th day of the simulation, when the reader notices something wrong in one of the pods. The oxygen is getting low - why? Besides the usual Science Mystery themes (literacy, inquiry-based learning, problem-solving logic, inductive and deductive reasoning), "Angry Red Planet" puts your students hands-on with facts about respiration, ecosystems and ecological cycles, chemical and biochemical reactions, carbon dioxide poisoning, and the effects of stress on human physiology and psychology. They must learn how to read graphs and evaluate data to solve the mystery.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ken Eklund N:Eklund; Ken ORG:WriterGuy REV:2005-04-06 END:VCARD

2000-12-15

286

Red cell enzymes.  

PubMed

Mutations leading to red cell enzyme deficiencies can be associated with diverse phenotypes that range from hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, polycythemia, and neurological and developmental abnormalities. While most of these mutations occur sporadically, some such as common glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mutants are endemic and rarely cause disease. Common G6PD mutants likely reached their prevalence because they provide some protection against severe malarial complications. In this review G6PD, pyruvate kinase, 5' nucleotidase, and cytochrome b5 reductase deficiencies will be discussed in greater detail. Limitations of commonly used screening tests for detection of these disorders will also be emphasized, as well as emerging knowledge about non-enzymatic function of the glycolytic enzymes. PMID:16304354

Prchal, Josef T; Gregg, Xylina T

2005-01-01

287

Extremely red radio galaxies  

E-print Network

At least half the radio galaxies at z>1 in the 7C Redshift Survey have extremely red colours (R-K>5), consistent with stellar populations which formed at high redshift (z>5). We discuss the implications of this for the evolution of massive galaxies in general and for the fraction of near-IR-selected EROs which host AGN, a result which is now being tested by deep, hard X-ray surveys. The conclusion is that many massive galaxies undergo at least two active phases: one at z~5 when the black hole and stellar bulge formed and another at z~1-2 when activity is triggered by an event such as an interaction or merger.

Chris J. Willott; Steve Rawlings; Katherine M. Blundell

2001-04-06

288

Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca{sup 2+} levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions.

Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Nakamura, Kyoko [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Iesaki, Takafumi [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

2012-07-13

289

Tolerance to histocompatibility determinants in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras  

PubMed Central

Tetraparental bone marrow chimeras were produced by injecting lethally X-irradiated F1 hybrids with relatively high numbers of T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells from both allogeneic parental strains. The mice survival in excellent health and showed a stable, approximately 50:50 (parent:parent), lymphoid cell chimerism lasting for at least 7 mo after irradiation; regeneration of host-type hemopoietic cells was very limited. Thymus, lymph node, and thoracic duct lymphocytes showed specific unresponsiveness to host mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) determinants. Similarly specific tolerance to H-2 antigens of host type was demonstrated in spleen and lymph node. No suppressor cells could be demonstrated in either system and blocking serum factors could not be found. The results suggest specific deletion of functional T cells reactive to host-type MLR and cell-mediated lympholysis determinants. PMID:46268

1975-01-01

290

The New Apheresis and Blood and Marrow Transplantation–Related Current Procedural Terminology Codes for Payment of Apheresis and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address deficiencies in Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes that describe many of the clinical services offered to patients, several physicians in the blood and marrow transplantation and apheresis field joined with a coalition including the American Society of Hematology, American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, American Association of Blood Banks, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society for

James L. Gajewski; Angela Simmons; Robert Weinstein; Edward Snyder; John McMannis; Bernard Patashnik; Samuel Hassenbusch; C. Frederick LeMaistre; Tasa Woods; Corliss Denman; Samuel Silver

2005-01-01

291

Leukemia prevention and long-term survival of AKR mice transplanted with MHC-matched or MHC-mismatched bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of marrow transplantation within and outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the long-term survival and occurrence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. AKR mice, which were lethally irradiated and received MHC-matched marrow from CBA/J mice (CBA----AKR), never developed leukemia and were alive and remained healthy for up to 280 days post-transplant. These long-term surviving chimeras possessed substantial immune vigor when both cell-mediated and humoral responses were tested. Lethally irradiated AKR mice, which had received MHC-mismatched marrow (anti-Thy-1.2 treated or nontreated) from C57BL/6J mice (B6----AKR), never developed leukemia and survived up to 170 days post-transplant. However, both groups of these chimeras began dying 180 to 270 days post-transplant due to a disease process which could not be readily identified. Histological analysis of B6----AKR chimeras revealed severe lymphoid cell depletion in thymus and spleen; however, none of these chimeras exhibited classical features of acute graft versus host disease. Concanavalin A mitogenesis, primary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed in B6----AKR chimeras. IL-2 treatment of B6----AKR chimeras was shown to partially correct these deficiencies without stimulating mixed lymphocyte responsiveness to donor or host lymphocytes. These studies indicate that the use of MHC-mismatched marrow for the prevention of spontaneous AKR leukemia may rely on augmentative IL-2 therapy for complete immune reconstitution of leukemia-free chimeras.

Longley, R.E.; Good, R.A.

1986-09-01

292

Successful pregnancy after bone marrow transplantation for thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling can cure thalassaemia. The risk of chemotherapy-induced sterility, however, represents a deterrent for many patients already at risk of gonadal insufficiency and reduced fertility because of the effects of transfusional iron overload. We report here the first patient transplanted for thalassaemia, after ablative therapy with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, who, despite late pubertal maturation, became pregnant and delivered a full-term, normal infant. PMID:8832025

Borgna-Pignatti, C; Marradi, P; Rugolotto, S; Marcolongo, A

1996-07-01

293

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than

A. Baranov; R. P. Gale; A. Guskova; E. Piatkin; G. Selidovkin; L. Muravyova; R. E. Champlin; N. Danilova; L. Yevseeva; L. Petrosyan

1989-01-01

294

Bone-marrow-derived stem cells — our key to longevity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow (BM) was for many years primarily regarded as the source of hematopoietic stem cells. In this review we discuss\\u000a current views of the BM stem cell compartment and present data showing that BM contains not only hematopoietic but also heterogeneous\\u000a non-hematopoietic stem cells. It is likely that similar or overlapping populations of primitive non-hematopoietic stem cells\\u000a in BM

Mariusz Z. Ratajczak; Ewa K. Zuba-Surma; Bogus?aw Machalinski; Magdalena Kucia

2007-01-01

295

Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

1997-01-01

296

MRI in OA: from cartilage to bone marrow lesion.  

PubMed

In contrast to radiography, magnetic resonance imaging permits visualization of all articular structures affected by osteoarthritis. Many studies have demonstrated its potential to elucidate the pathophysiological phenomena that lead to joint destruction, quantify cartilage damage, and establish risk factors for chondrolysis. Bone marrow lesion is a well-recognized process localized just beneath the subchondral bone that is responsible for clinical symptoms and structural changes not only to bone but also to cartilage. PMID:23179571

Loeuille, D; Chary-Valckenaere, I

2012-12-01

297

Clonal Deletion of Autoreactive B Lymphocytes in Bone Marrow Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the fate of developing B cells in the presence and absence of the autoantigens to which they react, chimeric mice were constructed by injecting bone marrow cells from mice transgenic for rearranged immunoglobulin genes encoding an anti-H-2Kk antibody into irradiated recipients that did or did not express the H-2Kk antigen. In the presence of H-2Kk, the anti-H-2Kk-specific B

David Nemazee; Kurt Buerki

1989-01-01

298

Bone marrow stromal cells mediate androgenic suppression of B lymphocyte development.  

PubMed

Castration of normal male mice induces expansion of the bone marrow B cell population, an effect that can be reversed by androgen replacement. We employed in vitro cultures and two in vivo models to investigate whether androgens exert these effects directly on marrow lymphoid precursors or whether actions on marrow stromal elements are required. Immature B cells from normal mouse bone marrow were not responsive to the suppressive effect of androgens unless they were cocultured with marrow stromal cells or with supernatants from androgen-treated stromal cells, suggesting that the androgen effects are exerted through marrow stromal elements by production of a diffusible mediator. Further experiments revealed that bone marrow stromal cells produced TGF-beta in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and neutralization of TGF-beta in the DHT-treated stromal cells reversed the suppressive effects. The stromal cell requirement for androgen-mediated effects was confirmed in vivo by experiments using chimeric animals created by bone marrow transplantation in which androgen receptor expression was restricted to either the stromal or lymphoid cells of the bone marrow. Androgens only affected B cell development in chimeric mice with androgen-sensitive stromal cells. These experiments suggest that effects of androgens on developing B cells are mediated through androgen receptors in bone marrow stromal cells. TGF-beta is a candidate mediator for these hormonal effects. PMID:11733565

Olsen, N J; Gu, X; Kovacs, W J

2001-12-01

299

Model which Generates Red Tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

DINOFLAGELLATES and Trichodesmium are the algae most commonly responsible for the discolorations of the sea known as red tides. These blooms are rarely observed until their development is complete, so that the events which lead to red tides remain enigmatic. Dinoflagellates are distinguished by their relatively large size compared with other flagellated algae, and by their greater swimming speeds. Many

T. Wyatt; J. Horwood

1973-01-01

300

Tide pushing shellfishers into red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

Rick Hampson

301

Tuning RED for web traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web brows- ing with a novel aspect of our work being the use of a user- centric measure of performance — response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter settings and offered loads. Our results show that: (1) contrary to expectations, compared to

Mikkel Christiansen; Kevin Jeffay; David Ott; F. Donelson Smith

2000-01-01

302

Tuning RED for Web traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web browsing with a novel aspect of our work being the use of a user-centric measure of performance: response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter settings and offered loads. Our results show that: 1) contrary to expectations, compared to a FIFO queue,

Mikkel Christiansen; Kevin Jeffay; David Ott; F. Donelson Smith

2001-01-01

303

Red Means Go Structural Engineering  

E-print Network

education · Technology impact on learning and behavior · Considerations for structural education & practice · Two examples of technology enhancements FB-MultiPier DIGGS #12;Red Means Go "In God we trust," she From Hamish McRae, Futurist, UK ­ various talks #12;Red Means Go Communication Costs Essentially Zero

304

Early and late bone-marrow changes after irradiation: MR evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the chronologic evolution of bone-marrow changes during and after radiation therapy is essential in differentiating normal postradiation changes from other marrow abnormalities. The appearance of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow was studied on 55 serial spin-echo and short-T1 inversion-recovery (STIR) MR images obtained in 14 patients receiving radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease, seminoma, or prostate carcinoma. Images were obtained before, at weekly intervals during, and at various monthly intervals up to 14 months after a 3- to 6-week course of fractionated paravertebral lymph-node irradiation of 1500-5000 rad (15-50 Gy). During the first 2 weeks of therapy, there was no definite change in the appearance of the marrow on spin-echo images; however, there was an increase in signal intensity on the STIR images, apparently reflecting early marrow edema and necrosis. Between weeks 3 and 6, the marrow showed an increasingly heterogenous signal and prominence of the signal from central marrow fat, shown best on T1-weighted images. Late marrow patterns (6 weeks to 14 months after therapy) varied and consisted of either homogenous fatty replacement or a band pattern of peripheral intermediate signal intensity, possibly representing hematopoietic marrow surrounding the central marrow fat. No focal marrow lesions or soft-tissue edema were identified during the course of radiation therapy; their presence should raise the possibility of the presence of a pathologic process other than radiation change. These data suggest that MR can detect radiation-induced marrow changes as early as 2 weeks after starting therapy, and that there are at least two distinct types of late marrow MR patterns.

Stevens, S.K.; Moore, S.G.; Kaplan, I.D. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (USA))

1990-04-01

305

Gonadal function after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Thirty prepubertal patients with thalassaemia major (15 boys and 15 girls) aged from 9.3 to 17.2 years (mean 12.9) who had successfully undergone allogenic bone marrow transplantation were studied. Before the transplant all patients were given short courses of high doses of busulphan (total dose 14 mg/kg) followed by cyclophosphamide (total dose 200 mg/kg). Pituitary gonadal function was assessed between 0.7 and 5.1 years (mean 2.3) after bone marrow transplantation. Increased gonadotrophin concentrations indicating gonadal damage were found in 80% of the girls, probably as a result of the chemotherapy. In all the prepubertal boys the basal follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone concentrations were normal. Most of the boys had reduced gonadotrophin and testosterone responses after gonadotrophin releasing hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin tests. This could have been the result of iron overload but the effect of cytotoxic agents cannot be excluded. These findings emphasise the need for vigilant long term follow up of thalassaemic patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for bone marrow transplantation so that those requiring hormone replacement can be identified and treated. PMID:1903244

De Sanctis, V; Galimberti, M; Lucarelli, G; Polchi, P; Ruggiero, L; Vullo, C

1991-04-01

306

Breast Cancer Studies Raise Doubts Over Bone Marrow Transplants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 15, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released long-awaited preliminary results of five studies on bone marrow transplants for women with advanced breast cancer. Considered a last resort, the painful and costly procedure involves ultrahigh doses of chemotherapy which destroy the patient's bone marrow which must then be replaced by a transplant or marrow-restoring stem cells. Four of the five studies found no difference in survival rates of patients who had high-dose chemotherapy with transplants, and those who had lower doses of chemotherapy. The fifth study, from South Africa, did find a benefit for women with positive lymph nodes. Critics of the transplant therapy argue that the studies show thousands of women have needlessly undergone excruciating and expensive procedures. However, because the five studies are so different, attacking tumors in different ways and involving women in different stages of breast cancer, the NCI and others have asserted that this is far from the last word on the subject, and the NCI has plans to fund fifteen additional studies. The sites listed provide information about breast cancer treatments.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1999-01-01

307

Venoocclusive disease of the liver following bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Review of 235 consecutive patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation was performed in order to define the clinical syndrome of venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) in these patients. Analysis of all patients with histologically proven VOD revealed a consistent clinical syndrome of liver dysfunction occurring within the first 3 weeks after marrow infusion. This was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia peaking at greater than or equal to 2 mg/dl with at least 2 of 3 other findings: hepatomegaly, ascites, and 5% or greater weight gain. VOD developed in 22% (52 of 235). A persistently elevated aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) prior to transplant was associated with an increased risk of developing VOD by multivariate analysis (P = 0.0003), and acute leukemia in first remission was associated with a decreased risk (P = 0.02). Neither the preparative regimen (busulfan and cyclophosphamide versus cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation) nor the type of graft (allogeneic versus autologous) influenced the occurrence. Twenty-four of these 52 patients (47%) died with VOD (10% of the entire group). This makes VOD the third leading cause of death in our allogeneic graft recipients, and the second leading cause in our patients receiving autologous transplants. VOD is a common complication of bone marrow transplantation and has a specific clinical presentation, which usually allows diagnosis without the need of liver biopsy. PMID:3321587

Jones, R J; Lee, K S; Beschorner, W E; Vogel, V G; Grochow, L B; Braine, H G; Vogelsang, G B; Sensenbrenner, L L; Santos, G W; Saral, R

1987-12-01

308

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases.  

PubMed

Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening. PMID:25253978

Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua

2014-09-21

309

Bone marrow stem cells contribute to healing of the kidney.  

PubMed

A variety of recent studies support the existence of pathways, in adult humans and rodents, that allow adult stem cells to be surprisingly flexible in their differentiation repertoires. Termed plasticity, this property allows adult stem cells, assumed until now to be committed to generating a fixed range of progeny, on relocation to switch to make other specialized sets of cells appropriate to their new niche. Cells normally present within the bone marrow seem particularly flexible and are able to contribute usefully to many recipient organs. In studies of the liver, bone marrow-derived cells are seen with specialized structural and metabolic adaptations commensurate with their new locations, and these may be abundant, even sufficient, to rescue recipient mice from genetic defects and with evidence that they have proliferated in situ. In the kidney, several studies provide evidence for the presence of "reprogrammed" cells, but in most, it remains possible that cells arrive and redifferentiate but are no longer stem cells. Nevertheless, that appropriately differentiated cells are delivered deep within organs simply by injection of bone marrow cells should make us think differently about the way organs regenerate and repair. Migratory pathways for multipotential cells could be exploited to effect repairs using an individual's own stem cells, perhaps after gene therapy. This concept makes it clear that a transplanted organ would in time become affected by the genetic susceptibilities of the recipient, because of phenotypes that are expressed when trafficking cells incorporate and differentiate. PMID:12761239

Poulsom, Richard; Alison, Malcolm R; Cook, Terry; Jeffery, Rosemary; Ryan, Eoin; Forbes, Stuart J; Hunt, Toby; Wyles, Susannah; Wright, Nicholas A

2003-06-01

310

Clinical implementation of new region-specific S-values for marrow dosimetry: Dose distribution vs mean marrow dose in radioimmunotherapy of leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Radiolabeled antibodies that target hematologic disease often exhibit a highly variable as well as non-uniform spatial distribution within the marrow. Mean marrow absorbed dose estimates obtained using a single S-value to represent the absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity for the whole marrow may not adequately reflect potential normal marrow morbidity or tumor cytotoxicity in different marrow regions. New, region-specific, S-factors for marrow, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were used to calculate the absorbed dose to three different marrow regions in 9 leukemia patients that were administered trace-labeled I-131-HuM195, the humanized version of (anti-CD33) M195 antibody. Time-activity curves for each marrow region were obtained by drawing contours around: the head and neck of both femurs, both humeral heads, and the third and fourth lumbar vertebra, in each of four daily conjugate-view images that were collected starting the day of the infusion. Based on data gathered in the regions over the spine and femur, we predict absorbed doses to the active marrow for various regions of the skeleton ranging from 0.16-0.63 mGy/MBq, with a region-weighted average of 0.46 mGy/MBq. This compares with estimates mGy/MBq, respectively. Analysis of marrow dosimetry by region and in a dose-volume histogram format will provide a more reliable dosimetry picture for the clinician than provided by the single dose estimates available previously.

Sgouros, G.; Stabin, M.G.; Jureidini, I.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

311

Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

312

[Pure red cell aplasia after allogeneic transplantation of ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cells].  

PubMed

ABO incompatibility in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be associated with incomplete or delayed erythroid engraftment, being pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) the most severe complication in this setting. Attempts for the treatment of PRCA have been made with erythropoietin or with plasmapheresis with relative success, and some authors have reported the reversibility of PRCA with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG or ATG), based on the assumption that PRCA might be immunologically mediated. We report herewith a patient with acute leukemia who developed post--BMT pure red cell aplasia. His sibling donor (sister) was HLA identical and ABO incompatible, having low agglutinin titers against donor's blood group. PRCA did not improve after treatment with erythropoietin or a boost of hematopoietic progenitor cells obtained from donor's peripheral blood but the problem was resolved completely after treatment with ALG. PMID:12532694

Bullorsky, Eduardo; Shanley, Claudia; Stemmelin, German; Ceresetto, José; Rabinovich, Oscar

2002-01-01

313

Bone Marrow Granuloma in Typhoid Fever: A Morphological Approach and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Typhoid fever is one of the few bacterial infections in humans where bone marrow evaluation is routinely recommended. However, the morphological aspect of typhoid fever in bone marrow has been rarely described in the literature. We describe a 25-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged fever suspected to be of tubercular etiology. Bone marrow examination showed well-formed histiocytic and epithelioid granulomas and erythrophagocytosis; and the bone marrow aspirate culture grew Salmonella typhi A. In view of potential clinical implications, typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis to tuberculosis in the evaluation of prolonged fever; especially in high prevalent areas. We suggest that erythrophagocytosis may serve as a morphological marker in typhoid granulomas in the bone marrow; and bone marrow culture should be submitted in every suspected case for appropriate patient management. PMID:25789187

Muniraj, Kavitha; Padhi, Somanath; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Sivakumar, Periyasami; Varghese, Renu G'Boy; Kanungo, Reba

2015-01-01

314

Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stem Cell in Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffold Loaded Various Ratio of Hydroxyapatite  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Hydroxyapatite has biocompatibility and bioactivity and similar to bone of in human body. The purpose of this study is to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) in PLGA Scaffold added various ratio of hydroxyapatite (HAp). Methods and Results PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold were prepared using solvent casting/salt-leaching method. BMSC was seeded on the PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold and the samples were cultured in 37? incubator with 5% CO2 for 28 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was carried out to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days. Alizarin Red S stating was performed to identify calcium in scaffold at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Compressive strength was measured to evaluate mechanical property of scaffold. To confirm cell viability, MTT was carried out at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. RT-PCR was performed to verify specific marker expression of osteoblast and stem cell at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Conclusions Osteogenic differentiation of BMSC was confirmed through ALP, RT-PCR, and alizarin red S staining in this study. These results suggest that HAp helps osteogenic differentiation of BMSC. PMID:24298375

Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Hye Min; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Cho Min; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

2013-01-01

315

Mapping the Red Planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since September 1997 the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been orbiting the planet Mars and acquiring new data about the red planet that is changing our view of its present state and past history. Except for a few weeks in October 1997 and a few months in the Spring/Summer of 1998 when special science operations were conducted the spacecraft spent the first 18 months if its time at Mars getting to the right orbital geometry for the mapping mission. But on March 1, 1999 the MGS spacecraft trained its instruments onto the planet to begin a full Mars year (684 Earth days) of continuous systematic mapping and observation of the planet. The camera began wide angle and high resolution mapping, the thermal emission spectrometer began sensing the atmosphere and the material properties of the surface, the magnetometer searched out regions of abnormally high magnetism, the altimeter began determining the precise shape of the planet, and the radio science experiment began determining atmospheric pressures, temperatures and mapping the planet's gravity field. In a matter of a month more data was acquired about

Smith, David E.; Smith, David E.

2001-01-01

316

Radio-Quite Red Quasars  

E-print Network

We have performed a successful targetted search for a population of red radio-quiet, and probably absorbed, quasars. Radio-quiet, optically-red ROSAT PSPC X-ray sources brighter than 10^{-13} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} were searched for red (O-E > 2.0, O < 20) counterparts in the APM catalog of Palomar Sky Survey objects. Of 45 objects for which we obtained adequate follow-up optical spectroscopy, we have found 7 red quasars, 5 with alpha(opt) < -2. Their redshifts range from 0.06 to 0.31, and their luminosities are moderate, lying on the Seyfert/Quasar boundary. These red quasars strengthen the case for a radio-quiet population that is the counterpart of the radio-loud red quasars found by Smith and Spinrad (1980), and Webster et al. (1995). Unidentified, fainter, sources could increase the fraction of red quasars by up to a factor 7. For the red quasars found here, the H-alpha/H-beta ratios, optical slope and X-ray colors all indicate that they are absorbed by A(V) ~ 2, rather than having intrinsically red spectra. This amount of obscuration seems to hide ~1-7% of quasars at a given observed flux, or ~3-20% when their fluxes are corrected to their intrinsic values. This size of population is consistent with earlier limits, with predicted values from Comastri et al. (1995), and is comparable to the rate found among radio-loud quasars. A large population of more heavily absorbed (A(V)=5), fainter, quasars equal in size to the blue population could exist, without violating existing upper limits, in accord with the Comastri et al. (1995) predictions.

Dong-Woo Kim; Martin Elvis

1998-11-25

317

Incorporation of Bone Marrow Cells in Pancreatic Pseudoislets Improves Posttransplant Vascularization and Endocrine Function  

PubMed Central

Failure of revascularization is known to be the major reason for the poor outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed whether pseudoislets composed of islet cells and bone marrow cells can improve vascularization and function of islet transplants. Pancreatic islets isolated from Syrian golden hamsters were dispersed into single cells for the generation of pseudoislets containing 4×103 cells. To create bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets 2×103 islet cells were co-cultured with 2×103 bone marrow cells. Pseudoislets and bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets were transplanted syngeneically into skinfold chambers to study graft vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Native islet transplants served as controls. Bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets showed a significantly improved vascularization compared to native islets and pseudoislets. Moreover, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets but not pseudoislets normalized blood glucose levels after transplantation of 1000 islet equivalents under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals, although the bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets contained only 50% of islet cells compared to pseudoislets and native islets. Fluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets composed of bone marrow cells from GFP-expressing mice showed a distinct fraction of cells expressing both GFP and insulin, indicating a differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells to an insulin-producing cell-type. Thus, enrichment of pseudoislets by bone marrow cells enhances vascularization after transplantation and increases the amount of insulin-producing tissue. Accordingly, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets may represent a novel approach to increase the success rate of islet transplantation. PMID:23875013

Wittig, Christine; Laschke, Matthias W.; Scheuer, Claudia; Menger, Michael D.

2013-01-01

318

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a broad mission, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies are involved in everything from disaster response and management to capacity building all over the globe. As one might expect, visitors to the site can learn about some of their more well-known programs in the "Get Involved" area on the homepage. Their homepage is also an excellent place to learn about some of their research publications, which include their annual "World Disasters Report" and their in-house magazine, "Red Cross, Red Crescent". For more nuts-and-bolts type information on the organization, visitors should browse through the "Who We Are", "What We Do", and "Where We Work" sections. Additionally, visitors can enter the "Our Programmes" section to learn about their various outreach efforts in different regions of the world.

319

Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significantly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells. PMID:25206912

Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

2014-01-01

320

Induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness by supralethal irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Supralethally irradiated dogs were reconstituted wth their own stored bone marrow and were challenged at various time intervals with a kidney allograft. The data suggest that transplanted bone marrow cells may participate directly in the events leading to allogenic unresponsiveness. The time interval between marrow cell replacement and kidney allotransplantation required for optimal results suggest that at least one cycle of cell turnover by the replaced stem cells is needed in order to produce unresponsiveness. Host irradiation and reconstitution with stored autologous marrow may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of cancer.

Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Akiyama, N.; Sato, T.

1980-09-01

321

Bone marrow adsorbed dose of rhenium-186-HEDP and the relationship with decreased platelet counts  

SciTech Connect

Rhenium-186(Sn)-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate ({sup 186}Re-HEDP) has been used for palliation of metastatic bone pain. The purpose of this study was to find a relationship between the bone marrow absorbed dose and the toxicity, expressed as the percentage decrease in the peripheral blood platelet count. The bone marrow absorbed dose was calculated according to the MIRD model using data obtained from ten treatments of patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer; noninvasive and pharmacokinetic method were used. The bone marrow doses were related to toxicity using the pharmacodynamic sigmoid E{sub max} model. The mean bone marrow absorbed doses using the noninvasive and pharmacokinetic methods were in a close range to each other (1.07 mGy/MBq and 1.02 mGy/MBq, respectively). There was a good relationship between the toxicity and the bone marrow absorbed dose (r = 0.80). Furthermore, the EDrm{sub 50} (i.e., the bone marrow absorbed dose producing a 50% platelet decrease) to bone marrow for {sup 186}Re-HEDP was on the order of 2 Gy. Although the function of normal bone marrow is affected by metastases in patients with metastatic bone disease, the MIRD model can be used to relate toxicity to the bone marrow absorbed dose after a therapeutic dosage of {sup 186}Re-HEDP. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Klerk, J.M.H. de; Dieren, E.B. van; Schip, A.D. van het [Univ. Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)] [and others

1996-01-01

322

Annexin A1 regulates neutrophil clearance by macrophages in the mouse bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Under homeostatic conditions, a proportion of senescent CXCR4hi neutrophils home from the circulation back to the bone marrow, where they are phagocytosed by bone marrow macrophages. In this study, we have identified an unexpected role for the anti-inflammatory molecule annexin A1 (AnxA1) as a critical regulator of this process. We first observed that AnxA1?/? mice have significantly increased neutrophil numbers in their bone marrow while having normal levels of GM and G colony-forming units, monocytes, and macrophages. Although AnxA1?/? mice have more neutrophils in the bone marrow, a greater proportion of these cells are senescent, as determined by their higher levels of CXCR4 expression and annexin V binding. Consequently, bone marrow neutrophils from AnxA1?/? mice exhibit a reduced migratory capacity in vitro. Studies conducted in vitro also show that expression of AnxA1 is required for bone marrow macrophages, but not peritoneal macrophages, to phagocytose apoptotic neutrophils. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicate a defect in clearance of wild-type neutrophils in the bone marrow of AnxA1?/? mice. Thus, we conclude that expression of AnxA1 by resident macrophages is a critical determinant for neutrophil clearance in the bone marrow.— Dalli, J., Jones, C. P., Cavalcanti, D. M., Farsky, S. H., Perretti, M., Rankin, S. M. Annexin A1 regulates neutrophil clearance by macrophages in the mouse bone marrow. PMID:21957127

Dalli, Jesmond; Jones, Carla P.; Cavalcanti, Danielle M.; Farsky, Sandra H.; Perretti, Mauro; Rankin, Sara M.

2012-01-01

323

[Successful treatment of idiopathic pure red cell aplasia with antithymocyte globulin].  

PubMed

An 18-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe anemia on October 16, 1999. Laboratory data included hemoglobin 3.5 g/dl, reticulocytes 2,200/microliter, WBC 3,500/microliter, and Plt 38.5 x 10(4)/microliter. Bone marrow aspiration showed a normocellular marrow with severe erythroid hypoplasia, suggesting a diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started on October 20, but there was no response. Administration of cyclosporine A (CyA; 400-450 mg) was begun on November 1, but again there was no response. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG; 800 mg/day for 5 days, 15 mg/kg) was started from December 1 in addition to prednisolone (60 mg/day) and CyA (450 mg/day). On day 7 of ATG therapy, the reticulocyte count began to increase, and reached a peak of 32.6 x 10(4)/microliter on day 20. The patient's hemoglobin level started to increase on day 13, and reached 8.5 g/dl on day 27. A complete response has been maintained up to the time of writing, and the hemoglobin level was 11.9 g/dl on December 14, 2000. This is the first detailed Japanese case report of successful treatment of pure red cell aplasia using ATG. PMID:11808082

Soda, M; Usuki, K; Adachi, Y; Kazama, H; Iki, S; Urabe, A

2001-11-01

324

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

325

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

326

Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early osteogenic potency of stromal cells. These results indicate that spaceflight factors had no significant damaging effects on the murine bone marrow mononuclears. These observations are consistent with previously made assumption of moderate and reversible stress reaction of mammals on spaceflight conditions. This work was supported by Program of Basic Research of IMBP RAS

Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

327

The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Niches are local tissue microenvironments that maintain and regulate stem cells. Haematopoiesis provides a model for understanding mammalian stem cells and their niches, but the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche remains incompletely defined and beset by competing models. Recent progress has been made in elucidating the location and cellular components of the HSC niche in the bone marrow. The niche is perivascular, created partly by mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells and often, but not always, located near trabecular bone. Outstanding questions concern the cellular complexity of the niche, the role of the endosteum and functional heterogeneity among perivascular microenvironments. PMID:24429631

Morrison, Sean J; Scadden, David T

2014-01-16

328

The Brain-Bone Marrow Connection: Dysfunction in Diabetes  

Cancer.gov

Despite decades of investigation that have implicated endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetes-induced vascular pathophysiology, the precise sequence of cellular and molecular events that initiate and establish vascular disease in individuals with diabetes remains poorly defined. Dysfunctional brain-bone marrow communication may play a key role in this pathophysiology and promote microvascular complications. Stressors such as hyperglycemia increase the expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and microglia activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).

329

Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression  

PubMed Central

Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens. PMID:25339996

Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

2014-01-01

330

The role of bone-marrow transplants after nuclear accidents.  

PubMed

The probability that bone-marrow transplantation will be beneficial after nuclear accidents depends on several factors, including circumstances of the accident, degree of damage in other body systems, and radiation dose. Transplant-related variables, such as donor-recipient histocompatibility and post-transplant immune suppression, are also important. The benefits of transplantation may result from transient or permanent haemopoietic reconstitution. The balance of potential benefits versus risks should be individually calculated for each accident and each patient; generalisations are likely to result in untenable conclusions. PMID:2895839

Gale, R P; Reisner, Y

1988-04-23

331

Characterization of age-related gene expression profiling in bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Background While an increase in bone marrow adiposity is associated with age-related bone disease, the function of bone marrow adipocytes has not been studied. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the age-related gene expression profiles in bone marrow adipocytes and epididymal adipocytes. Results A total of 3918 (13.7%) genes were differentially expressed in bone marrow adipocytes compared to epididymal adipocytes. Bone marrow adipocytes revealed a distinct gene profile with low expression of adipocyte-specific genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), perilipin (Plin1), adipsin (CFD) and high expression of genes associated with early adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?), regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2). In addition, a number of genes including secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF?1), G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), that could affect adipose-derived signaling to bone are markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes. Age had a substantial effect on genes associated with mitochondria function and inflammation in bone marrow adipocytes. Twenty seven genes were significantly changed with age in both adipocyte depots. Among these genes, IL6 and GPR109A were significantly reduced with age in both adipocyte depots. Conclusions Overall, gene profiling reveals a unique phenotype for primary bone marrow adipocytes characterized by low adipose-specific gene expression and high expression of inflammatory response genes. Bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes share a common pathway in response to aging in mice, but age has a greater impact on global gene expression in epididymal than in bone marrow adipocytes. Genes that are differentially expressed at greater levels in the bone marrow are highly regulated with age. PMID:21545734

2011-01-01

332

GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this possibility, we established bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from GATA2 conditional knockout mice. Differentiation of GATA2-deficient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes induced accelerated oil-drop formation. Further, GATA2 loss- and gain-of-function analyses based on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells confirmed that decreased and increased GATA2 expression accelerated and suppressed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to adipocytes, respectively. Microarray analysis of GATA2 knockdowned human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells revealed that 90 and 189 genes were upregulated or downregulated by a factor of 2, respectively. Moreover, gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, and the number of G1/G0 cells increased after GATA2 knockdown. Concomitantly, cell proliferation was decreased by GATA2 knockdown. When GATA2 knockdowned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as adipocytes were cocultured with CD34-positive cells, hematopoietic stem cell frequency and colony formation decreased. We confirmed the existence of pathological signals that decrease and increase hematopoietic cell and adipocyte numbers, respectively, characteristic of aplastic anemia, and that suppress GATA2 expression in hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25150255

Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

2014-01-01

333

Stromal cells from human long-term marrow cultures, but not cultured marrow fibroblasts, phagocytose horse serum constituents: studies with a monoclonal antibody that reacts with a species-specific epitope common to multiple horse serum proteins.  

PubMed

This report describes an IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody derived after immunization of mice with washed stromal cells from human, long-term bone marrow cultures. The antigen recognized by the antibody (BMS-1) is a carbohydrate-containing prosthetic group that is common to and specific for multiple horse serum proteins. These proteins are avidly ingested by stromal cells and concentrated in endocytic vesicles. Cultured smooth muscle cells took up the horse proteins in a similar manner to marrow stromal cells while cultured marrow fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and hepatoma cells did not. These data indicate that marrow stromal cells specifically accumulate horse serum proteins which might partially explain the horse serum requirement for long-term marrow culture maintenance. The data also suggest further similarities between marrow stromal and smooth muscle cells and additional differences between marrow fibroblasts and marrow stromal cells. PMID:3780891

Charbord, P; Tippens, D; Wight, T S; Gown, A M; Singer, J W

1987-01-01

334

Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

Schettini, Raimondo

335

RED CELLS, IRON, AND ERYTHROPOIESIS Brief report  

E-print Network

RED CELLS, IRON, AND ERYTHROPOIESIS Brief report Agenome-wide association analysis of serum iron that promotes iron absorption and recycling by inhibiting hepcidin antimicrobial pep- tide transcription, smaller red cells, and more variability in red cell size (high red blood cell distribu- tion width). Our

Abecasis, Goncalo

336

Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.  

PubMed

Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible. PMID:10472629

Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

1999-08-01

337

Effects of BMP2 and VEGF165 on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are dominant seed cell sources for bone regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) initiate cartilage and bone formation in a sequential cascade. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential coordinator of extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and bone formation. In the present study, the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) genes on bone regeneration were investigated by the lentivirus-mediated cotransfection of the two genes into rat bone marrow-derived MSCs. The successful co-expression of the two genes in the MSCs was confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. The results of alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining at 14 days subsequent to transfection showed that the area of staining in cells transfected with BMP2 alone was higher than that in cells transfected with BMP2 and VEGF165 or untransfected control cells, while the BMP2 + VEGF165 group showed significantly more staining than the untransfected control. This indicated that BMP2 alone exhibited a stronger effect in bone regeneration than BMP2 in combination with VEGF165. Similarly, in inducing culture medium, the ALP activity of the BMP2 + VEGF165 group was notably suppressed compared with that of the BMP2 group. The overexpression of VEGF165 inhibited BMP2-induced MSC differentiation and osteogenesis in vitro. Whether or not local VEGF gene therapy is likely to affect bone regeneration in vivo requires further investigation. PMID:24520257

Lin, Zhaowei; Wang, Jiang-Sheng; Lin, Lijun; Zhang, Jingwen; Liu, Yunlong; Shuai, Ming; Li, Qi

2014-03-01

338

The Spectra of Red Quasars  

E-print Network

We measure the spectral properties of a representative sub-sample of 187 quasars, drawn from the Parkes Half-Jansky, Flat-radio-spectrum Sample (PHFS). Quasars with a wide range of rest-frame optical/UV continuum slopes are included in the analysis: their colours range from 2 < B-K < 7. The median H-beta and [O III] emission-line equivalent widths of the red quasar sub-sample are a factor of ten weaker than those of the blue quasar sub-sample. Both the colours and the emission-line equivalent widths of the red quasars can be explained by the addition of a featureless red synchrotron continuum component to an otherwise normal blue quasar spectrum. The relative strengths of the blue and red components span two orders of magnitude at rest-frame 500nm. The blue component is weaker relative to the red component in low optical luminosity sources. This suggests that the fraction of accretion energy going into optical emission from the jet is greater in low luminosity quasars. This synchrotron model does not, however, fit around 10% of the quasars, which have both red colours and high equivalent width emission-lines. We hypothesise that these red, strong-lined quasars have intrinsically weak Big Blue Bumps. There is no discontinuity in spectral properties between the BL Lac objects in our sample and the other quasars. The synchrotron emission component only dominates the spectrum at longer wavelengths, so existing BL Lac surveys will be biassed against high redshift objects.

Paul J. Francis; Catherine L. Drake; Matthew T. Whiting; Michael J. Drinkwater; Rachel L. Webster

2001-07-13

339

In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25?µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and ?-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5?µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5?µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15?µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15?µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

2012-01-01

340

Use of unrelated marrow grafts compensates for reduced graft-versus-leukemia reactivity after T-cell-depleted allogeneic marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

The effect of donor/recipient histocompatibility on relapse in patients receiving T-cell-depleted (TCD) grafts for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was evaluated. Specifically, we sought to determine whether TCD results in an attenuation of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect on recipients of unrelated marrow grafts similar to that observed in HLA-identical sibling marrow transplantations. This question was addressed by comparative analysis of the relapse rates in marrow grafts who otherwise received identical preparative regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis schedules (T-cell depletion with T10B9 monoclonal antibody and complement plus posttransplant cyclosporine) and by serial molecular analyses using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the bcr/abl RNA transcript in patients transplanted with unrelated donor grafts. Patients transplanted with advanced disease (accelerated phase or blast crisis) had equally high relapse rates, regardless of whether they received HLA-identical sibling (56%;95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 82%) or unrelated marrow grafts (8%; 95% CI, 0% to 28%) had a significantly lower incidence of relapse than did patients transplanted with HLA-identical marrow grafts (47%; 95% CI, 23% to 71%; P = .002). Because all patients were similarly treated, these data indicate that the lower relapse rate in these unrelated patients was caused by an augmented GVL effect that was most likely attributable to increased HLA disparity between donor and recipient. The probability of developing both acute and chronic GVHD was significantly increased in chronic-phase recipients of unrelated marrow grafts, suggesting that the enhanced GVL effect was at least partly GVHD-associated. The lack of such a finding in advanced disease patient receiving unrelated marrow grafts raises the possibility that clinically significant GVL effect after TCD marrow transplantation was limited and confined to patients with more indolent disease. Serial PCR analyses for the presence of the bcr/abl RNA transcript showed that the vast majority of patients transplanted in chronic phase with unrelated marrow grafts were persistently PCR-negative, indicating that the GVL effect was durable in these patients. Most of these patients were observed to become PCR negative within 1 to 2 months after transplantation, showing that early eradication of leukemia was possible with TCD marrow grafts. This study shows that the use of unrelated marrow grafts compensates for reduced GVL reactivity associated with TCD in patients transplanted for CML. Furthermore, these data indicate that, in selected patient populations with CML, TCD can be used to reduce GVHD without a commensurate compromise in the GVL effect. PMID:7579370

Hessner, M J; Endean, D J; Casper, J T; Horowitz, M M; Keever-Taylor, C A; Roth, M; Flomenberg, N; Drobyski, W R

1995-11-15

341

Current insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes  

PubMed Central

Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) encompasses a heterogeneous and complex group of genetic disorders characterized by physical malformations, insufficient blood cell production, and increased risk of malignancies. They often have substantial phenotype overlap, and therefore, genotyping is often a critical means of establishing a diagnosis. Current advances in the field of IBMFSs have identified multiple genes associated with IBMFSs and their pathways: genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, such as those associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; genes involved in telomere maintenance, such as dyskeratosis congenita genes; genes encoding neutrophil elastase or neutrophil adhesion and mobility associated with severe congenital neutropenia; and genes involved in DNA recombination repair, such as those associated with Fanconi anemia. Early and adequate genetic diagnosis is required for proper management and follow-up in clinical practice. Recent advances using new molecular technologies, including next generation sequencing (NGS), have helped identify new candidate genes associated with the development of bone marrow failure. Targeted NGS using panels of large numbers of genes is rapidly gaining potential for use as a cost-effective diagnostic tool for the identification of mutations in newly diagnosed patients. In this review, we have described recent insights into IBMFS and how they are advancing our understanding of the disease's pathophysiology; we have also discussed the possible implications they will have in clinical practice for Korean patients. PMID:25210520

Chung, Nack-Gyun

2014-01-01

342

Changes in rectal leucocytes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Using immunohistological techniques the number of leucocytes present in the epithelium and lamina propria of the rectal mucosa were assessed in 16 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, with and without evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and compared with a non-transplant group of patients. Samples were obtained between 15 and 198 days after transplant. In marrow recipients without GVHD, compared with non-transplant cases, there was a decrease in T lymphocytes in the lamina propria due to a reduction in the helper-inducer (T4+) subset with no change in suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) cells or epithelial leucocytes. In GVHD, the number of T lymphocytes increased both in the lamina propria and epithelium due to an increase in T8+ cells with no change in T4+ cells. Lymphocytes did not express the activation markers detected by Tac, OKT10 or HLA-DR. Macrophages and natural killer cells were not changed after transplant or in GVHD. Epithelial HLA-DR expression was detected in seven out of eight in the GVHD group, three out of eight in the non-GVHD transplant group and two out of eight in the non-transplant cases. These findings show several differences from those we have observed in cutaneous and hepatic GVHD. Although elevated numbers of T8+ cells are common to GVHD in all three sites, the precise role of these cells in producing epithelial damage is not clear. PMID:3304737

Dilly, S A; Sloane, J P

1987-01-01

343

Canine Cranial Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Limited-sized transplants of culture-expanded autologous or allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) form cortico-cancellous bone in rodent models. Initiation of clinical studies using autologous BMSC transplantation requires effective bone formation among sizable transplants in a large animal model as well as noninvasive techniques for evaluating transplant success. Here, we obtained bone marrow from the femurs of six dogs and expanded BMSCs in tissue culture. Autologous BMSC-hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) transplants were introduced into critical-sized calvarial defects and contralateral control skull defects received HA/TCP vehicle alone. At intervals ranging from 2 to 20 months, transplants were biopsied or harvested for histological and mechanical analysis. Noninvasive studies, including quantitative computed tomography scans and ultrasound, were simultaneously obtained. In all animals, BMSC-containing transplants formed significantly more bone than their control counterparts. BMSC-associated bone possessed mechanical properties similar to the adjacent normal bone, confirmed by both ultrasound and ex vivo analysis. Evaluation by quantitative computed tomography confirmed that the extent of bone formation demonstrated by histology could be discerned through noninvasive means. These results show that autologous cultured BMSC transplantation is a feasible therapy in clinical-sized bone defects and that such transplants can be assessed noninvasively, suggesting that this technique has potential for use in patients with certain bone defects. PMID:16436668

Mankani, Mahesh H.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Shannon, Brian; Nalla, Ravi K.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Qin, Yixian; Robey, Pamela Gehron

2006-01-01

344

Current insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.  

PubMed

Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) encompasses a heterogeneous and complex group of genetic disorders characterized by physical malformations, insufficient blood cell production, and increased risk of malignancies. They often have substantial phenotype overlap, and therefore, genotyping is often a critical means of establishing a diagnosis. Current advances in the field of IBMFSs have identified multiple genes associated with IBMFSs and their pathways: genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, such as those associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; genes involved in telomere maintenance, such as dyskeratosis congenita genes; genes encoding neutrophil elastase or neutrophil adhesion and mobility associated with severe congenital neutropenia; and genes involved in DNA recombination repair, such as those associated with Fanconi anemia. Early and adequate genetic diagnosis is required for proper management and follow-up in clinical practice. Recent advances using new molecular technologies, including next generation sequencing (NGS), have helped identify new candidate genes associated with the development of bone marrow failure. Targeted NGS using panels of large numbers of genes is rapidly gaining potential for use as a cost-effective diagnostic tool for the identification of mutations in newly diagnosed patients. In this review, we have described recent insights into IBMFS and how they are advancing our understanding of the disease's pathophysiology; we have also discussed the possible implications they will have in clinical practice for Korean patients. PMID:25210520

Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kim, Myungshin

2014-08-01

345

New approaches to graft engineering for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Haploidentical transplantation opens the possibility to offer this treatment to a large number of patients with an otherwise incurable disease, such as some hematologic or oncologic malignancies, inborn or acquired bone marrow failure syndromes, hemoglobinopathies, immunodeficiencies, or other genetic diseases. Initial attempts at haploidentical transplantation using unmanipulated bone marrow were associated with a high transplant-related mortality. However, recent insights into the biology of haploidentical transplantation, the availability of effective in vivo large-scale graft-manipulation technology, and improved supportive care strategies have led to and are still leading to significantly better outcomes compared to previous decades. Methods for the in vitro depletion of T lymphocytes from mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) have facilitated the wider use and acceptance of haploidentical transplantation in children and adult patients. Besides in vitro T-cell depletion techniques, other methods, such as the isolation of alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells, virus-specific T lymphocytes, and other effector or regulatory cells are nowadays available to rapidly rebuild the immune system after haploidentical transplantation for the prevention of severe infections or relapses of the underlying diseases. PMID:23206843

Handgretinger, Rupert

2012-12-01

346

Isolation and intravenous injection of murine bone marrow derived monocytes.  

PubMed

As a subtype of leukocytes and progenitors of macrophages, monocytes are involved in many important processes of organisms and are often the subject of various fields in biomedical science. The method described below is a simple and effective way to isolate murine monocytes from heterogeneous bone marrow. Bone marrow from the femur and tibia of Balb/c mice is harvested by flushing with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Cell suspension is supplemented with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cultured on ultra-low attachment surfaces to avoid adhesion-triggered differentiation of monocytes. The properties and differentiation of monocytes are characterized at various intervals. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), with markers like CD11b, CD115, and F4/80, is used for phenotyping. At the end of cultivation, the suspension consists of 45%± 12% monocytes. By removing adhesive macrophages, the purity can be raised up to 86%± 6%. After the isolation, monocytes can be utilized in various ways, and one of the most effective and common methods for in vivo delivery is intravenous tail vein injection. This technique of isolation and application is important for mouse model studies, especially in the fields of inflammation or immunology. Monocytes can also be used therapeutically in mouse disease models. PMID:25591000

Wagner, Martin; Koester, Helen; Deffge, Christian; Weinert, Soenke; Lauf, Johannes; Francke, Alexander; Lee, Jerry; Braun-Dullaeus, R C; Herold, Joerg

2014-01-01

347

The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

Lawless, Desales

1989-01-01

348

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration  

PubMed Central

The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

2013-01-01

349

Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Chaetomium Globosum in an Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplant recipients are highly susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections. This is the report, of the first case of a Chaetomium systemic infection described in Brazil. A 34 year-old patient with chronic myeloid leukemia underwent an allogeneic sibling matched bone marrow transplant. Seven months later, he developed systemic infection with enlargement of the axillary and cervical lymph nodes. Culture

A. B. A. Teixeira; P. Trabasso; M. L. Moretti-Branchini; F. H. Aoki; A. C. Vigorito; M. Miyaji; Y. Mikami; M. Takada; A. Z. Schreiber

2003-01-01

350

Hepatic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the different effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on hepatic differentiation. METHODS: MSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and cultured by standard methods. HSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting. Both cell subsets were induced. Morphology, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to identify the

Sai-Nan Shu; Lai Wei; Jiang-Hua Wang; Yu-Tao Zhan; Hong-Song Chen; Yu Wang

2004-01-01

351

Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta: Comparison with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence within bone marrow of a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) able to differentiate into a number of different mesenchymal tissues, including bone and cartilage, was first suggested by Friedenstein nearly 40years ago. Since then MSCs have been demonstrated in a variety of fetal and adult tissues, including bone marrow, fetal blood and liver, cord blood, amniotic fluid

Zongning Miao; Jun Jin; Lei Chen; Jianzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Jidong Zhao; Hanguang Qian; Xueguang Zhang

2006-01-01

352

Immobilized sonic hedgehog N-terminal signaling domain enhances differentiation of bone marrow-derived  

E-print Network

Immobilized sonic hedgehog N-terminal signaling domain enhances differentiation of bone marrow: The signaling domain of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a potent upstream regulator of cell fate that has been implicated­1208, 2007 Key words: sonic hedgehog; bone marrow-derived mesen- chymal stem cells; biomimetic; biointerface

Schaffer, David V.

353

Genomic analysis of bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes reveals phenotypic and diagnostic complexity.  

PubMed

Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All 8 of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only 4 had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25239263

Zhang, Michael Y; Keel, Siobán B; Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming K; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Watts, Amanda C; Pritchard, Colin C; Salipante, Stephen J; Jeng, Michael R; Hofmann, Inga; Williams, David A; Fleming, Mark D; Abkowitz, Janis L; King, Mary-Claire; Shimamura, Akiko

2015-01-01

354

Oncornavirus-Like Particles from Cultured Bone Marrow Cells Preceding Leukemia and Malignant Histiocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles with the density and enzymatic activity characteristic of known oncornavirus have been previously described in bone marrow cells from patients with leukemia in relapse and in remission. We have confirmed these findings and studied two patients in whom preleukemia was among the diagnostic considerations. Following cultivation of bone marrow from these patients for 1 week in conditioned media with

Gerald J. Vosika; William Krivit; Jon M. Gerrard; Peter F. Coccia; Mark E. Nesbit; Jacqueline J. Coalson; B. J. Kennedy

1975-01-01

355

Donor Leukocyte Transfusions for Treatment of Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Marrow Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLOGENEIC bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is A currently the only curative treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).'-4 Among patients with hema- tologic relapse after BMT, cytogenetic remissions are rare5 unless second transplants are performed. We report here the successful treatment of hematologic relapse with interferon a (IFNa) and transfusion of viable buffy coat cells from the marrow donor without additional

H. J. Kolb; J. Mittermuller; Ch. Clemm; E. Holler; G. Ledderose; G. Brehm; M. Heim; W. Wilmanns

356

A Patient with Progressive Multiple Myeloma Treated Successfully with Arsenic Trioxide after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable progressive disease. Many therapeutic options are available to delay progression, including autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At advanced stages, MM is often refractory to treatment. We report a heavily pretreated patient with graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantations, treated at a terminal stage with a modified protocol for arsenic trioxide (ATO). This patient

B. Gesundheit; M. Y. Shapira; A. Ackerstein; I. B. Resnik; M. Bitan

2007-01-01

357

Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during Rat Femoral Marrow Ablation-Induced Intramembranous Bone Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced understanding of differential gene expression and biological pathways associated with distinct phases of intramembranous bone regeneration following femoral marrow ablation surgery will improve future advancements regarding osseointegration of joint replacement implants, biomaterials design, and bone tissue engineering. A rat femoral marrow ablation model was performed and genome-wide microarray data were obtained from samples at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10,

Joel K. Wise; Kotaro Sena; Karen Vranizan; Jacob F. Pollock; Kevin E. Healy; W. Frank Hughes; D. Rick Sumner; Amarjit S. Virdi

2010-01-01

358

In vitro generation of equine osteoclasts from bone marrow cells using a novel culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on preliminary results of a novel in vitro culture system designed to generate equine osteoclasts in large numbers. Osteoclast generation, as determined by the expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and ability to resorb bone, was enhanced in equine bone marrow cultures supplemented with fibroblastic cell (L929) conditioned medium (L929-CM). Bone marrow was collected from a total

A. W. Gray; M. E. Davies; L. B. Jeffcott

1998-01-01

359

Toxicity and Immunomodulatory Effects of Interleukin2 After Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE SUCCESS OF autologous bone marrow transplan- T tation (ABMT) for disseminated hematologic malig- nancies is limited largely by the high incidence of recur- rence of the malignancy after ABMT.'.' The recurrences are attributed to the failure of the chemoradiotherapy to eradicate all residual disease and, possibly, to the out- growth of tumor cells contaminating the infused autologous marrow. Interleukin-2

Carl M. Higuchi; John A. Thompson; Finn B. Petersen; C. Dean Buckner; Alexander Fefer

1991-01-01

360

Recovery of hair coat color in Gray Collie (cyclic neutropenia)-normal bone marrow transplant chimeras.  

PubMed Central

Gray Collie-normal bone marrow transplantation chimeras showed normal coloration of the hair coat on tails and several other areas 2 years after successful transplantation of bone marrow to correct cyclic neutropenia of the Gray Collie syndrome. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:347941

Yang, T. J.

1978-01-01

361

Improved heart function with myogenesis and angiogenesis after autologous porcine bone marrow stromal cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study evaluated the utility of transplanting bone marrow stromal cells in a porcine myocardial infarction model. Methods: A myocardial infarction was created by occluding the distal left anterior descending artery in pigs with coils and Gelfoam sponge. Sternal bone marrow was aspirated, and stromal cells were cultured and induced to differentiate to a myogenic phenotype with 5-azacytidine. Four

Shinji Tomita; Donald A. G. Mickle; Richard D. Weisel; Zhi-Qiang Jia; Laura C. Tumiati; Yasmin Allidina; Peter Liu; Ren-Ke Li

2002-01-01

362

Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation  

E-print Network

Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation D. Denison mechanism to deliver a functional gene to a deficient liver. Bone marrow-derived hepatocytes are rare and without a defined contribution to liver function. Con- sequently, the clinical significance of BMT

Ford, James

363

Cigarette Smoking Causes Sequestration of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Released from the Bone Marrow in Lung Microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic cigarette smoke exposure causes a neutrophilia asso- ciated with a shortening of the mean transit time of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) though the post- mitotic pool of the marrow. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that PMN newly re- leased from bone marrow by smoke exposure preferentially sequestered in pulmonary

Takeshi Terashima; Maria E. Klut; Dean English; Jennifer Hards; James C. Hogg; Stephan F. van Eeden

364

Combination therapies prevent the neuropathic, proinflammatory characteristics of bone marrow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We previously showed that peripheral neuropathy of the bone marrow was associated with loss of circadian rhythmicity of stem/progenitor cell release into the circulation. Bone marrow neuropathy results in dramatic changes in hematopoiesis that lead to microvascular complications, inflammation, and reduced endothelial repair. This series of events represents early pathogenesis before development of diabetic retinopathy. In this study we characterized early alterations within the bone marrow of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following treatments that prevent experimental peripheral neuropathy. We asked whether bone marrow neuropathy and the associated bone marrow pathology were reversed with treatments that prevent peripheral neuropathy. Three strategies were tested: inhibition of neutral endopeptidase, inhibition of aldose reductase plus lipoic acid supplementation, and insulin therapy with antioxidants. All strategies prevented loss of nerve conduction velocity resulting from STZ-induced diabetes and corrected the STZ-induced diabetes-associated increase of immunoreactivity of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, and somatostatin. The treatments also reduced concentrations of interleukin-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 in STZ-induced diabetic bone marrow supernatant and decreased the expression of NADPH oxidase 2, nitric oxide synthase 2, and nuclear factor-?B1 mRNA in bone marrow progenitor cells. These therapies represent novel approaches to attenuate the diabetic phenotype within the bone marrow and may constitute an important therapeutic strategy for diabetic microvascular complications. PMID:25204979

Dominguez, James M; Yorek, Mark A; Grant, Maria B

2015-02-01

365

Annexin A1 regulates neutrophil clearance by macrophages in the mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Under homeostatic conditions, a proportion of senescent CXCR4(hi) neutrophils home from the circulation back to the bone marrow, where they are phagocytosed by bone marrow macrophages. In this study, we have identified an unexpected role for the anti-inflammatory molecule annexin A1 (AnxA1) as a critical regulator of this process. We first observed that AnxA1(-/-) mice have significantly increased neutrophil numbers in their bone marrow while having normal levels of GM and G colony-forming units, monocytes, and macrophages. Although AnxA1(-/-) mice have more neutrophils in the bone marrow, a greater proportion of these cells are senescent, as determined by their higher levels of CXCR4 expression and annexin V binding. Consequently, bone marrow neutrophils from AnxA1(-/-) mice exhibit a reduced migratory capacity in vitro. Studies conducted in vitro also show that expression of AnxA1 is required for bone marrow macrophages, but not peritoneal macrophages, to phagocytose apoptotic neutrophils. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicate a defect in clearance of wild-type neutrophils in the bone marrow of AnxA1(-/-) mice. Thus, we conclude that expression of AnxA1 by resident macrophages is a critical determinant for neutrophil clearance in the bone marrow. PMID:21957127

Dalli, Jesmond; Jones, Carla P; Cavalcanti, Danielle M; Farsky, Sandra H; Perretti, Mauro; Rankin, Sara M

2012-01-01

366

Improvement of Cardiac Function by Bone Marrow Cell Implantation in a Rat Hypoperfusion Heart Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Local bone marrow cell implantation can induce angiogenesis. In the present study we investi- gated whether angiogenesis induced by bone marrow cell implantation improves deteriorated cardiac function in a rat heart model of hypoperfusion. Methods. A hypoperfusion heart model was created in Dark Agouti rats by ligating the left anterior descending artery placed against a copper wire (275 m),

Masahiko Nishida; Tao-Sheng Li; Ken Hirata; Masafumi Yano; Masunori Matsuzaki; Kimikazu Hamano

2010-01-01

367

Bone Marrow Involvement in Neuroblastoma: A Study of Hemato-morphological Features.  

PubMed

Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma indicates advanced stage of disease. The recent use of autologous bone marrow "rescue", has provided an additional important reason for accurate assessment of bone marrow status in newly diagnosed patients. In this study, we analyzed 44 cases of neuroblastoma for bone marrow infiltration status and their hematological parameters. Eighty-eight bone marrow aspirate and trephine touch imprint smears and 44 trephine biopsy sections were examined in these 44 patients. Of these, 24 cases (54.5 %) showed marrow infiltration. Leucopenia and bicytopenia were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with marrow infiltration. Both bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were positive for infiltration in 16 out of 24 positive cases. Only aspirate smears were positive in 4 and only trephine biopsy in another 4 cases. The pattern of infiltration consisted of rosette formation in 40.7 % cases on aspirate smears and 22.2 % cases in trephine biopsies. Remaining cases showed diffuse and interstitial presence of tumor cells and cases positive only on trephine biopsy, showed marked stromal reaction. Bilateral trephine biopsies combined with aspirate smears picked up all positive cases compared to when they were assessed alone. PMID:25548446

Rastogi, Pulkit; Naseem, Shano; Varma, Neelam; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

2015-03-01

368

Gene Therapy in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow for ADA^- Immunodeficient Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in severe combined immunodeficiency, the first genetic disorder treated by gene therapy. Two different retroviral vectors were used to transfer ex vivo the human ADA minigene into bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from two patients undergoing exogenous enzyme replacement therapy. After 2 years of treatment, long-term survival of T and B lymphocytes, marrow

Claudio Bordignon; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Nadia Nobili; Giuliana Ferrari; Giulia Casorati; Paola Panina; Evelina Mazzolari; Daniela Maggioni; Claudia Rossi; Paolo Servida; Alberto G. Ugazio; Fulvio Mavilio

1995-01-01

369

Genomic analysis of bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes reveals phenotypic and diagnostic complexity  

PubMed Central

Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All 8 of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only 4 had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25239263

Zhang, Michael Y.; Keel, Siobán B.; Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming K.; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Watts, Amanda C.; Pritchard, Colin C.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Jeng, Michael R.; Hofmann, Inga; Williams, David A.; Fleming, Mark D.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; King, Mary-Claire; Shimamura, Akiko

2015-01-01

370

Nutritional Issues in Adolescents After Bone Marrow Transplant: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow transplantation and related complica- tions can cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects that can lead to poor nutrition, which has been associ- ated with several morbidity and mortality issues. Adolescents require adequate nutrition not only to maintain health but to advance with normal growth and development. This article synthesizes the bone marrow transplant (BMT) literature regarding adoles- cents' nutritional

Cheryl Rodgers

371

Moffitt research finds no survival advantage for stem cell versus bone marrow transplant  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, and colleagues in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a two-year clinical trial comparing two-year survival probabilities for patients transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow stem cells from unrelated donors and found no survival advantage for one method over the other.

372

Presence of bone marrow-derived circulating progenitor endothelial cells in the newly formed lymphatic vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow (BM)-derived circulating en- dothelial precursor cells (CEPCs) have been reported to incorporate into newly formed blood vessels under physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, it is unknown if CEPCs contribute to lym- phangiogenesis. Here we show that in a corneal lymphangiogenesis model of irra- diated mice reconstituted with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-posi- tive donor bone marrow cells, CEPCs

Piotr Religa; Renhai Cao; Meit Bjorndahl; Zhongjun Zhou; Zhenping Zhu; Yihai Cao

2005-01-01

373

Transfer of bone-marrow microenvironment by clones of stromal mechanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies consistign of clones of bone-marrow stromal fibroblasts, grown in monolayer cultures of mouse and guinea pig bone-marrow cells, transfer the hematopoietic microenvironment on retransplantation into the animal. Individual clones simultaneously form bone tissue and create a microenvironment for all three branches of medullary hematopoiesis: erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytio.

R. K. Chailakhyan; Yu. V. Gerasimov; A. Ya. Fridenshtein

1978-01-01

374

Improving RED by a Neuron Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel active queue management (AQM) algorithm called Neuron Control RED (NC-RED) that overcomes\\u000a the drawbacks of the original RED. NC-RED uses a neuron controller to adaptively adjust the maximum drop probability to stabilize\\u000a the average queue length around the target queue length. We demonstrate by simulations that NC-RED maintains stable operation\\u000a independent of traffic

Jinsheng Sun; Moshe Zukerman

2007-01-01

375

Solutions to Avoid Red Tide, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Solutions to Avoid Red Tide" (START) webpage offers basic information and videos about red tide, effects of red tide, and research being done regarding red tide. START is a grassroots, non-profit organization based in Florida. Their mission is to keep federal, state, and local officials aware of red tide and to get these officials to fund projects to remediate and/or prevent the problem. Information on how to join or help START is also provided.

Solutions to Avoid Red Tide, Inc.

376

Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean±SD decline 19.1±6.1kg or 36.5%±10.9%, p<0.001). Areal bone mineral density (BMD) decreased by 5.2%±3.5% and 4.1%±2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4%±2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

2015-05-01

377

Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function  

SciTech Connect

To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms.

Springmeyer, S.C.; Altman, L.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.

1982-03-01

378

Anti-viral instruction of bone marrow leukocytes during respiratory viral infections  

PubMed Central

Summary Respiratory viral infections are the cause of severe diseases in humans. The outcome of the infection depends on the interaction of the pathogen with the immune system. The bone marrow is the primary site of hematopoiesis and releases large numbers of leukocytes in response to inflammation. Here we show that during infection with influenza or Sendai virus the lung communicates with the sterile bone marrow through type I interferons. While in the bone marrow, leukocytes exposed to type I interferons activate an anti-viral transcriptional program and become resistant to infection with different viruses. The protected bone marrow leukocytes are capable of migrating to the infected lung and contribute to virus clearance. These findings show that appropriate instruction of cells during their development in the bone marrow is needed for the effective innate control of infection. PMID:20478536

Hermesh, Tamar; Moltedo, Bruno; Moran, Thomas M.; López, Carolina B.

2010-01-01

379

Fetuin in human bone marrow: detection in foetal tissue and patients with mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Fetuin, a foetal protein of unknown function, has been shown to be expressed in both the immune and nervous systems, especially during development. Here, we show for the first time, that fetuin is abundantly present in many cells of the foetal human bone marrow, but is restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage in the adult. Fetuin's immunoreactivity increased considerably in adult human bone marrow in some pathological conditions, particularly in mastocytosis and was also increased in bone marrows in some cases of acute leukaemias, especially in acute myeloid leukaemia. This increase in the presence of fetuin in neoplastic bone marrows is not reflected by an increased level of circulating fetuin. This last observation contradicts earlier suggestions that fetuin is specifically reduced in cancer patients. A consistent increase in fetuin immunoreactivity in bone marrow of most cases of mastocytosis, as demonstrated in this paper, could become a useful tool in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:11931384

Dziegielewska, K M; Horny, H P; Valent, P; Habgood, M D; Schumacher, U

2001-08-01

380

The In Situ Mechanics of Trabecular Bone Marrow: The Potential for Mechanobiological Response.  

PubMed

Bone adapts to habitual loading through mechanobiological signaling. Osteocytes are the primary mechanical sensors in bone, upregulating osteogenic factors and downregulating osteoinhibitors, and recruiting osteoclasts to resorb bone in response to microdamage accumulation. However, most of the cell populations of the bone marrow niche, which are intimately involved with bone remodeling as the source of bone osteoblast and osteoclast progenitors, are also mechanosensitive. We hypothesized that the deformation of trabecular bone would impart mechanical stress within the entrapped bone marrow consistent with mechanostimulation of the constituent cells. Detailed fluid-structure interaction models of porcine femoral trabecular bone and bone marrow were created using tetrahedral finite element meshes. The marrow was allowed to flow freely within the bone pores, while the bone was compressed to 2000 or 3000 microstrain at the apparent level. Marrow properties were parametrically varied from a constant 400 mPa·s to a power-law rule exceeding 85?Pa·s. Deformation generated almost no shear stress or pressure in the marrow for the low viscosity fluid, but exceeded 5?Pa when the higher viscosity models were used. The shear stress was higher when the strain rate increased and in higher volume fraction bone. The results demonstrate that cells within the trabecular bone marrow could be mechanically stimulated by bone deformation, depending on deformation rate, bone porosity, and bone marrow properties. Since the marrow contains many mechanosensitive cells, changes in the stimulatory levels may explain the alterations in bone marrow morphology with aging and disease, which may in turn affect the trabecular bone mechanobiology and adaptation. PMID:25363343

Metzger, Thomas A; Kreipke, Tyler C; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M; Niebur, Glen L

2015-01-01

381

Rheological behavior of fresh bone marrow and the effects of storage.  

PubMed

The progression of several diseases, such as osteoporosis and diabetes, are associated with changes in marrow composition and physiology. As these diseases are affected by aging and activity, the biomechanical properties and mechanobiology of marrow may play a role in their progression. Bone marrow is comprised primarily of cells, and provides a niche for several mechanosensitive cell lineages. The mechanical signals imparted to the cells depend on their interaction with one another, the extracellular matrix, and the intercellular fluid. At a macroscopic scale, these interactions manifest as viscosity in marrow. Marrow viscosity has been measured in human and bovine bone. However, a large range of storage, retrieval, and measurement techniques has resulted in inconsistent data. To provide physiologically relevant data, marrow samples from young adult pigs were harvested and tested within less than 8h of slaughter. The viscosity was over 100Pas at a shear rate of 1s(-1), and decreased with shear rate according to a power law. However, the marrow did not exhibit a measurable yield stress as some complex fluids do. The viscosity of samples that had been frozen and thawed prior to testing was lower by an order of magnitude. The difference in properties was associated with a loss of integrity of the marrow adipocyte membranes. Previous reports of bone marrow viscosity have shown inconsistent results, which may be due to different storage and handling prior to testing. The higher viscosity compared to previous reports would impact poroelastic models of bone, and suggests that the stress on marrow cells during whole bone loading may be higher than previously believed. PMID:25262201

Metzger, Thomas A; Shudick, Jonelle M; Seekell, Raymond; Zhu, Yingxi; Niebur, Glen L

2014-12-01

382

Peripheral infusion of rat bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells leads to homing in acute lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitors for both epithelial and endothelial cells have been observed in the lung. Besides mature endothelial cells (EC) that compose the adult vasculature, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are supposed to be released from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood after stimulation by distinct inflammatory injuries. Homing of ex vivo generated bone marrow-derived EPC into the injured

Christian M Kähler; Jutta Wechselberger; Wolfgang Hilbe; Andreas Gschwendtner; Daniela Colleselli; Harald Niederegger; Eva-Maria Boneberg; Gilbert Spizzo; Albrecht Wendel; Eberhard Gunsilius; Josef R Patsch; Jürg Hamacher

2007-01-01

383

Demonstration of bone marrow derived cells in synovial lining by means of giant intracellular granules as genetic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beige mice carry a gene (bg) which codes for the presence of giant intracellular granules in a variety of cell types. Bone marrow from beige mice was transplanted into irradiated normal mice. Giant granules similar to those seen in beige mouse synovial cells were observed subsequently in the synovial lining cells of marrow recipients, indicating an influx of bone marrow

J C Edwards; D A Willoughby

1982-01-01

384

Can a bone marrow cell contribute to organ regeneration? In vivo analysis using transgenic rats with reporter genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although implantation of multipotent bone marrow–derived stem cells represents an attractive new cell therapy to repair damaged tissues, recent reports have raised serious concerns over the feasibility of using stem cells deriving from the bone marrow to promote cell transdifferentiation. We established transgenic (Tg) rats with reporter genes as specific molecular tags to examine the effect of bone marrow cells

Y. Sato; K. Matsui; T. Ajiki; Y. Igarashi; M. Takahashi; T. Murakami; Y. Hakamata; Y. Tabata; E. Kobayashi

2005-01-01

385

Measuring the whole bone marrow asset in humans by a computational approach to integrated PET/CT imaging.  

E-print Network

Measuring the whole bone marrow asset in humans by a computational approach to integrated PET; 7 CNR-SPIN. Genova. Italy Running Head: PET/CT measurement of bone marrow volume Address;1 Abstract Purpose. Despite their relevance in clinical medicine, extension and activity of bone marrow (BM

Piana, Michele

386

Removal of T Cells From Bone Marrow for Transplantation:A Monoclonal Antilymphocyte Antibody That Fixes Human Complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft-versus-host disease is one of the major problems in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Many experiments in animals have shown that it could be greatly reduced if mature T lymphocytes were removed from the donor marrow. Here we describe a new rat monoclonal antibody. CAMPATH 1 . which is suitable for depleting lymphocytes from human marrow grafts. CAMPATH 1 is an

Geoffrey Hale; Susan Bright; Gill Chumbley; Trang Hoang; Donald Metcalf; Alan J. Munro; Herman Waldmann

1983-01-01

387

Growth declines in red spruce  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

McLaughlin, S.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Adams, H.S. (Lancaster Community College, Clifton Forge, VA (USA))

1987-10-01

388

Treatment of pure red cell aplasia associated with multiple myeloma with biclonal gammopathy using cyclosporine A: a case report  

PubMed Central

We reported a rare case of pure red cell aplasia in a 44-year-old man with multiple myeloma with biclonal gammophathy (IgG lambda and IgA lambda type) with severe anemia. After treatment with bortezomib, adriamycin, and dexamethasone, the patient achieved very good partial response with disappearance of monoclonal gammopathy. However, his anemia was not significantly improved. Bone marrow analysis revealed selective erythroid hypoplasia. Thus, cyclosporine A was administered, which resulted in a complete recovery from anemia. The present case may provide some insight into the pathogenesis of PRAC and malignant plasma cell disorder.

Lv, Yali; Qian, Wenbin

2015-01-01

389

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

2011-04-20

390

Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

Cooke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

391

[Indications, technique and risks in bone marrow transplantation in adulthood].  

PubMed

The option of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) significantly improved prognosis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies aged less than 50 years. Allogeneic BMT using the marrow of an HLA-identical family member still provides the most effective method of BMT. Conventional indications for this form of BMT are chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute leukemias presenting with adverse risk factors, myelodysplastic syndromes and severe aplastic anemia. If performed early in the disease course (e.g. during the chronic phase of CML or first remission of acute leukemia and MDS) allogeneic BMT cures 50 to 60% of patients. About 20% die of therapy related complications, e.g. graft versus host disease (GvHD), fatal infections or venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and about 20% of patients succumb to relapse of their hematologic disorder. 80% presenting with severe aplastic anemia can be cured, if allogeneic BMT is performed soon after diagnosis without previous immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions. BMT with the marrow of a matched unrelated donor or autologous BMT are increasingly used as alternative procedures. A rate of lethal complications as high as 50% hinders rapid extension of BMT with unrelated donors. Therefore, this form of BMT should be restricted to young patients with leukemias, who cannot achieve long-term remission with conventional chemotherapy (in case of acute leukemias) or alpha-interferon (in case of CML). Reconstitution of hematopoiesis is more rapid after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) compared with autologous BMT. Therefore, PBSCT will replace autologous BMT in most cases. Most favourable results of PBSCT have been reported in patients with malignant lymphomas after relapse or inferior response to primary induction therapy. Due to the higher relapse rate autologous BMT is inferior to allogeneic BMT in leukemia patients. Trials are required to clarify the potential role of myeloablative therapy with stem cell support in the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Many of the preliminary results already published are unsatisfactory and data of larger trials are still lacking. Therefore, BMT or PBSCT cannot be recommended generally for the therapy of patients with solid tumors. PMID:8643901

Heyll, A; Söhngen, D; Minning, H; Meckenstock, G; Aul, C; Schneider, W

1996-03-19

392

Fatal Chaetomium cerebritis in a bone marrow transplant patient.  

PubMed

The number of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system (CNS) has been steadily increasing because of a rising number of immunocompromised patients. A rare form of CNS infection can be caused by Chaetomium species, one of the largest genera of saprophytic ascomycetes. The CNS lesions in the present case were caused by Chaetomium atrobrunneum. The main characteristic of almost all Chaetomium species is presence of hairs or setae covering the ascomata. Microbiological studies are the only definitive way to correctly identify this fungal organism. The rapid evolvement of the cerebral infection suggests that the brain tissue provides a favorable environment for growth and proliferation of these fungi. This is the second documented case of a fatal brain abscess caused by Chaetomium atrobrunneum, and the first case report in a bone marrow transplant patient. PMID:10414510

Thomas, C; Mileusnic, D; Carey, R B; Kampert, M; Anderson, D

1999-07-01

393

Bone marrow Schwann cells induce hematopoietic stem cell hibernation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are clonogenic cells capable of both self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. In adult mouse bone marrow (BM), most HSCs remain in the non-dividing G0-phase of cell cycle, in close contact with supporting cells known as the HSC "niche". In the present study, we focused on signaling mechanisms that regulate stem cell dormancy in the BM niche. We show that TGF-? type II receptor deficiency causes reduced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and impairs long-term repopulating activity in HSCs, suggesting a significant role for TGF-?/Smad signaling in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we aimed at defining the candidate BM niche responsible for homeostasis of hematopoiesis, and revealed that non-myelinating Schwann cells sustain HSC hibernation by converting TGF-? from its latent to its active form. PMID:24817152

Yamazaki, Satoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-06-01

394

Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.  

PubMed

At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited. PMID:15685919

Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

2004-01-01

395

[Stromal cells of the bone marrow in growing bone].  

PubMed

By means of electron microscopy, cytochemistry and radioautography with 3H-thymidine, the bone marrow stromal cells have been studied in the zones of endochondral osteogenesis in the rabbit and rat femoral bones. In the stromal cells demonstrating a high alkaline phosphatase activity are distinguished: perivascular, reticular fibroblastic, osteogenic cells. Populations of the perivascular phosphatase-positive cells include poorly differentiated DNA-synthesizing forms, as well as cells with signs of differentiation into stromal fibroblasts. Cleft-like spaces in cytoplasm of the fibroblastic reticular cells are, probably, formed as a result of lymphocyte-like mononuclears passing through. Phagocyting stromal elements are presented by macrophages, having perivascular localization and including into composition of erythroblastic islets. Mononuclear macrophages are revealed also on the surface of osseous trabecules, where they participate in destruction of hemopoetic and osteogenic cells. PMID:3800669

Rodionova, N V; Skripchenko, E V

1986-10-01

396

Dysplastic bone marrow changes during maintenance therapy for acute leukemia.  

PubMed

We describe the case of an 8-year-old girl with common precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with severe pancytopenia during maintenance therapy with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. The bone marrow smear showed moderate hypocellularity and trilinear dysplastic changes consistent with a diagnosis of drug toxicity, with no evidence of lymphoblasts. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping was negative for leukemic cells. Blood cell counts normalized after treatment with folinic acid. Maintenance therapy was gradually restarted and she remained well at follow-up visits. Myelotoxicity from methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine may represent an unpredictable incident during an otherwise uneventful maintenance therapy, and may occur independently of other organ toxicities. PMID:25493456

Chinello, Matteo; Naviglio, Samuele; Shardlow, Alison; Severino, Alessandro; Ventura, Alessandro; Locasciulli, Anna

2015-03-01

397

Identification of a hypoxic population of bone marrow cells  

SciTech Connect

A technique using collagenase has been devised to release and separate, with reproducibility, hematopoietic cells (HC) from various microenvironments of mouse femurs. HC were assayed by an in vitro gel culture technique used traditionally to score granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFU-C). CFU-C which resided in the medullary cavity and endosteal regions were sensitive to ionizing radiation and resistant to misonidazole (MISO) cytotoxicity. CFU-C which resided within the compact bone were resistant to ionizing radiation and sensitive to the cytotoxic action of MISO. These results suggest that HC which reside in the bone are hypoxic and retain clonogenic potential. When animals were exposed to various treatments with MISO followed by myelotoxic doses of cyclophosphamide (CTX) or total body irradiation (TBI), the LD/sub 50/ of both agents was significantly reduced. This result suggests that a hypoxic component of HC could be important in the regenerative process within the marrow after such myelotoxic trauma.

Allalunis, M.J.; Chapman, J.D.; Turner, A.R.

1983-02-01

398

Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2?/? mice into irradiated WT or CCR2?/? host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2?/? BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34+/Sca-1?/CD45? cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2?/? BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration.—Sun, D., Martinez, C. O., Ochoa, O., Ruiz-Willhite, L., Bonilla, J. R., Centonze, V. E., Waite, L. L., Michalek, J. E., McManus, L. M., Shireman, P. K. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O.; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Michalek, Joel E.; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

2009-01-01

399

Leukemia cells induce changes in human bone marrow stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells that support angiogenesis, wound healing, and immunomodulation. In the hematopoietic niche, they nurture hematopoietic cells, leukemia, tumors and metastasis. BMSCs secrete of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and matrix proteins which contribute to the pro-tumorigenic marrow microenvironment. The inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? change the BMSC secretome and we hypothesized that factors produced by tumors or leukemia would also affect the BMSC secretome and investigated the interaction of leukemia cells with BMSCs. Methods BMSCs from healthy subjects were co-cultured with three myeloid leukemia cell lines (TF-1, TF-1? and K562) using a trans-well system. Following co-culture, the BMSCs and leukemia cells were analyzed by global gene expression analysis and culture supernatants were analyzed for protein expression. As a control, CD34+ cells were also cocultured with BMSCs. Results Co-culture induced leukemia cell gene expression changes in stem cell pluripotency, TGF-? signaling and carcinoma signaling pathways. BMSCs co-cultured with leukemia cells up-regulated a number of proinflammatory genes including IL-17 signaling-related genes and IL-8 and CCL2 levels were increased in co-culture supernatants. In contrast, purine metabolism, mTOR signaling and EIF2 signaling pathways genes were up-regulated in BMSCs co-cultured with CD34+ cells. Conclusions BMSCs react to the presence of leukemia cells undergoing changes in the cytokine and chemokine secretion profiles. Thus, BMSCs and leukemia cells both contribute to the creation of a competitive niche more favorable for leukemia stem cells. PMID:24304929

2013-01-01

400

MSC Therapy Attenuates Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Murine Bone Marrow Transplant  

PubMed Central

Rationale Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in chronic inflammatory disease. Objective Administration of MSCs was evaluated for the ability to ameliorate OB in mice using our established allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Methods Mice were lethally conditioned and received allogeneic bone marrow without (BM) or with spleen cells (BMS), as a source of OB-causing T-cells. Cell therapy was started at 2 weeks post-transplant, or delayed to 4 weeks when mice developed airway injury, defined as increased airway resistance measured by pulmonary function test (PFT). BM-derived MSC or control cells [mouse pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) or lung fibroblasts (LFs)] were administered. Route of administration [intratracheally (IT) and IV] and frequency (every 1, 2 or 3 weeks) were compared. Mice were evaluated at 3 months post-BMT. Measurements and Main Results No ectopic tissue formation was identified in any mice. When compared to BMS mice receiving control cells or no cells, those receiving MSCs showed improved resistance, compliance and inspiratory capacity. Interim PFT analysis showed no difference in route of administration. Improvements in PFTs were found regardless of dose frequency; but once per week worked best even when administration began late. Mice given MSC also had decreased peribronchiolar inflammation, lower levels of hydroxyproline (collagen) and higher frequencies of macrophages staining for the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) marker CD206. Conclusions These results warrant study of MSCs as a potential management option for OB in lung transplant and BMT recipients. PMID:25272285

Raza, Kashif; Price, Andrew P.; Meyer, Carolyn; Matson, Amy; Ehrhardt, Michael J.; Fogas, Samuel; Tolar, Jakub; Hertz, Marshall I.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

2014-01-01

401

The painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip joint.  

PubMed

In this issue of the WKW, Aigner et al have published that, for the first time, a conservative approach with iloprost has shown to be equally successful as the well-documented core decompression surgical approach in patients with BMES of the hip joint. The BME pattern on MR-imaging of the hip joint represents a common but unspecific finding, which may be associated with several diseases requiring different therapeutic strategies (Table 1). It is still controversial, whether BMES of the hip represents a distinct self-limiting disease also known as transient osteoporosis, transient marrow edema, or algodystrophy, or merely reflects a subtype of ON. Since prognosis and therapeutic consequences vary significantly, differential diagnosis between BMES, CRPS and ON is of clinical interest (Table 2). Both, BMES and ON show similar ON risk factors and a male prevalence, while classical CRPS has a history of trauma and a prevalence among females. Clinical presentation of BMES and ON is similar with typical mechanical pain and prevalence of the hip joint. In contrast, classical CRPS shows a diffuse and burning pain in combination with trophic and vasomotor signs, mainly in the hands and feet. Imaging patterns of BMES are more diffuse, across the entire femoral head, while focal and subchondral in ON. In both, the patterns are limited to the femoral head. In contrast to classical CRPS, the imaging changes are located in all periarticular bones, and the soft tissues are always affected. The histological bone marrow changes are similar in all three diseases, but with abundant new bone formation in BMES and CRPS, whereas in ON only limited new bone formation surrounds the focal necrosis with a sclerotic rim. Protected weight-bearing and treatment with iloprost for BMES, but operative treatment for ON, and a sophisticated physiotherapy for CRPS in combination with iloprost are the preferred treatment strategies in our institution. PMID:15847189

Hofmann, Siegfried

2005-02-01

402

Prostate cancer: flow cytometric methods for detection of bone marrow micrometastases.  

PubMed

Up to 60% of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer will relapse despite potentially curative local treatment. Current staging tests have been limited in adequately identifying individual patients who are at a high risk for future relapse. Detection of bone marrow micrometastases may identify individuals destined to develop clinically detectable systemic metastases. Although immunohistochemistry and molecular approaches are being investigated, the most ideal test(s) are yet to be determined. In this report we describe methods for specific detection and isolation of prostate cancer micrometastases by multi-parameter rare event flow cytometric analysis. A model was developed and validated using three human prostate cancer cell lines, healthy donor marrow, dual marker labeling for cytokeratin (epithelial-specific marker) and CD45 (bone marrow-specific marker). The detection sensitivity of this model was at the level of one prostate cancer cell in 100,000 nucleated bone marrow cells. As a part of an ongoing clinical study, bone marrow aspirates from 15 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have been analyzed. Six patients were found to have cytokeratin positive/CD45 negative cells in their bone marrow aspirates. We conclude that flow cytometric rare event analysis provides a sensitive and specific assay for detection of bone marrow micrometastases in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:8809479

Hussain, M; Kukuruga, M; Biggar, S; Sakr, W; Cummings, G; Ensley, J

1996-03-15

403

Chili with Red Beans Ingredients  

E-print Network

red kidney beans, soaked overnight or 2 cans, rinsed 3 cups tomatoes, chopped, or 28 ounces, canned 1 tender, about three minutes. 4. Open kidney beans and pour into a colander. Rinse under cool water to remove sodium, and allow to drain. 5. When onions are translucent, add cooked ground beef, kidney beans

Liskiewicz, Maciej

404

Sunset over Red Rock Canyon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

405

White Baneberry and Red Baneberry  

E-print Network

differences: first, the inflorescence of white baneberry is cylindrical with the flowers densely con- gested the inflorescence is just beginning to flower, it is not always easy to discern that the pedicels (flower stalks) of the flowers of white baneberry are thicker than those of red baneberry. however, as the inflorescence matures

Landweber, Laura

406

Growth declines in red spruce  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

1987-01-01

407

Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL  

E-print Network

Conservation Law Enforcement Environmental Crop & Soil Sciences Food Science #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION & Family Social at Jones AT&T Stadium Tomorrow: · Parent & Family Member closing session ­ Allen Theatre Advising Important one-on-one time for student and advisor Useful events to build your knowledge

Rock, Chris

408

Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story  

PubMed Central

Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 1010 RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

2013-01-01

409

Acute pure red cell aplasia associated with allopurinol therapy.  

PubMed

Several investigators have reported patients with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) caused by anticonvulsants, antibiotics, or antithyroid agents. Allopurinol is known to be a causative agent of aplastic anemia, but there have been few reports of acute PRCA induced by allopurinol. We describe here a 15-year-old boy who suffered from anemia 6 weeks after initiation of allopurinol therapy; his anemia immediately improved after cessation of the drug. His bone marrow showed severe erythroid hypoplasia with a myeloid/erythroid ratio of 18.6 and low expression of glycophorin A detected on cell-surface antigen analysis. No morphological abnormalities were observed in myeloid series and megakaryocytes. The prolonged plasma iron disappearance rate and the decreased plasma iron turnover rate also indicated erythroid hypoplasia. He had been free from any infections, including parvovirus B19, before manifestation of PRCA. Taken together, these results suggest a diagnosis of acute PRCA. This side effect of allopurinol should be taken into consideration. PMID:10398315

Lin, Y W; Okazaki, S; Hamahata, K; Watanabe, K; Usami, I; Yoshibayashi, M; Akiyama, Y; Kubota, M

1999-07-01

410

Stimulation of human prostatic carcinoma cell growth by factors present in human bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

Malignant prostatic carcinoma, a major cause of cancer mortality in males, most often metastasizes to secondary sites in bone. Frequently, the growth rate of the secondary tumor in bone marrow is considerably greater than that of the slowly growing primary prostatic tumor. We now report that two lines of human prostatic carcinoma cells proliferate in response to conditioned media from unstimulated human, rat, or bovine bone marrow. Nonprostatic tumor cell lines showed little or no growth response to the same medium. The proliferative activity found in bone marrow was not duplicated by any of a variety of purified growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha or beta, interleukins 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6, granulocyte (G), macrophage (M) or granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony stimulating factor (CSF). Whereas a mixture of G-CSF, M-CSF, and IL 3 produced a mitogenic response in the prostatic carcinoma cells, these three factors were not present in our bone marrow samples in sufficient quantities to promote the observed proliferative response. To further identify the cellular source of the proliferative activity present in bone marrow-conditioned medium, we tested conditioned media made from human bone marrow stromal cells. The stromal cell conditioned medium stimulated increased growth of the prostatic carcinoma cells to levels equivalent to those observed with the bone marrow conditioned medium. These results suggest that novel mitogenic factors that are produced by bone marrow stromal cells and remain in the bone marrow cavity may account, in part, for the preferential growth of prostatic metastases in bone. PMID:2786890

Chackal-Roy, M; Niemeyer, C; Moore, M; Zetter, B R

1989-01-01

411

The possible role of anemia in bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid  

SciTech Connect

Entry of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid into bone marrow is a frequent observation and possible causes have been discussed in the literature. Using a present formulation of the radiocolloid (Medi+Physics), the authors sought to define the distribution patterns of bone marrow uptake, and relate these back to the primary diagnosis. Three hundred consecutive cases (with spleen present) were analyzed. Only 18% of the patients were under age 29 years and 62% were age 50 or older. Posterior images were evaluated so that liver, spleen and bone marrow could be compared visually. Twelve % of the studies were within normal limits. In 33% of the patients, the liver or spleen showed a defect without a radiocolloid shift. In 41% of the cases, there was a shift of radioactivity to the spleen (spleen/liver greater than 1), but not to the bone marrow. In 12% of the patients, there was both a radiocolloid shift to the spleen and visible uptake in the bone marrow. Least common was uptake of radiocolloid in the vertebral bone marrow without a splenic radiocolloid shift: this occurred in only 5 cases (under 2% of the total). Looked at another way the authors can normalize the cases with radiocolloid shift to the spleen (but not elsewhere) to 100%. Then radiocolloid shift to both spleen and bone marrow occurred only 29% as frequently. Radicolloid in the bone marrow, but not shifted to the spleen, was unusual (5% as frequent). These 5 patients were analyzed; all had anemia. The Hb ranged from 7.9 - 10.6 gm/dl, and hematocrits from 23 - 30. Several etiologies were involved. Anemia may be a stimulus to bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid without major splenic accumulation.

Skarzynski, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Karlmeddini, M.K.

1984-01-01

412

Influence of early zoledronic acid administration on bone marrow fat in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Although the primary target cell of bisphosphonates is the osteoclast, increasing attention is being given to other effector cells influenced by bisphosphonates, such as osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes. Early zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment to ovariectomized (OVX) rats has been found to fully preserve bone microarchitecture over time. However, little is known regarding the influence of ZA on marrow adipogenesis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the ability of early administration of ZA in restoring marrow adiposity in an estrogen-deficient rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SHAM), OVX + vehicle, and OVX + ZA groups (n=10/group). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and water/fat magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment to assess bone mineral density and marrow fat fraction. Serum biochemical markers, bone remodeling, and marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The expression levels of osteoblast, adipocyte, and osteoclast-related genes in bone marrow were assessed using RT-PCR. The OVX rats showed marked bone loss, first detected at 12 weeks, but estrogen deficiency resulted in a remarked increase in marrow fat fraction, first detected at 6 weeks compared with the SHAM rats (all P < .001). Similarly, the OVX rats had a substantially larger percent adipocyte area (+163.0%), mean diameter (+29.5%), and higher density (+57.3%) relative to the SHAM rats. Bone histomorphometry, levels of osteoclast-related gene expression, and a serum resorption marker confirmed that ZA significantly suppressed bone resorption activities. Furthermore, ZA treatment returned adipocyte-related gene expression and marrow adipocyte parameters toward SHAM levels. These data suggest that a single dose of early ZA treatment acts to reverse marrow adipogenesis occurring during estrogen deficiency, which may contribute to its capacity to reduce bone loss. PMID:25243855

Li, Guan-Wu; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Nian, Hua; Shi, Xiao

2014-12-01

413

Elimination of small cell lung cancer cells in vitro from human bone marrow by a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

We report here a useful method for elimination of small cell lung cancer cells in vitro from bone marrow. A monoclonal antibody, TFS-2, which mediates complement lysis and recognizes an antigen present on small cell lung cancer cells but not lymphoid cells or bone marrow cells, was used to clear infiltrated bone marrow. The antibody in the presence of complement effectively killed tumor cells, but it was not cytotoxic to bone marrow cells. When mixed populations consisting of tumor cells and bone marrow cells were treated with antibody and complement, the tumor cells were also effectively killed, except when large numbers of bone marrow cells were present, whereas TFS-2 had no significant effect on bone marrow stem cells, as judged by colony-forming unit assays. PMID:2985239

Okabe, T; Kaizu, T; Ozawa, K; Urabe, A; Takaku, F

1985-05-01

414

Computational method for realistic estimates of the dose to active marrow  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of absorbed dose to active marrow from photon radiation is a complex problem because electronic equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interfaces. Snyder et al. recognized the intractable geometry of trabecular bone in their studies of photon transport in the body and formulated marrow dose estimates in a conservative manner. Other investigators have noted that this approach leads to overestimate by factors of 3 or more at low photon energy. In this paper the absorbed dose is formulated in terms of physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition in the marrow space. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1984-05-11

415

Histopathological bone marrow changes after reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for follicular lymphoma involving bone marrow.  

PubMed

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is used as curative therapy for malignant lymphoma, and reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIST) is sometimes performed to avoid the toxicity and mortality associated with myeloablative allo-SCT. RIST is generally preferred for elderly patients with malignant lymphoma. A 62-year-old woman with follicular lymphoma (FL) involving bone marrow (BM) suffered relapse after autologous SCT. RIST was performed; cells were from an unrelated, fully human leukocyte antigen-matched donor. To study the hematopoietic reconstitution, BM biopsy specimens that were obtained at different times after RIST, were evaluated. Engraftment of donor cells was observed on days 19 and 48 after RIST, and residual FL in BM had completely disappeared by day 73 after RIST. This is the first report to document histological BM regeneration after RIST and disappearance of FL involving the BM. PMID:17539969

Maeda, Takashi; Shiozawa, Eisuke; Saito, Bungo; Usui, Takako; Nakashima, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Norimichi; Adachi, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Kouji; Kawakami, Keiichiro; Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Tomoyasu, Shigeru; Yamochi-Onizuka, Toshiko; Takimoto, Masafumi; Ota, Hidekazu

2007-06-01

416

Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea  

MedlinePLUS

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think ... complexion as a sign of good health. But red patches on the face may point to something ...

417

Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

418

Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re feeling constantly exhausted ... when your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. You may either have too few ...

419

Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins.  

PubMed

We found that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as in a screen of 12 proteins, 8 exhibited photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins could be switched to a green state, and two orange variants could be photoconverted to a far-red state. The orange proteins are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibited the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent proteins described to date. PMID:19363494

Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L; Murphy, Christopher S; Davidson, Michael W; Piston, David W

2009-05-01

420

Identity of red currant spoon leaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Red currant spoon leaf virus, isolated from red currant in The Netherlands, is a strain of raspberry ringspot virus; it shares most of its antigenic groups with the “type” strain from Scottish raspberry but causes distinctive symptoms inPetunia hybrida. It differs from tomato ringspot virus, obtained byHildebrand (1942) from red currant in the United States.Klesser's (1951) red currant ringspot

B. D. Harrison

1961-01-01

421

Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales  

E-print Network

#12;Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales Meeting the challenge to keep reds in Wales to enable effective red squir- rel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Wales Squirrel squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Forum and Partnership are currently

422

The Red Planet Mars is noticeable  

E-print Network

Barsoom #12;The Red Planet Mars is noticeable ·It moves fast ·It is bright at opposition (0.5 AU Lowell created a Mars that is ·a dying planet, ·whose intelligent denizens built canals ­ to collect are complementary colors). Mars is not a red planet with green vegetation outlining water canals. Mars is a red

Walter, Frederick M.

423

Red Discoloration of Fully Cooked Poultry Meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a quality defect perceived as a food safety issue. Experiments were conducted to determine incidence rate, cause, and control methods for red discoloration. Breasts, thighs, and legs from four commercial products were evaluated for red disco...

424

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2014-04-01

425

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2011-04-01

426

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2012-04-01

427

Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2002-01-01

428

NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website offers a brief explanation of red tide and a large bloom that spread from the Gulf of Maine to the Massachusetts Bay in 2005. The site explains NOAA's efforts to remediate red tide in New England as well as prevent new occurrences. The site features hyperlinks to research funding, legislation, and other NOAA sites that feature red tide.

429

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2010-04-01

430

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

431

39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

2010-07-01

432

Respiratory Tract Reactions to Western Red Cedar  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata) is well recognized, but has not been described frequently in the UK. Two patients who developed asthma and rhinitis due to occupational contact with western red cedar were studied. Both patients developed late asthmatic responses following bronchial challenge with western red cedar.2 The challenge technique and the results of comparison between

A. D. Blainey; V. A. L. Graham; M. J. Phillips; R. J. Davies

1981-01-01

433

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

. Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

Liskiewicz, Maciej

434

RED TEAM PERFORMANCE FOR IMPROVED COMPUTER SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempts to develop a human factors understanding of red team assessment strategies in computer and information security. Red teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of security systems. The purpose of this research is to identify and define the various dimensions of red team effectiveness with the aim

Sara Kraemer; Pascale Carayon; Ruth Duggan

435

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve  

E-print Network

COUNTS OF RED TIDE ORGANISMS Gymnodinium breve AND ASSOCIATED OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM FLORIDA WEST, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner COUNTS OF RED TIDE of red tide organisms, Gymnodinium breve, and associated oceanographic data from Florida west coast, 1954

436

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2012-04-01

437

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2011-04-01

438

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2014-04-01

439

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2013-04-01

440

Additional stem cell therapy for graft failure after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

In this study we retrospectively evaluated the effect and outcome of a boost dose of donor stem cells without additional chemotherapy or total body irradiation. Between March 1983 and August 1999, 20 of 788 (2.5%) patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were treated with an additional boost dose of donor cells. The reasons for the use of the boost treatment were primary graft failure (early rejection; n = 7), secondary graft failure including late rejection (n = 10), refractory pure red cell aplasia caused by the remaining recipient cells producing anti-erythrocyte antibodies (n = 2), and donor lymphocyte infusion induced pancytopenia (n = 1). The patients were aged from 17 to 48 years (median age 31 years). The underlying diseases of the patients were severe aplastic anemia in 12 patients, acute myelogenous leukemia in 3, acute lymphocytic leukemia in 3, and chronic myelogenous leukemia in 2. The donors were human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings in 18 cases, 1 mismatched related donor, and 1 unrelated donor. The cell source was bone marrow in 6 cases and peripheral blood progenitor cells in 14. The median interval between BMT and the boost treatment was 7 weeks (range 1-124). No conditioning regimen was given prior to the boost treatment for 11 patients, while 4 received total nodal irradiation (TNI) plus antithymocyte globulin (ATG), 3 ATG alone, and 2 TNI plus steroid. The median infused booster mononuclear cell dose was 2.55 x 10(8)/kg (range 0.28-37.0). Fifteen (75%) patients achieved a hematological recovery. After the boost treatment, 6 of 20 (30%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) > or = grade II, 3 of whom had had prior GVHD. Five (31.3%) of the evaluable 16 patients developed chronic GVHD. The GVHDs were easily controlled using immunosuppressive agents except in the case of 1 patient. Five patients died after the boost treatment; 2 within 30 days, 2 within 60 days, and 1 after 32 months. The causes of death were: 3 engraftment failures, 1 late rejection, and 1 infection following GVHD. With a median follow-up of 31.5 months (range 6-92), the Kaplan-Meier method estimated that the overall survival rate 1 and 3 years after the boost treatment was 80 and 71%, respectively. The survival of patients with primary graft failure was determined to be significantly lower compared to that of patients with secondary graft failure, using the log rank test (p = 0.0176). Disease category, stem cell source, conditioning prior to a boost treatment, and year of boost treatment did not have an influence on survival. We conclude that the reinfusion of donor stem cells is frequently successful in achieving engraftment with rare occurrence of fatal GVHD. Furthermore, relatively good long-term survival was demonstrated. PMID:11279309

Min, C K; Kim, D W; Lee, J W; Min, W S; Kim, C C

2000-01-01

441

A Case of Pure Red Cell Aplasia Complicated with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, T-Cell-Rich\\/Histiocyte-Rich Variant: Effectiveness of Rituximab and Implications for a Common Immunopathogenic Role of B Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma, T-cell-rich\\/histiocyte-rich variant (DLBL-TH), is characterized by the presence of neoplastic B cells set in a background containing numerous non-neoplastic T lymphocytes and histiocytes. We report here the case of a patient with DLBL-TH who developed overt pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) following chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Posttransplantation bone marrow biopsies revealed

Naoki Oyaizu; Yasuji Kozai; Hideki Kodo; Shinji Sunaga; Keiichi Iwabuchi; Masaaki Higashihara; Shigeo Mori

2005-01-01

442

Expression of p53 and Ki-67 antigen in bone marrow giant proerythroblasts associated with human parvovirus B19 infection.  

PubMed

Giant proerythroblasts are hallmarks of human parvovirus B19 infection. We attempted to characterize these cells in 5 patients with parvovirus B19-induced pure red cell aplasia using immunostaining of paraffin-embedded bone marrow sections with antibodies against erythroid-lineage-specific proteins, viral capsid antigen VP-1, and apoptosis- and cell-cycle-related proteins. Giant proerythroblasts are immunohistochemically consistent with early erythroid precursors of cells in the differentiation stage of CD34-, cytoplasmic spectrin+, glycophorin A-, and band-3-. VP-1 was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of small- to medium-sized spectrin+ erythroid cells but not in giant proerythroblasts. The giant proerythroblasts displayed nuclear staining for p53 (41%+/-16%) and Ki-67 antigen (100%+/-0%) and cytoplasmic staining for Bax (65%+/-11%) and procaspase-3 (78%+/-10%), whereas they were not stained for p21Wafl/Cip1, active form of caspase-3, or terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, were not expressed in the giant cells, and Bcl-x was infrequently expressed in these cells (11%+/-4%). These immunohistochemical findings suggest that giant proerythroblasts are proliferating erythroid precursors with accumulation of nonfunctional p53. PMID:11594514

Sadahira, Y; Sugihara, T; Yawata, Y

2001-08-01

443

Curcumin-functionalized silk materials for enhancing adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma longa, was physically entrapped and stabilized in silk hydrogel films, and its influence on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) was assessed related to adipogenic differentiation. The presence of curcumin significantly reduced the silk gelation time and changed the porous morphology of gel matrix, but did not change the formation of the silk beta-sheet structure. Based on spectrofluorimetric analysis, curcumin most likely interacted with hydrophobic residues in silk, interacting with the beta-sheet domains formed in the hydrogels. The antioxidant activity of silk film-associated curcumin remained functional over at least one month in both the dry and hydrated state. Negligible curcumin was released from silk hydrogel films over 48 h incubation in aqueous solution. For hBMSC cultured on silk films containing more than 0.25 mg ml(-1) curcumin, cell proliferation was inhibited, while adipogenesis was significantly promoted based on transcripts as well as Oil Red O staining. When hBMSC were cultured in media containing free curcumin, both proliferation and adipogenesis of hBMSC were inhibited when curcumin concentrations exceeded 5 ?M, which is more than 1000 times higher than the level of curcumin released from the films in aqueous solution. Thus, silk film-associated curcumin exhibited different effects on hBMSC proliferation and differentiation compared with curcumin in solution. PMID:25132274

Li, Chunmei; Luo, Tingting; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Murphy, Amanda R; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

2015-01-01

444

Pooled umbilical cord blood as a possible universal donor for marrow reconstitution and use in nuclear accidents.  

PubMed

Human umbilical cord blood has been shown to be an effective source of stem cells for marrow reconstitution in pediatric patients. Unfortunately, the quantity of stem cells obtained from an individual donor can be quite limited in both the total volume and the numbers of stem cells per ml of cord blood. HLA matching further limits the availability, but recent publications indicate close matching may be unnecessary. Therefore, if cord blood from different donors can be combined, larger numbers of stem cells can be available for clinical use provided pooling does not produce a negative effect. Storage of single cord blood specimens at 4 degrees C for 10-21 days in gas permeable bags produced an apparent increase in the percentage of immature cells (CD34, CD117, GPA) and mitotic activity (S+G2/M cells) over day 1. With similar storage of pooled specimens there was a further increase in the number of immature colonies cultured, CD34, CD117, GPA, S+G2/M cells. In addition, nucleated red blood cells increased over the mean values obtained from single cord blood samples. Our previous studies have indicated that large numbers of human mononuclear cells are necessary to reconstitute an irradiated animal model. By combining multiple samples of human cord blood, adequate numbers of stem cells could be pooled for use in adults and would provide cells for megadose therapy, including those patients that had accidentally received lethal irradiation. PMID:11554614

Ende, N; Lu, S; Alcid, M G; Chen, R; Mack, R

2001-08-17

445

Biochemistry, mutagenesis, and oligomerization of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral  

E-print Network

. Tsien, August 16, 2000 DsRed is a recently cloned 28-kDa fluorescent protein responsible for the red naturally fluorescent proteins was the cloning by Matz et al. (2) of six anthozoan fluorescent proteins allBiochemistry, mutagenesis, and oligomerization of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

Tsien, Roger Y.

446

33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263...Guard District § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a)...

2011-07-01

447

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-print Network

maturi ty than our current shor t season c u l t i v a r s . 5. Plants and seed a r e usual ly pubescent. 6. Plants a r e l i g h t e r green i n color . A l l of these characters a r e gene t i ca l ly dominant over t h e i r a l l e... . Severe n i l l i n g i s required i n samples containing red r i c e , reducing 7 ' {head r i c e and t o t a l mi l l ing y ie ld . Li tera ture on red r i c e i n t h e United S t a t e s i s r a t h e r l imited. Published repor ts...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01

448

NCI-CCR Pediatric Oncology Branch: Blood and Marrow Transplant - Staff  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Referrals For Patients For Physicians For Prospective Trainees For Scientists News Quick Links Home Referring a Patient Patients and Families Scientific Programs - Blood & Marrow

449

Specific allogeneic unresponsiveness in irradiated dogs reconstituted with autologous bone marrow. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

Hemopoietic reconstitution of supralethally irradiated adult dogs of the Cooperstown colony with their own stored bone marrow can produce long-term unresponsiveness to DLA-identical kidney allografts with no need for any additional immunosuppression. Eleven of 18 kidneys transplanted 12 h after replacement of autologous marrow into irradiated recipients currently survive with normal function for as long as 1417 d; 8 of 13 organs transplanted 28 h after marrow replacement, and 8 of 13 organs transplanted 36 h after marrow injection, currently survive up to 502 d, with no further treatment. Alterations in the timing and sequence of each procedure decrease the incidence of unresponsiveness. Survival and function of the kidney allografts were not affected by the rejection of successive skin grafts from the kidney donor. Skin grafts from other DLA-identical donors and DLA-incompatible skin grafts were rejected by the same recipients in uniform fashion.

Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Akiyama, N.; Sato, T.; Ferrebee, J.W.

1980-07-01

450

What Are the Risks of a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Risks of a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? ... are more likely to have graft failure. Other Risks The chemotherapy and/or radiation you receive during ...

451

Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 10(6) rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significantly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells. PMID:25206912

Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

2014-05-01

452

The secret life of a megakaryocyte: emerging roles in bone marrow homeostasis control.  

PubMed

Megakaryocytes are rare cells found in the bone marrow, responsible for the everyday production and release of millions of platelets into the bloodstream. Since the discovery and cloning, in 1994, of their principal humoral factor, thrombopoietin, and its receptor c-Mpl, many efforts have been directed to define the mechanisms underlying an efficient platelet production. However, more recently different studies have pointed out new roles for megakaryocytes as regulators of bone marrow homeostasis and physiology. In this review we discuss the interaction and the reciprocal regulation of megakaryocytes with the different cellular and extracellular components of the bone marrow environment. Finally, we provide evidence that these processes may concur to the reconstitution of the bone marrow environment after injury and their deregulation may lead to the development of a series of inherited or acquired pathologies. PMID:25572292

Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian A; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Currao, Manuela; Balduini, Alessandra

2015-04-01

453

Detection of micrometastatic tumor cells in bone marrow of breast carcinoma patients.  

PubMed

To determine the incidence and clinical significance of micrometastases in the bone marrow of breast carcinoma patients, we performed an immunoalkaline phosphatase assay using anticytokeratin (AE1, AE3, MAK-6) and antiepithelial (113F1, 260F9, 317G5) antibodies on the bone marrow aspirates of 71 stage IV disease patients with either recurrent regional or distant metastases. Although we detected tumor cells within the bone marrow of 38% of these patients with this assay, no significant correlation was seen with patient's age, menopausal status, bone scan, bone marrow core histology, response to induction chemotherapy, number of metastatic sites, dominant site of metastasis, or subsequent clinical outcome. The clinical parameters that were associated with improved survival were one dominant site of metastatic disease and regional soft tissue recurrence without distant disease. PMID:2023419

Singletary, S E; Larry, L; Tucker, S L; Spitzer, G

1991-05-01

454

Bone marrow fat: linking adipocyte-induced inflammation with skeletal metastases  

PubMed Central

Adipocytes are important but underappreciated components of bone marrow microenvironment, and their numbers greatly increase with age, obesity, and associated metabolic pathologies. Age and obesity are also significant risk factors for development of metastatic prostate cancer. Adipocytes are metabolically active cells that secrete adipokines, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators; influence behavior and function of neighboring cells; and have a potential to disturb local milleu and dysregulate normal bone homeostasis. Increased marrow adiposity has been linked to bone marrow inflammation and osteoporosis of the bone, but its effects on growth and progression of prostate tumors that have metastasized to the skeleton are currently not known. This review focuses on fat-bone relationship in a context of normal bone homeostasis and metastatic tumor growth in bone. We discuss effects of marrow fat cells on bone metabolism, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. Special attention is given to CCL2- and COX-2-driven pathways and their potential as therapeutic targets for bone metastatic disease. PMID:24398857

Hardaway, Aimalie L.; Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Rajagurubandara, Erandi

2014-01-01

455

The Bone Marrow Vascular Niche: Home of HSC Differentiation and Mobilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bone marrow vasuclar niche consists of a network of thin-walled and fenestrated sinusoidal vessels whose integrity is maintained and supported by surrounding hematopoietic cells. However, this dependence is highly reciprocal.

Hans-Georg Kopp (Cornell University, Weill Medical College Institute of Genetic Medicine)

2005-10-01

456

Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.  

PubMed

Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

2014-01-01

457

Glycol methacrylate embedding for light microscopy. I. enzyme histochemistry on semithin sections of undecalcified marrow cores.  

PubMed Central

A simple, routine procedure for water miscible glycol methacrylate (GMA) embedding of undecalcified bone marrow cores, which preserves the activity of enzymes useful in diagnosing various haematopoietic disorders, is described. The GMA used in this study has a low acid content that eliminates background staining, and the modified May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain provides good definition and excellent colour differentiation of various haematopoietic cells in the bone marrow, thereby providing optimal conditions for the study of the morphology and enzyme activity of bone marrow cells in the same preparation. The method is simple, reproducible, requires no expensive equipment, and is suitable for routine processing of small bone marrow cores in any histopathology or haematology laboratory. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:2445786

Islam, A; Henderson, E S

1987-01-01

458

Use of medical radiographs: extent of variation and associated active bone marrow doses  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of radiologic practice in five areas of Maine was undertaken for three purposes: to identify those radiologic examinations associated with the highest variation in use so that guidelines can be instituted to correct for excess use; to identify the major contributors to absorbed dose to the active bone marrow; and to estimate annual and cumulative dose to the active bone marrow as a function of age. For all patient age groups, four types of examinations contribute 75-85% of the annual dose to the active bone marrow: examinations of the stomach and intestines using barium contrast material, intravenous urograms, studies of the biliary tract, and lumbar spine films. Over 80% of the total dose to the active bone marrow from diagnostic radiology in patients occurs after age 40 and nearly 60% after age 55; this suggests that the potential number of induced leukemias from diagnostic radiology may be lower than previously estimated.

McNeil, B.J.; Tihansky, D.; Wennberg, J.E.

1985-07-01

459

Electric fields in bone marrow substructures at power-line frequencies.  

PubMed

Bone marrow is known to be responsible for leukemia. In order to study the hypothesis relating power-line frequencies electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia from a subcellular perspective, two models of bone marrow substructures exposed to electric field are computed numerically. A set of cancellous bone data obtained from computed tomography scan is computed using both the finite element method (FEM) and scalar potential finite difference method. A maximum electric field enhancement of 50% is observed. Another model of bone marrow stroma cells is implemented only in FEM using thin film approximation. The transmembrane potential (TMP) change across the gap junctions is found to range from several to over 200 microV. The two results suggest that imperceptible contact currents can produce biologically significant TMP change at least in a limited number of bone marrow stroma cells. PMID:15977739

Chiu, Roanna S; Stuchly, Maria A

2005-06-01

460

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children with Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Summary – Sept. 25, 2013 Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic ... to know for sure 9 patients Understanding Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants What are hematopoietic stem cells? Hematopoietic stem ...