Sample records for red marrow 131ina

  1. Comparison of non-invasive approaches to red marrow dosimetry for radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian A. B. D. Plaizier; Jan C. Roos; Gerrit J. J. Teule; Erik B. Dieren; Wim Hollander; Hidde J. Haisma; Robert L. DeJager; Arthur Lingen

    1994-01-01

    Red marrow is usually the dose-limiting organ during radioimmunotherapy. Several non-invasive approaches to calculate the red marrow dose have been proposed. We compared four approaches to analyse the differences in calculated red marrow doses. The data were obtained from immunoscintigraphy of two antibodies with different red marrow kinetics [iodine-131-16.88 IgM and indium- 111-OV-TL-3 F(ab')2]. The approaches are based on, respectively,

  2. Comparison of non-invasive approaches to red marrow dosimetry for radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Plaizier, M A; Roos, J C; Teule, G J; van Dieren, E B; den Hollander, W; Haisma, H J; DeJager, R L; van Lingen, A

    1994-03-01

    Red marrow is usually the dose-limiting organ during radioimmunotherapy. Several non-invasive approaches to calculate the red marrow dose have been proposed. We compared four approaches to analyse the differences in calculated red marrow doses. The data were obtained from immunoscintigraphy of two antibodies with different red marrow kinetics [iodine-131-16.88 IgM and indium-111-OV-TL-3 F(ab')2]. The approaches are based on, respectively, homogeneously distributed activity in the body, a red marrow-blood activity concentration ratio of 0.3, scintigraphic quantification, and a combination of the second and third approaches. This fourth approach may be more adequate because of its independence from the chosen antibody. In addition, the influence of activity accumulation in liver, kidneys or cancellous bone on red marrow dose was studied. The calculated red marrow dose varied between 0.14 and 0.42 mGy/MBq for 111In-OV-TL-3 and between 0.13 and 0.68 mGy/MBq for 131I-16.88. If the radiopharmaceutical shows high affinity for cancellous bone or another organ situated near the red marrow, the activity in these organs must be included in dose calculations. This study shows a large variation in calculated red marrow dose and selection of the definitive non-invasive approach awaits validation. PMID:8200389

  3. Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, S J; Roberson, P L; Bolch, W E; Dewaraja, Y K

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose-rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Results: Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Conclusions: Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction. PMID:23780474

  4. Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wilderman, S J; Roberson, P L; Bolch, W E; Dewaraja, Y K

    2013-07-21

    A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction. PMID:23780474

  5. Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderman, S. J.; Roberson, P. L.; Bolch, W. E.; Dewaraja, Y. K.

    2013-07-01

    A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction.

  6. Induced Red Discoloration of Broiler Breast Meat: i. Effect of Blood, Bone Marrow and Marination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The bloody, undercooked appearance of fully cooked chicken causes complaints and product rejection by consumers. This defect has been described as a persistent problem with bone-in chicken. Many studies have addressed pink meat or bone darkening, but none have studied the red discoloration problem. Therefore, constituents found in the broiler carcass (breast meat, blood and bone marrow) were combined in

  7. MRI of Residual Red Bone Marrow in the Distal Femur of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Gozde; Ozmen, Evrim; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Summary Backround The purpose of our study is to examine the correlation of the residual red bone marrow areas of distal femoral metaphysis with the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin (hgb) values; evaluate the results, and comprehend the importance of these residual areas in the light of the results. Material/Methods 140 nonsmoking patients between the ages of 26 and 72 (92 women, 48 men) who had knee MR examinations were included in the study. The residual red bone marrow areas in the distal femoral metaphysis in MR images were examined by a radiologist. The areas were separated into grades according to their sizes. The hemoglobin values of the cases were measured. The size of the residual red bone marrow area and the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin values of the cases were compared by using the Tukey and Chi-Square Tests. Results Although no significant differences were observed between the mean ages, weights and hemoglobin values of the grades, a significant difference was detected between the gender distribution The male group had less residual red bone marrow in the distal femoral metaphysis than the female group (p=0.003). Conclusions We observed that the hypointensities due to residual red bone marrow observed in the T1WS of the distal femoral metaphysis are not related with the age, weight and hemoglobin values. No grade 2 and grade 3 patient was detected in male group. We observed that these hypointense areas showed difference according to the gender variable; however, were not affected by the hemoglobin values over certain levels.

  8. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

  9. MR assessment of red marrow distribution and composition in the proximal femur: correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Vande Berg; Frederic E. Lecouvet; Philippe Moysan; Baudouin Maldague; Jacques Jamart; Jacques Malghem

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To correlate the MR appearance of the proximal femur marrow with clinical and blood parameters. Design and patients. The proportion of the femoral neck surface area occupied by red marrow was determined on T1-weighted magnetic resonance\\u000a (MR) images of the hip in a series of 120 subjects, aged from 15 to 75 years, with ten females and ten males

  10. Comparison of a restrictive versus liberal red cell transfusion policy for patients with myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia, and other congenital bone marrow failure disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the efficacy and safety of a restrictive versus liberal red cell transfusion strategy for patients with long-term bone marrow failure. These include myelodysplasia, acquired aplastic anaemia, and other inherited bone marrow failure disorders. PMID:25983657

  11. Minor histocompatibility antigens on transfused leukoreduced units of red blood cells induce bone marrow transplant rejection in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Desmarets, Maxime; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Neades, Renee

    2009-01-01

    When successful, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–matched bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning is a cure for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders that require chronic transfusion, such as sickle cell disease and aplastic anemia. However, there are unusually high bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection rates in these patients. Rejection correlates with the number of transfusions before bone marrow transplantation, and it has been hypothesized that preimmunization to antigens on transfused blood may prime BMT rejection. Using a novel mouse model of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and major histocompatibility complex–matched bone marrow transplantation, we report that transfusion of RBC products induced BMT rejection across minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) barriers. It has been proposed that contaminating leukocytes are responsible for transfusion-induced BMT rejection; however, filter leukoreduction did not prevent rejection in the current studies. Moreover, we generated a novel transgenic mouse with RBC-specific expression of a model mHA and demonstrated that transfusion of RBCs induced a CD8+ T-cell response. Together, these data suggest that mHAs on RBCs themselves are capable of inducing BMT rejection. Cellular immunization to mHAs is neither monitored nor managed by current transfusion medicine practice; however, the current data suggest that mHAs on RBCs may represent an unappreciated and significant consequence of RBC transfusion. PMID:19525479

  12. Total extract of Korean red ginseng facilitates human bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Gyung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Seong-Mo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Hae-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of CD34+ cells in a peripheral blood stem cell collection is the key factor in predicting successful treatment of hematologic malignancies. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most popular medicinal herb in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of KRG on hematopoietic colony formation. Methods Bone marrow (BM) samples were obtained from 8 human donors after acquiring informed consent. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated, and CD34+ cells were sorted using magnetic beads. The sorted CD34+ cells were incubated with or without total extract of KRG (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL) or Ginsenoside Rg1 (100 µg/mL), and the hematopoietic colony assay was performed using methylcellulose semisolid medium. The CD34+ cell counts were measured by a single platform assay using flow cytometry. Results The numbers of human BM-MNCs and CD34+ cells obtained after purification were variable among donors (5.6×107 and 1.3-48×107 and 8.9×104 and 1.8-80×104, respectively). The cells expanded 1,944 times after incubation for 12 d. Total extract of KRG added to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific medium increased CD34+ cell counts 3.6 times compared to 2.6 times when using HSC medium alone. Total numbers of hematopoietic colonies in KRG medium were more than those observed in conventional medium, especially that of erythroid colonies such as burst forming unit-erythroid. Conclusion Total extract of KRG facilitated CD34+ cell expansion and hematopoietic colony formation, especially of the erythroid lineage. PMID:25325037

  13. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (?3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

  14. Fluorescence microscopy is superior to polarized microscopy for detecting amyloid deposits in Congo red-stained trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan; Sadimin, Evita; Richardson, Maurice; Goodell, Lauri; Fyfe, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The classic gold standard for detecting amyloid deposits is Congo red-stained bright field and polarized microscopy (CRPM). A prior study showed that Congo red fluorescence (CRF) microscopy had increased sensitivity compared with traditional CRPM when analyzing fat pad specimens. The purpose of the current study was to determine the sensitivity of CRF for evaluating Congo red-stained bone marrow biopsy specimens, and to compare these results with those of CRPM. We compared the CRPM and the CRF analyses of 33 trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens with clinical or morphologic suspicion of amyloid deposits. These results were verified against immunohistochemical staining with anti-amyloid P antibody. CRF achieved 100% sensitivity, and CRPM achieved 75% sensitivity. Both groups showed 100% specificity compared with amyloid P immunohistochemical staining. The results show that CRF is a sensitive method to analyze trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens for amyloid deposits. PMID:23010714

  15. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M., E-mail: goodsitt@umich.edu; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Shen, Jincheng [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Schipper, Matthew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wilderman, Scott [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chun, Se Young [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (?17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 × 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa.

  16. Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.

    2007-09-01

    To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Traino, A C; Ferrari, M; Cremonesi, M; Stabin, M G

    2007-09-01

    To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors S(rm<--tb) and S(rm<--rm) is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as (131)I, (90)Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for (131)I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and (90)Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and (90)Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for (131)I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for (90)Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for (90)Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:17762083

  18. Effects of Low Level Red-light Irradiation on the Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Rat Bone Marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tyng Li; Yao-Chu Leu

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of regenerating various mesenchymal tissues and are essential in supporting the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo. To achieve clinically meaningful numbers of cells, many approaches have been used to maintain the differentiation potentialities and expand enough cells for clinical treatments. Previously, we have reported that

  19. Iron-containing cytoplasmic inclusions in mouse bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, C; Orlic, D

    1980-01-01

    Elongated, tapered inclusions, present in the cytoplasm of macrophages in mouse bone marrow, were studied by electron microscopy. The bone marrow of adult mice that were injected with the hemolytic agent phenylhydrazine, displayed a statistically significant increase in the number of inclusions compared with bone marrow from control animals. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that ferritin, a known product of red cell destruction, was resent in these inclusions. It is suggested that the inclusions are derived from the degradation of phagocytosed red cells. PMID:7405532

  20. Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

  1. A stochastic model of radiation-induced bone marrow damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cotlet; T. E. Blue

    2000-01-01

    A stochastic model, based on consensus principles from radiation biology, is used to estimate bone-marrow stem cell pool survival (CFU-S and stroma cells) after irradiation. The dose response model consists of three coupled first order linear differential equations which quantitatively describe time dependent cellular damage, repair, and killing of red bone marrow cells. This system of differential equations is solved

  2. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

  3. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from 225 g to 300 g, appeared to have no substantial effect for the estimated absorbed dose.

  4. A STUDY OF PREDICTED BONE MARROW DISTRIBUTION ON CALCULATED MARROW DOSE FROM EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURES USING TWO SETS OF IMAGE DATA FOR THE SAME INDIVIDUAL

    PubMed Central

    Caracappa, Peter F.; Chao, T. C. Ephraim; Xu, X. George

    2010-01-01

    Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation, but red bone marrow cannot be distinguished from yellow bone marrow by normal radiographic means. When using a computational model of the body constructed from computed tomography (CT) images for radiation dose, assumptions must be applied to calculate the dose to the red bone marrow. This paper presents an analysis of two methods of calculating red bone marrow distribution: 1) a homogeneous mixture of red and yellow bone marrow throughout the skeleton, and 2) International Commission on Radiological Protection cellularity factors applied to each bone segment. A computational dose model was constructed from the CT image set of the Visible Human Project and compared to the VIP-Man model, which was derived from color photographs of the same individual. These two data sets for the same individual provide the unique opportunity to compare the methods applied to the CT-based model against the observed distribution of red bone marrow for that individual. The mass of red bone marrow in each bone segment was calculated using both methods. The effect of the different red bone marrow distributions was analyzed by calculating the red bone marrow dose using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code for parallel beams of monoenergetic photons over an energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV, cylindrical (simplified CT) sources centered about the head and abdomen over an energy range of 30 keV to 1 MeV, and a whole-body electron irradiation treatment protocol for 3.9 MeV electrons. Applying the method with cellularity factors improves the average difference in the estimation of mass in each bone segment as compared to the mass in VIP-Man by 45% over the homogenous mixture method. Red bone marrow doses calculated by the two methods are similar for parallel photon beams at high energy (above about 200 keV), but differ by as much as 40% at lower energies. The calculated red bone marrow doses differ significantly for simplified CT and electron beam irradiation, since the computed red bone marrow dose is a strong function of the cellularity factor applied to bone segments within the primary radiation beam. These results demonstrate the importance of properly applying realistic cellularity factors to computation dose models of the human body. PMID:19430219

  5. [Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 2. Influence of exposure dose and dose rate of red bone marrow as well as modifying factors on the frequency of cytopenia and cytosis].

    PubMed

    Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a retrospective estimation of the influence of dose and dose rate of the red bone marrow chronic radiation exposure in combination with various modifying factors (gender, age, comorbidity) on the frequency of deviations from normal values of the results of peripheral blood investigation in humans exposed on the Techa River. The results of investigation show that humans chronically exposed to radiation can develop marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood characterized by a tendency to cytopenia (signs of the decompensation of hemopoiesis). The tendency to cytopenia can be identified earlier in the lymphoid germ, and later in platelet and erythroid lines. A high lability of granulocytes under the influence of various, often infectious, factors is the cause of the lack of statistically significant differences in terms of frequency of neutropenia. Several non-radiation factors (gender, age, health status) in combination with radiation exposure could have a modifying influence on hematopoiesis, which contributed to the disruption of adaptation processes and the development of conditions characterized by a tendency to cytopenias in exposed individuals. The red bone marrow dose rate reduction resulted in a gradual decrease in the frequency of erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia in the group of exposed population. Increased frequencies of erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia were observed when the median dose rate was reduced to the level of 0.024 Gy/year (in the year 1956), which could be regarded as activation of regenerative processes in hematopoiesis. PMID:22690575

  6. Bone marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the hematopoietic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Naveiras, Olaia; Nardi, Valentina; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Fahey, Frederic; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts and endothelium constitute functional niches that support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in mammalian bone marrow (BM) 1,2,3 . Adult BM also contains adipocytes, whose numbers correlate inversely with the hematopoietic activity of the marrow. Fatty infiltration of hematopoietic red marrow follows irradiation or chemotherapy and is a diagnostic feature in biopsies from patients with marrow aplasia 4. To explore whether adipocytes influence hematopoiesis or simply fill marrow space, we compared the hematopoietic activity of distinct regions of the mouse skeleton that differ in adiposity. By flow cytometry, colony forming activity, and competitive repopulation assay, HSCs and short-term progenitors are reduced in frequency in the adipocyte-rich vertebrae of the mouse tail relative to the adipocyte-free vertebrae of the thorax. In lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F1 “fatless” mice, which are genetically incapable of forming adipocytes8, and in mice treated with the PPAR? inhibitor Bisphenol-A-DiGlycidyl-Ether (BADGE), which inhibits adipogenesis9, post-irradiation marrow engraftment is accelerated relative to wild type or untreated mice. These data implicate adipocytes as predominantly negative regulators of the bone marrow microenvironment, and suggest that antagonizingmarrow adipogenesis may enhance hematopoietic recovery in clinical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:19516257

  7. Finding lncRNAs in bone marrow and fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells in mice

    E-print Network

    Garza-Galindo, Alec G

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell development is crucial to the survival of all mammals and occurs primarily in the liver during embryogenesis and then in the bone marrow during adulthood. In spite of the different microenvironments of the ...

  8. Overview of marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-12-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references.

  9. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    PubMed Central

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  10. Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hoon Kim; Chang-Su Ha; Hyun-Sook Lee; Sun-Hwa Lim; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Moon-Koo Chung; Hwa-Young Son

    2009-01-01

    In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were

  11. Red Tide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Centers for Disease Control

    This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

  12. Red clover

    MedlinePLUS

    Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

  13. Red Clover

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Clover Common Names: red clover, cow clover, meadow clover, wild clover Latin ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, what the science says, potential ...

  14. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases.

  15. KSC CENTER DIRECTOR ACCEPTS PLAQUE FOR RECORD-SETTING BONE MARROW DONOR REGISTRATION DRIVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive Chairman Dr. George A. Martin and Center Director Jay Honeycutt (left to right) accept a plaque from the Leukemia Society of America's Associate Executive Director Martin Bernstine and the American Red Cross' Southeast Regional Director Jeff Koenreich. Representatives from the American Red Cross and the Leukemia Society of America came to KSC to honor those involved in the record-setting Bone Marrow Donor Registration Drive held here earlier this year. Over 900 potential donors were added to the National Bone Marrow Registry as a result of the KSC drive. The drive established a new record for the most people registered in a single day for the American Red Cross in the three state region of which Florida is a part.

  16. Marrow erythroid and neutrophil cellularity in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Deubeleiss, K A; Dancey, J T; Harker, L A; Cheney, B; Finch, C A

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the number of marrow erythroid and neutrophil cells in which the cellularity of marrow sections was related to that of the total marrow by radioiron dilution. Tissue sections were prepared from methacrylate-embedded dog marrow biopsies, and neutrophils were identified by staining of their primary granules. After correction of direct section counts for multiple counting error, accurate neutrophil-erythroid ratios were established with a coefficient of variation of less than 10 percent when 10-4 cells were examined. An average neutrophil-erythroid ratio of 1.2 was found in six normal dogs. The total number of nucleated red cells in the dog was 5.48 plus or minus 0.78 times 10-9/kg (plus or minus 1 SD), and the corresponding erythron iron turnover was 0.90 plus or minus 0.11 mg Fe/100 ml whole blood/day. The total number of marrow neutrophils, derived from the neutrophil-erythroid ratio, was 6.6 plus or minus 0.59 times 10-9 cells/kg, of which 1.4 were promyelocytes and myelocytes, 2.3 were metamyelocytes and bands, and 3.0 were segmented neutrophils. Leukopheresis studies were carried out in six dogs to confirm the accuracy of these cellular measurements. Marrow counts showed a mean decrease of 22.7 times 10-9 cells or 35 percent of the postmitotic neutrophil pool, and it was calculated that 10.2 times 10-9 additional cells had been taken from already circulating blood. This estimated deficit of 32.9 times 10-9 was almost identical to the 33 times 10-9 cells actually counted in the removed blood. Images PMID:1120784

  17. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    MedlinePLUS

    What are the IBMFS disorders? Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Dyskeratosis Congenita Fanconi Anemia Pearson Syndrome Severe Congenital Neutropenia Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii Other Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Amegakaryocytic ...

  18. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePLUS

    Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the skin surface. They develop before ... There are two main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

  19. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

  20. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  1. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system

    PubMed Central

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena C.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  2. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.

    PubMed

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  3. Burn Injury Dampens Erythroid Cell Production Through Reprioritizing Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Response

    PubMed Central

    Posluszny, J.A.; Muthumalaiappan, K.; Kini, A.; Szilagyi, A.; He, L.K.; Li, Y.; Gamelli, R. L.; Shankar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Anemia in burn patients is due to surgical blood loss and anemia of critical illness. Since the commitment paradigm of common bone marrow progenitors dictates the production of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cells, we hypothesized that skewed bone marrow lineage commitment decreases red cell production and causes anemia after a burn injury. Methods After anesthesia, B6D2F1 mice received a 15% TBSA dorsal scald burn. The sham group did not receive scald burn. Femoral bone marrow was harvested on 2, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days post burn (PBD). Total bone marrow cells were labeled with specific antibodies to erythroid (CD71/Ter119), myeloid (CD11b), and lymphoid (CD19) lineages and analyzed by flowcytometry. To test whether erythropoietin (EPO) could increase red blood cell production, EPO was administered to sham and burn animals and their reticulocyte response was measured on PBD#2 and PBD#7. Results Burn injury reduced the erythroid cells of the bone marrow from 35% in sham to 17% by PBD#5 and remained at similar level until PBD#21. Myeloid cells however, increased from 42% in sham to 60% on PBD #5 and 77% on PBD#21. Burn injury reduced reticulocyte counts on PBD#2 and PBD#7 indicating that the erythroid compartment is severely depleted. This depleted compartment however responded to EPO but was not sufficient to change red cell production. Conclusion Burn injury skews the bone marrow hematopoietic commitment away from erythroid and toward myeloid cells. Shrinkage of the erythroid compartment contributes to resistance to EPO and the anemia of critical illness. PMID:22071930

  4. Red Tides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Communications Directorate, Department of Fisheries and Oceans

    This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

  5. Technique for human bone marrow harvest.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, R P; Davis, R E

    1982-01-01

    The usual technique of harvesting bone marrow for allogeneic or autologous transplantation involves passage of the marrow suspension through discs of stainless steel mesh of increasingly small diameter. We describe a sterile technique which is much less messy and produces a single cell suspension. Potter-Elvehjem homogenizers are used to break up the marrow particles. This procedure has been used successfully in 6 patients where allogeneic transplantation was performed and in 6 harvests of autologous marrow. Marrow cryopreserved in this way contains viable committed stem cells and is not subject to agglutination following subsequent thawing. PMID:6817575

  6. Cellular response of the primate (M. mulatta) spleen to bone marrow transplantation in gamma irradiated recipients 

    E-print Network

    Fraunfelter, Frank Clare

    1966-01-01

    in the spleen 54 Gross pathology, H58 defatted marrow by cephalic vein. Firm cream to white nodules in this spleen . 54 17 Gross pathology of 9F2 spleen. Defatted marrow by cephalic vein. Shows red infarct 54 18 Gross pathology. Mouse spleen clones 54 19... and myeloid mouse clones. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. 44 X. 60 33 Myeloid clone, hematoxylin and eosin stain. 1, 110X 60 34 Erythroid clone, hematoxylin and eosin stain. 1, 110 X 61 35 Smear of erythroid clone. Wright's and Geimsa stain. 1, 200 X, 61...

  7. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  8. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  9. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  10. Red Giant Red Giant White Giant

    E-print Network

    Bechtold, Jill

    Red Giant Red Giant White Giant Red Giant White Giant White Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant. Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun, is a red giant. Mass: 1- 4 Solar Mass StarPower Points: 7

  11. Primary bone marrow oedema syndromes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    MRI scanning in patients with rheumatological conditions often shows bone marrow oedema, which can be secondary to inflammatory, degenerative, infective or malignant conditions but can also be primary. The latter condition is of uncertain aetiology and it is also uncertain whether it represents a stage in the progression to osteonecrosis in some patients. Patients with primary bone marrow oedema usually have lower limb pain, commonly the hip, knee, ankle or feet. The diagnosis is one of exclusion with the presence of typical MRI findings. Treatment is usually conservative and includes analgesics and staying off the affected limb. The natural history is that of gradual resolution of symptoms over a number of months. Evidence for medical treatment is limited, but open-label studies suggest bisphosphonates may help in the resolution of pain and improve radiological findings. Surgical decompression is usually used as a last resort. PMID:24080251

  12. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inderjeet Dokal

    2011-01-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of disorders characterized by BM failure usually in association\\u000a with one or more somatic\\/physical abnormality. Over the last two decades, the genes responsible for many of these have been\\u000a identified. The significant advances in their molecular basis have provided insights into several biological pathways, such\\u000a as DNA repair and telomere

  13. Short survival of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells in murine sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitty de Jong; Renee K. Emerson; James Butler; Jacob Bastacky; Narla Mohandas; Frans A. Kuypers

    2010-01-01

    Several transgenic murine models for sickle cell anemia have been developed that closely reproduce the biochemical and physiological disorders in the human disease. A comprehensive characteriza- tion is described of hematologic parame- ters of mature red blood cells, reticulo- cytes, and red cell precursors in the bone marrow and spleen of a murine sickle cell model in which erythroid cells

  14. Stable trichimerism after marrow grafting from 2 DLA-identical canine donors and nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, William; Kuhr, Christian S.; Diaconescu, Razvan; Harkey, Michael A.; Georges, George E.; Sale, George E.; Zellmer, Eustacia; Baran, Szczepan; Jochum, Christoph; Stone, Brad; Storb, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is generally accomplished using a single donor, multiple donors have been used to enhance the speed of engraftment, particularly in the case of umbilical cord blood grafts. Here we posed the question in the canine HCT model whether stable dual-donor chimerism could be established using 2 DLA-identical donors. We identified 8 DLA-identical littermate triplets in which the marrow recipients received 2 Gy total body irradiation followed by marrow infusions from 2 donors and postgrafting immunosuppression. All 8 dogs showed initial “trichimerism,” which was sustained in 5 dogs, while 2 dogs rejected one of the allografts and remained mixed chimeras, and 1 dog rejected both allografts. Immune function in one trichimeric dog, as tested by mixed leukocyte culture response and antibody response to sheep red blood cells, was found to be normal. Five dogs received kidney grafts from one of their respective marrow donors at least 6 months after HCT without immunosuppressive drugs, and grafts in 4 dogs are surviving without rejection. In summary, following nonmyeloablative conditioning, simultaneous administration of marrow grafts from 2 DLA-identical littermates could result in sustained trichimerism, and immunologic tolerance could include a kidney graft from one of the marrow donors. PMID:17369487

  15. Red Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Grillo; John Sipple; Ethan Weitzman

    2010-01-01

    This film explores the background and issues surrounding Senate bill 799 - A bill to designate as wilderness certain Federal portions of the red rock canyons of the Colorado Plateau and the Great Basin Deserts in the State of Utah for the benefit of present and future generations of people in the United States.

  16. Cell Stem Cell Endogenous Bone Marrow MSCs

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    ). The existence of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), or skeletal/mesenchymal stem cells (SSCs.02.003 SUMMARY Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) commonly defined by in vitro functions have entered clinical bone- marrow-derived, Mx1+ stromal cells with ``MSC'' features. These cells respond to tissue stress

  17. Bone marrow histology in monoclonal macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Rywlin, A M; Civantos, F; Ortega, R S; Dominguez, C J

    1975-06-01

    Rywlin, Arkadi, M., Civantos, Francisco, Ortega, Rolando S., and Dominguez, Carlos J.: Bone marrow histology in monoclonal macroglobulinemiamam J Clin Pathol 63. 769-778, 1975. Histologic sections and smears of aspirated bone marrow particles in 26 cases of monoclonal macroglobulinemia were studied. The bone marrows did not show uniform histologic features. Twenty-two patients had various degrees of lymphoid infiltration of the marrow, including nodules of malignant lymphoma, diffuse lymphocytic infiltration, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, and normal lymphoid nodules. Four patients had no demonstrable lymphoid collections in the marrow. Additional histologic features of the marrows are summarized. A variant of a Dutcher body consisting of multiple PAS-positive inclusions that by light microscopy appear intranuclear is described. Even though the average macroglobulin levels were higher in patients with abnormal lymphoid infiltrates than in patients with noraml or no lymphoid collections, there was considerable overlap between individual patients values in the different groups. Similarly, no correlation between macroglobulin levels and other histologic features could be established. Patients with monoclonal macroglobulinemia represent a spectrum including benign monoclonal gammopathy, lymphoproliferative disorders of the marrow, nodal or extranodal lymphomas. The separation of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia by arbitrary criteria does not appear justified. (key words: Bone marrow; Monoclonal macroglobulinemia. PMID:807098

  18. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Fanconi Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliane Gluckrnan; Arleen D. Auerbach; Mary M. Horowitz; Kathleen A. Sobocinski; Robert C. Ash; Mortimer M. Bortin; Anna Butturini; Bruce M. Carnitta; Richard E. Charnplin; Wilhelrn Friedrich; Robert A. Good; Edward C. Gordon-Smith; Richard E. Harris; John P. Klein; Juan J. Ortega; Ricardo Pasquini; Norma K. C. Rarnsay; Bruno Speck; Marcus R. Vowels; Mei-Jie Zhang; Robert Peter Gale

    1995-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic disorder associated with diverse congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and increased risk of leukemia and other cancers. Affected persons often die before 30 years of age. Bone marrow trans- plantation is an effective treatment, but there are few data regarding factors associated with transplant outcome. We analyzed outcomes of HLA-identical sibling (N = 151)

  19. Bone Marrow Lymphoid Aggregates in Malignant Lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mara Dominis; Rajko Kušec

    To examine the usefulness of molecular analysis of IgH gene rearrangement in assessment of clonality in bone marrow biopsies with lymphoid aggregates (LA) and\\/or nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in patients with different subtypes of malignant lymphomas. Method Five hundred and twenty nine samples of bone marrow biopsies, taken in a staging procedure at the time of the initial presentation of

  20. Further Observations on Marrow Chimerism in Marmosets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Benirschke; Lydia E. Brownhill

    1962-01-01

    Five species of the family Hapalidae were studied for the presence of marrow chimerism. In six of fourteen animals heterosexual cells were found in the bone marrow. Four species had a chromosome complement of 2 n = 46 while the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaed) is characterized by 2 n = 44. On morphologic grounds it may be presumed that the

  1. Marrow transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, J; Anasetti, C

    1995-11-01

    The use of an HLA-compatible unrelated donor is an option for patients who require an allogeneic transplant but lack a family member match. Grafts from unrelated volunteer donors have provided long-term disease-free survival for a variable proportion of patients, depending on degree of HLA matching with the donor, patient's disease, disease stage, and age. The number of volunteers in marrow donor registries worldwide has increased to more than 2.5 million. The number of unrelated donor transplants facilitated by the US National Marrow Donor Program alone will exceed 900 this year. Progress in HLA-typing technology results in a more precise definition of donor and recipient matching and new assays have been developed with initial success to measure alloreactive T-cell precursors for selection of donors with less antihost reactivity. Prevention and treatment of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, opportunistic infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease remain a challenge. PMID:9372034

  2. [Advances of bone marrow biopsy pathology in diagnosing lymphoma bone marrow involvement].

    PubMed

    Liu, En-Bin; Chen, Hui-Shu

    2005-11-01

    The diagnosis of lymphoma bone marrow involvement (LBMI) is mainly based on bone marrow biopsy. Pathology of LBMI in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are different. The morphology, distribution patterns and immunophenotype of most tumor cells in bone marrow are consistent with those in extramedullary sites, but few may show some discrepancy. This article compared the pathologic features of LBMI in HL, B-NHL and T-NHL, and reviewed advances of bone marrow biopsy pathology in diagnosing LBMI from the aspects of morphology, immunohistochemistry, and lymphoma gene rearrangement. PMID:16552975

  3. Targeting the bone marrow in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Ngo, Hai; Azab, Feda; Sacco, Antonio; Azab, Abdelkareem; Maiso, Patricia; Morgan, Brittany; Quang, Phong; Issa, Ghayas C; Leleu, Xavier; Roccaro, Aldo M

    2011-06-01

    Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma characterized by widespread involvement of the bone marrow with lymphoplasmacytic cells. In approximately 20% of patients, the malignant clone also involves the lymph nodes and induces hepatosplenomegaly. The mechanisms by which the tumor cells home to the bone marrow and preferentially reside in the marrow niches are not fully elucidated. In this review, we examine the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in the regulation of cell growth, survival and cell dissemination in WM. We also summarize specific regulators of niche-dependent tumor proliferation in WM. These include chemokines, adhesion molecules, Src/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, NF-kB activation, and micro-RNA regulation in WM. Targeting these pathways in clinical trials could lead to significant responses in this rare disease. PMID:22035751

  4. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Cancer.gov

    A study of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), a group of rare genetic blood disorders that include Fanconi Anemia, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia, and Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii.

  5. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment of NHL Transplant outcomes for NHL Severe aplastic anemia Symptoms of SAA How transplant can treat SAA ... diseases which result in bone marrow failure like aplastic anemia other immune system or genetic diseases Research on ...

  6. IBMFS - Other Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    Cancer.gov

    There are several other inherited bone marrow syndromes which are less common than the ones that are discussed individually on this Website. These diagnoses are usually made by experts in hematology or genetics.

  7. Marrow hypoplasia with splenomegaly in adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J H; Burnside, P; Salmon, D C

    1980-01-01

    Four adolescents presented with leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and splenomegaly; three had associated congenital abnormalities and two had a cirrhosis. They provide further evidence of an association between hepatic disease and bone marrow dysfunction. It is considered that these patients suffer from a genetic or constitutional disorder which may result in a susceptibility of their bone marrow to hypoplasia following viral hepatitis or other infections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7430385

  8. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  9. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Agool; Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans; Hendrikus H. Boersma; Rudi A. J. O. Dierckx; Edo Vellenga; Riemer H. J. A. Slart

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment.\\u000a Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques,\\u000a almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for

  10. Finding Red

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

  11. To Evaluate the Role of Bone Marrow Aspiration and Bone Marrow Biopsy in Pancytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Desalphine, Melina; Gupta, Parmod Kumar; Kataria, Amarjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pancytopenia is not a disease entity but a triad of findings that may result from various disease processes, primarily or secondarily involving the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy evaluation along with good clinical correlation is of utmost importance to evaluate the causes of pancytopenia and planning further investigations. Aims: The present study was a prospective clinicohaematological study undertaken to analyse the various causes of pancytopenia by evaluating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and correlating with clinical findings, complete blood counts and peripheral blood picture. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of pancytopenia were included in the study in which relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed simultaneously in all cases. Perl’s stain was done in all cases and special stains like MPO, PAS and reticulin were also done wherever necessary. Results and Conclusion: The maximum cases of pancytopenia were in the age group of 10 to 30 y with male preponderance. Aplastic anaemia was found to be the most common aetiology of pancytopenia followed by normoblastic erythroid hyperplasia, megaloblastic anaemia, acute leukemias, myelofibrosis, lymphoid neoplasia and iron deficiency anaemia. It was concluded from the study that although the advantages of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy differ, both are complimentary to each other and should be performed simultaneously for a complete bone marrow work up and evaluation. It is only through the correlation of clinical, hematological and bone marrow examination findings that proper evaluation and management of patients of pancytopenia can be made. PMID:25584228

  12. Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.

    1983-11-01

    Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

  13. Megakaryocytes, Malignancy and Bone Marrow Vascular Niches

    PubMed Central

    Psaila, Bethan; Lyden, David; Roberts, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between haematopoietic cells and their specialised bone marrow microenvironments, namely the vascular and osteoblastic ‘niches’ regulate haematopoiesis. The vascular niche is conducive for thrombopoiesis, and megakaryocytes may, in turn, regulate the vascular niche, especially in supporting vascular and haematopoietic regeneration following irradiation or chemotherapy. A role for platelets in tumour growth and metastasis is well established and, more recently, the vascular niche has also been implicated as an area for preferential homing and engraftment of malignant cells. This article aims to provide an overview of the dynamic interactions between cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow vascular niche and the potential role of megakaryocytes in bone marrow malignancy. PMID:22122829

  14. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  15. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dominic W; Loughran, Thomas P; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Sasu, Sebastian; Song, Sophie X; Epling-Burnette, P K; Paquette, Ronald L

    2008-05-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia rarely occur concurrently. We report a case in which these disorders were associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia. The peripheral blood cytopenias improved after glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered, and response was maintained with cyclosporine. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia should be suspected in the setting of unexplained bone marrow failure. PMID:17915315

  16. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic W. Lai; Thomas P. Loughran Jr.; Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski; Sebastian Sasu; Sophie X. Song; P. K. Epling-Burnette; Ronald L. Paquette

    2008-01-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia rarely occur concurrently. We report a case in which these disorders were associated with an occult large granular lymphocyte leukemia. The peripheral blood cytopenias improved after glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered, and response was maintained with cyclosporine. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia should be suspected in the setting of unexplained bone marrow

  17. Malignant osteopetrosis: hypercalcaemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, P S; Green, R H; Coggins, A M; Boyle, I T; Gibson, B E

    1991-05-01

    A 3 year old girl presented with malignant osteopetrosis, which was treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Successful engraftment was complicated by prolonged hypercalcaemia, which was controlled by a combination of a bisphosphonate, phosphate infusions, vigorous resalination, and salmon calcitonin. She was alive and well 16 months after the transplant. PMID:2039258

  18. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hüttmann; C. L. Li; U. Dührsen

    2003-01-01

    Studies describing plasticity of somatic stem cells have become a focus of interest because clinical applications in the treatment of degenerative diseases would be at hand. In particular, bone marrow-derived cells and their potential to contribute to skeletal and cardiac muscle, liver, neurons and epithelium have recently been studied extensively. Nevertheless, results of these studies have not always been consistent

  19. Enteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papadopoulou; A MacDonald; M D Williams; P J Darbyshire; I W Booth

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric

  20. SHC Business Confidential Blood & Marrow Transplant

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    SHC Business Confidential Blood & Marrow Transplant ICU Utilization Project Stanford BMT Symposium September 12, 2008 #12;2SHC Business Confidential Communication #12;3SHC Business Confidential Defining These factors can result in over utilization of the ICU for non-beneficial care #12;4SHC Business Confidential

  1. [Genetic diversity and bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Marry, E

    2012-05-01

    The genetic origin of the patients, for whom a bone marrow transplantation has been proposed, is a key determinant in the possibility of identifying or not a compatible unrelated donor, and consequently in the possibility of performing the bone marrow transplantation. The required strict HLA compatibility, in the context of a bone marrow transplantation, increases the difficulty. A patient has one chance over four to have a compatible donor within his brothers and sisters, if any. This chance becomes one over a million, as an average, in the context of unrelated donor search. Taking into consideration the genetic history of the populations, their evolution and the large actual HLA diversity, the probability of finding an unrelated donor for a defined patient varies according to the frequency and the combination of the patient's HLA antigens, genetic markers inherited not only from his parents, but also from his ancestries. In the unrelated context, the HLA compatible donor most probably shares the same genetic history than the patient, and consequently belongs to the same population group. The study of the genetic of populations explains the difficulties in finding an unrelated compatible donor in the migrant populations, particularly those originated from Africa and from the middle east, due to their HLA specificities and to the small number of donors sharing the same origins registered on a volunteer bone marrow donors' file worldwide. PMID:22454281

  2. Failure of adult marrow-derived stem cells to generate marrow stroma after successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihiro Awaya; Kathleen Rupert; Eileen Bryant; Beverly Torok-Storb

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveThe existence of adult, marrow-derived stem cells that retain the ability to generate various tissues is an appealing concept that has considerable therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to test the extent of this proposed plasticity by defining the ability of adult marrow and peripheral blood stem cells to generate stromal cells of the marrow microenvironment.

  3. The pediatric red eye.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. PMID:24852155

  4. American Red Cross

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Latest News Investing in Haiti: Helping Families Rebuild Red Cross Helps 5 States Affected by Severe Storms ... Supermodel Niki Taylor Underscores Importance of Giving Blood Red Cross Lesson Helps 8-Year-Old Save Sister ...

  5. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is the world's largest humanitarian ... member National Societies . As part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, our work is ...

  6. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of oedema and 8?kg of gained weight. The oedema decreased spontaneously over weeks and there was no evidence for a nephrotic syndrome; however, the blood tests revealed a moderate pancytopenia. The patient practiced excessive physical activity at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen in critically ill patients or those with severe malnutrition. In this case, the cause is presumed to be excessive physical activity/overtraining in combination with relatively insufficient nutrition. PMID:23813507

  7. Bone tissue engineering using marrow stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inho Jo; Jung Min Lee; Hwal Suh; Hyongbum Kim

    2007-01-01

    Bone tissue defects cause a significant socioeconomic problem, and bone is the most frequently transplanted tissue beside\\u000a blood. Autografting is considered the gold standard treatment for bone defects, but its utility is limited due to donor site\\u000a morbidity. Hence much research has focused on bone tissue engineering as a promising alternative method for repair of bone\\u000a defects. Marrow stromal cells

  8. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon van der Walt

    2009-01-01

    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal\\u000a selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external\\u000a quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry\\u000a and aspirate morphology are discussed where

  9. Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GA Hale; HE Heslop; RA Krance; MA Brenner; D Jayawardene; DK Srivastava; CC Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3–24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or

  10. Lifeguarding American Red Cross

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    Lifeguarding Manual #12;American Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual The following organizations provided review of the materials and/or support American Red Cross Lifeguarding: #12;This manual is part of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding program. By itself, it does not constitute complete and comprehensive

  11. Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1

    E-print Network

    Paxson, Vern

    #12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

  12. The Red Kite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

  13. Bone marrow transfusions in previously irradiated, hematologically normal syngeneic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Brecher, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.

  14. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. III. Characterization of allogeneic bone marrow cell populations that increase allogeneic chimerism independently of graft-vs-host disease in mixed marrow recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sykes; C. H. Chester; T. M. Sundt; M. L. Romick; K. A. Hoyles; D. H. Sachs

    1989-01-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease vs failure of alloengraftment severely limit the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a therapeutic modality. We have recently used a murine bone marrow transplantation model involving reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with mixtures of allogeneic and syngeneic marrow to demonstrate that an allogeneic bone marrow subpopulation, removed by T cell depletion with

  15. Red Rice Research and Control. 

    E-print Network

    Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

    1980-01-01

    ...................................................... INTRODUCTION 5 J. P. Craigmiles RED RICE PROBLEMS - A SEEDSMAN'S VIEWPOINT ........................ 7 C. H. Cox ........................ RED RICE PROBLEMS - A PRODUCER'S VIEWPOINT 9 W. D. Dishman CULTURAL CONTROL OF RED RICE... ...................................... 10 E. A. Sonnier RED RICE CONTROL IN ALTERNATE CROPS ................................ 16 F. L. Baldwin ..# RED RICE CONTROL ..................................................lg B. A. Huey and F. L. Baldwin RED RICE HERBICIDE SCREENING TESTS...

  16. Long-Term Culture of Human Bone Marrow Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Gartner; Henry S. Kaplan

    1980-01-01

    A method has been described for the long-term culture of human bone marrow cells in liquid medium. Hematopoiesis, as measured by the production of granulocytic-macrophage progenitor cells (CFUc), continued for at least 20 weeks and was dependent upon the presence of a marrow-derived adherent layer of cells. As in the case of murine marrow liquid cultures, the adherent layer consisted

  17. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... ???? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Bone Marrow Biopsy ?? ???? ?? - ??? ( ...

  18. Reversal of acute (''malignant'') myelosclerosis by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, J.L.; Spruce, W.E.; Bearman, R.M.; Forman, S.J.; Scott, E.P.; Fahey, J. L.; Farbstein, M.J.; Rappaport, H.; Blume, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    A 28-yr-old woman with acute malignant myelosclerosis received, as primary treatment, ablative chemotherapy and total body radiation therapy followed by bone marrow transplantation from her histocompatible brother. The patient is now well more than 15 mo after bone marrow transplantation, with normal peripheral blood counts, a normal bone marrow, no evidence of graft-versus-host disease, and is on no therapy. In light of the poor results obtained with conventional chemotherapy in this disease, bone marrow transplantation may represent the treatment of choice for patients who have an appropriate donor.

  19. Marrow Fat and Bone: Review of Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ann V.

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in the connection between fat and bone, there has been increased investigation of the relationship with marrow fat in particular. Clinical research has been facilitated by the development of non-invasive methods to measure bone marrow fat content and composition. Studies in different populations using different measurement techniques have established that higher marrow fat is associated with lower bone density and prevalent vertebral fracture. The degree of unsaturation in marrow fat may also affect bone health. Although other fat depots tend to be strongly correlated, marrow fat has a distinct pattern, suggesting separate mechanisms of control. Longitudinal studies are limited, but are crucial to understand the direct and indirect roles of marrow fat as an influence on skeletal health. With greater appreciation of the links between bone and energy metabolism, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between marrow fat and bone. It is well established that levels of marrow fat are higher in older adults with osteoporosis, defined by either low bone density or vertebral fracture. However, the reasons for and implications of this association are not clear. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship to bone. PMID:25870585

  20. Effects of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid on the growth of human mononuclear marrow cells and marrow stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Desplat, V; Dupuis, F; Trimoreau, F; Dulery, C; Praloran, V; Denizot, Y

    1998-01-01

    The effects of various lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated on the growth of freshly isolated human bone marrow mononuclear cells and marrow stromal cell cultures. LTB4, LXA4, LXB4, 12-HETE and 15-HETE (1 microM) decreased [3H]-thymidine incorporation on marrow stromal cell cultures without affecting cell number. Only 12-HETE showed a dose-response effect on [3H]-thymidine incorporation. While LTB4 (1 microM) decreased thymidine incorporation on marrow mononuclear cells, LTC4, LXA4, LXB4, 12-HETE and 15-HETE had no effect. The lipoxygenase inhibitor NDGA had no effect on both cell types suggesting no role of endogenous lipoxygenase metabolites on cell growth. These results suggest no important role of lipoxygenase metabolites of AA on the proliferation of human marrow mononuclear cells and marrow stromal cell cultures. PMID:9839696

  1. 69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

  2. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  3. Splenocytes Seed Bone Marrow of Myeloablated Mice: Implication for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Yang, Mingjie; Arias, Ana; Song, Lei; Li, Fuqiang; Tian, Fang; Qin, Minghui; Yukht, Ada; Williamson, Ian K.; Shah, Prediman K.; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. In this process, the spleen is seeded with mobilized bone marrow cells that augment its hematopoietic ability. It is unclear whether these immigrant cells that are produced/reprogrammed in spleen are similar or different from those found in the bone marrow. To begin to understand this, we investigated the relative potency of adult splenocytes per se to repopulate bone marrow of lethally-irradiated mice and its functional consequences in atherosclerosis. The splenocytes were harvested from GFP donor mice and transplanted into myeloablated wild type recipient mice without the inclusion of any bone marrow helper cells. We found that adult splenocytes repopulated bone marrow of myeloablated mice and the transplanted cells differentiated into a full repertoire of myeloid cell lineages. The level of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow of recipient mice was dependent on the cell origin, i.e., the donor splenocytes gave rise to significantly more monocytes/macrophages than the donor bone marrow cells. This occurred despite a significantly lower number of hematopoietic stem cells being present in the donor splenocytes when compared with donor bone marrow cells. Atherosclerosis studies revealed that donor splenocytes displayed a similar level of atherogenic and atheroprotective activities to those of donor bone marrow cells. Cell culture studies showed that the phenotype of macrophages derived from spleen is different from those of bone marrow. Together, these results demonstrate that splenocytes can seed bone marrow of myeloablated mice and modulate atherosclerosis. In addition, our study shows the potential of splenocytes for therapeutic interventions in inflammatory disease. PMID:26038819

  4. Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Multiple Myeloma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Manier, S.; Sacco, A.; Leleu, X.; Ghobrial, I. M.; Roccaro, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma (MM) through the study of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Indeed, the BM niche appears to play an important role in differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of the malignant plasma cells. The BM niche is composed of a cellular compartment (stromal cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells) and a noncellular compartment including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the liquid milieu (cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines). In this paper we discuss how the interaction between the malignant plasma cell and the BM microenvironment allowed myeloma progression through cell homing and the new concept of premetastatic niche. PMID:23093834

  5. MRI in the evaluation of late bone marrow changes following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S F; Clarke, J; Leach, M O; Mesbahi, M H; Nicolson, V; Powles, R; Husband, J E; Tait, D

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of MR spin-lattice (T1), and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times in lumbar vertebrae have been performed in a pilot study on six adult patients, treated for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). All patients were treated with initial chemotherapy and then proceeded to bone marrow transplantation (BMT), conditioned with Melphalan and total body irradiation (TBI). MR measurements were made between 21 and 89 months after TBI. The relaxation times in the six patients were compared with those in six healthy age-matched volunteers to establish whether there were differences between the two groups. Average T1 values in the vertebrae of the treated patients are significantly shorter (p < 0.01) than in the healthy volunteers. This is consistent with the observation of a relatively hyperintense vertebral bone marrow in the T1 weighted images and is likely to be a consequence of treatment induced fatty replacement of marrow. Shorter T1 values tend to be distributed within the centre of the lumbar vertebrae compatible with observations, made by others, which suggest that the peripheral zone of the vertebral body has been repopulated with bone marrow cells whereas the central zone, around the basivertebral vein, is predominantly fat. Histogram displays of vertebral body relaxation time distributions (T1, T2) for both patients and healthy age-matched volunteers are similar in that both patients and volunteers give histograms that are only slightly skewed. This similarity is probably a reflection of the fact that the patients have been in remission for over a year and have generally healthy bone marrow. PMID:9135471

  6. Tonsil lymphoma presenting as tonsillitis after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SETH A. YELLIN; MICHAEL H. WEISS; DENNIS H. KRAUS; ESPERANZA B. PAPADOPOULOS

    1995-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of leukemia is increasingly successful in rendering patients disease free. However, it has become evident that the associated severe immunosuppression predisposes this population to an increased risk for other neoplastic disorders. We report on six patients in whom non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tonsillar region developed within 5 months after T-cell – depleted bone marrow

  7. Painless transient bone marrow edema syndrome in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vivek; Hermann, George; Balwani, Manisha; Simpson, William L

    2014-11-01

    Transient regional migratory osteoporosis, considered to be part of the spectrum of bone marrow edema syndrome, is a rare condition with an unknown etiology. Patients usually present with lower extremity pain, most commonly in the 4th-5th decades of life. We describe a 15-year-old male patient with type 1 Gaucher disease who presented with transient bone marrow edema syndrome with features most closely resembling regional migratory osteoporosis. The patient presented with bone marrow edema of the lateral tibial epiphysis of his right knee that was incidentally seen on routine surveillance MRI that was performed as protocol for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease on enzyme replacement therapy. At this time, the patient had no pain and physical examination was normal. Follow-up MRI of the right knee 4 months afterward showed complete resolution of the signal abnormality in the right tibial epiphysis, and repeat study 8 months later displayed a new focus of painless migratory edema of the medial tibial epiphysis of the same knee. These changes completely resolved as well. Marrow signal abnormalities in children with Gaucher disease can have a broad differential, including infection, marrow infiltration, trauma, osteonecrosis, and bone marrow edema syndrome, amongst others. Correct diagnosis of bone marrow edema syndrome is critical, as this disease process most often resolves on conservative measures. The unusual presentation of transient bone marrow edema syndrome with regional migratory osteoporosis features in a young patient with Gaucher disease is described. PMID:24893724

  8. 25 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN BLOOD & MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    advantage of reduced intensity conditioning regimens. 4. Describe one advantage of umbilical cord blood25 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN BLOOD & MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Stanford University Division of Blood in Blood & Marrow Transplantation, will offer attendees an historical overview of the tremendous advances

  9. Selective decontamination in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Guiot, H. F.; van Furth, R.

    1992-01-01

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation become immunocompromised for various reasons. Deep granulocytopenia, induced by conditioning (chemotherapy and total body irradiation), renders the patient at risk for serious bacterial and fungal infections. Our strategy for prevention of these infections by selective decontamination (SD) is the result of more than 15 years of clinical experience and research. The combination of antibiotics, used as standard SD (neomycin, polymyxin B, pipemidic acid and amphotericin B), with the application of local antimicrobial agents eliminates aerobic Gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. from the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract, while the majority of the anaerobic flora persist and support colonization resistance (CR). The antibiotics used either are not resorbed or do not yield therapeutic serum concentrations. Antibiotics which induce therapeutic serum concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, are only used for SD on a limited scale. When Gram-negative rods persist despite intake of the standard regimen, ciprofloxacin is given until these persisting rods are eliminated. If the patients cannot swallow the oral regimen, i.v. cotrimoxazole is given temporarily. Streptococcal infections are prevented by the i.v. administration of penicillin for 14 days starting on the first day after cytotoxic treatment (conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). The combination of SD and systemic prophylaxis has been shown to be adequate; the major problem then remaining is a relatively mild catheter-associated infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:1468520

  10. Haematological changes associated with miliary tuberculosis of the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Lombard, E H; Mansvelt, E P

    1993-04-01

    The peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in 25 patients found to have tuberculous granulomata on bone marrow examination were examined to determine whether specific haematological findings are associated with tuberculous infiltration of the bone marrow. All the patients had one abnormality or more on their full blood count. The presence of a peripheral lymphopaenia was the single factor common to all 25 patients studied. The peripheral lymphopaenia was only associated with bone marrow lymphopaenia in 14% of patients. Other findings of note were an association of peripheral monocytopaenia and absence of giant cells in the granulomata, and decreased iron stores in almost a third of the total number of patients. The relevance of the lymphopaenia, monocytopaenia and decreased iron stores are discussed and we propose that the absence of a peripheral lymphopaenia makes it very unlikely that there will be tuberculous localization in the bone marrow. PMID:8324206

  11. Banded karyotypes from bone marrow: a clinical useful approach.

    PubMed

    Hozier, J C; Lindquist, L L

    1980-02-01

    We have developed a new protocol for the preparation of banded chromosomes from human bone marrow. This protocol incorporates new procedures with improvements in conventional ones to rapidly produce high quality banded karyotypes from bone marrow aspirates. Tissue culture is completely eliminated and replaced with a truly direct method of chromosome preparation in which a small amount of marrow is treated with a solution containing trypsin, hypotonic salts and colcemid (THC). The THC protocol, when compared with standard short term culture methods for marrow chromosome preparation, produces more extended and more readily banded chromosomes. Rapid banding is further facilitated by replacement of standard G-banding technique with Wright's staining. The technical developments allow karyotypic analysis within 2-4 h after receipt of the specimen. The high quality and rapidity of the THC protocol have important implications for the clinical usefulness of cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow in studying congenital defects as well as leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:7358387

  12. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    PubMed

    Vojinovi?, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Brankovi?, Lj; Dimitrijevi?, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  13. Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL #12;#12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Reminders Parking: Wall · Last Chance Info Fair ­ SUB Courtyard and Matador Room #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Raiderlink www · View bills · Register for classes #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Reminder about

  14. Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow as part of the immune system and as a filter #12;Cells of the Immune System Cells destined to become workings of the immune system, while others are cytotoxic and directly contact infected cells and destroy

  15. Bone marrow trephine combined with immunohistochemistry is superior to bone marrow aspirate in follow-up of myeloma patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Joshi; D Horncastle; K Elderfield; I Lampert; A Rahemtulla; K N Naresh

    2008-01-01

    Aims:Multiple myeloma (MM) guidelines in the UK do not advocate performing bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) during follow-up. In a recent study, it was found that the plasma cell per cent (PC%) in BMTB performed at the time of autologous stem cell transplant strongly correlated with survival. The current study addresses whether BMTB is superior to bone marrow aspiration (BMA)

  16. Engraftment and survival after unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation: a report from the National Marrow Donor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella M. Davies; Craig Kollman; Claudio Anasetti; Joseph H. Antin; James Gajewski; James T. Casper; Auayporn Nademanee; Harriet Noreen; Roberta King; Dennis Confer; Nancy A. Kernan

    We analyzed engraftment of unrelated- donor (URD) bone marrow in 5246 pa- tients who received transplants facili- tated by the National Marrow Donor Program between August 1991 and June 1999. Among patients surviving at least 28 days, 4% had primary graft failure (failure to achieve an absolute neutrophil count > 5 3 108\\/L before death or second stem-cell infusion). Multivariate

  17. Whence the Red Panda?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Flynn; Michael A. Nedbal; Jerry W. Dragoo; Rodney L. Honeycutt

    2000-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the “bear-like” arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids

  18. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  19. Treatment of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice by Intra-Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Transplantation plus Portal Vein Injection of ? Cells Induced from Bone Marrow Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Li; M. Inaba; K. Q. Guo; H. Hisha; N. G. Abraham; S. Ikehara

    2007-01-01

    Curative therapy for diabetes mellitus mainly involves pancreas or islet transplantation to recruit insulin-producing cells. This approach is limited, however, because of both the shortage of donor organs and allograft rejection. Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) has recently been shown to be effective in inducing donor-specific tolerance in mice and rats without the use of immunosuppressants. After induction of

  20. The role of antilymphocyte globulin in the treatment of chronic acquired bone marrow failure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J C; Gordon-Smith, E C

    1988-09-01

    Antilymphocyte globulin is an immunoglobulin preparation prepared from heterologous serum after the animal (horse or rabbit) has been immunised with human lymphocytes, obtained from the thymus (antithymocyte globulin, ATG) or thoracic duct (antilymphocyte globulin, ALG). The rationale for the use of ALG in the treatment of chronic acquired marrow failure is based on its immunosuppressive activity and the fact that a proportion of cases of bone marrow failure, whether affecting single or multiple haemopoietic cell lines are due to immune-mediated suppression of haemopoiesis. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that ALG also has an immunostimulatory effect on lymphokine and haemopoietic growth factor production, and may therefore directly stimulate haemopoietic progenitor cells. ALG has been used for the treatment of aplastic anaemia and acquired chronic marrow failure affecting single cell lines namely pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and chronic neutropenia due to immune inhibition of granulopoiesis ('acquired white cell aplasia'). ALG is used for treatment of non-severe aplastic anaemia (NSAA) and in those cases of severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) where allogeneic transplantation is not possible or is not indicated. Treatment with ALG results in 75% long term survival for NSAA and 40-50% for SAA although there is a very severe subgroup of SAA defined by peripheral blood neutrophils of less than 0.2 x 10(9)/l who rarely benefit from ALG therapy. For those patients who do not respond a second course of ALG can be given later using ALG from a different animal source.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3052659

  1. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  2. Ancillary techniques in bone marrow pathology: molecular diagnostics on bone marrow trephine biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falko Fend; Oliver Bock; Markus Kremer; Katja Specht; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez

    2005-01-01

    Pathologic examination of trephine bone marrow (BM) biopsies plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of haematological\\u000a neoplasms and other disorders affecting haematopoiesis. Haematopathology has been profoundly influenced by the advent of molecular\\u000a genetic techniques suitable for paraffin-embedded tissues, and certain applications, such as the determination of B- and T-cell\\u000a clonality, belong to its standard diagnostic repertoire. Many

  3. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y.; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed+ perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317+ IL-7hi cells, identified at ?1%–3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  4. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes.

    PubMed

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed(+) perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317(+) IL-7(hi) cells, identified at ?1%-3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  5. Peripheral blood and bone marrow responses under stress of cypermethrin in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Sunita; Saxena, Prabhu Narain; Saxena, Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, and thus they carry considerable chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Haematotoxicity of cypermethrin, a broadly used type II pyrethroid, has been assessed in the present study. Selected parameters included determination of total RBC count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc.), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), along with qualitative analysis of blood and bone marrow. Of these parameters, those showing significant decline following cypermethrin intoxication included total RBC count, Hb conc., PCV, MCV, MCH, whereas non-significant decrease was observed in the case of MCHC. ESR, TLC and DLC, on the other hand, increased significantly following cypermethrin intoxication. Qualitative changes included altered red cell morphology such as microcystosis, appearance of stomatocytes, poikilocytosis, giant platelet formation, etc. in peripheral blood and increased erythroid precursors in bone marrow of treated rats. These parameters were however normalised following twenty-two days of recovery phase.

  6. Bone marrow replacement in the treatment of hemolytic disease in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.E.; Deveau, S.A. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Bone marrow replacement therapy following whole-body x- or gamma-irradiation has until now proven to be of limited value in the treatment of individuals with hemolytic disease. The large doses of radiation required for destruction of defective erythropoietic tissues coupled with their resultant high mortality appears to limit its usefulness. Techniques have been developed by the authors to limit the extent of exposure and to improve survival following irradiation. These techniques include shielding of all parts of the body except the hind limbs, prophylactic use of antibiotics, and preparatory blood transfusion to suppress the development of indigenous defective erythrocytes. Using these combined techniques we were able to establish high rates of survival, successful engraftment, and long-term clinical improvement in mice with several hemolytic disorders emanating from hereditary defects in spectrin production and incorporation. Evidence is presented indicating that complete bone marrow replacement occurs even in nonirradiated portions of the erythron and that only donor type red blood cells appear in the circulation.

  7. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ai-Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Xing; Yu, Ai-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered as the most promising cells source for bone engineering. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors play important roles in bone mass turnover. The aim of this study is to test if activation of CB2 receptor by chemical agonist could enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone BM-MSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining and real time PCR were performed to test the osteogenic differentiation. Alizarin red staining was carried out to examine the mineralization. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to study the role of CB2 receptor in osteogenic differentiation. Results showed activation of CB2 receptor increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes, and enhanced deposition of calcium in extracellular matrix. Knockdown of CB2 receptor by siRNA inhibited ALP activity and mineralization. Results of immunofluorescent staining showed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase is reduced by knocking down of CB2 receptor. Finally, bone marrow samples demonstrated that expression of CB2 receptor is much lower in osteoporotic patients than in healthy donors. Taken together, data from this study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays important role in osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. Lack of CB2 receptor may be related to osteoporosis. PMID:25685815

  8. The Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chirnomas, S. Deborah; Kupfer, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the rarity of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS), they represent diseases for which the molecular pathogenesis may be elucidated. Their study and presentation of the details of their molecular biology and biochemistry is warranted not only for appropriate diagnosis and management of afflicted patients but also because they lend clues to the normal physiology of the normal hematopoiesis and, in many cases, mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Several themes have emerged within each subsection of IBMFS, including the ribosomopathies that entail both ribosome assembly as well as ribosomal RNA processing. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway itself has become interdigitated with the familial breast cancer syndromes. The sections that follow present a more detailed analysis of the diseases that account for the majority of IBMFS diagnoses. PMID:24237972

  9. Hematopathology: SC14-1 CHALLENGES IN BONE MARROW PATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Hasserjian, Robert P; Wang, Sa A

    2014-10-01

    Bone marrow diagnosis presents unique challenges: distinction between benign and neoplastic conditions may be subtle and the pathologist must effectively incorporate information from several morphologic modalities (trephine biopsy, aspirate smear, peripheral blood smear) as well as a myriad of ancillary testing results. In this Short Course, several difficult diagnostic scenarios will be explored using actual clinical cases that illustrate key points in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow diseases. These will include hypocellular bone marrow (in which distinction between hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia may be difficult), fibrotic bone marrow, and marrow lymphoid infiltrates, with discussion of both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas. Hypercellular bone marrow raises distinct differential diagnoses depending on whether the patient is cytopenic or presents with elevated counts, and can reflect a myeloid neoplasm or various reactive conditions in either situation. An accurate diagnosis relies on understanding the spectrum of diseases that can produce specific patterns in the bone marrow and awareness of clues that help distinguish among the differential diagnostic possibilities. Depending on the clinical context, the pathology may variably weigh morphology, clinical information, and ancillary test results in arriving at the final diagnosis. PMID:25188096

  10. Linezolid-induced pure red cell aplasia in a patient with Staphylococcus epidermidis infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Waki, F; Ohnishi, H; Shintani, T; Uemura, M; Matsumoto, K; Fukumoto, T; Kitanaka, A; Kubota, Y; Tanaka, T; Ishida, T; Matsunaga, T

    2012-08-01

    Linezolid (LZD) is the first oxazolidinone antibiotic that is effective against drug-resistant gram-positive organisms. Hematological toxicities such as thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukocytopenia are common in LZD therapy. However, LZD-induced pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is very rare. A 56-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen-matched and ABO blood type-matched unrelated male donor. He had bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis after engraftment of neutrophils and red blood cells. We first administered vancomycin, but then changed to intravenous LZD because of kidney damage. Two weeks after LZD therapy, the patient's hemoglobin and reticulocyte levels were 6.8 g/dL and 0.3%, respectively. Bone marrow examination revealed red blood cell aplasia (myeloid/erythroid ratio was 402). The patient showed rapid recovery of normal erythropoiesis within 2 weeks of LZD cessation. It is important to be aware of the hematological effects associated with LZD in the setting of stem cell transplantation,particularly for those with pre-existing myelosuppression, renal insufficiency, and those receiving concomitant drugs that produce bone marrow suppression. We advocate that a reticulocyte count be performed periodically for detecting bone marrow suppression, including PRCA, during LZD therapy. PMID:22487245

  11. In Vivo Transplantation of Autogenous Marrow-Derived Cells Following Rapid Intraoperative Magnetic Separation Based on Hyaluronan to Augment Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Fleury, Sean; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Boehm, Cynthia; Vasanji, Amit; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Walker, Esteban; Yaszemski, Michael; Hascall, Vincent; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This project was designed to test the hypothesis that rapid intraoperative processing of bone marrow based on hyaluronan (HA) could be used to improve the outcome of local bone regeneration if the concentration and prevalence of marrow-derived connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) could be increased and nonprogenitors depleted before implantation. Methods HA was used as a marker for positive selection of marrow-derived CTPs using magnetic separation (MS) to obtain a population of HA-positive cells with an increased CTP prevalence. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used as an osteoconductive carrier scaffold for loading of HA-positive cells. The canine femoral multidefect model was used and four cylindrical defects measuring 10?mm in diameter and 15?mm in length were grafted with MCA combined with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow that was enriched in HA+ CTPs and depleted in red blood cells and nonprogenitors. Outcome was assessed at 4 weeks using quantitative 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone formation and histomorphological assessment. Results Histomorphological assessment showed a significant increase in new bone formation and in the vascular sinus area in the MS-processed defects. Robust bone formation was found throughout the defect area in both groups (defects grafted with unprocessed marrow or with MS processed marrow.) Percent bone volume in the defects, as assessed by micro-CT, was greater in defects engrafted with MS processed cells, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Rapid intraoperative MS processing to enrich CTPs based on HA as a surface marker can be used to increase the concentration and prevalence of CTPs. MCA grafts supplemented with heparinized bone marrow or MS processed cells resulted in a robust and advanced stage of bone regeneration at 4 weeks. A greater new bone formation and vascular sinus area was found in defects grafted with MS processed cells. These data suggest that MS processing may be used to enhance the performance of marrow-derived CTPs in clinical bone regeneration procedures. Further assessment in a more stringent bone defect model is proposed. PMID:23082937

  12. Predicting the effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy against micrometastases: Kinetic modeling, marrow dosimetry and tumor control probability

    SciTech Connect

    Willins, J.D.; Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We have used tumor control probability (TCP) to assess mathematically the effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) directed against blood-borne micrometastases. The differential equations governing antibody (Ab) diffusion and binding to antigen sites within a spherical micrometastases are solved, and the internal distribution of cumulated activity computed. This distribution is convolved with an electron dose kernel to yield the dose at any desired point. A two-compartment model of whole-body Ab kinetics is used to evaluate the red-marrow dose. The cluster dose is then resealed to correspond to a red-marrow dose of 2.5 Gray. The linear-quadratic model of call survival is employed to transform the resealed duster dose to TCP. Clusters from 20 to 200 {mu}m in radius, and 16 radionuclides of varying decay properties, are included in the study. The salient result is that intermediate-range beta emitters give TCP near 100% for most or all cluster radii examined. For example, I-131 delivers TCP > 99.999% for all cluster sizes. Short-range Auger emitters (e.g., I-125) are found to be ineffectual against the larger clusters (R > 150 {mu}m). The longer-range emitters, e.g., Y-90, are also found to be suboptimal Y-90 generally gives a TCP << 1, but there is a sharp peak (TCP = 75%) near R = 75 {mu}m. No such peak is seen in the corresponding plot of dose vs. R. This work illustrates quantitatively the potential of RIT to deliver a highly tumoricidal dose to blood-borne micrometastases. Further, it indicates which radionuclides may be optimal for this purpose and to what degree the choice is critical. Finally, it demonstrates the value of using tumor control, Instead of dose, in assessing therapeutic effectiveness. The clinical relevance of this work will depend in part upon the tendency of malignant cells to form blood-borne clusters as one step in the metastatic cascade.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although ?4?1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Stuart T.; Midwinter, Robyn G.; Coupland, Lucy A.; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S.; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Chong, Beng H.; Parish, Christopher R.; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119+-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119+-erythroid cells in the spleen, although ?4?1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  15. Bone marrow cellularity in normal and polycythemic mice estimated by DNA incorporation of 3H-TdR.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, L H; Ledney, G D

    1982-07-01

    Nucleated bone marrow cell numbers in normal and polycythemic mice were determined using 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR). The cellularities were estimated by extrapolating the exponential disappearance of labeled cells after a single injection of 3H-TdR to the time of injection. Dermestid beetles (Anthrenus piceus) were used to prepare tissue-free skeletons labeled with 3H-TdR. The correlation between tritium activity in bone marrow DNA and tritium derived from the combusted skeleton was determined. The total skeletal cellularity determined by isotope dilution analysis in both normal and polycythemic mice was 2.6 x 10(8) cells/mouse or 17.6 x 10(9) cells/kg body weight. Although the red cell component of the marrow was reduced in the polycythemic mouse, the total numbers of nucleated cells in both types of animals were similar. The differential distribution of cells in the polycythemic animal showed a twofold increase in granulocytic cells, which may explain the identical nucleated cell count in normal and in polycythemic mice. PMID:6749543

  16. Differentiation potential of conditionally immortalized mesenchymal progenitor cells from adult marrow of a H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J E; Caplan, A I

    1996-06-01

    Primary cultures were initiated from marrow, spleen, and bone explants of an adult H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse (immortomouse). All cultures were initiated in immortalizing conditions, and an additional marrow culture was first incubated for 1 week in standard conditions and then switched to immortalizing conditions. Marrow cells immediately immortalized were designated the marrow immediate population (MIP); those immortalized after 1 week were termed the marrow delayed population (MDP). MIP and MDP cells both contained a mixture of fibroblastic or flattened cells, and the MIP cells contained an additional subpopulation of adipocytic (Oil Red-O positive) cells. Alkaline phosphatase expression was induced by dexamethasone (10(-7) M) in MDP cells while MIP, spleen, and bone explant cells had only a low level of expression. MDP and MIP cells differentiated into bone when combined with porous calcium phosphate ceramics and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice while bone- and spleen-derived cells did not. Clones were isolated from the MDP and MIP cell populations and tested for differentiated phenotypes. Some MIP-derived clones exhibited adipocytic characteristics while MDP-derived subclones were negative. Histologic examination of porous ceramic implanted clones showed that all of the clones had osteogenic potential. Clones exposed to either dexamethasone, human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2, or horse serum plus hydrocortisone showed differences in expression of adipocytic or osteogenic markers. These immortalized cultures have retained both adipocytic and osteogenic potential even after 1 year of continuous culture, and provide a model system for clonal analysis of the developmental potential of marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor cells. PMID:8655606

  17. Red Harvester Ants 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-04-24

    Red harvester ants are one of the more noticeable and larger ants in open areas in Texas. However, their populations are declining and this has affected an animal that preys upon the ants--the threatened Texas horned lizard....

  18. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  19. Red Harvester Ants

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-04-24

    Red harvester ants are one of the more noticeable and larger ants in open areas in Texas. However, their populations are declining and this has affected an animal that preys upon the ants--the threatened Texas horned lizard....

  20. Romantic Red: Red Enhances Men's Attraction to Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Elliot; Daniela Niesta

    2008-01-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness

  1. Red cell metabolism in red and grey kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Agar, N S

    1977-12-15

    Glucose utilization, lactate production and glutathione regeneration were measured in the red blood cells of 2 species of Australian Marsupials, Eastern grey Kangaroo (Macropus gigantus) and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), and were found to be significantly lower in the red blood cells from grey than that of red kangaroos. PMID:590437

  2. Red clover with moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sage Ross (None; )

    2007-09-23

    Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

  3. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with a ... Transplant Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant A ...

  4. Radiation protection of bone marrow lymphocytes by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Saini; P. Uma Devi; S. S. Yadav

    1978-01-01

    Summary The drug, MPG, when administered before irradiation, increases the radioresistance of bone marrow lymphocytes of mice to gamma rays and helps in promoting fast recovery, especially when exposed to sublethal dose.

  5. CNS Inflammation and Bone Marrow Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Yan, Yuanqing; Hazra, Sugata; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Caballero, Sergio; Salazar, Tatiana; Miyan, Jaleel A.; Li, Wencheng; Derbenev, Andrei; Zsombok, Andrea; Tikhonenko, Maria; Dominguez, James M.; McGorray, Susan P.; Saban, Daniel R.; Boulton, Michael E.; Busik, Julia V.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Grant, Maria B.

    2014-01-01

    By using pseudorabies virus expressing green fluorescence protein, we found that efferent bone marrow–neural connections trace to sympathetic centers of the central nervous system in normal mice. However, this was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetes, suggesting a significant loss of bone marrow innervation. This loss of innervation was associated with a change in hematopoiesis toward generation of more monocytes and an altered diurnal release of monocytes in rodents and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the hypothalamus and granular insular cortex of mice with type 1 diabetes, bone marrow–derived microglia/macrophages were activated and found at a greater density than in controls. Infiltration of CD45+/CCR2+/GR-1+/Iba-1+ bone marrow–derived monocytes into the hypothalamus could be mitigated by treatment with minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Our studies suggest that targeting central inflammation may facilitate management of microvascular complications. PMID:24160325

  6. Clonal analysis of bone marrow and macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.C.; Walker, E.B.; Johnson, C.; Little, R.

    1984-01-01

    To establish lineages that can be used to study their functional heterogeneity, the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mononuclear phagocytes and the lineages derived from them were studied. 28 references, 7 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  7. [Bone marrow involvement in ovarian cancer determined by immunohistochemical methods].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M; Obrebowska, A; Spaczy?ski, M

    2000-01-01

    Atypical epithelial cells in the bone marrow of patients with ovarian cancer were evaluated using immunohistochemical techniques. We investigated cytospin preparations of bone marrow taken from 9 women with benign ovarian tumors and 59 women with malignant ovarian tumors. Two monoclonal antibodies (NCL-C11 and NCL-CA 125) were used. With both antibodies we were able to detect keratin and CA 125 antigen expression in the bone marrow of 9 (18.4%) of the patients with ovarian cancer. With regard to the wide histological differentiation of ovarian carcinomas, the presence of atypical epithelial cells in the bone marrow was required as a prognostic factor for survival and relapses. This should be investigated in a larger study group. PMID:11326158

  8. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome Study - Detailed Cohort Structure

    Cancer.gov

    Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome Study - Detailed Cohort Structure Organizational chart showing the IBMFS Cohort Structure. I. NCI IBMFS Cohort Epidemiology Questionnaires: Family History, Individual History, Follow-up Form.  A. Field IBMFS Cohort. Clinical

  9. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome Study - Cohort Structure

    Cancer.gov

    Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome Study - Cohort Structure Organizational chart with three items showing the IBMFS Cohort Structure. National Cancer Institute (NCI) IBMFS Cohort. A. Field IBMFS Cohort. B. NIH Clinical Center (CC) IBMFS Cohort. Return

  10. [Lymphomas and lymphatic leukemias in the bone marrow].

    PubMed

    Adam, P; Quintanilla-Fend, L; Fend, F

    2012-11-01

    A bone marrow biopsy in a patient with a diagnosis of lymphoma is often performed as part of the staging procedures, i.e. to find out whether or not the bone marrow harbors infiltrates of an already diagnosed tumor. On the other hand, occasionally changes in the peripheral blood count or an M-protein in the serum lead to a bone marrow biopsy in which the first diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma is established. In either case, the diagnosis of lymphomas and lymphatic leukemias in the bone marrow requires an integration of clinical data, cytomorphology, the topographic distribution of the infiltrate and immunohistochemical as well as molecular techniques, where required. This may particularly be the case when confirmation or exclusion of conventionally barely detectable infiltrates (e.g. hairy cell leukemia, hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, plasma cell infiltrates) is required. PMID:23085695

  11. Who Needs a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Aplastic Anemia Bone Marrow Tests Sickle Cell Anemia Thalassemias Send ... breast cancer Severe blood diseases, such as thalassemias , aplastic anemia , and sickle cell anemia Certain immune-deficiency diseases, ...

  12. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  13. Pathophysiology and Management of Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Akiko; Alter, Blanche P.

    2012-01-01

    The inherited marrow failure syndromes are a diverse set of genetic disorders characterized by hematopoietic aplasia and cancer predisposition. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable and much broader than previously recognized. The medical management of the inherited marrow failure syndromes differs from that of acquired aplastic anemia or malignancies arising in the general population. Diagnostic workup, molecular pathogenesis, and clinical treatment are reviewed. PMID:20417588

  14. Diagnosis and management of subdural haematoma complicating bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Colosimo; N McCarthy; R Jayasinghe; J Morton; K Taylor; S Durrant

    2000-01-01

    Subdural haematoma (SDH) is a known complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A retrospective review of 657 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone marrow\\/stem cell transplantation at the Royal Brisbane Hospital between January 1991 and December 1998 is reported. Seventeen cases of subdural haematoma\\/hygroma were identified (2.6%). Eleven of these (65%) were bilateral. Four required surgical drainage, with two

  15. Circulating Bone Marrow Cells Can Contribute to Neointimal Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-lu Han; Gordon R. Campbell; Julie H. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    To examine the source of smooth muscle-like cells during vascular healing, C57BL\\/6 (Ly 5.2) female mice underwent whole body irradiation followed by transfusion with 106 nucleated bone marrow cells from congenic (Ly 5.1) male donors. Successful repopulation (88.4 ± 4.9%) by donor marrow was demonstrated in the female mice by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated A20.1\\/Ly 5.1 monoclonal antibody after 4

  16. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Maringhini; Morie A. Gertz; Eugene P. DiMagno

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Several reports suggest a relationship between bone marrow transplantation and pancreatic damage. The authors describe two\\u000a patients with pancreatic insufficiency after bone marrow transplantation. The first patient had weight loss arising from steatorrhea\\u000a secondary to severe pancreatic insufficiency (lipase output result<3% of normal) due to pancreatic atrophy. The second patient\\u000a had steatorrhea secondary to intestinal bacterial overgrowth, but moderate pancreatic

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in hematological malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Vande Berg; F. E. Lecouvet; L. Michaux; A. Ferrant; B. Maldague; J. Malghem

    1998-01-01

    .   Despite its lack of specificity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow has the potential to play a role in\\u000a the management of patients with primary neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system, including lymphomas, leukemias and\\u000a multiple myeloma. In addition to its use in the assessment of suspected spinal cord compression, bone marrow MRI could be\\u000a used as

  18. Dynamic Expression Profiles of Marker Genes in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zheng-Yao; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Objective To observe the expression profiles of osteoblast-related genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow during osteogenic differentiation.Methods MSCs were induced to differentiate with MSC osteogenic differentiation medium for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. Alizarin Red staining was used to detect matrix mineralization. Expression of osteoblast-related genes, including osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase and collagen type 1, was assessed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results On day 14 after induction of differentiation, cells were stained positively with Alizarin Red. The expression levels of these genes exhibited an upward trend as induction time was prolonged. Exposure to osteogenic differentiation medium less than 21 days did not significantly induce osteocalcin expression; osteocalcin expression levels in the differentiated cells induced for 21 and 28 days were 1.63 and 2.46 times as high as the undifferentiated cells respectively (all P<0.05). Stimulation with MSC osteogenic differentiation medium over 14 days significantly enhanced bone marrow-derived MSCs to express osteopontin and Runx2 genes (all P<0.05). Osteogenic differentiation medium could significantly induce the expressions of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type1 genes (all P<0.05). Their expressions reached the peak levels on day 21, which were increased more than 4- and 3-fold respectively.Conclusion Human bone marrow-derived MSCs could exhibit the sequential expression pattern of osteoblast marker genes during osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    . PMID:26149002

  19. Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, D.L.; MacEachern, L.; Snyder, R. (Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol, resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, the authors quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2{prime},7{prime}-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. They found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene.

  20. Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Derdouch, Sonia; Gay, Wilfried; Nègre, Didier; Prost, Stéphane; Le Dantec, Mikael; Delache, Benoît; Auregan, Gwenaelle; Andrieu, Thibault; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Cosset, François-Loïc; Le Grand, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. Results The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP, with a mean efficiency of 72% ± 4%. The vector used was derived from the simian immunodeficiency lentivirus SIVmac251, VSV-g pseudotyped and encoded eGFP under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After myeloid differentiation, GFP was detected in colony-forming cells (37% ± 10%). A previous study showed that transduction rates did not differ significantly between colony-forming cells and immature cells capable of initiating long-term cultures, indicating that progenitor cells and highly immature hematopoietic cells were transduced with similar efficiency. Blood cells producingeGFP were detected as early as three days after transplantation, and eGFP-producing granulocyte and mononuclear cells persisted for more than one year in the periphery. Conclusion The transplantation of CD34+ bone marrow cells had beneficial effects for the ex vivo proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, favoring reconstitution of the T- and B-lymphocyte, thrombocyte and red blood cell compartments. PMID:18565229

  1. Monitoring of chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with unmanipulated marrow by use of DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Suttorp, M; Schmitz, N; Dreger, P; Schaub, J; Löffler, H

    1993-05-01

    Highly polymorphic tandemly repetitive DNA sequences provide powerful genetic markers for the identification of individuals by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) even in close relatives. Over a three-year period, 61 consecutive patients from a single institution undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various hematological diseases were grafted with unmanipulated marrow and followed for the development of hematopoietic chimerism. Three synthetic oligonucleotide probes homologous to the so-called minisatellite or variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences were evaluated in the clinical setting of BMT for their usefulness: (i) to document marrow engraftment or rejection; (ii) to elucidate the kinetics of mixed chimerism; and (iii) in providing a sensitive tool for early detection of relapse. In addition, in patients with CML karyotyping and analysis of bcr/abl gene rearrangement was performed. Using this panel of three oligonucleotide probes, informative markers specific for donor or recipient RFLP could be demonstrated in all cases. Engraftment could be documented in all patients surviving beyond day +14 after BMT. Mixed chimerism was detected in 14% of the patients in the early phase (day +14 to day +78) after BMT but only one patient turned out to become a long-term stable mixed chimera. These results support the hypothesis that lymphocytes of recipient origin surviving the conditioning regimen may considerably contribute to mixed chimerism early after BMT. Long-term stable mixed chimerism is a rare event after BMT with unmanipulated marrow. Simultaneous analysis of chimerism after BMT by VNTR-RFLP, karyotyping, and detection of bcr/abl rearrangement in patients with CML showed corresponding results in nine out of 12 patients. In three patients either one of the methods failed to detect residual recipient cells in the early phase after BMT. Therefore different methods for assessment of mixed chimerism seem to complement rather than to exclude each other. Eleven patients who all exhibited complete chimerism early after BMT relapsed from their underlying disease. In seven of these patients grafted for acute leukemia, analysis of DNA-RFLP had been performed shortly before clinical relapse (30-86 days) and failed to herald relapse. As the sensitivity for the detection of the minor cell population by analysis of DNA-RFLPs is approximately 1%, these data may indicate that relapse of acute leukemia after BMT is characterized by a sudden increase in the percentage of recipient blast cells not detectable even by frequent RFLP analyses. PMID:8097800

  2. Effects of Monoclonal Antibody and Complement Treatment of Human Marrow on Hematopoiesis in Continuous Bone Marrow Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel S. Greenberger; Lisa Rothstein; Paolo DeFabritiis; Marco Bregni; Robert Bast; Jerome Ritz; Lee M. Nadler; Jeffrey M. Lipton; Mary Ann Sakakeeny

    Long-term bone marrow cultures were established from single- cell suspensions of human bone marrow that had been treated with monoclonal antibodies and complement. Each treated cell suspension was evaluated for production of hematopoietic stem cells over 20 weeks. Treatment with antibody to HLA-DR (la), B1, J2, or J5 did not remove adherent cells including those differentiating to adipocytes in 17-hydroxycorticosteroid.

  3. [Spermidine enhances osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from ovariectomized mice].

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Liu, Wenjia; Ma, Yang; Yang, Yi; Jin, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of spermidine (SPD) on the differentiation ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from estrogen-deficient mouse models. Methods Female C57/BL6J mice were randomly divided into sham group and ovariectomized (OVX) group. Two months after modeling, BMMSCs of sham and OVX mice were harvested and cultured, and then Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and lipoprtein lipase (LPL). Mineralized nodules and lipid droplet formation ability of the BMMSCs from sham and OVX mice were evaluated and compared by alizarin red staining and oil red O staining, respectively. After BMMSCs from the OVX mice were cultured in osteogenesis-induced medium and adipogenesis-induced medium supplemented with SPD, their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities were evaluated by Western blotting and reverse transcription PCR to detect the expressions of Runx2, ALP, PPAR? and LPL, and the mineralized nodules and lipid droplet formation ability were examined by alizarin red staining and oil red O staining, respectively. Results BMMSCs from OVX mice showed lower ability of osteogenic differentiation and higher ability of adipogenic differentiation compared to the ones from sham mice. SPD strengthened the ability of osteogenic differentiation and depressed the ability of adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs from OVX mice compared with the BMMSCs without SPD intervention. Conclusion SPD enhances osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs from OVX mice. PMID:26062423

  4. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  5. Red Cabbage Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students take advantage of the natural ability of red cabbage juice to perform as a pH indicator to test the pH of seven common household liquids. Then they evaluate the accuracy of the red cabbage indicator, by testing the pH of the liquids using an engineer-designed tool, pH indicator strips. Like environmental engineers working on water remediation or water treatment projects, understanding the chemical properties (including pH) of contaminants is important for safeguarding the health of environmental water sources and systems.

  6. The challenging world of cytopenias: distinguishing myelodysplastic syndromes from other disorders of marrow failure.

    PubMed

    DeZern, Amy E; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of bone marrow failure has advanced considerably. Marrow failure encompasses multiple overlapping diseases, and there is increasing availability of diagnostic tools to distinguish among the subtypes. Identification of genetic alterations that underlie marrow failure has also greatly expanded, especially for myelodysplastic syndromes. Molecular markers are increasingly used to guide the management of myelodysplasia and may distinguish this diagnosis from other marrow failure disorders. This review summarizes the current state of distinguishing among causes of marrow failure and discusses the potential uses of multiple diagnostic and prognostic indicators in the management of myelodysplastic syndromes and other bone marrow failure disorders. PMID:24899643

  7. The Challenging World of Cytopenias: Distinguishing Myelodysplastic Syndromes From Other Disorders of Marrow Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sekeres, Mikkael A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of bone marrow failure has advanced considerably. Marrow failure encompasses multiple overlapping diseases, and there is increasing availability of diagnostic tools to distinguish among the subtypes. Identification of genetic alterations that underlie marrow failure has also greatly expanded, especially for myelodysplastic syndromes. Molecular markers are increasingly used to guide the management of myelodysplasia and may distinguish this diagnosis from other marrow failure disorders. This review summarizes the current state of distinguishing among causes of marrow failure and discusses the potential uses of multiple diagnostic and prognostic indicators in the management of myelodysplastic syndromes and other bone marrow failure disorders. PMID:24899643

  8. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  9. Red and Black Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the student to play the game of red and black, by betting on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until either a target is reached or the player is ruined. The target, initial fortune, and trial win probability can be varied.

  10. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  11. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({?} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  12. Cincinnati Reds Lead guitar

    E-print Network

    Cincinnati Reds Home run Baseball Lead guitar Rock music Concepts Webpages Attribute&Named Entities Extraction (650)723-2528 acooper@123.com Phyllis Wattis George Murphy Foster Attributes&named entities Generation page2 Concepts Attributes&Named Entities page1 Concepts Attributes&Named Entities ... page

  13. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  14. SRED: Stabilized RED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teunis J. Ott; T. V. Lakshman; Larry H. Wong

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a mechanism we call "SRED" (Stabilized Random Early Drop). Like RED (Random Early Detection) SRED pre-emptively discards packets with a load-dependent probability when a buffer in a router in the Internet or an Intranet seems congested. SRED has an additional feature that over a wide range of load levels helps it stabilize its buffer occupation at a

  15. Florida's Red Tide Infestation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CBS News

    This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Florida's west coast in 2001, threatening the wildlife of Tampa Bay's estuary. The article briefly discusses the cause of the red tide and its affect on the shellfish industry.

  16. Human Red Cell Peptidases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. P. Lewis; Harry Harris

    1967-01-01

    A new method for characterizing peptidases in terms of electrophoretic behaviour in starch gel and of substrate specificity is described. A survey of red cells from a large number of people has revealed genetically determined variants of two of these enzymes. Separate loci appear to be involved.

  17. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. This fact sheet provides basic information about red ... supplements. Some red yeast rice products contain a contaminant called citrinin, which can cause kidney failure. Tell ...

  18. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... else I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell antibody identification is used as a ...

  19. Florida Red Tide Current Status

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Fish and Wildlife Research Institute website provides links to several Florida-based red tide sites. These sites include the current status of Florida's red tide, a photo gallery of red tide distribution maps, and regional Florida red tide statuses. The site expands further on its research and contains information on the Florida manatee, Florida panther, freshwater, geographic information systems/mapping, habitat, saltwater and wildlife. This is a nice resource for a broad overview of Florida ecosystems and natural resources.

  20. Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2004-01-10

    Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

  1. [Bone marrow examination of inherited diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Fenneteau, O; Lainey, E

    2007-01-01

    Inherited diseases and metabolism inborn errors with hematologic abnormalities such as cytopenias are observed early in the infant or childhood. Most of them require an acute observation of the bone marrow to determine quantitative and qualitative morphological peculiarities of each cell line in order to charatherize cytological signs of these childhood hereditary diseases and differentiate them from acquired disorders, which are particularly frequent in pediatric. So, after a brief review of hematopoietic physiology in healthy neonates and infant, we'll consider the physiopathology and bone marrow aspect of the erythroid (Blackfan-Diamond anemia, congenital dyserythropoietic...), megacaryocytic (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia...) and granulocytic cell line (Kostmann syndrome, WHIM syndrome...) in hereditary disorder. Considering the hematologic consequences of metabolism inborn errors and storage diseases, the last part of this review will be dedicated to the examination of the bone marrow encountered in those diseases such as mitochondrial cytopathy, orotic aciduria or lysinuric aciduria intolerance. PMID:17913668

  2. [RNA synthesis in bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Domaratskaia, E I; Polikarpova, S I; Khrushchov, N G

    1978-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis (sibiromycin and actinomycin D) and radio toxic doses of 3H-uridine on the bone marrow stem hemopoietic cells in adult mice was studied by means of spleen colonies. The short-term in vitro preincubation of the bone marrow cell suspension with the antibiotics and 3H-uridine resulted in the practically complete inhibition of colony formation. The bone marrow stem hemopoietic cells incorporated 3H-uridine intensively. In the normal adult animals the number of stem cells with the high level of RNA synthesis attained 40% whereas the rest 60% of cells were capable to activate the ribonucleic metabolism upon their in vitro preincubation. PMID:581403

  3. Bone marrow necrosis – initial presentation in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Maria; Ali, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Sickle cell anemia Symptoms: Bone marrow necrosis • bone pain • fever • hepatomegaly • icterus • splenomegaly • weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In sickle cell disease, bone involvement is the commonest clinical presentation in the acute as well as chronic setting presenting as painful vaso-occlusive crisis and avascular necrosis, respectively. Other complications include bone marrow necrosis and infarction. Case Report: We report a case of a 20-year-old male who was referred for bone marrow evaluation due to symptoms of fever, weakness, and repeated episodes of bone pains. Bone trephine biopsy revealed multiple areas of central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts. Conclusions: Recognition of necrosis through bone trephine biopsy is important for early initiation of therapy. PMID:24167641

  4. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  5. ROUTE DEVIATION ROUTE: Red Route

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    ROUTE DEVIATION NOTICE: ROUTE: Red Route WHEN: Friday, Sept. 5th @ 4:00pm-8:00pm LOCATION: First Friday Parade Event College Avenue & Hwy 93 RE-ROUTED DIRECTIONS: The Red to Central bus ­ Will travelMillan Road. The Red to Clemson bus ­ Will travel its normal route from Central to Clemson University

  6. Red Knots at Delaware Bay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Red knots, an at-risk shorebird, at Delaware Bay. Red knots like to feed on horseshoe crab eggs to refuel after their marathon migrations of some 10,000 miles. Declines of horseshoe crabs and red knots seem to be related....

  7. Reasons not to deploy RED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin May; Jean Bolot; Christophe Diot; Bryan Lyles

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we examine the benefits of random early detection (RED) by using a testbed made of two commercially available routers and up to 16 PCs to observe RED performance under a traffic load made of FTP transfers, together with HTTP traffic and non-responsive UDP flows. The main results we found were, first, that RED with small buffers does

  8. Diverse Osteoclastogenesis of Bone Marrow From Mandible versus Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Chaichanasakul, Thawinee; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Background Mandible (MB) and maxilla possess unique metabolic and functional properties and demonstrate discrete responses to homeostatic, mechanical, hormonal and developmental stimuli. Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differs between MB versus long bones (LB). Furthermore, MB versus LB derived osteoclasts (OCs) have disparate functional properties. Here, we explored the osteoclastogenic potential of rat MB versus LB marrow in vitro and in vivo under basal and stimulated conditions. Methods Bone marrow from rat MB and LB was cultured in osteoblastic or osteoclastic differentiation media. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, resorption pit assays, and real-time PCR were performed. Additionally, osmotic mini-pumps were implanted in animals, mandibles and tibiae were isolated and multinucleated cells (MNCs) were measured. Results MB versus LB marrow cultures differentiated with RANKL and M-CSF produced more TRAP+ multinucleated cells (MNCs) and greater resorptive area. To explore MB versus LB BMSC supported osteoclastogenesis, confluent BMSCs were cultured with parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1?,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25D3), or PTH+1,25D3. 1,25D3 or PTH+1,25D3 treated LB BMSCs expressed significantly higher RANKL and lower OPG mRNA and increased RANKL:OPG ratio. When whole marrow was cultured with PTH+1,25D3, more TRAP+ MNCs were seen in LB versus MB cultures. Ultimately, rats were infused with PTH+1,25D3 and MB versus tibia MNCs were measured. Hormonal stimulation increased osteoclastogenesis in both MB and tibia. However, higher TRAP+ MNC numbers were observed in tibia versus MB under basal and hormonal stimulation. Conclusions Collectively, our data illustrate differences both on osteoclastogenic potential and OC numbers of MB versus LB marrow. PMID:24003963

  9. Bone marrow eosinophilia and non-Hodgkinís lymphomas: report of three cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isidro Machado Puerto; Israel Borrajero Martinez; Maria Concepción Ochoa Ochoa; Maria Catalina; Machín Villafranca; Ciudad Habana

    Three patients with bone marrow hypereosinophilia in association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma are described. The eosinophilia was present at diagnosis in all patients. The diagnosis was peripheral T-cell lymphoma with bone marrow involvement, B-cell lymphoma with skin and bone marrow involvement and B-cell lymphoma rich in stromal T-cells, for each patient respectively. We consider the presence of bone marrow eosinophils an

  10. Human red cell acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, C.C.; Kasten-Jolly, J.; Abraham, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Acetyltransferase was isolated by histone-Sepharose affinity chromatography from human cord blood red cells. The enzyme was detected only in very young red cells. The semipurified enzyme and (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA were used to acetylate isolated Hb F tetramer and ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. subunits. The in vitro acetylated products were characterized by globin chain separation by CM-cellulose chromatography and tryptic peptide analysis by reverse-phase HPLC. Acetylation of both the ..gamma..-chains and the ..cap alpha..-chains could occur within the Hb F tetramer. Acetylation also could take place on intact subunits. It appears that some Hb F/sub Ic/ could be formed in the cells by utilizing Hb F or free ..gamma..-chains as acetylation substrate.

  11. The Red Brush

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created as part of Washington University's Digital Gateway initiative, The Red Brush project is a collection of texts in Chinese from a wide range of writings from Imperial China, by and about women writers. The materials here are available in both Chinese and English, and the project was designed to complete a narrative anthology entitled "Red Brush: Women Writers of Imperial China". The site makes the original Chinese version of over 500 poems available, along with English language translations. Visitors can use the advanced search feature here, or they can also just browse around at their leisure. The materials are divided into sixteen sections, and some of the highlights include "The full elder brother" by Ban Zhao and "The color of the water" by Hai Yin.

  12. Red and Black Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the red and black experiment in which a player bets on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until a target fortune is reached or the player is ruined. The initial fortune, target fortune, and trial win probability can be varied, and the user can select either of two basic strategies: timid play or bold play.

  13. Red Tide Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Making Waves

    This University of South Florida web site contains links to the article "Tiny Toxic Terrors: Harmful Algal Blooms" and four computer-based activities that teach students about various aspects of red tide. Activities include: "Where could they be?," "Is it a plant or animal cell?," "What is bioluminescence?," and "How does plankton shape affect plankton movement?" Each activity contains hyperlinks to pertinent materials, maps, and information to complete the activity.

  14. The Amazing Red Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

  15. Red Tide in the Northeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elenor Ely

    This Rhode Island Sea Grant fact sheet provides information about red tide algal blooms in New England. It addresses where and when red tides occur, how to know if shellfish are safe to consume, and other important facts about red tide. The site features a black and white picture of the dinoflagellate responsible for red tide in New England and a regional map of where infected shell fish have been found. It also features links to other red tide related sites and a list of pertinent reading material.

  16. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Methods Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Results Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p?=?0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p?marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98–99% identical to those in GenBank. Conclusions Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs. PMID:24655375

  17. Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Lymphoproliferative Disorders: An Infrequent Association

    PubMed Central

    Vlachaki, Efthymia; Diamantidis, Michael D.; Klonizakis, Philippos; Haralambidou-Vranitsa, Styliani; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elizabeth; Klonizakis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome defined by a progressive normocytic anaemia and reticulocytopenia without leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Secondary PRCA can be associated with various haematological disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the present review is to investigate the infrequent association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders. PRCA might precede the appearance of lymphoma, may present simultaneously with the lymphoid neoplastic disease, or might appear following the lymphomatic disorder. Possible pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to explain the rare association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders are reported. Most cases of PRCA are presumed to be autoimmune mediated by antibodies against either erythroblasts or erythropoietin, by T-cells secreting factors selectively inhibiting erythroid colonies in the bone marrow or by NK cells directly lysing erythroblasts. Finally, focus is given to the therapeutical approach, as several treatment regimens have failed for PRCA. Immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy are effective for improving anaemia in the majority of patients with lymphoma-associated PRCA. Further investigation is required to define the pathophysiology of PRCA at a molecular level and to provide convincing evidence why it might appear as a rare complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22593689

  18. Graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor lymphocyte transfusions in marrow grafted patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Jochem Kolb; A. V. M. B. Schattenberg; John M. Goldman; Bernd Hertenstein; Niels Jacobsen; William Arcese; Per Ljungman; Augustin Ferrant; Leo Verdonck; Dietger Niederwieser; Frits van Rhee; J. Mittermuehler; T. J. M. de Witte; E. Holler; H. Ansari

    1995-01-01

    HE ROLE OF ALLOGENEIC lymphocytes in the eradi- cation of leukemia is well established. In mice, trans- plantation of allogeneic bone marrow eliminated leukemia, and transplantation of marrow from syngeneic donors failed.' Allogeneic marrow transplantation as a form of adoptive immunotherapy of leukemia was limited by the inevitable occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).' Patients with GVHD had fewer relapses than

  19. What to Expect during a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What To Expect During a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant A blood and marrow stem cell transplant has three parts: preparation, transplant, and ... chemotherapy and possibly radiation. This treatment destroys the stem cells in your bone marrow that aren't ...

  20. Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng-Lan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation might be an effective method to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow transplantation could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and whether high-dose total body irradiation followed by high-dose bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating diabetic mice. Diabetic mice after multiple low doses of streptozotocin injection were irradiated followed by infusion with approximately 1×107 bone marrow mononuclear cells intravenously. Before and after bone marrow transplantation, fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, pancreatic histology, and the examination of insulin and glucagon in islets were processed. All recipients returned to near euglycemic within 1 week after undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No mice became hyperglycemia again during investigation period. The change of serum insulin, glucose tolerance test, pancreatic histology and the expression of insulin and glucagon in recipient islets after bone marrow transplantation all revealed islets regeneration and significant amelioration when compared respectively with those of diabetic mice without bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation contributed to reduce blood glucose, prevent further blood glucose hike in diabetic recipients, and promote islets regeneration. High-dose total body irradiation in combination with high-dose bone marrow monoclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:25197419

  1. Marrow stromal cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty: Feasibility and potential clinical advantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jih-Shiuan Wang; Dominique Shum-Tim; Jacques Galipeau; Edgar Chedrawy; Nicoletta Eliopoulos; Ray C.-J. Chiu

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Marrow stromal cells are mesenchymal stem cells able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that marrow stromal cells, when implanted into myocardium, can undergo milieu-dependent differentiation and express cardiomyogenic phenotypes in vivo. Methods: Isogenic adult rats were used as donors and recipients to simulate autologous transplantation. Marrow stromal cells isolated from donor leg bones were

  2. Immunohistochemical demonstration of neurone specific enolase in bone marrow infiltrated by neuroblastoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Caillaud; F Martinez-Madrigal; O Hartmann; C Carlu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and two bone marrow samples were analysed by histological and immunohistochemical methods for neurone specific enolase (NSE). The biopsies were performed to determine the extent of bone marrow disease in 84 neuroblastomas, nine embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, five Ewing's sarcomas, two cases of Hodgkin's disease and two lymphoblastic lymphomas. Twenty seven (32%) of neuroblastoma bone marrows showed metastases by conventional

  3. Evidence that the expression of transferrin receptor 1 on erythroid marrow cells mediates hepcidin suppression in the liver.

    PubMed

    Keel, Siobán B; Doty, Raymond; Liu, Li; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Cherian, Sindhu; Ganz, Tomas; Abkowitz, Janis L

    2015-06-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron absorption and recycling, and its expression is suppressed by red blood cell production. When erythropoiesis is expanded, hepcidin expression decreases. To gain insight into the stage of erythroid differentiation at which the regulation might originate, we measured serum hepcidin levels in archived pure red cell aplasia samples from patients whose block in erythroid differentiation was well defined by hematopoietic colony assays and marrow morphologic review. Hepcidin values are high or high normal in pure red cell aplasia patients in whom erythropoiesis is inhibited prior to the proerythroblast stage, but are suppressed in patients with excess proerythroblasts and few later erythroid cells. These data suggest that the suppressive effect of erythropoietic activity on hepcidin expression can arise from proerythroblasts, the stage at which transferrin receptor 1 expression peaks, prompting the hypothesis that transferrin receptor 1 expression on erythroid precursors is a proximal mediator of the erythroid regulator of hepcidin expression. Our characterization of erythropoiesis, iron status, and hepcidin expression in mice with global or hematopoietic cell-specific haploinsufficiency of transferrin receptor 1 provides initial supporting data for this model. The regulation appears independent of erythroferrone and growth differentiation factor 15, supporting the concept that several mechanisms signal iron need in response to an expanded erythron. PMID:25782630

  4. Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yangjun

    Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

  5. Anaplasma platys in Bone Marrow Megakaryocytes of Young Dogs

    PubMed Central

    De Tommasi, A. Sara; Baneth, Gad; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. In the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors of two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that A. platys can infect megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes. PMID:24622106

  6. Yeast stimulation of bone marrow mitosis for cytogenetic investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Lee; F. F. B. Elder

    1980-01-01

    We report a simple, dependable method for stimulating bone marrow mitosis in small mammals. Subcutaneous injections of a suspension of active baker’s yeast may elevate the mitotic index as much as six times or more. Additionally, the metaphases obtained are easily spread when air dried, and the chromosomes are readily banded. This method should prove useful to investigators who wish

  7. Bone-marrow haematopoietic-stem-cell niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Wilson; Andreas Trumpp

    2006-01-01

    Adult stem cells hold many promises for future clinical applications and regenerative medicine. The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the best-characterized somatic stem cell so far, but in vitro expansion has been unsuccessful, limiting the future therapeutic potential of these cells. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the composition of the HSC bone-marrow microenvironment, known as the HSC niche.

  8. A case of bone marrow infection by Staphylococcus saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    Liu, C-J; Sun, B; Guo, J; He, J-L; Feng, B; Wang, H-G; Cao, K-K; Liu, T; Shen, D-X

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of fatal bone marrow infection caused by Staphylococcus saccharolyticus in a 26 year old female. The causative organism was isolated by anaerobic culture on blood agar, and was identified by PCR amplification of the gap gene and genotyping of the resultant sequence. PMID:25912574

  9. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  10. Direct cell contact influences bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell fate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G Ball; Adrian C Shuttleworth; Cay M Kielty

    2004-01-01

    Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into various cell types of mesenchymal origin, but mechanisms regulating such cellular changes are unclear. We have conducted co-culture experiments to examine whether mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is influenced by indirect or direct contact with differentiated cells. Cultured adult mesenchymal stem cells showed some characteristics of synthetic state vascular smooth muscle

  11. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  12. Protection of bone marrow progenitor cells by superoxide dismutase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Petkau

    1988-01-01

    Intravenously administered cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase in X-irradiated mice hastens the recovery of peripheral blood cells. This effect is consistent with protection of the pluripotent stem cells by the enzyme. Amongst the bone marrow cells committed to differentiation along the myeloid pathway, there exists in mice a subpopulation of macrophage progenitor cells that is inactivated by superoxide radicals, generated photochemically or by

  13. Haematoma caused by bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarigianni, Maria; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Chissan, Sofia; Klonizakis, Filippos; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Anastasiadou, Kyriaki I.; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elissavet; Klonizakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy (BMATB) associated haematoma in an 85-years old male without any predisposing risk factors. Six days after BMATB, he suffered from a massive thigh and buttock haematoma and a fall in haematocrit. It is important to know that BMATB can have complications aiding early recognition and therapy. PMID:22593816

  14. Periodontal regeneration using engineered bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Yang; Fabio M. V. Rossi; Edward E. Putnins

    2010-01-01

    Regeneration of lost periodontium is a challenge in that both hard (alveolar bone, cementum) and soft (periodontal ligament) connective tissues need to be restored to their original architecture. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) appear to be an attractive candidate for connective tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that BM-MSCs are able to sense biological cues from the local microenvironment and organize

  15. Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells: Nature, Biology, and Potential Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bianco; Mara Riminucci; Stan Gronthos; Pamela Gehron Robey

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are progenitors of skeletal tissue components such as bone, cartilage, the hemato- poiesis-supporting stroma, and adipocytes. In addition, they may be experimentally induced to undergo unortho- dox differentiation, possibly forming neural and myogenic cells. As such, they represent an important paradigm of post-natal nonhematopoietic stem cells, and an easy source for potential therapeutic use. Along with

  16. Neurologic Complications After Allogeneic Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Walters; Keith M. Sullivan; Francoise Bernaudin; Gerard Souillet; Jean-Pierre Vannier; F. Leonard Johnson; Carl Lenarsky; Darleen Powars; Nancy Bunin; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong; Donna Wall; G. Michel; E. Plouvier; P. Bodigoni; P. Lutz; Jean E. Sanders; Dana C. Matthews; Frederick R. Appelbaum; Rainer Storb

    1995-01-01

    ARROW transplantation from HLA-identical siblings is effective therapy in children with nonmalignant disorders, including aplastic anemia, congenital immunode- ficiency syndromes, thalassemia major, and certain inborn errors of metabolism.',2 Its use in the treatment of sickle cell anemia has been limited to date but initial reports confirm that bone marrow transplantation is curative treatment for this di~order.~\\

  17. Outcome following late marrow relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.

    1984-10-01

    Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.

  18. Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

  19. Demonstration of lymphoid antigens in decalcified bone marrow trephines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Hall; R Lindeman; M G Butler; J A Amess; A J DArdenne

    1987-01-01

    A panel of antibodies recognising lymphoid and epithelial antigens in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections was applied to a series of 54 bone marrow trephines decalcified by formic or edetic acids. Normal trephines and cases infiltrated by myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial tumours were included. Patterns of reactivity were distinct and allowed the different diseases to be distinguished. All lymphoid tumours

  20. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lu, Kuan-Ying; Hu, Ching-Chih; Huang, Wen-Hung; Wang, I-Kwan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution (P = 0.001), band and segmented cells (P = 0.021), and lymphoid cells (P = 0.029) than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78), and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3%) followed by respiratory failure (10%). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P = 0.001) and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P = 0.004) megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group), as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P = 0.011), were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:25802835

  1. Stem cells today: B1. Bone marrow stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RG Edwards

    2004-01-01

    This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented

  2. Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim A. Ahles; Denise M. Tope; Briane Pinkson; Susan Walch; Danette Hann; Marie Whedon; Bradley Dain; Julia E. Weiss; Letha Mills; Peter M. Silberfarb

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of

  3. Improved Functional Activity of Bone Marrow Derived Circulating Progenitor Cells After Intra Coronary Freshly Isolated Bone Marrow Cells Transplantation in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Goekmen Turan; I. Bozdag-T; J. Ortak; S. Kische; I. Akin; H. Schneider; C. H. Turan; T. C. Rehders; M. Rauchhaus; T. Kleinfeldt; C. Belu; M. Brehm; S. Yokus; S. Steiner; K. Sahin; C. A. Nienaber; H. Ince

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  There is growing evidence that intracoronary autologous bone marrow cells transplantation (BMCs-Tx) in patients with chronic\\u000a myocardial infarction beneficially affects postinfarction remodelling. In this randomized controlled study we analyzed the\\u000a influence of intracoronary autologous freshly isolated bone marrow cells transplantation by use of point of care system on\\u000a cardiac function and on the functional activity of bone marrow derived circulating

  4. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  5. The use of multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting to characterize native human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Boxall, Sally; Jones, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for identification, phenotypic analysis, and cell sorting of rare mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow (BM) aspirates. The native BM MSC population is identified based on the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) phenotype. The method consists of three related procedures: Procedure 1 involves a microbead-based pre-enrichment step. Two other procedures describe direct flow cytometric analysis of MSCs following the isolation of the mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction (Procedure 2) or more rapidly, following a simple ammonium chloride-based red cell lysis (Procedure 3). Recently described multi-lineage transcript expression in the CD45(-/low)CD271(+) cells suggests that the native BM MSC fraction could be further subdivided into functionally distinct subpopulations. The present protocols are hoped to help MSC biologists to enter this exciting field of research and to take it forward towards a better understanding of MSC biology in vivo. PMID:25388391

  6. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  7. PLANT BIOLOGY: Seeing Red

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bonnie Bartel (Rice University; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology)

    2003-01-17

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Although flavonoids contribute to the red, violet, and blue pigmentation of many flowers and seeds, their biosynthetic pathway is still being elucidated. In their Perspective, Bartel and Matsuda discuss new work (Xie et al.) revealing that the biosynthetic enzyme BANYULS is important for regulating the relative amounts of two types of flavonoids, the anthocyanins and the condensed tannins, both of which are powerful antioxidants that confer health benefits on humans when eaten.

  8. www.vopen.net 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H

    E-print Network

    Li, Tiejun

    www.vopen.net Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

  9. Stromal stem cells from adipose tissue and bone marrow of age-matched female donors display distinct immunophenotypic profiles.

    PubMed

    Pachón-Peña, G; Yu, G; Tucker, A; Wu, X; Vendrell, J; Bunnell, B A; Gimble, J M

    2011-03-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of lipid-filled mature adipocytes and a heterogeneous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) population of cells. Similarly, the bone marrow (BM) is composed of multiple cell types including adipocytes, hematopoietic, osteoprogenitor, and stromal cells necessary to support hematopoiesis. Both adipose and BM contain a population of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells with the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages, including adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic cells, depending on the culture conditions. In this study we have shown that human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) populations display a common expression profile for many surface antigens, including CD29, CD49c, CD147, CD166, and HLA-abc. Nevertheless, significant differences were noted in the expression of CD34 and its related protein, PODXL, CD36, CD 49f, CD106, and CD146. Furthermore, ASCs displayed more pronounced adipogenic differentiation capability relative to BMSC based on Oil Red staining (7-fold vs. 2.85-fold induction). In contrast, no difference between the stem cell types was detected for osteogenic differentiation based on Alizarin Red staining. Analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated that both the ASC and BMSC differentiated adipocytes and osteoblast displayed a significant upregulation of lineage-specific mRNAs relative to the undifferentiated cell populations; no significant differences in fold mRNA induction was noted between ASCs and BMSCs. In conclusion, these results demonstrate human ASCs and BMSCs display distinct immunophenotypes based on surface positivity and expression intensity as well as differences in adipogenic differentiation. The findings support the use of both human ASCs and BMSCs for clinical regenerative medicine. PMID:20857424

  10. Consequences of irradiation on bone and marrow phenotypes, and its relation to disruption of hematopoietic precursors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Danielle E.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2014-01-01

    The rising levels of radiation exposure, specifically for medical treatments and accidental exposures, have added great concern for the long term risks of bone fractures. Both the bone marrow and bone architecture are devastated following radiation exposure. Even sub-lethal doses cause a deficit to the bone marrow microenvironment, including a decline in hematopoietic cells, and this deficit occurs in a dose dependent fashion. Certain cell phenotypes though are more susceptible to radiation damage, with mesenchymal stem cells being more resilient than the hematopoietic stem cells. The decline in total bone marrow hematopoietic cells is accompanied with elevated adipocytes into the marrow cavity, thereby inhibiting hematopoiesis and recovery of the bone marrow microenvironment. Poor bone marrow is also associated with a decline in bone architectural quality. Therefore, the ability to maintain the bone marrow microenvironment would hinder much of the trabecular bone loss caused by radiation exposure, ultimately decreasing some comorbidities in patients exposed to radiation. PMID:24607941

  11. Determination of effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer conditions to support chondrogenic differentiation processes in human primary bone marrow aspirates.

    PubMed

    Rey-Rico, A; Frisch, J; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic modification of freshly aspirated bone marrow may provide convenient tools to enhance the regenerative capacities of cartilage defects compared with the complex manipulation of isolated progenitor cells. In the present study, we examined the ability and safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 vectors to deliver various reporter gene sequences in primary human bone marrow aspirates over time without altering the chondrogenic processes in the samples. The results demonstrate that successful rAAV-mediated gene transfer and expression of the lacZ and red fluorescent protein marker genes were achieved in transduced aspirates at very high efficiencies (90-94%) and over extended periods of time (up to 125 days) upon treatment with hirudin, an alternative anticoagulant that does not prevent the adsorption of the rAAV-2 particles at the surface of their targets compared with heparin. Application of rAAV was safe, displaying neither cytotoxic nor detrimental effects on the cellular and proliferative activities or on the chondrogenic processes in the aspirates especially using an optimal dose of 0.5?mg?ml(-1) hirudin, and application of the potent SOX9 transcription factor even enhanced these processes while counteracting hypertrophic differentiation. The current findings demonstrate the clinical value of this class of vector to durably and safely modify bone marrow aspirates as a means to further develop convenient therapeutic approaches to improve the healing of cartilage defects. PMID:25338919

  12. Herb-induced acute bone marrow intoxication and interstitial nephritis superimposing glomerular C1q deposition in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Boqari, Deena T; Al Faraj, Shatha; Arafah, Maria; Aloudah, Nourah; Alkhairy, Khalid S; Alsuhaibani, Ahmed; Alsaad, Khaled O

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare disease of the red blood cell membrane that renders it lyzable by the complement system, leading to chronic intravascular hemolysis. Renal hemosiderosis is a well-known complication of intravascular hemolytic anemia and can lead to acute kidney injury and renal failure. The use of herbal medicine is common worldwide. The nephrotoxicity of herbal remedies can take several forms, which include acute kidney injury and acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. In addition, the use of herbal remedies can result in bone marrow toxicity and suppression. C1q nephropathy is an uncommon form of glomerular disease characterized by dominant or co-dominant glomerular immunofluorescence positivity for C1q in the absence of clinical and serological evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus, and has various clinical presentations and outcome. Here, we report a patient of undiagnosed paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria who consumed herbal medicine of unknown constituents and clinically presented with anemia and acute kidney injury. The pathological findings of bone marrow and renal biopsies that include bone marrow intoxication, severe renal hemosiderosis and acute interstitial nephritis and kidney injury, as well as co-dominant glomerular deposition of C1q, are discussed. In addition, we discuss and hypothesize the possible pathogenesis of glomerular C1q deposition in the setting of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobulinuria. PMID:26022031

  13. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  14. Increased Differentiation Capacity of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aquaporin-5 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5?/? mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5+/+ mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5?/? and AQP5+/+ mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPAR?2, C/EBP?, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5?/? -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5?/? BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5?/? mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5?/? than AQP5+/+ BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5+/+ than AQP5?/? BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

  15. Increased differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in aquaporin-5 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fei; Khan, Muhammad; Gao, Hongwen; Hao, Feng; Sun, Meiyan; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Changzheng; Feng, Xuechao; Ma, Tonghui

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with a self-renewal and multipotent capability and express extensively in multitudinous tissues. We found that water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in the plasma membrane pattern. BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) mice showed significantly lower plasma membrane water permeability than those from AQP5(+/+) mice. In characterizing the cultured BMMSCs from AQP5(-/-) and AQP5(+/+) mice, we found no obvious differences in morphology and proliferation between the 2 genotypes. However, the multiple differentiation capacity was significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs as revealed by representative staining by Oil Red O (adipogenesis); Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteogenesis); and type II collagen and Safranin O (chondrogenesis) after directional induction. Relative mRNA expression levels of 3 lineage differentiation markers, including PPAR?2, C/EBP?, adipsin, collagen 1a, osteopontin, ALP, collagen 11a, collagen 2a, and aggrecan, were significantly higher in AQP5(-/-) -differentiating BMMSCs, supporting an increased differentiation capacity of AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. Furthermore, a bone-healing process was accelerated in AQP5(-/-) mice in a drill-hole injury model. Mechanistic studies indicated a significantly lower apoptosis rate in AQP5(-/-) than AQP5(+/+) BMMSCs. Apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the differentiation capacity to a greater extent in AQP5(+/+) than AQP5(-/-) BMMSCs. We conclude that AQP5-mediated high plasma membrane water permeability enhances the apoptosis rate of differentiating BMMSCs, thus decreasing their differentiation capacity. These data implicate AQP5 as a novel determinant of differentiation of BMMSCs and therefore a new molecular target for regulating differentiation of BMMSCs during tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22420587

  16. Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

  17. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  18. Icariside II promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in beagle canine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guangming; Gu, Feifei; Zhang, Yingdi; Liu, Tianlin; Guo, Pengnv; Huang, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    Icariside II (ICS II) is a prenylated active flavonol from the roots of epimedium koreanum Nakai, and has many biological activities, including anti-osteoporosis, anti-hypoxia and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of ICS II on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Cell surface markers of cultured BMSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry and identified by multi-lineage differentiation assays. BMSCs proliferation was determined by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days in a range of ICS II concentrations. The osteogenic response of BMSCs to ICS II in vitro was examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and Alizarin red staining on calcium nodule formation. Results showed ICS II significantly improved ALP activity, and calcium deposition. The optimal concentration of ICS II for enhancing osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was 10-5. Therefore, we concluded ICS II can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs which may be useful in clinic. PMID:26191128

  19. The phytochrome red/far-red photoreceptor superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Proteins of the phytochrome superfamily of red/far-red light receptors have a variety of biological roles in plants, algae, bacteria and fungi and demonstrate a diversity of spectral sensitivities and output signaling mechanisms. Over the past few years the first three-dimensional structures of phytochrome light-sensing domains from bacteria have been determined. PMID:18771590

  20. Enhanced accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of increased extracellular and intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Nakamura, Kyoko [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Iesaki, Takafumi [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan)] [Institute for Environmental and Gender-Specific Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances adipocyte accumulation in the presence of adipogenic inducers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhances both proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppresses the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} may govern the balance of adipocyte and osteoblast development. -- Abstract: The bone marrow stroma contains osteoblasts and adipocytes that have a common precursor: the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Local bone marrow Ca{sup 2+} levels can reach high concentrations due to bone resorption, which is one of the notable features of the bone marrow stroma. Here, we describe the effects of high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} on the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma. Using primary mouse BMSCs, we evaluated the level of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes following treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone together but not in the absence of this treatment. This enhanced accumulation was the result of both the accelerated proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Using the fura-2 method, we also showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. An intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator suppressed the enhancement in adipocyte accumulation due to increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} in BMSCs. These data suggest a new role for extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in the bone marrow stroma: increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} induces an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels, which in turn enhances the accumulation of adipocytes under certain conditions.

  1. Ambiguous Red Shifts

    E-print Network

    Carl E. Wulfman

    2010-10-11

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

  2. [Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia after thymectomy in a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with thymoma].

    PubMed

    Cho, Ah Ra; Cha, Young Joo; Kim, Hye Ryoun; Park, Eun Kyung; Cha, Eun Jong

    2010-06-01

    The association of thymoma with pure red cell aplasia has been well documented, but amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is not a recognized paraneoplastic syndrome complicating thymoma. We report a case of thymoma-complicated pure red cell aplasia and amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a 73-yr-old woman. Pure red cell aplasia was diagnosed seven months after the detection of thymoma. One year after the diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia and seven months after thymectomy, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed an absence of megakaryocytes, marked erythroid hypoplasia with normal myeloid series. A diagnosis of amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia was made. Oral steroid maintenance therapy resulted in recovery of platelet count. She has still transfusion-dependent anemia but platelet and neutrophil counts had been maintained in normal range for more than five months, until the last follow-up. We think that autoreactive T cells may induce a clinical autoimmune response even after eradication of thymoma, and aplastic anemia as a late complication following thymectomy was described in previous cases. This patient also has to be under a close observation because of the possibility to evolve into aplastic anemia. PMID:20603583

  3. Bone Marrow work-up: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Dietel, Manfred; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study we changed several pre-analytical variables of bone marrow trephine biopsy processing with the task to achieve not only a preservation of morphology and antigens but also of nucleic acids. The changes involved employment of a newly established decalcification solution in conjunction with a short fixation time (2 h after receiving the specimens) and performance of decalcification at 37 °C. The comparison of the obtained results from three specimens with those of our routinely established protocol unequivocally revealed that the novel decalcification solution results in a superior preservation of nucleic acids, with only slight differences in preservation of morphology and cellular antigens. These encouraging results imply that this novel decalcification solution will allow a widely accepted standardization of bone marrow trephine biopsy processing. PMID:25636433

  4. The thymus in patients with allogeneic bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed Central

    Beschorner, W. E.; Hutchins, G. M.; Elfenbein, G. J.; Santos, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The thymus glands from 11 patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia who received allogeneic bone marrow transplants were studied at autopsy. All showed marked cortical involution. In the short-term survivors the medulla and perivascular spaces were lymphocyte-depleted and the epithelial cells formed pseudorosettes. In those surviving over 2 months, increasing numbers of small lymphocytes were present, presumably reconstituted with donor lymphocytes. Phagocytosis of cellular debris was frequent, especially in patients with graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) or treated with anithymocyte globulin (ATG). Plasma cells were numerous in perilobular tissue and were occasionally found within the medulla. The findings are compatible with the concept that the thymus plays an important role in the immune deficiency experienced after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and in the subsequent lymphoid reconstitution. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:356622

  5. L-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester treatment of canine marrow and peripheral blood cells: Inhibition of proliferative responses with maintenance of the capacity for autologous marrow engraftment

    SciTech Connect

    Raff, R.F.; Severns, E.; Storb, R.; Martin, P.; Graham, T.

    1988-11-01

    The success of allogeneic marrow transplantation as treatment for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases has been restricted by the serious complications of graft-versus-host disease. Experiments in a variety of mammalian marrow transplant models have shown that removal of mature T cells from donor marrow permits engraftment without the development of GVHD. Incubation of canine marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester resulted in the inhibition of mitogen-and alloantigen induced blastogenesis, the elimination of allosensitized Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte and Natural Killer activity, and prevented the development of CTL from pCTL. The effects of these incubations were similar to those described in mice and humans. Additionally, in vitro CFU-GM growth from treated canine marrow was reduced, but could be regained when the Leu-Leu-OMe-treated marrow was cocultured with either untreated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte-enriched PBMC but not with untreated monocyte-depleted PBMC. Six of seven dogs conditioned with 920 cGy total-body irradiation engrafted successfully after receiving autologous marrow that was incubated with Leu-Leu-OMe prior to infusion. These cumulative results indicate that incubation with Leu-Leu-OMe is a feasible method to deplete canine marrows of alloreactive and cytotoxic T cells prior to transplantation.

  6. Bone marrow aspirates as part of routine donor assessment for allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation can reveal presence of occult hematological malignancies in otherwise asymptomatic individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T L Kiss; H Chang; A Daly; H A Messner; N Jamal; D Spaner; S Rubin; J H Lipton

    2004-01-01

    Pre transplant screening work-up of donors for allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation is essential in an effort to minimize risks to the recipient and protect the donor. At Princess Margaret Hospital, every potential donor is screened with a bone marrow aspirate. The case histories of three asymptomatic potential donors who presented within 1 year with normal complete blood counts, history

  7. Increase of bone marrow lymphocytes in systemic mastocytosis: reactive lymphocytosis or malignant lymphoma? Immunohistochemical and molecular findings on routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H-P Horny; K Lange; K Sotlar; P Valent

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To clarify the nature (reactive or neoplastic) of lesional, perifocally aggregated lymphocytes in bone marrow infiltrates of systemic mastocytosis (SM), the histopathology of which can resemble malignant lymphoma with focal bone marrow involvement, particularly low grade malignant B cell lymphoma of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma subtype, which frequently exhibits increased mast cell (MC) numbers.Methods: Thirteen cases of SM and three of

  8. Since the 1950s and 1960s, bone-marrow transplants, in the form of intravenous infusions of whole marrow, have been used to treat patients

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    . These cells, the HS cells, have turned out to be among the most active in the human body. As the cellular system of recipient animals after the bone marrow has been completely ablated by radiation3 . In experiments in mice, serial trans- plantation of HS cells -- in which they are isolated from the marrow

  9. An enzymatic method to rescue mesenchymal stem cells from clotted bone marrow samples.

    PubMed

    Schlaefli, Philipp; Bertolo, Alessandro; Malonzo, Cherry; Poetzel, Tobias; Baur, Martin; Steffen, Frank; Stoyanov, Jivko

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - usually obtained from bone marrow - often require expansion culture. Our protocol uses clinical grade urokinase to degrade clots in the bone marrow and release MSCs for further use. This protocol provides a rapid and inexpensive alternative to bone marrow resampling. Bone marrow is a major source of MSCs, which are interesting for tissue engineering and autologous stem cell therapies. Upon withdrawal bone marrow may clot, as it comprises all of the hematopoietic system. The resulting clots contain also MSCs that are lost for expansion culture or direct stem cell therapy. We experienced that 74% of canine bone marrow samples contained clots and yielded less than half of the stem cell number expected from unclotted samples. Thus, we developed a protocol for enzymatic digestion of those clots to avoid labor-intense and costly bone marrow resampling. Urokinase - a clinically approved and readily available thrombolytic drug - clears away the bone marrow clots almost completely. As a consequence, treated bone marrow aspirates yield similar numbers of MSCs as unclotted samples. Also, after urokinase treatment the cells kept their metabolic activity and the ability to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Our protocol salvages clotted blood and bone marrow samples without affecting the quality of the cells. This obsoletes resampling, considerably reduces sampling costs and enables the use of clotted samples for research or therapy. PMID:25938767

  10. Tide pushing shellfishers into red

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Hampson

    This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

  11. Tuning RED for web traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikkel Christiansen; Kevin Jeffay; David Ott; F. Donelson Smith

    2000-01-01

    We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web brows- ing with a novel aspect of our work being the use of a user- centric measure of performance — response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter settings and offered loads. Our results show that: (1) contrary to expectations, compared to

  12. Bone Marrow SSEA1+ Cells Support the Myocardium in Cardiac Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Sopko, Nikolai; Dong, Feng; Turturice, Ben; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Penn, Marc S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Stage specific embryonic antigen 1+ (SSEA1+) cells have been described as the most primitive mesenchymal progenitor cell in the bone marrow. Cardiac injury mobilizes SSEA1+ cells into the peripheral blood but their in vivo function has not been characterized. Objective We generated animals with chimeric bone marrow to determine the fate and function of bone marrow SSEA1+ cells in response to acute cardiac pressure overload. Methods and Results Lethally irradiated mice were transplanted with normal bone marrow where the wild-type SSEA1+ cells were replaced with green fluorescent protein (GFP) SSEA1+ cells. Cardiac injury was induced by trans-aortic constriction (TAC). We identified significant GFP+ cell engraftment into the myocardium after TAC. Bone marrow GFP+ SSEA1 derived cells acquired markers of endothelial lineage, but did not express markers of c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells. The function of bone marrow SSEA1+ cells after TAC was determined by transplanting lethally irradiated mice with bone marrow depleted of SSEA1+ cells (SSEA1-BM). The cardiac function of SSEA1-BM mice declined at a greater rate after TAC compared to their complete bone marrow transplant counterparts and was associated with decreased bone marrow cell engraftment and greater vessel rarefication in the myocardium. Conclusions These results provide evidence for the recruitment of endogenous bone marrow SSEA1+ cells to the myocardium after TAC. We demonstrate that, in vivo, bone marrow SSEA1+ cells have the differentiation potential to acquire endothelial lineage markers. We also show that bone marrow SSEA1+ deficiency is associated with a reduced compensatory capacity to cardiac pressure overload, suggesting their importance in cardiac homeostasis. These data demonstrate that bone marrow SSEA1+ cells are critical for sustaining vascular density and cardiac repair to pressure overload. PMID:23874657

  13. A Pooled Analysis of Bone Marrow Micrometastasis in Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Braun; Florian D. Vogl; Bjørn Naume; Wolfgang Janni; Michael P. Osborne; R. Charles Coombes; Günter Schlimok; Ingo J. Diel; Bernd Gerber; Gerhard Gebauer; Jean-Yves Pierga; Christian Marth; Daniel Oruzio; Gro Wiedswang; Erich-Franz Solomayer; Günther Kundt; Barbara Strobl; Tanja Fehm; George Y. C. Wong; Judith Bliss; Anne Vincent-Salomon; Klaus Pantel

    2010-01-01

    background We assessed the prognostic significance of the presence of micrometastasis in the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer by means of a pooled analysis. methods We combined individual patient data from nine studies involving 4703 patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. We evaluated patient outcomes over a 10-year follow-up period (median, 5.2

  14. Diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in patients with bone marrow failure

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Fernando O.; Leblanc, Thierry; Chamousset, Delphine; Le Roux, Gwenaelle; Brethon, Benoit; Cassinat, Bruno; Larghero, Jérôme; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Baruchel, André; Socié, Gérard; Gluckman, Eliane; Soulier, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients with bone marrow failure and undiagnosed underlying Fanconi anemia may experience major toxicity if given standard-dose conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Due to clinical variability and/or potential emergence of genetic reversion with hematopoietic somatic mosaicism, a straightforward Fanconi anemia diagnosis can be difficult to make, and diagnostic strategies combining different assays in addition to classical breakage tests in blood may be needed. Design and Methods We evaluated Fanconi anemia diagnosis on blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts from a cohort of 87 bone marrow failure patients (55 children and 32 adults) with no obvious full clinical picture of Fanconi anemia, by performing a combination of chromosomal breakage tests, FANCD2-monoubiquitination assays, a new flow cytometry-based mitomycin C sensitivity test in fibroblasts, and, when Fanconi anemia was diagnosed, complementation group and mutation analyses. The mitomycin C sensitivity test in fibroblasts was validated on control Fanconi anemia and non-Fanconi anemia samples, including other chromosomal instability disorders. Results When this diagnosis strategy was applied to the cohort of bone marrow failure patients, 7 Fanconi anemia patients were found (3 children and 4 adults). Classical chromosomal breakage tests in blood detected 4, but analyses on fibroblasts were necessary to diagnose 3 more patients with hematopoietic somatic mosaicism. Importantly, Fanconi anemia was excluded in all the other patients who were fully evaluated. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients with bone marrow failure our results confirmed that when any clinical/biological suspicion of Fanconi anemia remains after chromosome breakage tests in blood, based on physical examination, history or inconclusive results, then further evaluation including fibroblast analysis should be made. For that purpose, the flow-based mitomycin C sensitivity test here described proved to be a reliable alternative method to evaluate Fanconi anemia phenotype in fibroblasts. This global strategy allowed early and accurate confirmation or rejection of Fanconi anemia diagnosis with immediate clinical impact for those who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. PMID:19278965

  15. Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

    1997-01-01

    The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

  16. Growth in children following irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bushhouse; N. K. Ramsay; O. H. Pescovitz; T. Kim; L. L. Robison

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal height data from 46 pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients, including 18 with aplastic anemia (AA), 19 with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and 9 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), were analyzed to assess growth posttransplantation. Patients were prepared for BMT with high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by 7.5 Gy single-dose irradiation; AA patients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), and leukemia patients

  17. Investigation of Macrophage Polarization Using Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wei; Cheruku, Patali S.; Bazer, Fuller W.; Safe, Stephen H.; Zhou, Beiyan

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a readily easy adaptive in vitro model to investigate macrophage polarization. In the presence of GM-CSF/M-CSF, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow are directed into monocytic differentiation, followed by M1 or M2 stimulation. The activation status can be tracked by changes in cell surface antigens, gene expression and cell signaling pathways. PMID:23851980

  18. Bone Marrow Concentrate: a novel tool for bone repair!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jäger; M. Herten; E. M. Jelinek; U. Fochtmann; R. Krauspe

    \\u000a Background: Recently controversy has arisen regarding the role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) in orthopaedic surgery with\\u000a their potential clinical application in cartilage and bone regeneration. Although autologous bone grafting is still the “gold\\u000a standard” to heal critical size bony defects, it is associated with significant donor site morbidity. We present clinical\\u000a and experimental data of autologous bone marrow aspiration

  19. Intractable bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Li, Zirong; Guo, Wanshou; Kush, Nepali; Ozaki, Koji

    2015-04-01

    There is a need for an effective and noninvasive treatment for intractable bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip. Forty-six patients with intractable bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip were retrospectively studied to compare the short-term clinical effects of treatment with high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy vs femoral head core decompression. The postoperative visual analog scale score decreased significantly more in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group compared with the femoral head core decompression group (P<.05). For unilateral lesions, postoperative Harris Hip Scores for all hips in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group were more significantly improved than Harris Hip Scores for all hips in the femoral head core decompression group (P<.05). Patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave therapy also resumed daily activities significantly earlier. Average overall operative time was similar in both groups. Symptoms disappeared significantly sooner in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group in patients with both unilateral (P<.01) and bilateral lesions (P<.05). Hospital costs were significantly lower with extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared with femoral head core decompression. The intraoperative fluoroscopy radiation dose was lower in extracorporeal shock wave therapy than in femoral head core decompression for both unilateral (P<.05) and bilateral lesions (P<.01). On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone marrow edema improved in all patients during the follow-up period. After extracorporeal shock wave therapy, all patients remained pain-free and had normal findings on posttreatment radiographs and MRI scans. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy appears to be a valid, reliable, and noninvasive tool for rapidly resolving intractable bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip, and it has a low complication rate and relatively low cost compared with other conservative and surgical treatment approaches. PMID:25901618

  20. Isolation, culture, and differentiation potential of mouse marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Bonnet, Dominique

    2008-10-01

    This unit describes how to isolate and expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow. For reasons that are not clear, it has been difficult to isolate these cells (also known as mesenchymal stem cells). Furthermore, different mouse strains seem to have specific requirements for successful extraction and culture of these cells. A general and easy protocol is presented here for isolating stromal cells from different inbred and transgenic mice commonly used in the stem cell biology field. PMID:18972375

  1. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cadossi; P. Zucchini; G. Emilia; G. Torelli

    1990-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg\\/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were

  2. Quantitative image analysis of cell colocalization in murine bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Zeinab; Mech, Franziska; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hauser, Anja E; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-06-01

    Long-term antibody production is a key property of humoral immunity and is accomplished by long-lived plasma cells. They mainly reside in the bone marrow, whose importance as an organ hosting immunological memory is becoming increasingly evident. Signals provided by stromal cells and eosinophils may play an important role for plasma cell maintenance, constituting a survival microenvironment. In this joint study of experiment and theory, we investigated the spatial colocalization of plasma cells, eosinophils and B cells by applying an image-based systems biology approach. To this end, we generated confocal fluorescence microscopy images of histological sections from murine bone marrow that were subsequently analyzed in an automated fashion. This quantitative analysis was combined with computer simulations of the experimental system for hypothesis testing. In particular, we tested the observed spatial colocalization of cells in the bone marrow against the hypothesis that cells are found within available areas at positions that were drawn from a uniform random number distribution. We find that B cells and plasma cells highly colocalize with stromal cells, to an extent larger than in the simulated random situation. While B cells are preferentially in contact with each other, i.e., form clusters among themselves, plasma cells seem to be solitary or organized in aggregates, i.e., loosely defined groups of cells that are not necessarily in direct contact. Our data suggest that the plasma cell bone marrow survival niche facilitates colocalization of plasma cells with stromal cells and eosinophils, respectively, promoting plasma cell longevity. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25652548

  3. Immune Plasticity of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stagg; J. Galipeau

    Isolated from simple bone marrow aspirates, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be easily expanded ex vivo and differentiated\\u000a into various cell lineages. Because they are present in humans of all ages, are harvested in the absence of prior mobilization\\u000a and preserve their plasticity following gene modification, MSCs are particularly attractive for cell-based medicine. One of\\u000a the most fascinating properties of

  4. Bone-marrow-derived stem cells — our key to longevity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak; Ewa K. Zuba-Surma; Bogus?aw Machalinski; Magdalena Kucia

    2007-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) was for many years primarily regarded as the source of hematopoietic stem cells. In this review we discuss\\u000a current views of the BM stem cell compartment and present data showing that BM contains not only hematopoietic but also heterogeneous\\u000a non-hematopoietic stem cells. It is likely that similar or overlapping populations of primitive non-hematopoietic stem cells\\u000a in BM

  5. [Bronchiolitis obliterans: a potential complication after bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Rozewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantations (BMT) are limited by complications connected with infection and non-infection processes. One of them, after allogenic bmt is a graft versus host disease. Bronchiolitis obliterans is observed in patients with GVHD. It seems that bronchiolitis obliterans is not observed after autologic bmt. If this observation is proved, it will mean that GVHD is the main factor of the development bronchiolitis obliterans. PMID:10503046

  6. Myasthenia gravis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JE Dowell; PL Moots; RS Stein

    1999-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with lymphoblastic lymphoma developed myasthenia gravis (MG) 26 months after receiving an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from an HLA-identical sister. She presented with classic symptoms and electromyographic evidence of the disorder approximately 2 weeks after electing to abruptly discontinue her immunosuppressive medications. She initially responded to steroids and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Her subsequent course has been characterized

  7. Patterns of gonadal dysfunction following bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AC Mertens; NKC Ramsay; S Kouris; JP Neglia

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed gonadal function in 270 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) between 1974 and 1988. Age at transplant ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean 25.6 years). Diagnoses included acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, aplastic anemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease and other diagnoses. Effects of patient characteristics on risk of gonadal dysfunction were analyzed

  8. THPO-MPL pathway and bone marrow failure.

    PubMed

    Dasouki, Majed; Saadi, Irfan; Ahmed, Syed O

    2015-03-01

    Single or multilineage bone marrow failure can be a serious health problem caused by hereditary and non-hereditary causes such as exposure to drugs or environmental toxins. Normal hematopoiesis requires the integrity of several pathways including the THPO-MPL pathway. Over the last two decades, significant advances in the understanding of normal and abnormal functions of this and related pathways have led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic options. PMID:25482588

  9. Shifts in bone marrow cell phenotypes caused by spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, M. Teresa; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Ferguson, Virginia; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow cells were isolated from the humeri of C57BL/6 mice after a 13-day flight on the space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-118 to determine how spaceflight affects differentiation of cells in the granulocytic lineage. We used flow cytometry to assess the expression of molecules that define the maturation/activation state of cells in the granulocytic lineage on three bone marrow cell subpopulations. These molecules included Ly6C, CD11b, CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), Ly6G (Gr-1), F4/80, CD44, and c-Fos. The three subpopulations were small agranular cells [region (R)1], larger granular cells (R2), which were mostly neutrophils, and very large, very granular cells (R3), which had properties of macrophages. Although there were no composite phenotypic differences between total bone marrow cells isolated from spaceflight and ground-control mice, there were subpopulation differences in Ly6C (R1 and R3), CD11b (R2), CD31 (R1, R2, and R3), Ly6G (R3), F4/80 (R3), CD44high (R3), and c-Fos (R1, R2, and R3). In particular, the elevation of CD11b in the R2 subpopulation suggests neutrophil activation in response to landing. In addition, decreases in Ly6C, c-Fos, CD44high, and Ly6G and an increase in F4/80 suggest that the cells in the bone marrow R3 subpopulation of spaceflight mice were more differentiated compared with ground-control mice. The presence of more differentiated cells may not pose an immediate risk to immune resistance. However, the reduction in less differentiated cells may forebode future consequences for macrophage production and host defenses. This is of particular importance to considerations of future long-term spaceflights. PMID:19056998

  10. Breast Cancer Studies Raise Doubts Over Bone Marrow Transplants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    1999-01-01

    On April 15, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released long-awaited preliminary results of five studies on bone marrow transplants for women with advanced breast cancer. Considered a last resort, the painful and costly procedure involves ultrahigh doses of chemotherapy which destroy the patient's bone marrow which must then be replaced by a transplant or marrow-restoring stem cells. Four of the five studies found no difference in survival rates of patients who had high-dose chemotherapy with transplants, and those who had lower doses of chemotherapy. The fifth study, from South Africa, did find a benefit for women with positive lymph nodes. Critics of the transplant therapy argue that the studies show thousands of women have needlessly undergone excruciating and expensive procedures. However, because the five studies are so different, attacking tumors in different ways and involving women in different stages of breast cancer, the NCI and others have asserted that this is far from the last word on the subject, and the NCI has plans to fund fifteen additional studies. The sites listed provide information about breast cancer treatments.

  11. Bone marrow stem cells: current and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Scadden, David T; Sánchez-Aguilera, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of stromal cells with hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow have long been a subject of research, but only recently have technologies allowed us to dissect them at the stem cell level. On the other hand, limitations of these technical tools might explain numerous discrepancies in this field. It is becoming increasingly clear that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an important component of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow. However, there is heterogeneity among HSCs, and many putatively different mesenchymal progenitors identified in the bone marrow using Cre recombinase-driven mouse lines seem to exhibit HSC niche properties. Development of better reporter lines has demonstrated that some of these Cre lines do not always specifically mark the expected cells. Also, characterization of different cell populations has often been partial, and issues of redundancy and compensation might explain apparently contradictory results. Recognizing and overcoming these limitations, while also clearly defining the distinctions between subgroups of mesenchymal cells, will be essential to advance the field. PMID:25573321

  12. T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

  13. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. (Univ. di Modena (Italy))

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  14. Recent insights into inherited bone marrow failure syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Shefali; Bessler, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are a diverse set of genetic disorders characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce sufficient circulating blood cells. The purpose of this review is to highlight novel findings in the last years and their impact into the understanding of IBMFS. Recent Findings Mutations in over 80 different genes have been associated with the development of bone marrow failure (BMF). The products of the genes mutated in IBMFS frequently participate in housekeeping pathways, which are important for cell growth and division rather than being specific for hematopoiesis. The common theme of these pathways, when disturbed, is the activation of p53, leading to cell cycle arrest, senescence, and cell death. With continued improvement in therapy for IBMFS, late complications, such as development of malignancies, are seen more frequently. This highlights the importance of understanding the affected pathways and their roles in cancer development. Summary The recent advancement of our understanding of IBMFS has come largely through the identification of the genetic lesions responsible for disease and the investigations of their pathways. Applied in clinical practice, these findings make it possible to unambiguously identify mutation carriers even before the development of BMF and exclude or confirm a suspected clinical diagnosis for many of the more common IBMFS. The further characterization of the pathways leading to IBMFS are likely to reveal novel targets for screening tests, prognostic biomarkers, and improved and specific therapeutics. PMID:22227778

  15. Differentiation of lymphocytes in the mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, J. W.; Osmond, D. G.; Nossal, G. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    The response of mouse spleen cells to the T cell-independent antigen dinitrophenylated polymer of flagellin (DNP—POL), has been studied using an adoptive transfer system, and compared with the response of bone marrow cells. Spleen cells showed a complex cell dose—response relationship, with a markedly discontinuous curve, for assays performed before day 9 after transfer and antigen challenge. This discontinuity could be explained by a delay in attainment of the peak response for lower cell inocula. The curve became linear on a log—log scale when spleens were harvested on days 9 and 10 post-transfer. Bone marrow cells gave a lower response than would be expected from their lymphocyte content. This response increased progressively with a delay before antigen challenge in the irradiated recipient or in tissue culture prior to cell transfer, suggesting a functional maturation in this cell population, whereas the performance of spleen cells fell off under similar circumstances. The findings were consistent with, but could not prove, the hypothesis that the immediate precursors of anti-DNP antibody-forming cells in bone marrow were high surface immunoglobulin density small lymphocytes that had arisen locally from precursors lacking detectable surface immunoglobulin, by a non-mitotic maturation. PMID:4279889

  16. T vector bearing KillerRed protein marker for red\\/white cloning screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuedong Liu; Xing Liu; Yanna Zhou; Dan Zou; Rui Shi; Zaiyu Li; Dong Zheng

    2010-01-01

    As a novel selection marker for DNA cloning, the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed was used to achieve red\\/white cloning screening within the pZK18T T-vector system. KillerRed functioned without cofactors, inducers, or substrates. KillerRed-based red\\/white cloning screening was reliable in that bacteria containing DNA inserts that disrupt functional KillerRed expression form white colonies or red colonies as backgrounds. KillerRed simplifies assembly

  17. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  18. Immunophenotypic heterogeneity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with hematologic disorders: correlation with bone marrow microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Campioni; Sabrina Moretti; Luisa Ferrari; Marina Punturieri; Gian Luigi Castoldi; Francesco Lanza

    The immunophenotypic analysis of ex vivo-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has so far been confined to single or dual staining analysis in normal subjects. In this study, using a four-color cytofluorimetric protocol, we demonstrated that cultured MSC derived from the bone marrow of patients with hematologic malignancies showed alter- ations in the expression of CD105, CD90, CD184, and HLA-DR molecules.

  19. Neuropeptide Y regulates the hematopoietic stem cell microenvironment and prevents nerve injury in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Hee; Jin, Hee Kyung; Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Herzog, Herbert; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Schuchman, Edward H; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2015-06-12

    Many reports have revealed the importance of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the control of the bone marrow environment. However, the specific role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process has not been systematically studied. Here we show that NPY-deficient mice have significantly reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers and impaired regeneration in bone marrow due to apoptotic destruction of SNS fibers and/or endothelial cells. Furthermore, pharmacological elevation of NPY prevented bone marrow impairments in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced SNS injury, while NPY injection into conditional knockout mice lacking the Y1 receptor in macrophages did not relieve bone marrow dysfunction. These results indicate that NPY promotes neuroprotection and restores bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy-induced SNS injury through the Y1 receptor in macrophages. They also reveal a new role of NPY as a regulator of the bone marrow microenvironment and highlight the potential therapeutic value of this neuropeptide. PMID:25916827

  20. Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stem Cell in Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffold Loaded Various Ratio of Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Hye Min; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Cho Min; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hydroxyapatite has biocompatibility and bioactivity and similar to bone of in human body. The purpose of this study is to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) in PLGA Scaffold added various ratio of hydroxyapatite (HAp). Methods and Results PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold were prepared using solvent casting/salt-leaching method. BMSC was seeded on the PLGA and PLGA/HAp scaffold and the samples were cultured in 37? incubator with 5% CO2 for 28 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was carried out to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days. Alizarin Red S stating was performed to identify calcium in scaffold at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Compressive strength was measured to evaluate mechanical property of scaffold. To confirm cell viability, MTT was carried out at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. RT-PCR was performed to verify specific marker expression of osteoblast and stem cell at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Conclusions Osteogenic differentiation of BMSC was confirmed through ALP, RT-PCR, and alizarin red S staining in this study. These results suggest that HAp helps osteogenic differentiation of BMSC. PMID:24298375

  1. Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

    1988-01-01

    Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

  2. A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with prolonged remission after syngeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Hasegawa; K Sano; Y Kosaka; A Hayakawa; H Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old girl with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis who received a syngeneic bone marrow transplant from her twin sister. She presented with high fever and cough. Laboratory findings revealed pancytopenia, elevation of liver enzymes, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow examination revealed histiocytic hemophagocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Southern blot analysis of the bone marrow cells revealed a monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes.

  3. Bone-marrow plasma cell burden correlates with IgM paraprotein concentration in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sant-Rayn Pasricha; Surender K Juneja; David A Westerman; Neil A Came

    2011-01-01

    AimsCorrelations between the marrow histopathology and clinical findings in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) are not well defined, and the pathophysiology of the plasma cell involvement is poorly understood. The authors used a standardised immunohistological approach to the enumeration of B lymphocyte and plasma cell compartments in the bone-marrow trephine to investigate associations between bone-marrow morphology and clinical\\/laboratory indices.MethodsIn 80 newly diagnosed,

  4. Role of immobilization of irradiated rats in the protective effect of bone marrow shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronskaya, N. F.; Strelin, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were exposed to X-radiation to study the influence of immobilization and shielding of part of bone marrow during exposure on survival. It is concluded that (1) the beneficial effect of the stress factor (created by the immobilization of rats during exposure) can aggregate with the effect of bone marrow shielding and, under certain conditions, imitate the latter; and (2) the probability of the protective effect of immobilization should be taken into account when assessing the influence of bone marrow shielding.

  5. Radio-Quite Red Quasars

    E-print Network

    Dong-Woo Kim; Martin Elvis

    1998-11-25

    We have performed a successful targetted search for a population of red radio-quiet, and probably absorbed, quasars. Radio-quiet, optically-red ROSAT PSPC X-ray sources brighter than 10^{-13} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} were searched for red (O-E > 2.0, O < 20) counterparts in the APM catalog of Palomar Sky Survey objects. Of 45 objects for which we obtained adequate follow-up optical spectroscopy, we have found 7 red quasars, 5 with alpha(opt) < -2. Their redshifts range from 0.06 to 0.31, and their luminosities are moderate, lying on the Seyfert/Quasar boundary. These red quasars strengthen the case for a radio-quiet population that is the counterpart of the radio-loud red quasars found by Smith and Spinrad (1980), and Webster et al. (1995). Unidentified, fainter, sources could increase the fraction of red quasars by up to a factor 7. For the red quasars found here, the H-alpha/H-beta ratios, optical slope and X-ray colors all indicate that they are absorbed by A(V) ~ 2, rather than having intrinsically red spectra. This amount of obscuration seems to hide ~1-7% of quasars at a given observed flux, or ~3-20% when their fluxes are corrected to their intrinsic values. This size of population is consistent with earlier limits, with predicted values from Comastri et al. (1995), and is comparable to the rate found among radio-loud quasars. A large population of more heavily absorbed (A(V)=5), fainter, quasars equal in size to the blue population could exist, without violating existing upper limits, in accord with the Comastri et al. (1995) predictions.

  6. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  7. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a broad mission, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies are involved in everything from disaster response and management to capacity building all over the globe. As one might expect, visitors to the site can learn about some of their more well-known programs in the "Get Involved" area on the homepage. Their homepage is also an excellent place to learn about some of their research publications, which include their annual "World Disasters Report" and their in-house magazine, "Red Cross, Red Crescent". For more nuts-and-bolts type information on the organization, visitors should browse through the "Who We Are", "What We Do", and "Where We Work" sections. Additionally, visitors can enter the "Our Programmes" section to learn about their various outreach efforts in different regions of the world.

  8. SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN 2006­2011 #12;#12;S C O T T I S H R E D S Q U I R R E L A C T I O.1 Background 1 1.2 Action Plan Working Group 1 1.3 Issues affecting the conservation of the red squirrel 1 1.2 Timescale and partnership working 3 2.3 Rationale 3 2.4 Key actions 4 2.4.1 Establish and monitor the red

  9. Use of impedance plethysmography to continually monitor bone marrow blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Gerber, R. L.; Cann, C. E.; Morey, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance-plethysmographic technique is described which can be used to quantify temporal bone-marrow blood-flow changes. Results obtained with the impedance technique compare favorably with the data from simultaneously administered microspheres. Injection of sympathomimetic drugs produced measurable responses: isoproterenol caused a significant increase in bone-marrow blood flow within 1 min, and levarterenol decreased bone-marrow blood flow. Data obtained with impedance plethysmography suggest that the technique is feasible for multiple measurements on the same animal and that the technique can be used to study acute or chronic changes in bone-marrow blood flow following various experimental treatments.

  10. [Radiosensitivity of marrow stromal cells and the effect of some radioprotective agents].

    PubMed

    Liu, S

    1991-10-01

    The results showed that marrow stromal cells include fibroblasts, reticular cells, macrophages and adipocytes. The capability of the adherent layer derived from marrow cells of 2 mouse femurs to support hematopoietic stem cells was stronger than those of layers derived from 0.5 or 1 mouse femurs. The radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cells was lower than that of hematopoietic stem cells. The radioprotective effect of AET and PLP (polysaccharide of Lobaria pulmonaria Hoffm) on the bone marrow stromal cells and their capability to support hematopoietic stem cells was clearly demonstrated. PMID:1839252

  11. Atypical multinucleated cells form in long-term marrow cultures from patients with Paget's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kukita, A; Chenu, C; McManus, L M; Mundy, G R; Roodman, G D

    1990-01-01

    Although Paget's disease is the most flagrant example of a primary osteoclast disorder, little is known of osteoclast biology in this disease. In this report we have studied the formation of cells with the osteoclast phenotype in long-term cultures of marrow mononuclear cells derived from patients with Paget's disease, and compared these with similar cells formed in long-term marrow cultures from normal individuals, and with osteoclasts present in pagetic bone. Osteoclasts formed in pagetic marrow cultures resembled osteoclasts present in pagetic bone, but were distinctly different from osteoclasts formed in normal marrow cultures. Osteoclast formation was 10-20-fold greater in pagetic marrow cultures than in normal cultures. The multinucleated cells formed in cultures of pagetic marrow were much larger in size, were hyperresponsive to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, had more nuclei per cell, had increased levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and had ultrastructural features which were not seen in multinucleated cells formed from normal marrow mononuclear cells. These pagetic marrow-derived multinucleated cells formed large resorption lacunae on calcified matrices and cross-reacted with monoclonal antibodies which preferentially bind to osteoclasts. The multinucleated cells formed from marrow obtained from uninvolved sites in Paget's patients also displayed these abnormal features. Images PMID:2318982

  12. Goodson Ida Red with Foal 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The availability of nutrients and energy in feedstuffs for fish may vary considerably, depending on a variety of factors including fish species, ingredient quality and processing conditions. The red drum is an emerging aquaculture species for which...

  13. Attic red-figure vases 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON THE RESPONSE OF CERTAIN PHOTOSENSITIVE SEEDS TO RED LIGHT A Thesis By Billy Richardson Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1964 Major Subject: Floriculture EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON THE RESPONSE OF CERTAIN PHOTOSENSITIVE SEEDS TO RED LIGHT A Thesis By Billy Richardson Approved as to style and content by: Co-chairman of Committee w...

  14. Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes 

    E-print Network

    Heidtke, Kenan Paul

    1992-01-01

    -made earthenware tobacco pipes has only been undertaken in the last few years. These red clay pipes occur at several colonial sites in North America, the Caribbean, and South America. This thesis will be a detailed study of the red clay pipes found in Jamaica... used on the pipes, and to offer possible explanations for the markings and stylistic attributes of the pipes. Locally made earthenware pipes from other colonial sites in the New World will also be examined to identify possible parallels...

  15. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. Analytic Evaluation of RED Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bonald; Martin May; Jean-chrysostome Bolot

    2000-01-01

    End-to-end congestion control mechanisms such as those inTCP are not enough to prevent congestion collapse in the Internet (forstarters, not all applications might be willing to use them), and they mustbe supplemented by control mechanisms inside the network. The IRTFhas singled out Random Early Detection (RED) as one queue managementscheme recommended for rapid deployment throughout the Internet. However,RED is not

  17. Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maneveldt, Gavin W.

    This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

  18. BONE MARROW PROGENITOR CELLS REPAIR RAT HEPATIC SINUSOIDAL ENDOTHELIAL CELLS AFTER LIVER INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Rula; Xie, Guanhua; Lutzko, Carolyn; Guo, Yumei; Wang, Xiangdong; Hill, Colin K.; Kanel, Gary C.; DeLeve, Laurie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Damage to hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) initiates sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), which is most commonly a consequence of myeloablative chemo-irradiation or ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids such as monocrotaline (Mct). This study examines whether SEC are of bone marrow origin, whether bone marrow repair can be a determinant of severity of liver injury and whether treatment with progenitor cells is beneficial. Methods Mct-treated female rats received infusion of male whole bone marrow or CD133+ cells at the peak of sinusoidal injury. The y-chromosome was identified in isolated SEC by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Bone marrow suppression was induced by irradiation of both lower extremities with shielding of the abdomen. Results SEC in uninjured liver have both hematopoietic (CD45, CD33) and endothelial (CD31) markers. After Mct-induced SOS, infusion of bone marrow derived CD133+ progenitor cells replaces more than one-quarter of SEC. All CD133+ cells recovered from the SEC fraction after injury are CD45+. CD133+/45+ progenitors also repaired central vein endothelium. Mct suppresses CD133+/CD45+ progenitors in bone marrow by 50% and in the circulation by 97%. Irradiation-induced bone marrow suppression elicited SOS from a sub-toxic dose of Mct, whereas infusion of bone marrow during the necrotic phase of SOS nearly eradicates histological features of SOS. Conclusions SEC have both hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Bone marrow-derived CD133+/CD45+ progenitors replace SEC and central vein endothelial cells after injury. Toxicity to bone marrow progenitors impairs repair and contributes to the pathogenesis of SOS, whereas timely infusion of bone marrow has therapeutic benefit. PMID:19447108

  19. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this possibility, we established bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from GATA2 conditional knockout mice. Differentiation of GATA2-deficient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes induced accelerated oil-drop formation. Further, GATA2 loss- and gain-of-function analyses based on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells confirmed that decreased and increased GATA2 expression accelerated and suppressed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to adipocytes, respectively. Microarray analysis of GATA2 knockdowned human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells revealed that 90 and 189 genes were upregulated or downregulated by a factor of 2, respectively. Moreover, gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, and the number of G1/G0 cells increased after GATA2 knockdown. Concomitantly, cell proliferation was decreased by GATA2 knockdown. When GATA2 knockdowned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as adipocytes were cocultured with CD34-positive cells, hematopoietic stem cell frequency and colony formation decreased. We confirmed the existence of pathological signals that decrease and increase hematopoietic cell and adipocyte numbers, respectively, characteristic of aplastic anemia, and that suppress GATA2 expression in hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25150255

  20. The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sean J.; Scadden, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Niches are local tissue microenvironments that maintain and regulate stem cells. Haematopoiesis provides a paradigm for understanding mammalian stem cells and their niches, yet the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche remains incompletely defined and beset by competing models. Here we review progress in elucidating the location and cellular components of the HSC niche in the bone marrow. The niche is perivascular, created partly by mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells and often, but not always, located near trabecular bone. Outstanding questions concern the cellular complexity of the niche, the role of the endosteum, and functional heterogeneity among perivascular microenvironments. PMID:24429631

  1. Quality of life in adult patients after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Yano; Makoto Yazaki; Kenjiro Kitaori; Noriyuki Hirabayashi; Saburoh Minami; Yoshihisa Morishita; Hironori Yamada; Tomoki Naoe; Hiroshi Kojima; Sei-ichi Goto; Yoshihisa Kodera; Yasuo Morishima

    1998-01-01

    Background  Since culture, history, personal financial situation, and the health insurance system are strongly associated with quality\\u000a of life (QOL) for patients undergoing continuing medical care, any investigation into this subject should be done within individual\\u000a areas and countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  We investigated QOL in adult survivors after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), by administering a mail-back questionnaire\\u000a to outpatients seen at

  2. Tuberculosis in pediatric oncology and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea T; Airewele, Gladstone; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    Five children with malignancies (3 hematologic, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 hepatoblastoma) and one bone marrow transplant patient were treated for tuberculosis over a 30-year period. Three had pulmonary disease, 3 disseminated tuberculosis, and 1 had scrofula. Four of five had positive tuberculin skin tests, cultures were positive in 5/6 children. One child died of disseminated TB after engraftment, and one child had hepatotoxicity likely related to tuberculosis therapy. All cases were potentially preventable had they been screened due to established risk factors of foreign birth (4/6) or parental foreign birth (2/6). All children should be screened for latent tuberculosis before chemotherapy. PMID:24623644

  3. Genotoxicity of sennosides on the bone marrow cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, M J; Saha, A; Dutta, A; De, B; Mukherjee, A

    1998-11-01

    Preparations of a number of plants which contain hydroxyanthraquinones as active constituents are used worldwide for their laxative effect. Anthraquinone glycosides of Cassia angustifolia and C. fistula were investigated for their ability to induce a clastogenic effect on the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. The endpoints screened were chromosomal aberrations and frequency of aberrant cells. Oral exposure to doses of these anthraquinones and their equivalent amount in leaf and pod extracts did not induce significant numbers of chromosomal aberrations or aberrant cells. The results indicate that anthraquinone sennoside B and rhein are weakly genotoxic. PMID:9771555

  4. Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

    Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early osteogenic potency of stromal cells. These results indicate that spaceflight factors had no significant damaging effects on the murine bone marrow mononuclears. These observations are consistent with previously made assumption of moderate and reversible stress reaction of mammals on spaceflight conditions. This work was supported by Program of Basic Research of IMBP RAS

  5. Effects of Mössbauer radiation on bone marrow cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortalli, I.; Pedrazzi, G.; Jiang, K.; Zhang, X.; Carlo-Stella, C.; Mangoni, L.; Rizzoli, V.

    1992-04-01

    A low radiation dose approach to cell eradication would be highly desirable in cancer treatments in order to reduce the side ellects of conventional radiotherapy. In the present work we present a preliminary study on coltures of bone marrow mononuclear cells collected from normal subjects and patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). Hematin (104, 10-3, 10°M) has been added to mattow culture cells which were then irradiated with a 3.7 GBq (100 mCi)57Co/Rh Mossbauer source for 4 hours. Significant inbibition has been observed on the cell growth due to hematin and irradiatron.

  6. Mouse Models in Bone Marrow Transplantation and Adoptive Cellular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Arber, Caroline; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Reddy, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models of transplantation have been indispensable to the development of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Their role in the generation of basic science knowledge is invaluable and is subject to discussion below. However, this article focuses on the direct role and relevance of mouse models towards the clinical development and advances in BMT and adoptive T-cell therapy for human diseases. The authors aim to present a thoughtful perspective on the pros and cons of mouse models while noting that despite imperfections these models are obligatory for the development of science-based medicine. PMID:24216170

  7. The Johns Hopkins and Red Cross

    E-print Network

    Scharfstein, Daniel

    The Johns Hopkins and Red Cross Red Crescent Public health guide in emergencies Second edition I 2008 #12;© Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Any part of this manual may be cited, copied, translated into other

  8. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible. PMID:10472629

  9. Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

  10. Increased expression of TIGIT on CD4+ T cells ameliorates immune-mediated bone marrow failure of aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jianhong; Zhou, Xingchun; Liang, Rong; Bai, Qingxian; Yang, Lan; Gu, Hongtao; Gao, Guangxun; Dong, Baoxia; Zhu, Huafeng; Chen, Xiequn

    2014-11-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cell activation is suspected to play an important role. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor, which exhibits inhibitory functions on the immune response. However, its role in AA has not been clearly determined. In the current study, we showed that the frequency of TIGIT-positive CD4(+) T cells was reduced in the vast majority of AA patients (85%, 17/20). In TIGIT-silenced human CD4(+) T cells, stimulation of agonistic anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody significantly facilitated cell proliferation, increased production of IL-2 and IFN-?, and inhibited production of IL-10. However, in TIGIT-overexpressed human CD4(+) T cells, cell proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-? were significantly hindered; in contrast, the secretion of IL-10 was improved. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that T-bet expression in human CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased by TIGIT overexpression, but only slightly altered by TIGIT knockdown. In mouse models, lentivirus-mediated TIGIT-overexpressed CD4(+) T cell transfer significantly rescued the decreased red blood cell count, attenuated the increase in serum INF-? and TNF-? levels, and lengthened the median survival time. The mRNA levels of CD34, stem cell factor (SCF), and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in bone marrow mononuclear cells were also up-regulated. In conclusion, increased expression of TIGIT could inhibit the function of CD4(+) T cells in vitro and ameliorate immune-mediated bone marrow failure of AA in vivo providing a new potential strategy for the treatment of AA. PMID:24905442

  11. Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzébio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

  12. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25?µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and ?-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5?µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5?µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15?µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15?µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

  13. Variable incidence of cyclosporine and FK-506 neurotoxicity in hematopoeitic malignancies and marrow conditions after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter S. Bartynski; Zella R. Zeigler; Richard K. Shadduck; John Lister

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines whether malignant disease under treatment influences the incidence of cyclosporine or FK-506 neurotoxicity\\u000a after myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Review of 290 patients who received myeloablative conditioning prior to allo-BMT and cyclosporine\\/FK-506 identified 21 (7.2%)\\u000a patients with neurotoxicity confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Underlying malignancy necessitating allo-BMT\\u000a included leukemias (67%),

  14. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral Larry A. Gross red fluorescent protein, was recently cloned from Discosoma coral by homology to the green fluorescent companion paper (1), we showed that the red fluorescent protein DsRed cloned from coral by Matz et al. (2

  15. Nutritional Issues in Adolescents After Bone Marrow Transplant: A Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Rodgers

    Bone marrow transplantation and related complica- tions can cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects that can lead to poor nutrition, which has been associ- ated with several morbidity and mortality issues. Adolescents require adequate nutrition not only to maintain health but to advance with normal growth and development. This article synthesizes the bone marrow transplant (BMT) literature regarding adoles- cents' nutritional

  16. Genomic analysis of bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes reveals phenotypic and diagnostic complexity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael Y.; Keel, Siobán B.; Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming K.; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Watts, Amanda C.; Pritchard, Colin C.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Jeng, Michael R.; Hofmann, Inga; Williams, David A.; Fleming, Mark D.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; King, Mary-Claire; Shimamura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All 8 of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only 4 had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25239263

  17. Minimal Contribution of Marrow-Derived Endothelial Precursors to Tumor Vasculature1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Larrivee; Kyle Niessen; Ingrid Pollet; Stephane Y. Corbel; Michael Long; Fabio M. Rossi; Peggy L. Olive; Aly Karsan

    2005-01-01

    During embryogenesis, vascular and hemopoietic cells originate from a common precursor, the hemangioblast. Recent evidence suggests the existence of endothelial precursors in adult bone marrow cells, but it is unclear whether those precursors have a role in tumor neovascularization. In this report, we demonstrate that murine bone marrow contains endothelial progenitors, which arise from a cell with self-renewing capacity, and

  18. Haematopoietic stem cells depend on Galphas-mediated signalling to engraft bone marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor B. Adams; Ian R. Alley; Ung-Il Chung; Karissa T. Chabner; Nathaniel T. Jeanson; Cristina Lo Celso; Emily S. Marsters; Min Chen; Lee S. Weinstein; Charles P. Lin; Henry M. Kronenberg; David T. Scadden

    2009-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) change location during development and circulate in mammals throughout life, moving into and out of the bloodstream to engage bone marrow niches in sequential steps of homing, engraftment and retention. Here we show that HSPC engraftment of bone marrow in fetal development is dependent on the guanine-nucleotide-binding protein stimulatory alpha subunit (Galphas). HSPCs from

  19. Marrow adipocyte-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2 contribute to osteolysis in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, Aimalie L; Herroon, Mackenzie K; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Podgorski, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Increased bone marrow adiposity is a common feature of advanced age, obesity and associated metabolic pathologies. Augmented numbers of marrow adipocytes positively correlate with dysregulated bone remodeling, also a well-established complication of metastatic disease. We have shown previously that marrow adiposity accelerates prostate tumor progression in the skeleton and promotes extensive destruction of the bone; however, the factors behind adipocyte-driven osteolysis in the skeletal tumor microenvironment are not currently known. In this study, utilizing in vivo diet-induced models of bone marrow adiposity, we reveal evidence for positive correlation between increased marrow fat content, bone degradation by ARCaP(M) and PC3 prostate tumors, and augmented levels of host-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2, ligands of CXCR2 receptor. We show by in vitro osteoclastogenesis assays that media conditioned by bone marrow adipocytes is a significant source of CXCL1 and CXCL2 proteins. We also demonstrate that both the adipocyte-conditioned media and the recombinant CXCL1 and CXCL2 ligands efficiently accelerate osteoclast maturation, a process that can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies to each of the chemokines. We further confirm the contribution of CXCR2 signaling axis to adiposity-driven osteoclastogenesis by blocking fat cell-induced osteoclast differentiation with CXCR2 antagonist or neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results link CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines with bone marrow adiposity and implicate CXCR2 signaling in promoting effects of marrow fat on progression of skeletal tumors in bone. PMID:25802102

  20. Optimal Controls for a Model with Pharmacokinetics Maximizing Bone Marrow in Cancer Chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Ledzewicz, Urszula

    Optimal Controls for a Model with Pharmacokinetics Maximizing Bone Marrow in Cancer Chemotherapy model for the depletion of bone marrow under cancer chemotherapy is analyzed as an optimal control of the pharmacokinetic equations on the dosages. 1 Introduction Although mathematical models for cancer chemotherapy have

  1. Donor Leukocyte Transfusions for Treatment of Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Marrow Transplant Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Kolb; J. Mittermuller; Ch. Clemm; E. Holler; G. Ledderose; G. Brehm; M. Heim; W. Wilmanns

    LLOGENEIC bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is A currently the only curative treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).'-4 Among patients with hema- tologic relapse after BMT, cytogenetic remissions are rare5 unless second transplants are performed. We report here the successful treatment of hematologic relapse with interferon a (IFNa) and transfusion of viable buffy coat cells from the marrow donor without additional

  2. Defense Health Program DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BONE MARROW FAILURE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    Defense Health Program DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE BONE MARROW FAILURE RESEARCH PROGRAM FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 The Department of Defense Bone Marrow Failure Research Program (BMFRP of Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP). The FY13 Defense Appropriations Act provides $3

  3. A therapeutic window for intravenous administration of autologous bone marrow after cerebral ischemia in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Iihoshi; Osamu Honmou; Kiyohiro Houkin; Kazuo Hashi; Jeffery D. Kocsis

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of autologous bone marrow cells could improve functional recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45 min in the rat and to determine specific time windows for efficacy. Mononuclear cells from autologous bone marrow were transfected with the LacZ reporter gene, and injected intravenously into

  4. Hepatic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Nan Shu; Lai Wei; Jiang-Hua Wang; Yu-Tao Zhan; Hong-Song Chen; Yu Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the different effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on hepatic differentiation. METHODS: MSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and cultured by standard methods. HSCs from rat bone marrow were isolated and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting. Both cell subsets were induced. Morphology, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to identify the

  5. Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow and

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0). Key words: Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can influence commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMCs) to adipogenic

  6. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta: Comparison with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongning Miao; Jun Jin; Lei Chen; Jianzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Jidong Zhao; Hanguang Qian; Xueguang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The presence within bone marrow of a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) able to differentiate into a number of different mesenchymal tissues, including bone and cartilage, was first suggested by Friedenstein nearly 40years ago. Since then MSCs have been demonstrated in a variety of fetal and adult tissues, including bone marrow, fetal blood and liver, cord blood, amniotic fluid

  7. Reevaluation of In Vitro Differentiation Protocols for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Itzhak

    of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells, have been reported to undergo rapid and robust trans- formation of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells distinct from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the adult bone marrow. MSCReevaluation of In Vitro Differentiation Protocols for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: Disruption

  8. Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene. Two types of fat tissues, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively), are relatively

  9. Biological implications of tumor cells in blood and bone marrow of pancreatic cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaspar Z'graggen; Barbara A. Centeno; Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo; Ramon E. Jimenez; Jens Werner; Andrew L. Warshaw

    2001-01-01

    Background. Patients with pancreatic cancer often have tumor recurrence despite curative resection. Cancer cells detected in blood or bone marrow at the time of diagnosis may relate to tumor stage and to prognosis. Recent research emphasis has centered on tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates, but whether these represent early micrometastases or blood-borne cells in transit is unknown. Patients and

  10. Bone Marrow Cell Recruitment to the Brain in the Absence of Irradiation or Parabiosis Bias

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Katrin; Katzmarski, Natalie; Haas, Carola A.; Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells has been described not only during diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) but also under healthy conditions. However, previous studies pointing to an ample bone marrow cell engraftment used irradiation-induced bone marrow chimeras that evoked severe alterations of the CNS micromilieu including disturbances of the blood brain barrier (BBB), damage of endothelial cells and local induction of proinflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, parabiosis experiments using temporarily joined circulatory systems generally yielded low levels of myeloid cell chimerism thereby potentially underestimating bone marrow cell turnover with the CNS. To avoid these drawbacks we established a protocol using the alkylating agent busulfan prior to allogenic bone marrow transplantation from CX3CR1GFP/+ donors. This regimen resulted in a stable and high peripheral myeloid chimerism, significantly reduced cytokine induction and preserved BBB integrity. Importantly, bone marrow cell recruitment to the CNS was strongly diminished under these conditions and only weakly enhanced during local neurodegeneration induced by facial nerve axotomy. These results underscore the requirement of local CNS conditioning for efficient recruitment of bone marrow cells, establish busulfan as an alternative treatment for studying bone marrow chimeras and suggest a critical re-evaluation of earlier chimeric studies involving irradiation or parabiosis regimens. PMID:23526995

  11. Bone marrow cell recruitment to the brain in the absence of irradiation or parabiosis bias.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Katrin; Katzmarski, Natalie; Haas, Carola A; Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells has been described not only during diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) but also under healthy conditions. However, previous studies pointing to an ample bone marrow cell engraftment used irradiation-induced bone marrow chimeras that evoked severe alterations of the CNS micromilieu including disturbances of the blood brain barrier (BBB), damage of endothelial cells and local induction of proinflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, parabiosis experiments using temporarily joined circulatory systems generally yielded low levels of myeloid cell chimerism thereby potentially underestimating bone marrow cell turnover with the CNS. To avoid these drawbacks we established a protocol using the alkylating agent busulfan prior to allogenic bone marrow transplantation from CX3CR1(GFP/+) donors. This regimen resulted in a stable and high peripheral myeloid chimerism, significantly reduced cytokine induction and preserved BBB integrity. Importantly, bone marrow cell recruitment to the CNS was strongly diminished under these conditions and only weakly enhanced during local neurodegeneration induced by facial nerve axotomy. These results underscore the requirement of local CNS conditioning for efficient recruitment of bone marrow cells, establish busulfan as an alternative treatment for studying bone marrow chimeras and suggest a critical re-evaluation of earlier chimeric studies involving irradiation or parabiosis regimens. PMID:23526995

  12. Molecular and cellular characterisation of highly purified stromal stem cells derived from human bone marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Gronthos; Andrew C. W. Zannettino; Shelley J. Hay; Songtao Shi; Stephen E. Graves; Angela Kortesidis; Paul J. Simmons

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence for the existence of adult human bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells. Using a combination of cell separation techniques, we have isolated an almost homogeneous population of BMSSCs from adult human bone marrow. Lacking phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes and mature stromal elements, BMSSCs are non- cycling and constitutively express telomerase activity

  13. Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells Repair Heart Tissue and Reduce Myocarditis in Chronic Chagasic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Milena B. P.; Lima, Ricardo S.; Rocha, Leonardo L.; Takyia, Christina M.; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    A progressive destruction of the myocardium occurs in ?30% of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, causing chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, a disease so far without effective treatment. Syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation has been shown to cause repair and improvement of heart function in a number of studies in patients and animal models of ischemic cardiopathy. The effects of bone marrow transplant in a mouse model of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, in the presence of the disease causal agent, ie, the T. cruzi, are described herein. Bone marrow cells injected intravenously into chronic chagasic mice migrated to the heart and caused a significant reduction in the inflammatory infiltrates and in the interstitial fibrosis characteristics of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. The beneficial effects were observed up to 6 months after bone marrow cell transplantation. A massive apoptosis of myocardial inflammatory cells was observed after the therapy with bone marrow cells. Transplanted bone marrow cells obtained from chagasic mice and from normal mice had similar effects in terms of mediating chagasic heart repair. These results show that bone marrow cell transplantation is effective for treatment of chronic chagasic myocarditis and indicate that autologous bone marrow transplant may be used as an efficient therapy for patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:14742250

  14. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow and readily generate single-cell-derived colonies. These cells have the capacity to undergo extensive replication in an undifferentiated state ex vivo. In addition, BMSCs have the potential to develop either in vitro or in vivo into distinct mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Thus, BMSCs are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering approaches. However, BMSCs are not homogeneous and the quantity of stem cells decreases in the bone marrow in aged population. A sequential loss of lineage differentiation potential has been found in the mixed culture of bone marrow stromal cells due to a heterogenous population. Therefore, a number of studies have proposed that homogenous bone marrow stem cells can be generated from clonal culture of bone marrow cells and that BMSC clones have the greatest potential for the application of bone regeneration in vivo. PMID:21125790

  15. Mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute coronary syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Wojakowski; Michaø Tendera

    Two hypotheses explain the role of adult progenitor cells in myocardial regeneration. Stem cell plasticity which involves mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow and other niches, homing to the area of tissue injury and transdifferentiation into functional cardiomyocytes. Alternative hypothesis is based on the observations that bone marrow harbors a heterogenous population of cells positive for CXCR4 -

  16. Limited Restoration of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Epithelium In Vivo with Adult Bone Marrow-derived Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Loi; Travis Beckett; Kaarin K. Goncz; Benjamin T. Suratt; Daniel J. Weiss

    Rationale: Recent literature suggests that adult bone marrow- derived cells can localize to lung and acquire immunophenotypic characteristics of lung epithelial cells. We speculated this might be a potential therapeutic approach for correcting defective lung epithelium in cystic fibrosis. Objective: To determine whether adult bone marrow-derived cells containing normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance reg- ulator protein (CFTR) could repopulate lung

  17. BDNF-expressing marrow stromal cells support extensive axonal growth at sites of spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lu; L. L. Jones; M. H. Tuszynski

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) constitute a heterogeneous cell layer in the bone marrow, supporting the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, it has been reported that MSCs harbor pluripotent stem cells capable of neural differentiation and that simple treatment of MSCs with chemical inducing agents leads to their rapid transdifferentiation into neural cells. We examined whether native

  18. Experimental study of the effects of metal nanoparticles on tumor growth and bone marrow hemopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zlatnik, E Yu; Peredreyeva, L V

    2012-05-01

    Metal (Zn, Cu, Fe) nanoparticles, particularly Zn, induce regression of transplanted sarcoma 37 and increase the percentage of dead and degenerated cells. Antitumor effect of metal nanoparticles was not associated with leukopenia or coarse bone marrow abnormalities, but differential leukocyte and bone marrow counts remained changed. PMID:22808505

  19. Cigarette smoke inhibits recruitment of bone-marrow-derived stem cells to the uterus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Zhou; Ye Gan; Hugh S. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to female infertility and a decreased incidence of endometriosis. Bone marrow derived stem cells are recruited to uterine endometrium and endometriosis. The effect of cigarette smoking on stem cell recruitment to any organ is uncharacterized. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to the uterus and differentiation would be diminished by cigarette smoke. We used

  20. Novel immunophenotypic features of marrow lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and correlation with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G Morice; Dong Chen; Paul J Kurtin; Curtis A Hanson; Ellen D McPhail

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma involving the bone marrow can be difficult to diagnose, and pathological features that predict the presence of associated Waldenström's macroglobulinemia have yet to be identified. To address these issues, marrow histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were studied from 35 lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma cases that had comprehensive clinical assessment for Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. In all cases, the plasma cells were analyzed

  1. Primary Bone Marrow B-Cell Lymphoma: Report of Four Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES A. STRAUCHEN

    Bone marrow involvement is infrequent at presentation in cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We report four adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in whom bone marrow involvement with hematologic manifestations was the predominant clinical feature at presentation. Three patients pre- sented with a leukoerythroblastic blood picture and one with pancytopenia. In each case, the unusual hematologic manifestations, with

  2. Immunophenotyping of B lymphocytes by multiparametric flow cytometry in bone marrow aspirates of healthy adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-G. Höffkes; G. Schmidtke; U. Schmücker; M. Uppenkamp; G. Brittinger

    1995-01-01

    Establishing reference ranges by multiparametric immunophenotyping of mature B cells in bone marrow of healthy adults is of interest because the detection of bone marrow infiltration and persistence of light chain restriction, as well as discrimination between reactive and malignant lymphocytes are important applications of B-cell immunophenotyping. To determine the pattern of antigens as expressed by malignant mature B lymphocytes

  3. Isolation, Characterization, and Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Hepatocyte Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Avital; Daniel Inderbitzin; Takeshi Aoki; Dolly B. Tyan; Arthur H. Cohen; Chiara Ferraresso; Jacek Rozga; Walid S. Arnaout; Achilles A. Demetriou

    2001-01-01

    Recently it was shown that a population of cells in the bone marrow-expressing hematopoietic stem cell antigens could differentiate into hepatocytes. However, explicitly committed hepatocyte progenitors, which exhibit highly differentiated liver functions, immediately upon isolation, have not yet been isolated from bone marrow. After studying common antigens on blast-like cells in fetal and adult regenerating cholestatic rat livers and human

  4. Imaging of bone infection with labelled white blood cells role of contemporaneous bone marrow imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. King; A. M. Peters; A. W. J. Stuttle; J. P. Lavender

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of white blood cells (WBC) into normal bone marrow may lead to difficulty in detecting bone infection. Twenty-one patients in whom the WBC scan was equivocal or positive underwent a technetium 99m colloid scan to show the distribution of bone marrow. Six patients had a positive WBC scan, and in five of them a discordant colloid scan confirmed

  5. Aging and lung injury repair: A role for bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana L. Mora; Mauricio Rojas

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of lung fibrosis increases with age. Aging is associated with modifications in the intracellular and extracellular environment including alteration of the extracellular matrix, imbalance of the redox state, accumulation of senescent cells and potential alteration of the recruitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The combination of these senescence-related alterations in the lung and in bone marrow progenitor

  6. Solutions to Avoid Red Tide, Inc.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Solutions to Avoid Red Tide, Inc.

    This "Solutions to Avoid Red Tide" (START) webpage offers basic information and videos about red tide, effects of red tide, and research being done regarding red tide. START is a grassroots, non-profit organization based in Florida. Their mission is to keep federal, state, and local officials aware of red tide and to get these officials to fund projects to remediate and/or prevent the problem. Information on how to join or help START is also provided.

  7. Control of Flowering of Xanthium pensylvanicum by Red and Far-red Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. B.; Moore, P. H.; Hamner, K. C.

    1967-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of various durations, intensities and combinations of red and far-red light interruptions on the flowering responses of Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr. A dual response to treatments of far-red light was observed. In short dark periods, far-red light alone did not greatly affect flowering but was able to overcome the inhibition of flowering caused by red light. In dark periods longer than 15 hours, far-red inhibited flowering and added to rather than overcame the inhibition by red light. The dark period length required for far-red inhibition remained the same whether far-red was given at the start or at the eighth hour of darkness. In 48-hour dark periods Xanthium showed 3 responses to additions of red and far-red light breaks: A) response to red light; B) response to far-red light; and C) response to red followed by far-red light. Red light given any time in the first 30 hours of darkness overcame the inhibitory effect of far-red light given at either the start or the eighth hour of darkness. Red light given later than the thirtieth hour did not overcome the far-red effect. Approximately the same energy of red light was required to overcome the inhibitory effect of far-red at the second hour of darkness as was required to produce maximum red light inhibition at the eighth hour. Although far-red light was most inhibitory when given early in a long dark period, approximately the same energy of far-red light was required to saturate the far-red response at the fourth, eighth and sixteenth hours. The results are discussed in relation to other reports of far-red inhibition of flowering in short-day plants. PMID:16656534

  8. Diagnosis, genetics, and management of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Alter, Blanche P

    2007-01-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are traditionally considered to be pediatric disorders, but in fact, many of the patients now are diagnosed as adults, and many diagnosed as children now live to reach adulthood. The most common of these rare disorders include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, which often develop aplastic anemia and may evolve into myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia; and Diamond-Blackfan anemia, severe congenital neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia absent radii, single cytopenias that rarely if ever become aplastic but have increased risks of leukemia. In addition, the first three syndromes have high risks of solid tumors: head and neck and anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita, and osteogenic sarcoma in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Diagnosis of a marrow failure syndrome requires recognition of characteristic physical abnormalities when present, and consideration of these disorders in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with "acquired" aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, or atypically early cancers of the types seen in the syndromes. Ultimate proof will come from identification of pathogenic mutations in genes associated with each syndrome. PMID:18024606

  9. Spleen and bone marrow megakaryocytes as targets for inhaled vanadium.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, Teresa I; Piñón-Zarate, Gabriela; Diaz-Bech, Maria Eugenia; González-Villalva, Adriana; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Rodriguez-Lara, Vianey; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Martinez-Pedraza, Michelle; Montaño, Luis F

    2008-11-01

    An increased incidence in ischemic and thromboembolic events in the population of cities with rising air suspended particle pollution has suggested the interaction of some of the components of these particles in the coagulation system. A previous report from our laboratory identified thrombocytosis as a consequence of the subacute and chronic inhalation of vanadium. With this preceding information we decided to evaluate the effects of this element in the spleen and bone marrow in a mouse experimental model. CD-1 male mice inhaled V2O5 0.02 M for one hour twice a week for twelve weeks. The spleen and bone marrow were processed for light microscopy. The increase in quantity and size of megakaryocytes (MKs) in the exposed group in both organs was striking. Also, modifications in the cytoplasm, granule content and nuclear ultrastructure were evident. Our results indicate the influence of vanadium on megakaryopoyesis, an effect which could be the onset of the thrombocytosis previously reported by our group. The modifications in MKs described here suggest that inhaled vanadium could induce megakaryocytic proliferation, which may result in increased production of platelets and increased risk for thromboembolic events. PMID:18785114

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Jill; Mahtouk, Karène; Attal, Michel; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Huynh, Anne; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Danho, Clotaire; Laharrague, Patrick; Klein, Bernard; Rème, Thierry; Bourin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature suggested that cell of the microenvironment of solid tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression with Affymetrix arrays and phenotypic and functional study in 3 groups of individuals: patients with MM and those with monoclonal gamopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), and healthy aged-matched subjects. Gene expression profile independently classified the BMMSCs of these individuals in a normal and in a MM group. MGUS BMMSCs were interspersed between those 2 groups. Among the 145 distinct genes differentially expressed in MM and normal BMMSCs 46% were involved in tumor-microenvironment cross-talk. Known soluble factors involved in MM pathophysiologic features, (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, DKK1 and amphiregulin, were revealed and new ones found. In particular, GDF-15 was found to induce dose-dependant growth of MOLP-6, a stromal cell-dependent myeloma cell line. Functionally, MM BMMSCs induced an over-growth of MOLP-6, and their capacity to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage was impaired. Thus, BMMSCs from MM patients could create a very efficient niche to support the survival and proliferation of the myeloma stem cells. PMID:17344918

  11. The Effect of Unrelated Donor Marrow Transplantation on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Report of the Unrelated Donor Marrow Transplantation Trial (T-Cell Depletion Trial)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Altmaier; Marian Ewell; Richard McQuellon; Nancy Geller; Shelly L. Carter; Jean Henslee-Downey; Stella Davies; Esperanza Papadopoulos; Saul Yanovich; Roger Gingrich

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adult patients undergoing either ex vivo T cell–depleted bone marrow transplantation or conventional marrow transplantation. Data on patients’ HRQL were gathered as part of a multicenter randomized trial comparing the effect of ex vivo T-cell depletion versus methotrexate and cyclosporine immunosuppression on disease-free survival. HRQL

  12. A comparison of flow cytometry, bone marrow biopsy, and bone marrow aspirates in the detection of lymphoid infiltration in B cell disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S P Sah; E Matutes; A C Wotherspoon; R Morilla; D Catovsky

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic value of bone marrow aspirates, trephine biopsies (BMB), and flow cytometry (FC) in the assessment of bone marrow infiltration in chronic lymphoid disorders.Methods: Investigations were carried out in 110 diagnostic and follow up specimens from B cell disorders, namely: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL; 65), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL; 39), and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL; 6). A

  13. The extent of HLA class II allele level disparity in unrelated bone marrow transplantation: analysis of 1259 National Marrow Donor Program donor–recipient pairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CK Hurley; LA Baxter-Lowe; AB Begovich; M Fernandez-Vina; H Noreen; B Schmeckpeper; Z Awdeh; M Chopek; M Salazar; TM Williams; EJ Yunis; D Kitajima; K Shipp; J Splett; T Winden; C Kollman; D Johnson; J Ng; RJ Hartzman; J Hegland

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the HLA-D region loci, DRB1, DRB3, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1, was performed to determine allelic diversity and underlying HLA disparity in 1259 bone marrow recipients and their unrelated donors transplanted through the National Marrow Donor Program. Although 43.0% of DRB1 alleles known to exist at the beginning of the study were found in this

  14. Bilateral diffuse pulmonary ectopic ossification after marrow allograft in a dog. Evidence for allotransplantation of hemopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, G.E.; Storb, R.

    1983-11-01

    In light of recent studies showing successful transplantation of both bony and stromal elements by marrow transplantation, we report an unexpected phenomenon occurring in a canine radiation chimera. Nine hundred fifty-six days after a successful and uneventful DLA-matched marrow allograft, a dog suddenly died of respiratory failure. Autopsy revealed extensive ossification of the lungs with multiple sites of trilineage marrow engraftment. The entire complement of bony elements can apparently be allografted using marrow grafting techniques.

  15. Detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones to exclude inherited bone marrow failure syndromes

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Symons, Heather J.; Resar, Linda S.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Armanios, Mary Y.; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) and acquired aplastic anemia (AA) are life-threatening marrow failure disorders. These entities can be difficult to distinguish because they present similarly. Correct diagnosis is imperative for proper therapy. Design and methods This is a retrospective, single-center study of patients <40 yr of age, evaluated for bone marrow failure, and assayed for the presence of a PNH clone in the pediatric or adult hematology/oncology clinics from 2001 to present. Patients were also evaluated for IBMFS. Results We present results from 156 patients with marrow failure, 20 of whom have IBMFS. None of the IBMSF patients had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clones. Conclusions Although further studies are needed, our results suggest that the detection of a PNH clone can be a useful diagnostic tool to exclude the diagnosis of IBMFS and focus the work-up and treatment on an acquired form of marrow failure. PMID:24612308

  16. Bone and bone-marrow blood flow in chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, R; Lahtinen, T; Romppanen, T

    1982-03-01

    Blood flow in hematopoietic bone marrow and in nonhematopoietic bone has been measured with a Xe-133 washout method in 20 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and in seven with primary myelofibrosis. Age-matched healthy persons served as controls. Bone-marrow blood flow in CGL was dependent upon the phase of the disease. In the metamorphosis phase, bone-marrow blood flow was high compared with that in the well-controlled phase. Apart from the initial phase, the mean values for bone blood flow in CGL were increased compared with the values of the healthy controls. In myelofibrosis the bone blood flow was also increased. Bone-marrow blood flow in these diseases was dependent upon the cellularity of bone marrow as measured morphometrically. PMID:6950031

  17. Primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma successfully treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Qian, Liren; Zhang, Zhi; Shen, Jianliang; Liu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Primary isolated bone marrow disease as a presenting feature of lymphoma is very rare. We describe the case of a Chinese with isolated bone marrow small B-cell lymphoma as a first manifestation. A 55-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever. Her peripheral blood smear and laboratory findings were suggestive of bicytopenia. Bone marrow specimen showed diffusely distributed small-sized lymphocytes. Combined with immunophenotypic and chromosomal analysis, a diagnosis of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. The patient was treated with R-CHOP (rituximab and cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vindesine, and prednisone) regimen for six cycles. She had complete remission and is still alive without relapse. We concluded that primary bone marrow mature small B-cell lymphoma is a rare but distinctive subtype of lymphoma. The prognosis for this entity is poor but rituximab-based treatment is promising for improving its outcomes. PMID:24171336

  18. Fluid shear stress in trabecular bone marrow due to low-magnitude high-frequency vibration.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Thomas R; Niebur, Glen L

    2012-08-31

    Low-magnitude high-frequency (LMHF) loading has recently received attention for its anabolic effect on bone. The mechanism of transmission of the anabolic signal is not fully understood, but evidence indicates that it is not dependent on bone matrix strain. One possible source of signaling is mechanostimulation of the cells in the bone marrow. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the fluid shear stress in the marrow during LMHF loading is in the mechanostimulatory range. As such, the goal of this study was to determine the range of shear stress in the marrow during LMHF vibration. The shear stress was estimated from computational models, and its dependence on bone density, architecture, permeability, marrow viscosity, vibration amplitude and vibration frequency were examined. Three-dimensional finite element models of five trabecular bone samples from different anatomic sites were constructed, and a sinusoidal velocity profile was applied to the models. In human bone models during axial vibration at an amplitude of 1 g, more than 75% of the marrow experienced shear stress greater than 0.5Pa. In comparison, in vitro studies indicate that fluid induced shear stress in the range of 0.5 to 2.0Pa is anabolic to a variety of cells in the marrow. Shear stress at the bone-marrow interface was as high as 5.0Pa. Thus, osteoblasts and bone lining cells that are thought to reside on the endosteal surfaces may experience very high shear stress during LMHF loading. However, a more complete understanding of the location of the various cell populations in the marrow is needed to quantify the effects on specific cell types. This study suggests the shear stress within bone marrow in real trabecular architecture during LMHF vibration could provide the mechanical signal to marrow cells that leads to bone anabolism. PMID:22784651

  19. Page 1 of 1 This policy ensures compliance with state law on organ and bone marrow donations and supports

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    donations and supports employees who may elect to be an organ donor or bone marrow donor by providing only to an employee who actually donates an organ or marrow and who presents to the appropriate is making an organ or marrow donation. PROCEDURE Employee must present appropriate official orders to Human

  20. Use of genetically modified mouse models to assess pathways of benzene-induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Recio; Alison Bauer; Brenda Faiola

    2005-01-01

    Benzene induces bone marrow cytotoxicity and chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of action for the induction of bone marrow toxicity. Our research group has used genetically modified mouse models to examine metabolic and genomic response pathways involved in benzene induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We review our studies using NQO1?\\/? mice

  1. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells from Male Donors Do Not Contribute to the Endometrial Side Population of the Recipient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Cervelló; Claudia Gil-Sanchis; Aymara Mas; Amparo Faus; Jaime Sanz; Federico Moscardó; Gema Higueras; Miguel Angel Sanz; Antonio Pellicer; Carlos Simón

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrates the existence of bone marrow-derived cells origin in the endometria of women undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In these reports, cells of a bone marrow (BM) origin are able to differentiate into endometrial cells, although their contribution to endometrial regeneration is not yet clear. We have previously demonstrated the functional relevance of side population (SP) cells as

  2. High dose busulfan\\/etoposide as a preparatory regimen for second bone marrow transplants in hematologic malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Blume; S. J. Forman

    1987-01-01

    Five patients with hematologic malignancies who had relapsed between seven months and eight years after their primary bone marrow transplants were prepared with high dose busulfan\\/etoposide for second marrow transplanatations from the same donors who had provided the marrow for the primary transplants. The preparatory regimen was well tolerated. All patients engrafted and entered complete remission. Two patients are alive

  3. Evaluation of the ability of a gravitational filtration system to enhance recovery of equine bone marrow elements.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Lauren N; Ishihara, Akikazu; Wellman, Maxey L; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess efficiency of gravity filtration to enhance recovery of equine bone marrow elements including stem and progenitor cells. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the fifth sternebral body and filtered by gravitational flow to obtain bone marrow elements. Raw and harvested bone marrow and marrow effluent were evaluated for WBC and platelet counts, automated and cytomorphologic cell differential counts, mesenchymal stem cell CFUs, cell viability, and differentiation capacity. Isolated cells were analyzed for CD90 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigens. RESULTS Mean cell viability of harvested bone marrow was 95.9%. Total WBCs and platelets were efficiently captured on the filter (> 95%), and mean recovery in harvested bone marrow was 30%. Cytologic cell differential counts indicated that the percentage of neutrophils was significantly less and the progenitor cell population was significantly higher and concentrated 1.56-fold in harvested bone marrow, compared with results for raw bone marrow. Flow cytometry and cell culture were used to characterize harvested bone marrow cells as positive for expression of CD90 and negative for MHCI and MHCII, which indicated stem cells with a multipotent phenotype that differentiated into chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, and tenocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gravitational filtration of bone marrow efficiently yielded platelets and cells and produced a progenitor-enriched, leukocyte-reduced product, compared with raw bone marrow. PMID:26000604

  4. Augmentation of Donor Bone Marrow Engraftment in Histoincompatible Murine Recipients by Granulocyte\\/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Blazar; Michael B. Widmer; Christine C. B. Soderling; David L. Urdal; Steven Gillis; Leslie L. Robison; Daniel A. Vallera

    1988-01-01

    T cell depletion of donor bone marrow can prevent graft v host disease (GVHD) in human and murine marrow graft recipients. However. engraftment in the recipient may be compromised as a consequence of donor marrow T cell depletion. The effect of recombinant murine granulocyte\\/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmu GM-CSF) on engraftment and hematologic reconstitution was evaluated in a murine allogeneic

  5. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

  6. Nucleosynthesis in red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, Nami

    The production of elements from helium-3 to fluorine in low- and intermediate-mass stars is reviewed and compared to chemical abundances observed at the surface of both red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars. It is highlighted that, while the trends predicted by standard models are generally well confirmed, many chemical abundances observed at the surface of red giants require the operation of non-standard mixing in the stellar interior. In addition, chemical abundance predictions from presently available asymptotic giant branch models further suffer from the uncertainties affecting the third dredge-up phenomenon, the source of neutrons and the hot bottom burning process.

  7. Red Algal Genomics: A Synopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Lopez-Bautista

    \\u000a The red algae (or Rhodophyta) are an ancient and diversified group of photoautotrophic organisms. A 1,200-million-year-old\\u000a fossil has been assigned to Bangiomorpha pubescens, a Bangia-like fossil suggesting sexual differentiation (Butterfield, 2000). Most rhodophytes inhabit marine environments (98%), but\\u000a many well-known taxa are from freshwater habitats and acidic hot springs. Red algae have also been reported from tropical\\u000a rainforests as members

  8. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  9. Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

  10. RED with ACK Spoofing Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Molle, Mart

    RED with ACK Spoofing Zhong Xu Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of California, Riverside Early Detection (RED). Using simulation, we compare RED/Spoofing with Tail Drop, RED, and RED/ECN. Our results show that RED/Spoofing performs as well as RED/ECN, even though it avoids ECN's deployment problem

  11. The clinical impact of staging bone marrow examination on treatment decisions and prognostic assessment of lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Painter, Dan; Smith, Alexandra; de Tute, Ruth; Crouch, Simon; Roman, Eve; Jack, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the value of performing a staging bone marrow in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and classical hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). The results of 3112 staging bone marrow examinations were assessed for impact on prognostic assessment and critical treatment decisions. The detection of marrow involvement altered the disease-specific prognostic index for 4·3% of DLBCL, 6·2% of FL and 0·6% of CHL but marrow involvement in DLBCL was an independent prognostic factor. Knowing the marrow status potentially changed treatment in 92 patients, detection of these patients would have required 854 examinations to be performed. PMID:25920510

  12. Bone marrow mononuclear cells and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Samer; Mozid, Abdul; Martin, John; Mathur, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is emerging as a potential therapy to treat heart diseases. Promising results from early animal studies led to an explosion of small, non-controlled clinical trials that created even further excitement by showing that stem cell transplantation improved left ventricular systolic function and enhanced remodelling. However, the specific mechanisms by which these cells improve heart function remain largely unknown. A large variety of cell types have been considered to possess the regenerative ability needed to repair the damaged heart. One of the most studied cell types is the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and these form the focus of this review. This review article aims to provide an overview of their use in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, the challenges it faces and the future of stem cell therapy in heart disease. PMID:22264393

  13. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by depleting bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Valérie; Winkler, Ingrid G; Lévesque, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    An important factor contributing to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization is the ability of mobilizing cytokines and chemotherapy to disturb the cellular components of HSC niches, particularly osteoblasts and their progenitors, and to inhibit the production of HSC supportive cytokines and chemokines. Although the mechanisms by which niche cells are inhibited by mobilizing treatments is still incompletely understood, it has recently emerged that bone marrow macrophages play a critical role in maintaining osteoblasts, bone formation, and the expression of CXCL12, KIT ligand, and angiopoietin-1 necessary to HSC maintenance. In this chapter, we describe how to mobilize HSC into the blood in mice by depleting macrophages with clodronate-loaded liposomes and compare this mode of mobilization to mobilization induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and cyclophosphamide. Detailed methods to analyze mobilization of phenotypic and functional reconstituting HSC are described with examples. PMID:22890928

  14. Gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Thompson, T C

    2008-05-01

    There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1. PMID:18385769

  15. Bone Marrow Recovery by Morphometry during Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Melville, Anna; Nath, Shriram; Story, Colin; Howell, Stuart; Sutton, Rosemary; Zannettino, Andrew; Revesz, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow architecture is grossly distorted at the diagnosis of ALL and details of the morphological changes that accompany response to Induction chemotherapy have not been reported before. While marrow aspirates are widely used to assess initial response to ALL therapy and provide some indications, we have enumerated marrow components using morphometric analysis of trephine samples with the aim of achieving a greater understanding of changes in bone marrow niches. Morphometric analyses were carried out in the bone marrow trephine samples of 44 children with ALL, using a NanoZoomer HT digital scanner. Diagnostic samples were compared to those of 32 control patients with solid tumors but without marrow involvement. Samples from patients with ALL had significantly increased fibrosis and the area occupied by bony trabeculae was lower than in controls. Cellularity was higher in ALL samples due to leukemic infiltration while the percentage of normal elements such as megakaryocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were all significantly lower. During the course of Induction therapy, there was a decrease in the cellularity of ALL samples at day 15 of therapy with a further decrease at the end of Induction and an increase in the area occupied by adipocytes and the width of sinusoids. Reticulin fibrosis decreased throughout Induction. Megakaryocytes increased, osteoblasts and osteoclasts remained unchanged. No correlation was found between clinical presentation, early response to treatment and morphological changes. Our results provide a morphological background to further studies of bone marrow stroma in ALL. PMID:25962143

  16. Role of T cells in sex differences in syngeneic bone marrow transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Raveche, E.S.; Santoro, T.; Brecher, G.; Tjio, J.H.

    1985-11-01

    Transferred marrow cells will proliferate in normal mice not exposed to irradiation or any other type of stem cell depletion when five consecutive transfers of 40 million cells are given. Approximately 25% of the mitotic cells are of male donor origin observed cytogenetically in all of the female recipient spleens and marrow analyzed from two weeks to one and one-half years after transfusions. Male donor stem cells are accepted and form a stable component of the self-renewing stem cell pool. In contrast, only 5% female cells are found in male recipients. This sex difference in engraftment is not hormonal since castration of recipients does not alter the percentage of donor cells. Rigorous T depletion of female donor bone marrow, however, increases the percentage of donor engraftment to the level observed when male marrow, either whole or T depleted, is transferred to female recipients. The success of T-depleted female stem cells to seed male recipients is observed in both C57BL/6 and CBA/J. In addition, recipient nude BALB/c males, which lack a thymus, fail to accept whole bone marrow from BALB/c females. However, male bone marrow cells seed BALB/c nude females. These studies demonstrate that the poor engraftment of female cells in transfused male recipients is abrogated by the removal of T cells from the donor female marrow.

  17. Bone Marrow Recovery by Morphometry during Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Melville, Anna; Nath, Shriram; Story, Colin; Howell, Stuart; Sutton, Rosemary; Zannettino, Andrew; Revesz, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow architecture is grossly distorted at the diagnosis of ALL and details of the morphological changes that accompany response to Induction chemotherapy have not been reported before. While marrow aspirates are widely used to assess initial response to ALL therapy and provide some indications, we have enumerated marrow components using morphometric analysis of trephine samples with the aim of achieving a greater understanding of changes in bone marrow niches. Morphometric analyses were carried out in the bone marrow trephine samples of 44 children with ALL, using a NanoZoomer HT digital scanner. Diagnostic samples were compared to those of 32 control patients with solid tumors but without marrow involvement. Samples from patients with ALL had significantly increased fibrosis and the area occupied by bony trabeculae was lower than in controls. Cellularity was higher in ALL samples due to leukemic infiltration while the percentage of normal elements such as megakaryocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were all significantly lower. During the course of Induction therapy, there was a decrease in the cellularity of ALL samples at day 15 of therapy with a further decrease at the end of Induction and an increase in the area occupied by adipocytes and the width of sinusoids. Reticulin fibrosis decreased throughout Induction. Megakaryocytes increased, osteoblasts and osteoclasts remained unchanged. No correlation was found between clinical presentation, early response to treatment and morphological changes. Our results provide a morphological background to further studies of bone marrow stroma in ALL. PMID:25962143

  18. Value of bilateral bone marrow biopsy specimens in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, S K; Wolf, M M; Cooper, I A

    1990-01-01

    A study of 260 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who underwent bilateral bone marrow biopsy at initial diagnosis showed marrow disease in 99 (38%) cases. The highest incidence of disease (83%) was seen in small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and the lowest (19%) in diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL). Among cases with positive marrows, disease was bilateral in all 15 cases of SLL but in only 10 of 20 (50%) of the DLCL cases. In 30 of 99 (30%) positive marrows disease was unilateral. Follicular lymphomas were strongly associated with a paratrabecular pattern, with 40 of 45 positive cases showing this. Discordant histology was seen in six of 20 positive cases of DLCL and two of 37 positive cases of follicular small cleaved cell lymphomas (FSCCL). A bone marrow aspirate was positive in only 56 of the 99 (57%) cases. Peripheral blood disease was present in 15% of the bone marrow positive cases and in 6% of the cases overall. The incidence of marrow disease varies with the histological subtype of lymphoma. The paratrabecular pattern is associated with follicular lymphoma, and bilateral biopsy specimens increase the positivity rate in most subtypes of NHL. PMID:2401730

  19. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I. [Division of Theoretical Physics, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Chadwick Building, Peach St, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  20. Sunset over Red Rock Canyon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of...

  1. Nutritional composition of red meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter WILLIAMS

    2007-01-01

    Lean red meats are: • An excellent source of high biological value protein, vitamin B12, niacin, vitamin B6, iron, zinc and phosphorus • A source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, selenium and possibly also vitamin D • Mostly low in fat and sodium • Sources of a range of endogenous antioxidants and other bioactive substances including taurine,

  2. AMERICAN RED CROSS: UNDER FIRE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Hunsaker

    The case deals primarily with the governance of the San Diego Imperial County Chapter of the American Red Cross in the early part of this decade during, after the debilitating Viejas fire. The chapter's CEO, Dodie Rotherham, seemingly cared more for raising donations to better the chapter than caring for the people in need and the community. Rotherham ignored the

  3. The Red Nail – Always Benign?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baran

    2009-01-01

    Red nail is a common disorder. However, a thorough examination of the patient's nails allows one to distinguish different diseases. For example, longitudinal erythronychia may be monodactylous or polydactylous. Only the former type can show histologically Bowen's disease or an amelanotic melanoma. Among the polydactylous type, the nosologic position of the acantholytic and dyskeratotic naevus versus Darier's disease is still

  4. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  5. MSC Therapy Attenuates Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Murine Bone Marrow Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Kashif; Price, Andrew P.; Meyer, Carolyn; Matson, Amy; Ehrhardt, Michael J.; Fogas, Samuel; Tolar, Jakub; Hertz, Marshall I.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant and hematopoietic cell transplant. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in chronic inflammatory disease. Objective Administration of MSCs was evaluated for the ability to ameliorate OB in mice using our established allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Methods Mice were lethally conditioned and received allogeneic bone marrow without (BM) or with spleen cells (BMS), as a source of OB-causing T-cells. Cell therapy was started at 2 weeks post-transplant, or delayed to 4 weeks when mice developed airway injury, defined as increased airway resistance measured by pulmonary function test (PFT). BM-derived MSC or control cells [mouse pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) or lung fibroblasts (LFs)] were administered. Route of administration [intratracheally (IT) and IV] and frequency (every 1, 2 or 3 weeks) were compared. Mice were evaluated at 3 months post-BMT. Measurements and Main Results No ectopic tissue formation was identified in any mice. When compared to BMS mice receiving control cells or no cells, those receiving MSCs showed improved resistance, compliance and inspiratory capacity. Interim PFT analysis showed no difference in route of administration. Improvements in PFTs were found regardless of dose frequency; but once per week worked best even when administration began late. Mice given MSC also had decreased peribronchiolar inflammation, lower levels of hydroxyproline (collagen) and higher frequencies of macrophages staining for the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) marker CD206. Conclusions These results warrant study of MSCs as a potential management option for OB in lung transplant and BMT recipients. PMID:25272285

  6. Leukemia cells induce changes in human bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells that support angiogenesis, wound healing, and immunomodulation. In the hematopoietic niche, they nurture hematopoietic cells, leukemia, tumors and metastasis. BMSCs secrete of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and matrix proteins which contribute to the pro-tumorigenic marrow microenvironment. The inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? change the BMSC secretome and we hypothesized that factors produced by tumors or leukemia would also affect the BMSC secretome and investigated the interaction of leukemia cells with BMSCs. Methods BMSCs from healthy subjects were co-cultured with three myeloid leukemia cell lines (TF-1, TF-1? and K562) using a trans-well system. Following co-culture, the BMSCs and leukemia cells were analyzed by global gene expression analysis and culture supernatants were analyzed for protein expression. As a control, CD34+ cells were also cocultured with BMSCs. Results Co-culture induced leukemia cell gene expression changes in stem cell pluripotency, TGF-? signaling and carcinoma signaling pathways. BMSCs co-cultured with leukemia cells up-regulated a number of proinflammatory genes including IL-17 signaling-related genes and IL-8 and CCL2 levels were increased in co-culture supernatants. In contrast, purine metabolism, mTOR signaling and EIF2 signaling pathways genes were up-regulated in BMSCs co-cultured with CD34+ cells. Conclusions BMSCs react to the presence of leukemia cells undergoing changes in the cytokine and chemokine secretion profiles. Thus, BMSCs and leukemia cells both contribute to the creation of a competitive niche more favorable for leukemia stem cells. PMID:24304929

  7. Localized CCR2 Activation in the Bone Marrow Niche Mobilizes Monocytes by Desensitizing CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hosung; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Jeong Eun; Miller, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory (classical) monocytes residing in the bone marrow must enter the bloodstream in order to combat microbe infection. These monocytes express high levels of CCR2, a chemokine receptor whose activation is required for them to exit the bone marrow. How CCR2 is locally activated in the bone marrow and how their activation promotes monocyte egress is not understood. Here, we have used double transgenic lines that can visualize CCR2 activation in vivo and show that its chemokine ligand CCL2 is acutely released by stromal cells in the bone marrow, which make direct contact with CCR2-expressing monocytes. These monocytes also express CXCR4, whose activation immobilizes cells in the bone marrow, and are in contact with stromal cells expressing CXCL12, the CXCR4 ligand. During the inflammatory response, CCL2 is released and activates the CCR2 on neighboring monocytes. We demonstrate that acutely isolated bone marrow cells co-express CCR2 and CXCR4, and CCR2 activation desensitizes CXCR4. Inhibiting CXCR4 by a specific receptor antagonist in mice causes CCR2-expressing cells to exit the bone marrow in absence of inflammatory insults. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby the local activation of CCR2 on monocytes in the bone marrow attenuates an anchoring signalling provided by CXCR4 expressed by the same cell and mobilizes the bone marrow monocyte to the blood stream. Our results also provide a generalizable model that cross-desensitization of chemokine receptors fine-tunes cell mobility by integrating multiple chemokine signals. PMID:26029924

  8. Localized CCR2 Activation in the Bone Marrow Niche Mobilizes Monocytes by Desensitizing CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Eun; Miller, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory (classical) monocytes residing in the bone marrow must enter the bloodstream in order to combat microbe infection. These monocytes express high levels of CCR2, a chemokine receptor whose activation is required for them to exit the bone marrow. How CCR2 is locally activated in the bone marrow and how their activation promotes monocyte egress is not understood. Here, we have used double transgenic lines that can visualize CCR2 activation in vivo and show that its chemokine ligand CCL2 is acutely released by stromal cells in the bone marrow, which make direct contact with CCR2-expressing monocytes. These monocytes also express CXCR4, whose activation immobilizes cells in the bone marrow, and are in contact with stromal cells expressing CXCL12, the CXCR4 ligand. During the inflammatory response, CCL2 is released and activates the CCR2 on neighboring monocytes. We demonstrate that acutely isolated bone marrow cells co-express CCR2 and CXCR4, and CCR2 activation desensitizes CXCR4. Inhibiting CXCR4 by a specific receptor antagonist in mice causes CCR2-expressing cells to exit the bone marrow in absence of inflammatory insults. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby the local activation of CCR2 on monocytes in the bone marrow attenuates an anchoring signalling provided by CXCR4 expressed by the same cell and mobilizes the bone marrow monocyte to the blood stream. Our results also provide a generalizable model that cross-desensitization of chemokine receptors fine-tunes cell mobility by integrating multiple chemokine signals. PMID:26029924

  9. The possible role of anemia in bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzynski, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Karlmeddini, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Entry of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid into bone marrow is a frequent observation and possible causes have been discussed in the literature. Using a present formulation of the radiocolloid (Medi+Physics), the authors sought to define the distribution patterns of bone marrow uptake, and relate these back to the primary diagnosis. Three hundred consecutive cases (with spleen present) were analyzed. Only 18% of the patients were under age 29 years and 62% were age 50 or older. Posterior images were evaluated so that liver, spleen and bone marrow could be compared visually. Twelve % of the studies were within normal limits. In 33% of the patients, the liver or spleen showed a defect without a radiocolloid shift. In 41% of the cases, there was a shift of radioactivity to the spleen (spleen/liver greater than 1), but not to the bone marrow. In 12% of the patients, there was both a radiocolloid shift to the spleen and visible uptake in the bone marrow. Least common was uptake of radiocolloid in the vertebral bone marrow without a splenic radiocolloid shift: this occurred in only 5 cases (under 2% of the total). Looked at another way the authors can normalize the cases with radiocolloid shift to the spleen (but not elsewhere) to 100%. Then radiocolloid shift to both spleen and bone marrow occurred only 29% as frequently. Radicolloid in the bone marrow, but not shifted to the spleen, was unusual (5% as frequent). These 5 patients were analyzed; all had anemia. The Hb ranged from 7.9 - 10.6 gm/dl, and hematocrits from 23 - 30. Several etiologies were involved. Anemia may be a stimulus to bone marrow uptake of radiocolloid without major splenic accumulation.

  10. Influence of early zoledronic acid administration on bone marrow fat in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Wu; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Nian, Hua; Shi, Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Although the primary target cell of bisphosphonates is the osteoclast, increasing attention is being given to other effector cells influenced by bisphosphonates, such as osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes. Early zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment to ovariectomized (OVX) rats has been found to fully preserve bone microarchitecture over time. However, little is known regarding the influence of ZA on marrow adipogenesis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the ability of early administration of ZA in restoring marrow adiposity in an estrogen-deficient rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SHAM), OVX + vehicle, and OVX + ZA groups (n=10/group). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and water/fat magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment to assess bone mineral density and marrow fat fraction. Serum biochemical markers, bone remodeling, and marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The expression levels of osteoblast, adipocyte, and osteoclast-related genes in bone marrow were assessed using RT-PCR. The OVX rats showed marked bone loss, first detected at 12 weeks, but estrogen deficiency resulted in a remarked increase in marrow fat fraction, first detected at 6 weeks compared with the SHAM rats (all P < .001). Similarly, the OVX rats had a substantially larger percent adipocyte area (+163.0%), mean diameter (+29.5%), and higher density (+57.3%) relative to the SHAM rats. Bone histomorphometry, levels of osteoclast-related gene expression, and a serum resorption marker confirmed that ZA significantly suppressed bone resorption activities. Furthermore, ZA treatment returned adipocyte-related gene expression and marrow adipocyte parameters toward SHAM levels. These data suggest that a single dose of early ZA treatment acts to reverse marrow adipogenesis occurring during estrogen deficiency, which may contribute to its capacity to reduce bone loss. PMID:25243855

  11. In vitro cultivation of Anaplasma marginale in bovine bone marrow cells

    E-print Network

    Baradji, Issa

    1986-01-01

    December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF ANAPLASMA MARGINALE IN BOVINE BONE MARROW CELLS A Thesis by ISSA BARAOJI Approved as to content and style by: G. . gne (Chairman of Co 't ee) P. D. Tee (Member) T. M... it 0 cape 1 e t t 1 ti ate ~AA 1 tti ale using bovine bone marrow cells from living and slaughtered animals were conducted. Bone marrow cell cultures were compared with erythrocyte cultures for their ability to sop ~ tthpo thofA~it. sam ~ 11...

  12. Bone marrow aspiration in resource poor environment: our experience in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Busarla, Satya Vara Prasad

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow aspiration examination is performed mainly to evaluate haematological disorders. Several bone marrow aspiration needles are available that include the Salah, Klima, Jamshidi and Islam. However, cost is an issue in our local environment as most of our patients are not medically insured. We describe our experience of bone marrow aspiration using an 18-gauge lumbar puncture needle at the posterior superior iliac spine. The technique is safe and cost effective and the site is easily accessible, even in obese patients. The crush preparations provide good morphology, therefore avoiding repeats. Additional training is not required for the procedural technique. We recommend this technique for use in resource challenged settings. PMID:25823365

  13. Computational method for realistic estimates of the dose to active marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1984-05-11

    Calculation of absorbed dose to active marrow from photon radiation is a complex problem because electronic equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interfaces. Snyder et al. recognized the intractable geometry of trabecular bone in their studies of photon transport in the body and formulated marrow dose estimates in a conservative manner. Other investigators have noted that this approach leads to overestimate by factors of 3 or more at low photon energy. In this paper the absorbed dose is formulated in terms of physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition in the marrow space. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

  15. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

  16. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re feeling constantly exhausted ... when your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. You may either have too few ...

  17. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think ... complexion as a sign of good health. But red patches on the face may point to something ...

  18. Red cell distribution width and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gulcan Kurt, Yasemin; Cayci, Tuncer; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Agilli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Red cell distribution width is a measure of deviation of the volume of red blood cells. It is a marker of anisocytosis and often used to evaluate the possible causes of anemia. Elevated red cell distribution width levels are also associated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation is accompanied with steatosis. For assuming red cell distribution width as a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, intervening factors such as levels of inflammatory markers should also be evaluated. PMID:25473202

  19. Successful treatment of pure red cell aplasia with a single dose of rituximab in a child after major ABO incompatible peripheral blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acquired aplastic anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AA Maschan; EV Skorobogatova; DN Balashov; ED Pashanov; PE Trakhtman; IP Schipitzina; YV Skvortsova; AG Rumiantzev

    2002-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a well-known although infrequent hematologic complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. PRCA occurs in cases of major ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient and is believed to be due to inhibition of donor erythroid progenitors by residual host isohemagglutinins. We report a 10-year-old boy with post-hepatitis aplastic anemia (AA) who developed PRCA after HLA-matched familial

  20. Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

  1. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded Woodpecker"; (2)…

  2. Scottish Strategy for Red Squirrel Conservation

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;Scottish Strategy for Red Squirrel Conservation 2004 Edited and Produced by the Scottish the co-ordination of activities aiming to conserve the red squirrel in Scotland. It is co-statutory organisations, together with representatives of local voluntary squirrel groups dedicated to conserving red

  3. Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales

    E-print Network

    #12;Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales Meeting the challenge to keep reds in Wales to enable effective red squir- rel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Wales Squirrel squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Forum and Partnership are currently

  4. Lupus erythematosus–associated red lunula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Wollina; Ute Barta; Christine Uhlemann; Peter Oelzner

    1999-01-01

    Background: Red lunulae have only rarely been described in patients with lupus erythematosus. Objective: We assessed the frequency and classified the type of red lunulae in patients with definite lupus erythematosus seen in an interdisciplinary dermatorheumatologic outpatient clinic. Methods: We studied 56 patients with either systemic or cutaneous lupus erythematosus for the presence of red lunulae. Results: Eleven of 56

  5. Improvements in Stability of Red Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Hörold

    Red phosphorus has become an essential item in the production of modern smoke and obscurants devices, additionally nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the red phosphorus charge may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion of essential working

  6. Psychology Red enhances human performance in contests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell A. Hill; Robert A. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans - across a range of sports, we find that wearing red

  7. Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

    2004-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

  8. Aquaculture of the Atlantic Red Porgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Morris Jr; Troy C. Rezek; Neil A. McNeill; Wade O. Watanabe

    2008-01-01

    Aquaculture of red porgy Pagrus pagrus (Sparidae) in North America was assessed by the investigation of broodstock conditioning and egg production, larval growth and survivorship, and juvenile grow out. Red porgy broodstock were collected off the coast of North Carolina and held in an outdoor recirculating seawater tank under ambient photoperiod and offshore bottom temperatures. Red porgy broodstock (n =

  9. FLOOD-TOLERANCE RANKING OF RED AND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREEMAN MAPLE CULTIVARS; Louis B. Anella; Thomas H. Whitlow

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) is often recommended for use in wet soils, yet its extensive native range suggests there may be genetic variation for traits associated with flood tolerance. Likewise, genetic variation for flood toler- ance may be captured within red maple cultivars making some more appropriate than others for use in wet or low oxygen soils. Seven red maple

  10. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including...associated with flooding occurring on the Red River. Entry into this zone is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  12. NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NOAA website offers a brief explanation of red tide and a large bloom that spread from the Gulf of Maine to the Massachusetts Bay in 2005. The site explains NOAA's efforts to remediate red tide in New England as well as prevent new occurrences. The site features hyperlinks to research funding, legislation, and other NOAA sites that feature red tide.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  14. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

  15. 3, 383408, 2006 The northern Red

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 3, 383­408, 2006 The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page in balance? ­ Implications of deep vertical mixing for the nitrogen budget in the northern Red Sea, including The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  16. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

  17. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  20. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  2. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  4. Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

    2002-01-01

    The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  6. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal...SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259.2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  8. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  9. Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,**

    E-print Network

    Jeffay, Kevin

    139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith http://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/dirt Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web -- response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

  10. The role of transduced bone marrow cells overexpressing BMP-2 in healing critical-sized defects in a mouse femur.

    PubMed

    Pensak, M; Hong, S; Dukas, A; Tinsley, B; Drissi, H; Tang, A; Cote, M; Sugiyama, O; Lichtler, A; Rowe, D; Lieberman, J R

    2015-06-01

    The role that transduced mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) engineered to overexpress human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) play in healing critical-sized skeletal defects is largely unknown. We evaluated the interaction between host osteoprogenitor cells and donor mBMSCs transduced with either a lentiviral (LV) vector-expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) with or without BMP-2 that were implanted into a critical-sized femoral defect. Radiographs taken at the time of killing were evaluated using a five-point scaled scoring system. Frozen histologic sections were analyzed to assess both the transduced cells' role in bone repair and the local osteoprogenitor response. There was complete radiographic bridging in 94% of group I (LV-RFPch-BMP-2-cmyc) and 100% of group III (recombinant human BMP-2) specimens. Radiographs demonstrated a lack of healing in group II (LV-RFPch). Mouse BMSCs transduced with an LV-RFPch-BMP-2 vector were able to induce host cells to differentiate down an osteoblastic lineage and heal a critical-sized defect. However, the donor cells appeared to be functioning as a delivery vehicle of BMP-2 rather than actually differentiating into osteoblasts capable of participating in bone repair as evidenced by a lack of colocalization of the transduced cells to the sites of skeletal repair where the host progenitor cells were found. PMID:25809463

  11. Salvage bone marrow harvest in patients failing plerixafor-based stem cell mobilization attempt: feasibility and autologous transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kanate, Abraham S; Watkins, Kathy; Cumpston, Aaron; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Inadequate mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) is sometimes a limiting factor to proceed with an autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT), in an otherwise eligible patient. In such situations, a bone marrow harvest (BMH) procedure may be considered to achieve the CD34+ target dose for an autograft. Plerixafor-based mobilization has recently been shown to improve PBPC collection yields. However, the feasibility and outcomes of BMH in patients failing plerixafor-based mobilization is not known. We report here, 6 patients who underwent BMH after PBPC mobilization failure with plerixafor. The median CD34+ yield with plerixafor mobilization and BMH were 1.15 x 10^6/Kg (range, 0.2-1.7 × 10^6/Kg) and 0.32 (range, 0.12-0.38 × 10^6/Kg), respectively. Three patients proceeded to an auto-HCT, with only 1 patient receiving CD34+ cell dose of at least 2 × 10^6/Kg. While neutrophil recovery was seen, platelet recovery and red cell transfusion independence were delayed. All 3 autografted patients experienced disease progression by day +100. These data suggest, limited incremental benefit of a salvage BMH after plerixafor mobilization failure, cautioning against routine use of this strategy. PMID:23635452

  12. Detection of organic nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells using ToF-SIMS and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kokesch-Himmelreich, Julia; Woltmann, Beatrice; Torger, Bernhard; Rohnke, Marcus; Arnhold, Stefan; Hempel, Ute; Müller, Martin; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The detection and localization of polymer-based nanoparticles in human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is reported as an example for the mass spectrometry imaging of organic nanoparticles in cell environments. Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP) made of polyethylenimine (PEI) and cellulose sulfate (CS), which were developed as potential drug carrier and coatings for implant materials, were chosen for the imaging experiments. To investigate whether the PEI/CS-NP were taken up by the hBMSC ToF-SIMS measurements on cross sections of the cells and depth profiling of whole, single cells were carried out. Since the mass spectra of the PEI/CS nanoparticles are close to the mass spectra of the cells principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to get specific masses of the PEI/CS-NP. Mass fragments originating from the NP compounds especially from cellulose sulfate could be used to unequivocally detect and image the PEI/CS-NP inside the hBMSC. The findings were confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Graphical Abstract During ToF-SIMS analysis Bi3 (+) primary ions hit the sample surface and so called secondary ions (SI) are emitted and detected in the mass analyser. Exemplary mass images of cross sections of human mesenchymal stromal cells (red; m/z = 86.1 u) cultured with organic nanoparticles (green; m/z = 143.0 u) were obtained. PMID:25869483

  13. In vitro growth and regulation of bone marrow enriched CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors in Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, G P; Zauli, G; Vitale, L; Rosito, P; Vecchi, V; Paolucci, G; Avanzi, G C; Ramenghi, U; Timeus, F; Gabutti, V

    1991-11-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital red blood cell aplasia. No clear explanation has been given of its defective erythropoiesis, although different humoral or cellular inhibitory factors have been proposed. To clarify the nature of this defect we studied the effect of several human recombinant growth factors on an enriched CD34+ population obtained from the bone marrow of 10 DBA patients. We observed a defect underlying the early erythroid progenitors, which were unresponsive to several growth factors (erythropoietin, interleukin-3 [IL-3], IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], erythroid potentiating activity), either alone or in association. The production of cytokines was not impaired, and high levels of IL-3 and GM-CSF were found in phytohemagglutinin-leukocyte-conditioned medium (PHA-LCM) when tested with a sensitive biologic assay on the M-07E cell line. Hematopoietic stem cells in DBA patients may be induced to differentiate to the granulocyte megakaryocyte, but not the erythroid compartment, as shown after CD34+ cell preincubation with IL-3. Addition of the stem cell factor to IL-3 and erythropoietin induces a dramatic in vitro increase in both the number and the size of BFU-E, which also display a normal morphologic terminal differentiation. PMID:1718488

  14. Legal protection for the red squirrel The red squirrel is included in Schedules 5 and

    E-print Network

    means that, under Section 9 of the WCA and Article 10 of the W(NI) Order it is an offence to or destroy any structure or place a red squirrel uses for shelter or protection or disturb a red squirrel, a wild red squirrel or any part of a wild red squirrel. Under Section 11 of the Act, it is also illegal

  15. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  16. Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group

    E-print Network

    Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

  17. Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management

    E-print Network

    Floyd, Sally

    Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net- work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

  18. Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management

    E-print Network

    Floyd, Sally

    Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net­ work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

  19. Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Nanoscopy

    E-print Network

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ABSTRACT Far-red fluorescent proteins are required for deep-tissue and whole-animal imaging and multicolor labeling in the red wavelength range

  20. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263...Guard District § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a)...

  1. The Piromen Test as an Assay of Bone Marrow Granulocyte Reserves in the Calf I. Studies on Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J. H.; Valli, V. E. O.; McSherry, B. J.; Willoughby, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Piromen, a polysaccharide complex of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, has been investigated in 21 calves by a test of marrow granulocyte reserves. The maximal increase in peripheral granulocytes (?G) was determined following multiple intravenous and sub-cutaneous injections of Piromen at various time intervals and was correlated with the mature marrow granulocytes on bone marrow smear differentials. Five ug Piromen per kg body weight, by the subcutaneous route, was found to give a mean ?G of 5200/mm3, very similar to the ?G of 5300/mm3 obtained in man with 0.1 ug/kg intravenous Piromen injections. Clinical effects in calves were minimal with the subcutaneous route as compared to the response following intravenous Piromen injections. PMID:4272958

  2. HUMAN BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS : A SYSTEMATIC REAPPRAISAL VIA THE GENOSTEM EXPERIENCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 HUMAN BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS : A SYSTEMATIC REAPPRAISAL VIA THE GENOSTEM EXPERIENCE 1 Eloi- INM, Montpellier, France Key words : differentiation ; stem cell ; bone ; cartilage ; tendon Genostem (acronym for "Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From

  3. Acute restraint stress increases the frequency of vinblastine-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Malvandi, Amir Mohammad; Haddad, Farhang; Moghimi, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Acute physiological stress induces remarkable effects on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and also on cellular metabolism and cell division processes. Stress-induced instability of cellular mechanisms might play an important role in increasing cell division disorders. In this study, a relationship between stress and micronucleus (MN) induction in mouse (balb/c) bone marrow cells following vinblastine treatment, or stress or stress and vinblastine treatment in comparison to a non-stressed control group was investigated. In order to test the effects of treatments on MN induction, an in vivo MN assay was performed on bone marrow cells. The results revealed a significantly greater increase in MNs in bone marrow cells (polychromatic erythrocytes) from the stressed/vinblastine treated mice. The data indicate the ability of exposure to an emotional stressor to enhance the damaging actions on bone marrow cells of an aneugenic agent. PMID:20392198

  4. Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

  5. Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children with Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 25, 2013 Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases ... for sure 9 patients Understanding Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants What are hematopoietic stem cells? Hematopoietic stem cells ...

  6. The secret life of a megakaryocyte: emerging roles in bone marrow homeostasis control.

    PubMed

    Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian A; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Currao, Manuela; Balduini, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Megakaryocytes are rare cells found in the bone marrow, responsible for the everyday production and release of millions of platelets into the bloodstream. Since the discovery and cloning, in 1994, of their principal humoral factor, thrombopoietin, and its receptor c-Mpl, many efforts have been directed to define the mechanisms underlying an efficient platelet production. However, more recently different studies have pointed out new roles for megakaryocytes as regulators of bone marrow homeostasis and physiology. In this review we discuss the interaction and the reciprocal regulation of megakaryocytes with the different cellular and extracellular components of the bone marrow environment. Finally, we provide evidence that these processes may concur to the reconstitution of the bone marrow environment after injury and their deregulation may lead to the development of a series of inherited or acquired pathologies. PMID:25572292

  7. Discovery of novel anti-inflammatory proteins inspired by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell secretions

    E-print Network

    Milwid, Jack Miles

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may soon become the first FDA-approved stem cell therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Our lab originally hypothesized that much of the therapeutic activity of MSCs may ...

  8. Imaging Therapeutic Response in Human Bone Marrow Using Rapid Whole-Body MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ballon, Douglas; Watts, Richard; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Lis, Eric; Morris, Michael J.; Scher, Howard I.; Ulug, Aziz M.; Jakubowski, Ann A.

    2008-01-01

    Whole-body imaging of therapeutic response in human bone marrow was achieved without introduced contrast agents using diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging of physiologic water. Bone marrow disease was identified relative to the strong overlying signals from water and lipids in other anatomy through selective excitation of the water resonance and generation of image contrast that was dependent upon differential nuclear relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients. Three-dimensional displays were generated to aid image interpretation. The geometric distortion inherent in echo-planar imaging techniques was minimized through the acquisition of multiple axial slices at up to 12 anatomic stations over the entire body. Examples presented include the evaluation of therapeutic response in bone marrow during cytotoxic therapy for leukemia and metastatic prostate cancer and during cytokine administration for marrow mobilization prior to stem cell harvest. PMID:15562475

  9. Imaging therapeutic response in human bone marrow using rapid whole-body MRI.

    PubMed

    Ballon, Douglas; Watts, Richard; Dyke, Jonathan P; Lis, Eric; Morris, Michael J; Scher, Howard I; Ulu?, Aziz M; Jakubowski, Ann A

    2004-12-01

    Whole-body imaging of therapeutic response in human bone marrow was achieved without introduced contrast agents using diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging of physiologic water. Bone marrow disease was identified relative to the strong overlying signals from water and lipids in other anatomy through selective excitation of the water resonance and generation of image contrast that was dependent upon differential nuclear relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients. Three-dimensional displays were generated to aid image interpretation. The geometric distortion inherent in echo-planar imaging techniques was minimized through the acquisition of multiple axial slices at up to 12 anatomic stations over the entire body. Examples presented include the evaluation of therapeutic response in bone marrow during cytotoxic therapy for leukemia and metastatic prostate cancer and during cytokine administration for marrow mobilization prior to stem cell harvest. PMID:15562475

  10. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels modulate in vitro chondrogenesis of bovine bone marrow stromal cells

    E-print Network

    Kopesky, Paul Wayne

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds provide cues that enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were encapsulated within two ...

  11. Inflammatory lesions in the bone marrow of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a morphological perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The synovial tissue stands at the epicenter of joint pathology in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As a primary target of the disease, studies on the synovium have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. Recent work has, however, revealed the importance of a previously unseen anatomic compartment in direct contact with the joint space, namely the subchondral bone marrow. Bone marrow edema (BME) visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is clinically meaningful in both early and late RA as it associates with future development of bone erosions and poor functional outcomes. Although the histopathologic correlates of MRI-based BME in early RA remain obscure, studies in advanced disease are consistent in describing lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates within the subchondral marrow cavity of affected joints. In this review, we discuss the nature of bone marrow lesions in patients with RA, analyze their relationship with synovitis, and explore their potential contribution to the pathological processes of the disease. PMID:23270711

  12. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) Definition. Micronuclei are small particles consisting of acentric fragments...method employs bone marrow of laboratory mammals which are exposed to test substances...schedule. The use of a single sex or a smaller number of animals should be...

  13. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (b) Definition. Micronuclei are small particles consisting of acentric fragments...method employs bone marrow of laboratory mammals which are exposed to test substances...schedule. The use of a single sex or a smaller number of animals should be...

  14. Red supergiant identification and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.; Marco, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interest for red supergiants has grown in the past few years, as these objects are being used for a number of different studies. In spite of this, their spectral identification and classification still present several problems and limitations that we expose in this work. To bring light to this topic, we have homogeneously observed and classified the largest sample of red supergiants to date. We are using this data to develop a system of identification and classification for these objects through the atomic and molecular features in the infrared Calcium Triplet spectral region. Also, our method will allow the identification and classification of the cool bright stars observed by Gaia without resorting to TiO bands, as none of their bandheads is inside the Gaia spectral range.

  15. Why Owens Lake is Red!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wayne Armstrong

    This article explains the biological phenomena of reddish-colored salt lakes, such as Lake Owens, and playas. Applying colorful images and geological history, the author describes the processes by which astronomical numbers of microscopic, unicellular organisms living in the water and salt crust can cause the red coloration. Descriptions also include the ability of halophilic microbes to withstand high salt concentrations and other extreme conditions.

  16. Toxic Blooms: Understanding Red Tides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Don Anderson

    This online seminar reviews the topic of red tides in four sessions, which review the effect HABs have on public health, wildlife and the economy; describe common harmful algal species and their toxins; identify poisoning symptoms; compare methods of treatment if poisoned; describe some potential methods to control HABs; and identify research areas where information on HABs is still inadequate. After completing the sessions, an optional knowledge test is provided based on the seminar material.

  17. Hipparcos red stars (Platais+, 2003)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Platais; D. Pourbaix; A. Jorissen; V. V. Makarov; L. N. Berdnikov; N. N. Samus; T. Lloyd Evans; T. Lebzelter; J. Sperauskas

    2002-01-01

    For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibrated instantaneous (epoch) Cousins V-I color indices using newly derived HpVT2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins VI data have been obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants, observed at SAAO in 1984 and 1987 (table1), at Siding Spring Observatory in 2002 (table2), and with

  18. Red Scare: An Image Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The William & Anita Newman Library at Baruch College (The City University of New York) has recently added this exhibit to its digital collection. Red Scare is an image database created by Leo Robert Klein, Web Coordinator and Digital Resources Developer for Newman Library. The database contains 137 photographs and political cartoons that illustrate US political history from 1918 to 1920. The images are arranged chronologically and by subject. A list of subject headings are provided.

  19. Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

  20. Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

  1. Red Studio - MoMA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    By collaborating with high school students, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) put together Red Studio, a Web site designed to connect teens with modern art and today's working artists. Currently, Red Studio features an interview with Shahzia Sikander, an artist born in Pakistan in 1969, who was educated, and now lives here in the US. Conducted by six students, interview questions range from what it's like for a young woman with a Muslim family to pursue a career as an artist, if she's ever felt she has to censor her art, to what type of music she likes. Red Studio visitors can view the interview as a Flash presentation with sound, or read the complete transcript. There is also an earlier interview with Vito Acconci, who is asked if he is an artist or an architect, and why he always wears black. Another teen-orientated part of the site is polls, so that kids can find out what other kids think about the purpose of art, and what they like to do after school.

  2. The Influence of Growth Hormone on Bone Marrow Adipogenesis in Hypophysectomized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaw Appiagyei-Dankah; D. Tapiador; Jodi F. Evans; Mariano Castro-Magana; John F. Aloia; James K. Yeh

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. The hypophysectomized rat has been used as a model to study the effects of growth hormone deficiency on bone. Here we have investigated the influence of growth hormone,administration to hypophysectomized rats for 6 weeks on accumulation of triglycerides in bone marrow and, on the differentiation of primary marrow,stromal cells into adipocytes under in vitro conditions. We found that hypophysectomy,significantly

  3. Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Alvarez-Dolado; Ricardo Pardal; Jose M. Garcia-Verdugo; John R. Fike; Hyun O. Lee; Klaus Pfeffer; Carlos Lois; Sean J. Morrison; Arturo Alvarez-Buylla

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow cells possess a broad differentiation potential, being able to form new liver cells, cardiomyocytes and neurons. Several groups have attributed this apparent plasticity to `transdifferentiation'. Others, however, have suggested that cell fusion could explain these results. Using a simple method based on Cre\\/lox recombination to detect cell fusion events, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived

  4. Cell fusion is the principal source of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Holger Willenbring; Yassmine Akkari; Yumi Torimaru; Mark Foster; Muhsen Al-Dhalimy; Eric Lagasse; Milton Finegold; Susan Olson; Markus Grompe

    2003-01-01

    Evidence suggests that haematopoietic stem cells might have unexpected developmental plasticity, highlighting therapeutic potential. For example, bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes can repopulate the liver of mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency and correct their liver disease. To determine the underlying mechanism in this murine model, we performed serial transplantation of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes. Here we show by Southern blot analysis that the repopulating hepatocytes

  5. Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Nakamizo; Frank Marini; Asadullah Khan; Matus Studeny; Julianne Chen; Stephen Hentschel; Giacomo Vecil; Jennifer Dembinski; Michael Andreeff

    2005-01-01

    The poor survival of patients with human malignant gliomas relates partly to the inability to deliver therapeutic agents to the tumor. Because it has been suggested that circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells can be recruited into solid organs in response to tissue stresses, we hypothesized that human bone marrow-derived mesen- chymal stem cells (hMSC) may have a tropism for brain

  6. Isolation and expansion of osteogenic cells from bone marrow and in vivo testing at ectopic sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kisioglu; B. Kandler; M. Scheuer; G. Watzek; R. Gruber

    2010-01-01

    Summary  BACKGROUND: Cell therapy is a strategy to enhance bone formation in regenerative dentistry. Osteogenic cells can be isolated\\u000a and expanded from total bone marrow by the use of biodegradable microcarriers. It remains, however, unknown whether the cells\\u000a on the surface of microcarriers can provide bone substitutes with an osteogenic potential. METHODS: We therefore isolated\\u000a and expanded rat bone marrow cells

  7. Rapamycin as an inhibitor of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Isomoto; Koji Hattori; Hajime Ohgushi; Hiroshi Nakajima; Yasuhito Tanaka; Yoshinori Takakura

    2007-01-01

    Background  An autograft of cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has already been used in clinical practice. In those patients\\u000a whose bone marrow cannot be used, a cell allograft with the use of immunosuppressant drugs will be an option in the future.\\u000a However, little is known about the effects of immunosuppressant drugs on mesenchymal stem cells. This study assessed the effects

  8. Pancytopenia in Children with Brucellosis: Clinical Manifestations and Bone Marrow Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youssef A. Al-Eissa; Sulaiman A. Assuhaimi; Ibrahim M. Al-Fawaz; Kamal E. Higgy; Mohammed N. Al-Nasser; Khalid F. Al-Mobaireek

    1993-01-01

    Among 276 paediatric cases of brucellosis seen over a 7-year period, 16 patients (5.8%) with pancytopenia were identified. The most frequent presentations were fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss, arthralgia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Fourteen patients (87.5%) had positive blood and\\/or bone marrow cultures for Brucella melitensis. Bone marrow aspiration specimens showed hypercellular-ity in 14 patients and normocellularity in 2. Histiocytes, eosinophils and

  9. Donor origin of the in vitro haematopoietic microenvironment after marrow transplantation in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armand Keating; Jack W. Singer; Paul D. Killen; Gary E. Striker; Armi C. Salo; Jean Sanders; E. Donnall Thomas; David Thorning; Philip J. Fialkow

    1982-01-01

    The method for long-term culture of marrow cells in vitro as described by Dexter1 has recently been successfully applied to human marrow2,3 and is dependent on the development of an adherent stromal cell layer consisting of cells described as ``endothelial-like cells, fat cells, and macrophages'' 4. The present study was designed to determine the origin and composition of the stromal

  10. Conditionally Immortalized Murine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Mediate Parathyroid Hormone-Dependent Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-Y. Liu; J. GUO; B. LANSKE; P. DIVIETI; H. M. KRONENBERG; F. R. BRINGHURST

    1998-01-01

    PTH recruits and activates osteoclasts to cause bone resorption. These actions of PTH are thought to be mediated indirectly via type 1 PTH\\/PTH-related peptide receptors (PTH1Rs) expressed by adja- cent marrow stromal or osteoblastic cells, although some evidence suggests that PTH may act directly on early hematopoietic osteoclast progenitors. We have established clonal, conditionally immortalized, PTH-responsive, bone marrow stromal cell

  11. Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem\\/Stromal Cells and Tumor Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pravin J. Mishra; Debabrata Banerjee

    \\u000a Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in the growth of epithelial solid tumors. The origin of these\\u000a tumor or CAFs has not been conclusively established. There is experimental evidence to suggest that part of the tumor or CAFs\\u000a may arise from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal\\/stem cells or MSCs. It is well known that bone marrow derived MSCs

  12. Autotransplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells as a Therapy for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kan; E. Melamed; D. Offen

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration of selective neural populations. This selective\\u000a hallmark pathology and the lack of effective treatment modalities make these diseases appropriate candidates for cell therapy.\\u000a Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing precursors that reside in the bone marrow and may further\\u000a be exploited for autologous transplantation. Autologous transplantation of MSCs entirely circumvents

  13. A blinded study of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Vishwanath K.; Ross, Catherine; Popovic, Snezana; Sur, Mona Lisa; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Lim, Wendy; George, James N.; Wang, Grace; Cook, Richard J.; Toltl, Lisa J.; Nazi, Ishac; Kelton, John G.; Arnold, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine the inter-rater reliability of bone marrow examinations and to identify distinguishing morphological features of ITP bone marrows under controlled conditions. Methods Histological slides of bone marrow biopsy specimens and aspirates from 32 adult patients with severe primary ITP who had failed a median of two treatments, and 51 non-thrombocytopenic controls were retrieved from hospital archives. Slides were arranged in random order in a slide box and coded. Blinded to the diagnosis and platelet counts, three independent hematopathologists were asked to identify the ITP bone marrows and to evaluate megakaryocyte number, morphology, and distribution. Results Overall chance-corrected agreement on ITP classification among the three raters was poor [kappa (?) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.22–0.38]. Raters were generally unable to correctly identify the ITP bone marrows from controls. Increased number of megakaryocytes, while an uncommon finding, was more frequent among ITP patients compared with controls (6/32, 18.8%; vs. 2/51, 3.9%; P = 0.05), and abnormal megakaryocyte morphology often led individual raters to reach a diagnosis of ITP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow examinations were 24% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms methodologically that bone marrow examinations are unreliable and frequently non-diagnostic in ITP. Thus, they are not useful for patients with typical disease. Rare subsets of patients with severe ITP demonstrated unique features such as increased number of megakaryocytes. PMID:23140198

  14. Stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C Walters; M Patience; W Leisenring; Z. R Rogers; V. M Aquino; G. R Buchanan; I. A. G Roberts; A. M Yeager; L Hsu; T Adamkiewicz; J Kurtzberg; E Vichinsky; B Storer; R Storb; K. M Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    A multicenter investigation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for children with sickle cell disease was conducted that included 27 European and North American transplant centers. Fifty-nine patients who ranged in age from 3.3 to 15.9 years (median, 10.1 years) received HLA-identical sibling marrow allografts between September 1991 and April 2000. Fifty-five patients survive, and 50 survive free from sickle cell

  15. Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, L E; Cañas, P E; Minguell, J J

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone. PMID:1005113

  16. Long-term culture of leukemic bone marrow primary cells in biomimetic osteoblast niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Hou; Ting Liu; Jing Tan; Wentong Meng; Li Deng; Hongtao Yu; Xingli Zou; Yuchun Wang

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a “biomimetic osteoblast niche” with bio-derived bone as a scaffold, on which we seeded marrow mesenchymal\\u000a stem cells (MSCs) from CML patients, and induced the MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Bone marrow mononuclear cells\\u000a from CML patients were cultured in the biomimetic niche (3D culture system) or a 2D culture system with the induced MSCs\\/osteoblasts\\u000a as a feeder

  17. A Prospective Study of Androgens and Bone Marrow Transplantation for Treatment of Severe Aplastic Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce M. Camitta; E. Donnall Thomas; David G. Nathan; Robert P. Gale; Kenneth J. Kopecky; Joel M. Rappeport; George Santos; E. C. Gordon-Smith; Rainer Storb

    1979-01-01

    One hundred ten patients with severe aplastic anemia were entered into a prospective study. Forty-seven patients who had HIA-identical siblings were treated with marrow transplantation. Sixty-three patients without marrow don- ors were randomized to supportive care with oral androgen (27 patients). intramus- cular androgen (23 patients). or no androgen (1 3 patients). The distributions of the survival times for the

  18. Lesions in the thymus and bone marrow in chicks with experimentally induced chicken infectious anemia disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burak Kuscu; Aydin Gürel

    2008-01-01

    One-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the Cux-l strain of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and the clinical development of disease and its macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the thymus and bone marrow, were observed. Tissue sections of thymus and bone marrow were stained using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method and examined under light microscope for evaluation of antigenic intensities in

  19. Immunohistochemistry in apparently normal bone marrow trephine specimens from patients with nodal follicular lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Chetty; G Echezarreta; M Comley; K Gatter

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To establish the role of immunohistochemistry (using a limited panel of antibodies) in detecting minimal involvement by follicular lymphoma in routinely processed bone marrow trephine specimens, which show no obvious morphological (light microscopic) evidence of lymphoma; to determine whether bcl-2 immunostaining in bone marrow distinguishes between benign and malignant infiltrates in a patient with nodal follicular lymphoma. METHODS--Twenty seven consecutively

  20. Cellular response of the primate (M. mulatta) spleen to bone marrow transplantation in gamma irradiated recipients

    E-print Network

    Fraunfelter, Frank Clare

    1966-01-01

    CELLULAR RESPONSE OF THE PRIMATE (M. mulatta) SPLEEN TO BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN GAMMA IRRADIATED RECIPIENTS A Thesis by FRANK C. FRAUNFELTER, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Laboratory Animal Medicine CELLULAR RESPONSE OF THE PRIMATE (M. mulatta) SPLEEN TO BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN GAMMA IRRADIATED RECIPIENTS A Thesis...

  1. Bone Marrow Metastasis in Ewing's Sarcoma and Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Lazda; P. J. Berry

    1998-01-01

    Bone marrow metastases from small round cell tumors can present diagnostic difficulties. In this study, we assessed the value\\u000a of immunohistochemistry, using two monoclonal antibodies to CD99, for the diagnosis of metastatic disease in bone marrow trephine\\u000a specimens from patients with Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The proportions of specimens showing\\u000a metastases were 10.3% with routine staining and

  2. Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Changes in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E J Lim; S C Peh

    Background: 47 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were studied retrospectively to determine their marrow and blood changes at diagnosis. Methods: The blood counts, blood films, marrow smears, trephine and tissue biopsies of patients at diagnosis were reviewed. The scheme proposed by the International Lymphoma Study Group (REAL) was utilised for lymphoma subclassification. Results and Conclusion: 21.3% had lymphoblastic lymphoma, 21.3%

  3. In vitro synergism of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide and cisplatin: relevance for bone marrow purging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Peters; Carlene S. Brandon; Lobelia A. Avila; O. Michael Colvin; Robert K. Stuart

    1989-01-01

    Summary Autologous bone marrow transplantation with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC)-purged bone marrow gives long-term remission in almost half of relapsed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, but relapse of disease is the main cause of failure, suggesting ineffective purging in some cases. Cisplatin (CP) has activity against a variety of human tumors and is not commonly used for initial therapy of

  4. Amiodarone-associated bone marrow granulomas: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Mohamed; Rashmi Sanjay; Tatyana Sycheva; Leo Aish; Douglas Schneider; Thein H. Oo

    2007-01-01

    Amiodarone therapy is associated with several adverse effects, including hematologic ones such as pancytopenia, hemolytic\\u000a anemia, and aplastic anemia.Very few cases of amiodarone-associated bone marrow granulomas have been reported.We report 2\\u000a cases of amiodarone-associated bone marrow granulomas. Patient 1 was an 81-year-old man who presented with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia,\\u000a and hepatosplenomegaly after 2 years of amiodarone therapy. Patient 2 was an

  5. Assessment of proliferative activity in leukaemic bone marrow using the monoclonal antibody Ki67

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M White; A G Smith; J L Smith

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate proliferative activity in leukaemic and lymphomatous bone marrow infiltrates and to assess the feasibility of transport of specimens among institutions. METHODS--Proliferative activity in bone marrow trephine cryosections from 99 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 23 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 11 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and two with acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL) was investigated. Infiltration was

  6. Bone Marrow Cells Can Give Rise to Ameloblast-like Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hu; F. Unda; S. Bopp-Kuchler; L. Jimenez; X. J. Wang; Y. Haïkel; S. L. Wang; H. Lesot

    2006-01-01

    Post-eruptive loss of ameloblasts requires identification of alternative sources for these cells to realize tooth-tissue-engineering strategies. Recent reports showed that bone-marrow-derived cells can give rise to different types of epithelial cells, suggesting their potential to serve as a source for ameloblasts. To investigate this potential, we mixed c-Kit+-enriched bone marrow cells with embryonic dental epithelial cells and cultured them in

  7. Cannabinoids Stimulate Fibroblastic Colony Formation by Bone Marrow Cells Indirectly via CB 2 Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scutt; E. M. Williamson

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were shown to modulate bone formation and resorption in vivo, although little is known of the mechanisms underlying this. The effects of cannabinoids on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment\\u000a in whole bone marrow were investigated using either the fibroblastic colony-forming unit (CFU-f) assay or high-density cultures\\u000a of whole bone marrow. Levels of the

  8. Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhrajit Saha; Payel Bhanja; Rafi Kabarriti; Laibin Liu; Alan A. Alfieri; Chandan Guha; Jan-Hendrik Niess

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundNuclear accidents and terrorism presents a serious threat for mass casualty. While bone-marrow transplantation might mitigate hematopoietic syndrome, currently there are no approved medical countermeasures to alleviate radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS), resulting from direct cytocidal effects on intestinal stem cells (ISC) and crypt stromal cells. We examined whether bone marrow-derived adherent stromal cell transplantation (BMSCT) could restitute irradiated intestinal stem

  9. Adenosine A 3 receptor agonist acts as a homeostatic regulator of bone marrow hematopoiesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Hofer; Milan Pospíšil; Vladimír Znojil; Ji?ina Holá; Antonín Vacek; Denisa Štreitová

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to define the optimum conditions of the stimulatory action of the adenosine A3 receptor agonist, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5?-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), on bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice. Effects of 2-day treatment with IB-MECA given at single doses of 200nmol\\/kg twice daily were investigated in normal mice and in mice whose femoral bone marrow cells were either depleted or regenerating

  10. The second transferrin receptor regulates red blood cell production in mice.

    PubMed

    Nai, Antonella; Lidonnici, Maria Rosa; Rausa, Marco; Mandelli, Giacomo; Pagani, Alessia; Silvestri, Laura; Ferrari, Giuliana; Camaschella, Clara

    2015-02-12

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) contributes to hepcidin regulation in the liver and associates with erythropoietin receptor in erythroid cells. Nevertheless, TFR2 mutations cause iron overload (hemochromatosis type 3) without overt erythroid abnormalities. To clarify TFR2 erythroid function, we generated a mouse lacking Tfr2 exclusively in the bone marrow (Tfr2(BMKO)). Tfr2(BMKO) mice have normal iron parameters, reduced hepcidin levels, higher hemoglobin and red blood cell counts, and lower mean corpuscular volume than normal control mice, a phenotype that becomes more evident in iron deficiency. In Tfr2(BMKO) mice, the proportion of nucleated erythroid cells in the bone marrow is higher and the apoptosis lower than in controls, irrespective of comparable erythropoietin levels. Induction of moderate iron deficiency increases erythroblasts number, reduces apoptosis, and enhances erythropoietin (Epo) levels in controls, but not in Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Epo-target genes such as Bcl-xL and Epor are highly expressed in the spleen and in isolated erythroblasts from Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Low hepcidin expression in Tfr2(BMKO) is accounted for by erythroid expansion and production of the erythroid regulator erythroferrone. We suggest that Tfr2 is a component of a novel iron-sensing mechanism that adjusts erythrocyte production according to iron availability, likely by modulating the erythroblast Epo sensitivity. PMID:25499454

  11. Anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis: serum erythropoietin concentrations and red cell distribution width in relation to iron status.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, O J; Andersen, L S; Ludwigsen, E; Bouchelouche, P; Hansen, T M; Birgens, H; Hansen, N E

    1990-06-01

    Immunoreactive serum erythropoietin concentrations were measured in 35 patients with anaemia associated with active rheumatoid arthritis. Based on an evaluation of stainable iron in the bone marrow (marrow iron grade 0-4) and serum ferritin concentrations (concentrations less than or equal to 60 micrograms/l compatible with iron deficiency) the anaemia was found to be complicated by iron deficiency in 19/35 (54%) of the patients. The mean serum erythropoietin level (57.6 (SD) 27.3) U/l) was sufficiently raised for the degree of anaemia irrespective of the size of the marrow iron stores. Thus the data do not support the contention that suppressed secretion of erythropoietin is involved in the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disorders. There was a significant inverse correlation between the haemoglobin concentration and log serum erythropoietin in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In the patients with adequate iron stores, but not in the iron depleted patients, there was a tendency for serum erythropoietin concentrations to correlate positively both with C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Red cell distribution width (mean (SD) 16.3 (1.8)%) was above normal (11.5-14.5%) both in the iron replete and the iron depleted patients, and the mean red cell distribution width values did not differ significantly among the two subpopulations. The plasma lactoferrin concentration (mean (SD) 137.6 (109.9) micrograms/l) was normal and did not differ significantly between the iron deficient patients and those with adequate iron. PMID:2383057

  12. Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S

    2000-05-01

    The color properties (CIE Lab, hue, and chroma) of 90 red grapefruit juices were studied by tristimulus reflectance measurement for two growing seasons. Juices were prepared from six red grapefruit cultivars including Ruby Red, Rio Red, Star Ruby, Ray Ruby, Flame, and Marsh Red grown in Florida. Very wide varietal and seasonal variations on juice color were observed, and most notably, CIE a values varied widely from -1.41 to 9.06 (CV = 82.6%). Lycopene is the major colored pigment in red cultivars with lesser amounts of beta-carotene as determined by HPLC on a carotenoid C(30) column with gradient elution using MeOH and MTBE. The highest correlation coefficients (r = 0.963) found between CIE a values and lycopene contents in juices from all cultivars combined suggest the possibility that the CIE a value would be a good indicator for pigmentation in red grapefruit juice. PMID:10820051

  13. Induction effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Bo

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the induction of chromosome aberrations (CA) in mouse bone marrow cells by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) inhalation, mice were treated by SO(2) exposure for 4 h/day for 7 days at various concentrations of SO(2), then mitotic indices and CA in mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed. The present results show that SO(2) might increase the frequencies of CA and aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow in a dose-dependent manner. The frequencies (%) of aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow induced by SO(2) at concentrations of 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 mg/m(3) were 1.81, 3.00, 3.58, 4.26, 4.86, respectively. At low concentrations SO(2) induced only chromatid-type CA, while at high concentrations SO(2) induced both chromatid-type and chromosome-type CA. SO(2) inhalation decreased the mitotic indices of bone marrow cells. The results imply that SO(2) inhalation may inhibit mitoses and increase CA frequencies of bone marrow cells and that it is a clastogenetic and genotoxic agent. Long exposure to SO(2) pollution at low concentrations in the environment may be a potential risk for induction of cytogenetic damage in vivo in humans. PMID:11971992

  14. Absence of queuine-containing tRNA in canine bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Lifsey, B.J. Jr.; Al-Ansari, H.; Farkas, W.R.

    1986-05-01

    Transfer RNA obtained from canine bone marrow does not contain queuine, a hypermodified derivative of guanine found in the anticodon of tRNA/sup His/, tRNA/sup Asn/, tRNA/sup Tyr/ and tRNA/sup Asp/. This observation is in contrast to rabbit and human bone marrow cells which do contain queuine. The absence of queuine containing isoacceptors in canine bone marrow was determined by reverse-phase chromatography. Queuine containing isoacceptors are present in canine liver and spleen but not in peripheral leukocytes and the rate of queuine incorporation into tRNA by bone marrow cells in culture is very slow compared to the rate of /sup 3/H thymidine uptake into DNA. The queuine insertion enzyme is present in canine bone marrow and has an equal affinity for both queuine and guanine with K/sub m/ = 1.30 x 10/sup -7/ M. The canine enzyme differs from the queuine insertion enzymes that were previously purified from mammalian sources in that it has a requirement for a metal. Co/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ are most effective at restoring activity to the enzyme after it has been inactivated by dialysis. The absence of queuine containing isoacceptors in canine bone marrow is unique among normal mammalian tissues.

  15. Routine conventional karyotyping of lymphoma staging bone marrow samples does not contribute clinically relevant information.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Valentina; Pulluqi, Olja; Abramson, Jeremy S; Dal Cin, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow (BM) evaluation is an important part of lymphoma staging, which guides patient management. Although positive staging marrow is defined as morphologically identifiable disease, such samples often also include flow cytometric analysis and conventional karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis is a labor-intensive and costly procedure and its utility in this setting is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed pathological reports of 526 staging marrow specimens in which conventional karyotyping had been performed. All samples originated from a single institution from patients with previously untreated Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas presenting in an extramedullary site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal abnormalities in only eight marrow samples (1.5%), all of which were positive for lymphoma by morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry showed a small clonal lymphoid population in three of the 443 morphologically negative marrow samples (0.7%). Conventional karyotyping is rarely positive in lymphoma staging marrow samples and, in our cohort, the BM karyotype did not contribute clinically relevant information in the vast majority of cases. Our findings suggest that karyotyping should not be performed routinely on BM samples taken to stage previously diagnosed extramedullary lymphomas unless there is pathological evidence of BM involvement by lymphoma. Am. J. Hematol. 90:529-533, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25776302

  16. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose.

  17. CD71 (transferrin receptor): an effective marker for erythroid precursors in bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Derek K; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Yu, Hongbo

    2010-09-01

    Accurate analysis of the erythroid lineage is essential in evaluating bone marrow biopsy specimens and can be particularly challenging in the setting of dyserythropoiesis. Transferrin receptor (CD71) mediates the uptake of transferrin-iron complexes and is highly expressed on the surface of cells of the erythroid lineage. Although CD71 has been used for flow cytometric analysis, its usefulness in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens has not been examined. This study defined the immunohistochemical profile of CD71, as compared with glycophorin A (CD235a) and hemoglobin, in 65 bone marrow biopsy specimens, including normal marrow specimens and cases of myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, plasma cell neoplasm, and metastatic carcinoma. Immunoreactivity for CD71 was restricted to erythroid precursors in normal and dyspoietic marrow samples and exhibited a membranous and cytoplasmic staining pattern. The vast majority of mature erythrocytes lack expression of CD71, greatly facilitating interpretation. CD71 is a highly effective marker for the detection of cells of erythroid lineage in bone marrow biopsy specimens. PMID:20716799

  18. Epithelial cells in bone marrow of oesophageal cancer patients: a significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thorban, S; Rosenberg, R; Busch, R; Roder, R J

    2000-01-01

    The detection of epithelial cells in bone marrow, blood or lymph nodes indicates a disseminatory potential of solid tumours. 225 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus were prospectively studied. Prior to any therapy, cytokeratin-positive (CK) cells in bone marrow were immunocytochemically detected in 75 patients with the monoclonal anti-epithelial-cell antibody A45-B/B3 and correlated with established histopathologic and patient-specific prognosis factors. The prognosis factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. Twenty-nine of 75 (38.7%) patients with oesophageal cancer showed CK-positive cells in bone marrow. The analyses of the mean and median overall survival time showed a significant difference between patients with and without epithelial cells in bone marrow (P< 0.001). Multivariate analysis in the total patient population and in patients with curative resection of the primary tumour confirmed the curative resection rate and the bone marrow status as the strongest independent prognostic factors, besides the T-category. The detection of epithelial cells in bone marrow of oesophageal cancer patients is a substantial prognostic factor proved by multivariate analysis and is helpful for exact preoperative staging, as well as monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883665

  19. Unveiling the paradoxical nature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): why hypercellular marrow strongly favors accelerated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhurima; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata

    2013-10-01

    The pathogenesis of bone marrow failure in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is an unresolved mystery. MDS causes peripheral blood cytopenias and increased bone marrow cellularity. This apparent paradox has been interpreted as a sign of intramedullary destruction of a substantial portion of the developing hematopoietic cells by apoptosis. The present study aimed to delineate the exact mechanistic relationship between the bone marrow hypercellularity and the accelerated apoptosis in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced experimental MDS mouse model. The observations made so far clarify the quantitative and qualitative changes that occur in the bone marrow microenvironment through cell cycle analysis, especially involving the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and p53 expression patterns. The survival fate of the bone marrow cells were observed by measuring the expression level of some intracellular protein molecules like apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleaved caspase-3 of the extrinsic pathway toward apoptosis. We found myelodysplasia damage occurs within one or more multipotent progenitor populations resulting in uncontrolled cellular proliferation within the MDS bone marrow. Then, due to homeostatic balance, this high cellular burden is minimized by activating the apoptosis pathway. As a result, the peripheral blood suffers cellular deprivation. This study can throw some light on the mechanism of disease progression and also help to reveal the paradoxical nature of the disease. PMID:24032679

  20. Effects of strontium on proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Jihua; Zhu, Songsong; Luo, En; Feng, Ge; Chen, Qianming [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jing, E-mail: drhu@vip.sohu.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strontium ranelate (SrR) inhibits proliferation of BMMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR increases osteoblastic but decreases adipocytic differentiation of BMMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR increases expression of Runx2, BSP and OCN by BMMSCs in osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR decreases expression of PPAR{gamma}, aP2/ALBP and LPL by BMMSCs in adipogenic medium. -- Abstract: Strontium ranelate (SrR) was an effective anti-osteoporotic drug to increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption. However, reports about the effect of SR on osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether SrR affects the ability of BMMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts or adipocytes. Rat BMMSCs were identified by flow cytometry and exposed to SR (0.1 and 1.0 mM Sr{sup 2+}) under osteogenic or adipogenic medium for 1 and 2 weeks. The proliferation and differentiation of BMMSCs were analyzed by MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Oil red O staining, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. SrR significantly inhibited the proliferation, increased osteoblastic but decreased adipocytic differentiation of rat BMMSCs dose-dependently. In osteogenic medium, SrR increased the expression of ALP, the mRNA levels of Cbfa1/Runx2, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin by RT-PCR, and the protein levels of Cbfa1/Runx2 by Western blot. In adipogenic medium, SrR decreased the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma}2, adipocyte lipid-binding protein 2 (aP2/ALBP), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of PPAR{gamma} in Western blot analysis. These results indicated that the effects of SrR to promote osteoblastic but inhibit adipocytic differentiation of BMMSCs might contribute to its effect on osteoporosis treatment.