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1

The Red River fault system in the Tonkin Gulf, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River fault system in the Tonkin Gulf offshore Haiphong was studied using seismic profiles calibrated by deep wells. Well characterised left-lateral strike-slip occurred continuously within a narrow 30-km-wide zone southwest of the Vinh Minh fault between 30 Ma and 5.5 Ma. However, the corresponding amount of offset probably does not exceed a few tens of kilometres. No sign of post-5.5 Ma right-lateral motion can be detected. Prior to 30 Ma, there is a widespread extension in a wider 100-km-wide zone which could be related to a significant amount of left-lateral motion. The motion of the fault splays to the northeast of the Vinh Minh fault prior to 30 Ma was absorbed in the rifting of the Gulf of Beibu. A 15.5-Ma unconformity separates the transtensional regime from a later transpresional regime. This 15.5-Ma date coincides with the cessation of sea-floor spreading in the South China Sea.

Rangin, C.; Klein, M.; Roques, D.; Le Pichon, X.; Le Van Trong

1995-03-01

2

Late Quaternary tectonics and seismotectonics along the Red River fault zone, North Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of active tectonic development in Vietnam is of great importance. Right lateral strike-slip offsets along the Red River fault during the Pliocene-present are determined by analyzing tributaries, Quaternary alluvial fans, river valley from Landsat, SPOT images, detailed topographical maps and field observation. Along the SW fault of the Red River, right lateral offsets of stream channels range between 150 and 700 m (mean offsets of 300 m). Drainage offsets (170-450 m) are found on the eastern branch. Assuming the major phase of incision is visible in this area which is close to the Red River delta due to the onset of Riss glaciation. Using the average length of offset channels and a minimum rate of 100-150 mm/yr for river propagation, we estimate the horizontal slip rates of 2.9 ± 1.7 mm/yr for Song Chay fault, 2.3 ± 1.5 mm/yr for Red River left side fault and 2.1 ± 1.5 mm/yr for Red River left side fault. Several active faults associated with it are observed in Son La area. The Phong Tho-Nam Pia fault is clearly seen in the geomorphology which separates Tu Le and Song Da rift zones. In normal fault segments striking NW-SE, SW dipping is observed clearly from SPOT images. In the field, triangular facets indicate typical dip slip displacement. Based on different data, vertical slip rate of Phong Tho-Nam Pia fault is estimated to be 0.2-0.4 mm/y for Pliocene-present, 0.5-3 mm/y for Quaternary-present and 0.6-1.7 for the present time. Based on various methods, maximum credible earthquakes for different fault segments in Vietnam were estimated.

Phan, Trong Trinh; Ngo, Van Liem; Nguyen, Van Huong; Hoang, Quang Vinh; Bui, Van Thom; Bui, Thi Thao; Mai, Thanh Tan; Nguyen, Hoang

2012-09-01

3

Tectonics of the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Belt in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault belt is one of the most profound active strike-slip faults in East Asia. It is generally believed that the Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision caused the southeastward extrusion of Indochina along the ASRR fault belt (left-lateral displacement) in mid Tertiary. However, geomorphologic evidences and earthquake focal mechanism solutions do indicate a present-day right-lateral slip of the ASRR. Structural analyses and field observation along the ASRR in northern Vietnam revealed that the ASRR has undergone multiple phases and styles of deformation (three ductile folding events with a younger brittle deformation) possibly since Triassic to Pliocene. The deformation history, combined with offshore exploration data and igneous activities, enabled us to better constrain the tectonic evolution of the ASRR. A previously unrecognized deformation event (D1) with foliations showing dextral sense of shear possibly formed during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny or during Eocene post India-Eurasia collision. D2 is the strongest deformation event within the ASRR forming large-scale horizontal folds possibly commenced since Eocene-Oligocene as the thickened ductile crust flowed eastwardly away from the Tibetan Plateau under SE Asia, and extended to Early Miocene till termination of sinsitral strike-slip movement of the ASRR. D3 continuously uplifted most of the ASRR and formed current antiformal domes in northern Vietnam with NW-SE subvertical fold axial planes parallel to the trend of ASRR, possibly due to the right-lateral movement of the ASRR during Late Miocene to Pliocene. Continuous denudation uplifted the ASRR crossing the brittle-ductile transition zone forming brittle structures (D4) as the right-lateral movement of the ASRR continued.

Lee, T.; Yeh, M.; Lo, C.; Chung, S.; Lan, C.; Wu, H.; Tsai, Y.; Hu, J.

2003-12-01

4

Formation mechanism of the Qiongdongnan basin northwest of the South China Sea-dating the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locating on the northwestern margin of the South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan basin is a NE-trending rift zone in general. Bounding with the NW-trending Yinggehai basin and the Red River- East Vietnam Fault Zone to the west, the evolution of the Qiongdongnan basin bears large amounts of information about the slip of the Red River Fault zone. Combined the geological analysis with analogue modeling experiments, we suggest that the evolution of the Qiongdongnan is controlled not only by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, but also by the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone. The central depression of the Qiongdongnan basin is controlled mainly by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, while the southern depression developed under the combined stress filed of southeastward extension and the dextral slip along the NNW-trending Red River fault zone. The northern depression was formed by the combined effect of the sinistral slip along the Red River Fault Zone and the southeastward extension. According to the age of the shear fault starting to develop in the southwest of the Qiongdongnan basin, as well as the age for the northwestern part to develop, the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone began around early oligocene, later than the rifting of the Qiongdongnan basin. The sinistral slip rate of the Red River Fault zone during early Oligocene may be smaller than the displacement rate of the Qiongdongnan basin, but become reversed thereafter, which in turn caused tectonic inversion and folding along the western segment of the Qiongdongnan basin, and NW- to NNW-trending Rediel faults from late Oligocene to middle Miocene. Through the deformation history of the Qiongdongnan basin, we defined the sinistral slip stage Indochina along the Red River Fault zone from about 36Ma to 16Ma, and further a rapid slip occurring after 30Ma.

Sun, Z.; Jiang, J.; Xie, W.

2010-12-01

5

Displacement along the Red River Fault constrained by extension estimates and plate reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant E-W extension and/or compression must have been generated by displacements along the Red River Fault (RRF) since its curvature does not match a small circle centered at the Euler pole for the Indochina-south China plate pair. The amount of extension perpendicular to the RRF offshore Vietnam depends on the magnitude of left-lateral displacement along the RRF. In general, the larger the left-lateral displacement along the fault, the smaller the amount of E-W extension. All purely strike-slip models of the opening of the South China Sea that assume large displacements (>250 km) along the RRF encounter major problems because they imply little extension, or even considerable shortening, offshore east Vietnam. This is inconsistent with the presence of large elongated basins offshore Vietnam. Using a plate tectonic model, we compare continental extension values implied by different magnitudes of displacement along the RRF with crustal stretching estimates derived from 2-D profiles modeled from gravity data. We utilize 2-D gravity forward models to restore the extended continental margin crust to its original position prior to extension. We find that substantial amounts of extension for offshore Vietnam can only be modeled assuming moderate displacements along the RRF compatible with the presence of a southward subducting proto-South China Sea. The total amount of ENE-WSW extension offshore northern Vietnam constrained by our 2-D gravity profiles and gravity inversion increases southward from 36 to 89 km along the Yinggehai Basin. These values of ENE-WSW extension are consistent with 250 km of left-lateral displacement along the RRF.

Mazur, S.; Green, C.; Stewart, M. G.; Whittaker, J. M.; Williams, S.; Bouatmani, R.

2012-10-01

6

Extensional step-over between the Zhongdian and Red River faults: kinematics of the Daju normal fault constrained by cosmogenic dating of the Yangtze terraces (Yulong Shan, Yunnan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extension in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibet, is limited by two dextral strike-slip faults, the Zhongdian and Red River faults, to the north and south, respectively, and is characterized by N-S directed normal faults and basins. In the northwestern corner of this large extensional step-over, the Yangtze River crosses the Daju normal fault at the foot of the Yulong Shan. Due to uplift of the Yulong Shan, the Yangtze carved the huge Huxiao Jia (Tiger Leap) Gorges (˜3500 m deep) and abandoned sets of fluvial terraces across the fault zone and in the Daju basin to the north. Cosmogenic dating of blocks sampled on top of the terraces provide ages ranging from 8 to 30 ka. In the hanging wall basin to the north, the terraces may have been abandoned after the breach of a natural dam formed in the river (moraine or landslide) during the last glacial period. The average incision rate of the river in the basin is about 5.9 mm/yr, the vertical slip-rate on the Daju fault is 4.9±1.3 mm/yr, thus implying an incision rate of the river inside the gorge reaching about 11 mm/year. These rates may explain the exceptional size and steepness of the gorge. These results show that active faulting plays a major role in shaping the present relief of this region and that recent strain changes involve movement along the largest strike-slip faults of the region, in accordance with models implying large-scale block extrusion.

van der Woerd, J.; Perrineau, A.; Gaudemer, Y.; Leloup, P.-H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Barrier, L.; Thuizat, R.

2012-04-01

7

Potassic magma genesis and the Ailao Shan-Red River fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of K-rich magma of Eocene to Early Oligocene (ca. 40-30) and Plio-Pleistocene (ca. 5-0.1 Ma) age were emplaced prior to and following left-lateral slip on the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, a regional shear zone extending between southwest China and the Tonkin Gulf (South China Sea) that accommodated 'escape' of the Indochina block. The first type is exposed in the Dali-Lijiang and adjacent regions of western Yunnan and Sichuan and comprises ultramafic potassic to ultrapotassic 'absarokites' and their shoshonite, banakite, and SiO2-rich derivatives which were emplaced immediately prior to activation of the ASRR fault. They are characterized by high Mg.-nos, and low contents of fusible oxides (FeO*, CaO, Al2O3), for equivalent MgO content, and pronounced primitive mantle-normalized high-field strength element (HFSE) depletions. In contrast, 'post-escape' K-rich magmas were erupted in the Puer, Maguan-Pingbian regions of south and southeast Yunnan. Apart from their relative enrichments in potassium they show typical HFSE-rich intra-plate compositional affinity. Geological and geomorphic evidence, and thermochronologic age dating of metamorphisc events, suggest that left-lateral shearing occurred between ca. 30 and 17 Ma; thereby accommodating the southeastward 'escape' of Indochina and (possibly) two episodes of spreading in the South China Sea. The southwestern part of Dali-Lijiang magmatic products was detached and offset by ca. 600 km and are now located in Phan Xi Pang in northern Viet Nam. The same is true for the Permo-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts, whose western exposures were likewise displaced by the same amount and are now represented by the Song Da complex, also in northern Viet Nam. Here, we report geochemical, isotopic, and 40Ar/39Ar age data for samples from both the 'pre-escape' Dali-Lijiang magmas and the 'post-escape' K-rich Puer, Maguan-Pingbian basalts and basanites, with a view to comparing and contrasting their interpolated source compositions, estimated conditions of upper mantle melt segregation and, by inference, their mantle dynamic and contamination histories insofar as these were conditioned by the India-Asia collision. Our interpretations yielded two complementary conclusions. The first contends that the pre-escape magmas result from adiabatic melting of crust-contaminated asthenosphere comprising a 'mélange' of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) (hydrated by sab-derived hysdrous fluids released at 0.2-0.5 GPa) and lower crust, delaminated from the overriding plate during mantle wedge corner flow and further enriched by metasomatic melts of subducted continental crust. We postulate that incipient H2O-saturated melting of the 'mélange' occurs at depths of between ca. 100 and 200 km after being 'dragged' down by relict oceanic slab fragments, in response to the dehydration of supra-subduction amphibole- and phlogopite. The ensuing viscosity 'crisis' and buoyancy relative to ambient 'fertile' convecting mantle of such asthenospheric 'pockets', and the collision-related change from lithospheric compression to extension, almost certainly predisposes such a refractory yet crust-contaminated 'pockets' to rapid adiabatic melting. The second conclusion concerns the post-escape K-rich basalts and basanites and is based on the contention that decompression melting of thermally anomalous K-rich asthenospheric occurred in response to regional post-escape transtension, concomitant with the cessation Indochina escape and contiguous seafloor spreading. However, although these magmas share the HFSE-rich fertile source character of other, widely dispersed, post-escape Cenozoic basalts they more specifically resemble relatively rare examples of intra-plate, K-rich activity observed in northeast China, central Spain, and elsewhere in Asia and Europe, arguably (indirectly) reflecting mantle perturbations caused by major continental collisions.

Flower, Martin F. J.; Hoàng, Nguy?n; Lo, Chinh-hua; Chí, Cung Thu'?'ng; Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Liu, Fu-tian; Deng, Jin-fu; Mo, Xuan-xue

2013-09-01

8

Clockwise rotation of the Red River fault inferred from paleomagnetic study of Cretaceous rocks in the Shan-Thai-Malay block of Western Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 150 samples were collected at 23 sites from the Lower Cretaceous Jingxing Formation near the city of Yongping (25.5°N, 99.5°E), which is located on the west side of the Red River fault. Sixteen sites have characteristic directions with a high-temperature component above 500°C. The high-temperature component of magnetization from twelve sites is of pre-fold origin, and reveals clockwise deflection in declination ( D = 42.0°, I = 51.1° and ? 95 = 15.7° ). The easterly declination of more than 40° at Yongping is consistent with the Cretaceous paleomagnetic direction ( D = 45°) of Chuxiong (25°N, 101.5°E), which is located on the east side of the Red River fault. Both areas were subjected to about 25° clockwise rotation with respect to the eastern part of the Yangtze block since Cretaceous time. We conclude that the Red River fault was rotated through 25° ± 16° with respect to the eastern part of the Yangtze block, associated with rotation of the Yongping and Chuxiong areas. Removal of the rotation from the Red River fault indicates that the latter and the Jinsha suture formed a straight line along N55°W-S55°E within the Asian continent from Vietnam to the Tibetan Plateau in the present coordinate system during the Cretaceous. The linear feature of the Red River fault and Jinsha suture was probably deformed to the present curved shape as a result of collision of the Indian continent with the Asian continent.

Funahara, Shoubu; Nishiwaki, Nobukazu; Murata, Fumiyuki; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Wang, Yi Zhao

1993-05-01

9

Strain partitioning of the Red River fault system explains the initiation of the Yinggehai Basin in the northwest region of South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NW-trending Yinggehai Basin (YGHB), located around the Red River fault system (RRFS) in the northwest area of South China Sea (SCS), is an important petroleum-bearing province and characterized by a maximum sedimentation thickness of up to 17 km, a strong upwelling of Moho at 22-23 km depth, an average heat flow of 86 mW/m2, and diapirs structure. The YGHB is suggested to be closely related to the crustal deformation associated with displacements of the RRFS and the formation of the SCS, but the basin differs in its formation from the NE-trending Pearl River Mouth Basin and Qingdongnan Basin on the northern continental margin of SCS and the Yuanjiang Basin and Midu Basin along the RRFS. Based on a first-order estimate of the rheology and boundary condition of the YGHB, we developed a 2.5 dimensional finite element model to investigate the origin of the YGHB and the relationships between motions on the RRFS and the spreading of the SCS. The crustal rheology is simplified as an elasto-plastic upper crust and a visco-elastic lower crust. Possible lateral variations of viscosity in the lower crust are tested according to the tectonic setting of the basin region. Results show that associated with the regional crustal movements, deformation of the RRFS could be responsible for upper crustal extension on both its sides. Further, the style of extensional faulting around the RRFS is largely controlled by the rheology of the lower crust. This means that strain partitioning induced both by the transtensional loading of strike-slip fault system and by the lateral changes in rheology of the lower crust can result in normal faulting on both sides near the RRFS, and may be involved in the formation of the YGHB.

Wang, X.; He, J.; Ding, L.; Gao, R.; Ai, C.; Wang, X.; Pan, Z.

2012-12-01

10

How crustal-scale strike-slip faults initiate and further develop: The Red River fault and the East Himalaya Syntaxis as a result of the two-stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major question of tectonics is how and where major intracontinental transcurrent strike-slip faults initiate. Models assume an important rheological contrast between rheologically weak and strong lithologies, e.g. at margins of a stiff craton and juxtaposed mobile belts (Molnar & Dayem, 2010 and references therein). Several models assume weakening of the lithosphere by uprise of magma, e.g., formed by subduction or break off of the previously subducted lithosphere or as K-granites at the bases of a metasomatized lithosphere. In the case of slab break-off following oblique convergence, orogen-parallel strike-slip accommodation has been documented. Especially, the spatiotemporal relationships between synkinematic plutons and crustal-scale strike-slip faults have been documented worldwide. It is a matter of continuous debate whether strike-slip faults nucleate where melts have previously weakened the crust/lithosphere or whether pre-existing faults represent the preferred pathways for the ascending melt. A few further models document the role of lateral boundaries of metamorphic core complexes. The significance of some of these processes could be studied along the Red River (RR) fault, SE, Asia. Here we propose a model, how the development of RR fault evolved in response to the two-stage India-Asia collision that recently was proposed by van Hinsbergen et al., (2012 and references therein) and the interaction of the northeastern corner of the East Himalayan Syntaxis with Himalayan-Burman/Indochina collision belt. We propose a four-phase tectonic evolution for the RR fault. During the Eocene accretion of the Tethyan block to Asia, the Sichuan foreland subducted and Eocene K-granites evolved, which started to vertically extrude and introduced, causing a zone of weakness within the crust (Phase 1) along the future RR fault. Another consequence of continuing shortening after the Tethyan block-Asia collision (Stage 1 collision) is lateral extrusion of blocks, and the Lhasa-Indochina block extruded towards east and southeast (Phase 2) initiating and continuously evolving to the Oligocene sinistral RR fault. Synkinematic granites and evolving migmatites within obliquely uprising metamorphic core complexes localized and enhanced the rheologically weak boundary. Possibly, southward subduction of oceanic crust underneath the Indonesian island arc created suction and a pulling force for the southeastward extruding Lhasa-Indochina block up to ca. 20 Ma, later interrupted by the westward progression of the opening South China Sea across the southern termination of the RR fault. The second, main stage of India-Asia collision (Stage 2 collision), after consumption of the Greater India oceanic basin, led to disruption of the coherent Lhasa-Indochina block by inception of the East Himalayan syntaxis (Phase 3) at the interface between Himalayan and Burman A-subduction zones. A consequence of the disruption is the first dextral (Phase 3) and subsequent ENE-WSW extensional (Phase 4) reactivation of the RR fault. References Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467. van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Lippert, Peter C., Dupont-Nivet, G., McQuarrie, N., Doubrovine, P. V., Spakman, W., Torsvik, T. H., 2012. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 , 7659-7664.

Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

2014-05-01

11

Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

2004-12-01

12

Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

2007-12-01

13

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

2011-04-20

14

Shallow faults mapped with seismic reflections: Lost River Fault, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution seismic-reflection survey, conducted at the intersection of Arentson Gulch road and the western splay of the Lost River fault scarp in central Idaho, defines a bedrock surface about 80 m deep which is segmented by several faults forming graben structures. Six meters of total fault displacement can be interpreted on the bedrock reflector while only 1 to 2

Mubarik Ali; Richard D. Miller; Don W. Steeples

1991-01-01

15

Shallow faults mapped with seismic reflections: Lost River fault, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution seismic-reflection survey, conducted at the intersection of Arentson Gulch road and the western splay of the Lost River fault scarp in central Idaho, defines a bedrock surface about 80 m deep which is segmented by several faults forming graben structures. Six meters of total fault displacement can be interpreted on the bedrock reflector while only 1 to 2

Mubarik Ali; Richard D. Miller; Don W. Steeples

1991-01-01

16

76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including...associated with flooding occurring on the Red River. Entry into this zone is...

2011-04-27

17

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

18

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2013-07-01

19

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2013-07-01

20

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

21

Hairpin river loops and slip-sense inversion on southeast Asian strike-slip faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Golden Triangle region of southeast Asia (northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, southern Yunnan), the Mekong, Salween, and neighboring rivers show hairpin geometries where they cross active strike-slip faults. Restoration of young, left-lateral offsets of these rivers leaves residual right-lateral bends of many kilometers. We interpret these hairpins as evidence of late Cenozoic slip-sense inversion on these faults, about 5 to 20 Ma. Near the Red River fault, stress field and slip-sense inversion occurred ca. 5 Ma. This implies that the present course of these large rivers has existed for at least several million years. Pliocene Quaternary slip rates, possibly on the order of 1 mm/yr, are inferred on each of the strike-slip faults of the Golden Triangle.

Lacassin, Robin; Replumaz, Anne; Hervé Leloup, P.

1998-08-01

22

The Story of Red River Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book provides the teacher with a summary narrative of the history and the development of the Red River Basin, a lakebed plain that extends from the Canadian border into Minnesota and North Dakota. There are many historical topics covered: the geology, cultures of the Sioux and Chippewa, fur trading, exploration, settlement of the…

Rolfsrud, Erling Nicolai

23

Paleofloods in the Red River Basin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

24

Instrumentation of the Red River Bridge at Boyce, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the instrumentation program of Red River Bridge at Boyce, Louisiana. The objectives of the program were to measure and evaluate time-dependent deformations, deflections, and temperatures of the Red River Bridge superstructure.To achie...

H. Tabatabai H. G. Russell K. N. Shiu

1991-01-01

25

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA�s search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

Magazine, Astrobiology; Ames, Nasa

26

75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0198] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...from entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north...

2010-03-31

27

The Red River Valley archeological project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

1986-01-01

28

Tectonic geomorphology of the Red Rock fault, insights into segmentation and landscape evolution of a developing range front normal fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Rock fault, an active normal fault in southwest Montana, is reevaluated for fault segmentation using a multiproxy approach. Field characterization of soils coupled with radiocarbon ages in offset hanging wall fans and terraces constrain the rupture history at a number of locations along strike. These data are coupled with morphometric analysis of dated alluvial fan deposits and adjacent

Nathan W. Harkins; David J. Anastasio; Frank J. Pazzaglia

2005-01-01

29

Tectonic geomorphology of the Red Rock fault, insights into segmentation and landscape evolution of a developing range front normal fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Rock fault, an active normal fault in southwest Montana, is reevaluated for fault segmentation using a multiproxy approach. Field characterization of soils coupled with radiocarbon ages in offset hanging wall fans and terraces constrain the rupture history at a number of locations along strike. These data are coupled with morphometric analysis of dated alluvial fan deposits and adjacent 2nd and 3rd order footwall drainage basins to further constrain fault kinematics and segmentation. Morphometric analysis of the Big Sheep Creek catchment, which drains a large area of the footwall range, provides a control on the spatial extent of fault influence on footwall topography. Three fault segments are recognized by this study, compared with the two segments recognized previously. Data from offset alluvial surfaces were synthesized with hanging wall fan and footwall drainage basin data to demonstrate a southward increase in displacement along the Red Rock fault since at least the latest Pleistocene, at a maximum rate of 1.5 mm/yr. Red Rock ruptures were mainly confined to segments, suggesting a fault behaving as several discrete slip surfaces; however, simultaneous rupture of adjacent segments during one event indicates some fault zone coalescence. A youthful Red Rock fault is supported by the absence of tectonic influences on footwall topography and is consistent with an eastward progression of normal fault development along the northern arm of the Yellowstone hot spot.

Harkins, Nathan W.; Anastasio, David J.; Pazzaglia, Frank J.

2005-11-01

30

Post Pliocene displacement on faults within the Kentucky River fault zone of east-central Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Numerous faults of the Kentucky River fault zone are partially overlain by Pliocene-Pleistocene terraces along the Kentucky river in east-central Kentucky. Preliminary drilling and electrical resistivity surveys suggest that a number of the faults have been active since the deposition of the terraces. From these preliminary surveys 4 sites were selected and 9 trenches were excavated. Of these 9 trenches, 4 revealed faulted and/or folded terrace sediments. One trench was excavated across a N40W trending fault in southern Clark County, cutting 3m deep into a 10m thick terrace. A monoclinal flexure, clay dikes, an asymmetric anticline, and a thrust fault which offset a soil ped all were exposed in the trench wall. A second trench across this fault revealed a reverse fault which displaced the bedrock and the overlying terrace sediments by 1m. The third trench was excavated across a N60E trending fault in northern Madison County, exposing folded and faulted Lexington Limestone, overlain by alluvium-colluvium. A line of charcoal fragments, a line of barite nodules, and an underlying clay horizon in the alluvial-colluvial section appear to have locally folded with the underlying bedrock. Comparison of the 9 trenches indicates that the folding and faulting of the terrace deposits is tectonic in origin and that the Kentucky River fault zone has been active within the last 5 million years and probably within the last one million years. Recognition of relatively young faulting in Kentucky suggests that other mid-continent faults should be studied for recent displacement.

Van Arsdale, R.B.; Sergeant, R.E.

1985-01-01

31

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2013-07-01

32

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2013-07-01

33

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2013-07-01

34

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2010-07-01

35

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2011-07-01

36

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2012-07-01

37

Fault and joint geometry at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene Salt Lake Formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the Salt Lake Formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 5/sup 0/ on top of metamorphosed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 50/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/ and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field. The north-trending joint set is prominent in the fold's hinge. Surface joint intensity decreases in proximity to known faults, indicating that surface joint intensity mapping may be useful for locating the surface traces of faults in the reservoir.

Guth, L.R.; Bruhn, R.L.; Beck, S.L.

1981-07-01

38

Paleoseismology of the Denali fault at the Nenana River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Denali fault is a major right-lateral strike-slip fault that has seen increased investigation since the 2002 M 7.9 rupture. The western limit of the 2002 rupture lies 60 km east of the Parks Highway and the remainder of the Denali fault west of this point has not experienced a historic rupture. The Denali fault trace at the Parks Highway has seen only reconnaissance investigation and paleoseismic data remains nonexistent. If the Denali fault slip rate at the Parks Highway is similar to the slip rates determined to the east (~10mm/yr.) and west (~7-9mm/yr.), then at least one meter of strain has accumulated since the last major earthquake on this portion of the fault. To contribute to the development of the paleoearthquake history of the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture, we chose to target the portion of the fault adjacent to the Parks Highway where it crosses the Nenana River. Using LiDAR digital elevation models we identified a portion of the Denali Fault immediately east of the Parks Highway to investigate. The site, Dead Mouse, is located on a fluvial terrace approximately 10 m above the modern Nenana River, and the scarp is characterized by 3 en-echelon fissures that trend 30 degrees clockwise relative to the main fault trace. We excavated two trenches, DM1 and DM2, exposing evidence for 3, possibly 4, earthquakes. Our first trench, DM1, crosses the well-defined surface trace of the Denali fault, whereas the second trench, DM2, is approximately 5 m northeast of DM1 and across an en-echelon fissure. DM1 exposed up to 1.7 m of fine grained sediment lying on top of fluvial gravels; hand-augering revealed up to 1 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM1 also exposed evidence of multiple deformation events, with the most recent event creating two fissure-like rubble zones with normal displacement. DM2 exposed up to 1.5 m of fine grained sediment also lying on top of fluvial gravels; further augering revealed up to 2 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM2 exposed a series of north-dipping reverse faults and south-dipping normal faults suggesting multiple deformational events. Fault displacements in both DM1 and DM2 trenches are well-constrained by organic-bearing horizons and dating of radiocarbon samples from these horizons are in progress. The thickness of fine-grained sediment and abundant dateable material illustrate the significant potential for this site to expand the paleoseismic record of the Denali fault. Furthermore, our interpretation of the emplacement of these fine-grained sediments suggests significant flood events during the recent history of the Nenana River.

Taylor, T. P.; Bemis, S. P.

2012-12-01

39

Red River College Academic Annual Report, 1999/2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Red River College (Canada) is at the center of Manitoba's industrial and commercial community, delivering more than 110 diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and providing skilled graduates to the work force. This annual report describes the College's characteristics and accomplishments for the 1999-2000 academic year. Highlights…

Red River Community Coll. (Manitoba).

40

Red oil explosions at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two red-oil explosions occurred at the Savannah River Plant. The first of these was in an evaporator at the semiworks prior to plant operation. The second occurred 22 years later in an A-Line facility calciner (called a denitrator).

Durant, W.S.

1984-01-01

41

Fault patterns in Benin River and Makaraba Fields: A regional play type for the Niger Delta  

SciTech Connect

Using 830 km{sup 2} of excellent 3-D seismic data, we determined the fault patterns that are responsible for hydrocarbon entrapment in the Benin River and Makaraba fields, onshore northwestern Niger Delta. Both fields are trapped downthrown to the major listric GbokoMaka growth fault system, which trends E18{degrees}S for over 40 km, and has at least 2000 m of displacement to the southwest. Several major splay faults break off the main trend in a southeasterly direction, creating a series of fault-bounded structural compartments. Each of these compartments opens to the southeast and has a structural attic at the junction of the splay fault with the main fault trend. These compartments create large-scale traps for hydrocarbons migrating from east to west up the gentle regional dip within the Miocene Ughelli depobelt. The Benin River field is trapped in the major compartment between the GbokoMaka fault and the Benin River splay fault. The large Makaraba field is similarly trapped between the GbokoMaka and MakaWest faults. Such traps require an upthrown fault seal at the master fault and a downthrown fault seal at the splay fault. In the Makamba field, the trap potential is enhanced by rollover into the GbokoMaka fault. The same structural style is also evident along several other major fault trends to the north and the south, and probably represents an important play type in the onshore western Niger delta.

Adeyekun, A.B.; Faparusi, B.D.; Nunns, A.G. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)] [and others

1995-08-01

42

33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River. 165.T09-0260 Section 165.T09-0260... § 165.T09-0260 Safety zone; Red River. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: Waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota,...

2011-07-01

43

75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit...portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River,...

2010-06-02

44

Distribution of faults in a transition zone: Bimodal faulting in the Pit River region, Shasta County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern California marks a zone of transition between oblique subduction in Cascadia, dextral transtension in Walker Lane, and north-south compression of the Klamath Mountains. Because of its unique location, the region between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak provides insight into the distribution of deformation in regions of transitional tectonic regimes. In particular, the Pit River region provides several excellent exposures of faults in a diatomite quarry and in larger regional structures. We present information on the distribution, amount of slip, and orientation of local faults, and demonstrate how these data reflect the interaction of multiple regional stress fields. We have measured and compiled the orientations of many small faults to evaluate the distribution of deformation in a complex zone of oblique extension and compression. A ~0.5 km2 diatomite quarry near the Pit River and Lake Britton exposes hundreds of faults with small amounts of displacement. Two main faulting patterns emerge: 1) high angle NW/SE-striking faults characterized by normal, oblique normal, or strike slip kinematic indicators; and 2) lower angle E/W-striking faults with evidence of reverse to oblique reverse motion. We find that the regional landscape reflects a dominant mode of faulting that is NW/SE-striking normal, oblique normal, or strike slip; the Hat Creek and Rocky Ledge faults, each with tens of meters of oblique normal offset, exemplify this. Observations of numerous smaller faults in the diatomite quarry also show a dominant pattern of NW/SE-striking faults. E/W-striking compressional structures are present, but are less abundant. Faults of differing orientations occur together in the quarry and occasionally cross cut one another. Many faults cross but do not offset each other, indicating that they formed simultaneously. Where cross-cutting faults do exhibit offset, the NW/SE-striking faults offset E/W-striking faults, which suggests that NW/SE oriented faults have been longer lived or have had more recent activity. This relationship indicates that while the two main faulting patterns did coexist for a period of time, NW/SE-striking faults continued to deform after E/W features shut off.

Austin, L. J.; Weldon, R. J.; Paulson, K. T.

2012-12-01

45

Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.  

PubMed

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management. PMID:17912585

Hearne, Robert R

2007-12-01

46

Evolving Water Management Institutions in the Red River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve—with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity—new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota’s water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota’s water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management.

Hearne, Robert R.

2007-12-01

47

Quantifying Morphologic Changes in a Low Gradient River Crossing Southeast Louisiana Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the signature of faulting in low gradient, alluvial rivers crossing the Baton Rouge fault zone (BRFZ) and Denham Springs-Scotlandville fault zone (DSSFZ), which encompass a set of East-West striking normal faults in southeast Louisiana. These faults exhibit surface expressions associated with up to a few meters of vertical displacement of Late Pleistocene sediments, but little is known about their activity during the Holocene. Our study aims to quantify geomorphic changes in a number of rivers that cross these fault zones and to use these changes to gain insight into the history of faulting in the region. We hypothesize that fault movement will be evident in patterns of river sinuosity, slope, and width to depth ratio. We focus on four subparallel channels of various discharges that cross either or both the BRFZ and the DSSFZ. Information on local fault scarp heights and channel reaches are extracted by GIS analysis of the LA LiDAR 5 m DEM, as well as flow modeling using the HEC-RAS software program. On the Tickfaw River, we conducted field surveys using differential GPS to record contemporary water surface slopes and channel location. Historic channel features on the Tickfaw are characterized using a series of aerial photographs dating back to 1952. Over the past 50 years, the Tickfaw River has shortened its course through the study area significantly (~4.9%) by means of meander cutoffs. Since 1952, sinuosity (P) has decreased in all of the Tickfaw channel reaches that cross fault segments. Currently, the sinuosity is extremely low (average P = 1.14) where the river crosses the DSSFZ and slightly higher where the river crosses the BRFZ (average P = 1.9). We use the LiDAR data to quantify offset on the faults that the river crosses. These values will be compared with the average lateral migration rate of the river in order to better understand the time scales over which both processes operate. If the faults appear to have little morphologic impact on the river, it is likely that that fluvial migration rates are rapid enough to erase any signature of the accumulated throw from the faults. With continued analysis, our goal is to develop a reliable method for using alluvial rivers to help unravel the history of fault systems in low gradient landscapes, with possible applications for detecting regions vulnerable to fault-related subsidence.

Fischer, G.; Gasparini, N. M.; Dawers, N. H.

2011-12-01

48

75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit...portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...trials and race in conjunction with the Red Bull Air Race. The safety zone will...

2010-04-05

49

75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0728] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden...portion of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is...result from the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull has contracted to conduct a...

2010-09-03

50

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Compiled by Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J. Edited by Martin, Cathy R.

2007-01-01

51

The Salado River fault: reactivation of an Early Jurassic fault in a transfer zone during Laramide deformation in southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salado River fault (SRF) is a prominent structure in southern Mexico that shows evidence of reactivation at two times under different tectonic conditions. It coincides with the geological contact between a structural high characterized by Palaeozoic basement rocks to the north, and an ?2000 m thick sequence of marine and continental rocks that accumulated in a Middle Jurassic–Cretaceous basin to

Barbara M. Martiny; Dante J. Morán-Zenteno; Gustavo Tolson; Gilberto Silva-Romo; Margarita López-Martínez

2011-01-01

52

The Salado River fault: reactivation of an Early Jurassic fault in a transfer zone during Laramide deformation in southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salado River fault (SRF) is a prominent structure in southern Mexico that shows evidence of reactivation at two times under different tectonic conditions. It coincides with the geological contact between a structural high characterized by Palaeozoic basement rocks to the north, and an ?2000 m thick sequence of marine and continental rocks that accumulated in a Middle Jurassic–Cretaceous basin to

Barbara M. Martiny; Dante J. Morán-Zenteno; Gustavo Tolson; Gilberto Silva-Romo; Margarita López-Martínez

2012-01-01

53

From river long profiles to fault slip rates; case studies from Central Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the extent to which geomorphic features can be used to extract tectonic signals is a key challenge in the Earth Sciences. Here we analyse the drainage patterns and river long profiles of bedrock rivers that drain across and around normal faults in central Greece to determine fault throw rates and the timing of fault interaction and linkage in the area. We demonstrate that rivers draining the Sperchios fault zone and northern gulf of Evia often have two sets of knickpoints upstream of the active fault segments. The upper set of knickpoints have vertical elevations (measured upstream of the fault) that vary systematically along strike and that match the footwall relief. The lower set of knickpoints also have vertical elevations that follow the pattern of footwall relief, being lowest at the fault tips and greatest in the centre of the active faults. Because the knickpoints do not correlate with lithological boundaries, we interpret them as the transient response of the fluvial system to on-going faulting. The upper set of knickpoints we interpret to reflect fault initiation, and the lower set of knickpoints we interpret to reflect a younger slip rate increase as the basin-bounding faults interacted and linked. The ratio of normalised steepness index upstream and downstream of the lower knickpoints for each of the fault systems suggest a throw rate enhancement factor of at least a factor of 4, assuming that uplift rates are linearly proportional to normalised steepness index. These values are also in agreement with throw rate enhancement factors estimated independently by considering the length of original mapped fault segments compared to the present length of through-going faults in the area. Using these enhancement factor estimates, we calculate the range of times for which fault acceleration could have occurred, given geological estimates of footwall relief and fault throw. The derived values are then compared with the times and throw rates required to grow knickpoints with the documented vertical elevations upstream of the fault, enabling us to estimate both present day slip-rates and the timing of fault interaction and linkage. Additionally, our results suggest that landscape response times to active faulting in this area are substantially greater than 1 My. More widely, these findings have substantial implications for predicting earthquake hazard in this densely populated area, and demonstrate that geomorphic analysis can be used as an effective tool for estimating tectonic rates over million year time periods, even in the absence of direct geodetic constraints.

Whittaker, Alex; Walker, Sofia

2013-04-01

54

Water-level measurements 1981-85 and chemical analyses 1978-85, Red River alluvial aquifer, Red River Valley, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locks and dams under construction on the Red River in Louisiana will probably affect water levels and water quality in the Red River alluvial aquifer. Water levels measured in the Red River alluvial aquifer from January 1981 to December 1985 document preconstruction water level fluctuations in wells in the aquifer. Chemical analyses of samples collected from January 1978 to December 1985 from wells in the Red River alluvial aquifer document the quality of water in the aquifer. In the vicinity of Lock and Dam 1, the water level measurements and water quality samples after December 1983 document postconstruction. Water levels were measured for 404 wells, and water quality samples were collected from 178 wells in the aquifer. (USGS)

Smoot, C. W.; Guillot, J. R.

1988-01-01

55

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2013-07-01

56

77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Louisiana] Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No. 12757. The programmatic...

2012-04-26

57

77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale...Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola rowing event. The event is...receive necessary information about the Red Bull Candola until February 3, 2012....

2012-03-14

58

77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0694] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden...proposes to establish a safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden'', a marine event...Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Red Bull is sponsoring a Flugtag event...

2012-08-08

59

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

60

Chemical weathering in the Hong (Red) River basin: Rates of silicate weathering and their controlling factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hong (Red) River drains the prominent Red River Fault Zone that has experienced various tectonic activities—intrusion of magma, exhumation of basement rocks, and influx of thermal waters—associated with the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia. We report dissolved major element and Sr isotope compositions of 43 samples from its three tributary systems (Da, Thao/Hong main channel, and Lo) encompassing summer and winter seasons. Carbonic acid ultimately derived from the atmosphere is the main weathering agent, and sulfuric acid from pyrite oxidation plays a minor role. Seasonality is manifested in higher calcite saturation index and Mg/TZ + and lower Ca/Mg in summer, suggesting calcite precipitation, and in higher Si/(Na ? + K) ratios in summer suggesting more intensive silicate weathering. We quantified the input from rain, evaporite, carbonate, and silicate reservoirs using forward and inverse models and examined the robustness of the results. Carbonate dissolution accounts for a significant fraction of total dissolved cations (55-97%), and weathering of silicates makes a minor contribution (1-40%). Our best estimate of the spatially averaged silicate weathering rate in the Hong basin is 170 × 10 3 mol/km 2/yr in summer and 51 × 10 3 mol/km 2/yr in winter. We tested for correlations between the rate of CO 2 consumption by silicate weathering and various climatic (air temperature, precipitation, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration) and geologic (relief, elevation, slope, and lithology) parameters calculated using GIS. Clear correlations do not emerge (except for ?CO 2 and runoff in winter) which we attribute to the complex geologic setting of the area, the seasonal regime change from physical-dominant in summer to chemical-dominant in winter, and the incoherent timescales involved for the different parameters tested.

Moon, Seulgi; Huh, Youngsook; Qin, Jianhua; van Pho, Nguyen

2007-03-01

61

Red River Stream Improvement Final Design Nez Perce National Forest.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the final stream improvement design along the reach of Red River between the bridge below Dawson Creek, upstream for approximately 2 miles, Idaho County, Idaho. Geomorphic mapping, hydrologic profiles and cross-sections were presented along with existing fish habitat maps in the conceptual design report. This information is used to develop a stream improvement design intended to improve aquatic habitat and restore riparian health in the reach. The area was placer mined using large bucket dredges between 1938 and 1957. This activity removed most of the riparian vegetation in the stream corridor and obliterated the channel bed and banks. The reach was also cut-off from most valley margin tributaries. In the 50 years since large-scale dredging ceased, the channel has been re-established and parts of the riparian zone have grown in. However, the recruitment of large woody debris to the stream has been extremely low and overhead cover is poor. Pool habitat makes up more than 37% of the reach, and habitat diversity is much better than the project reach on Crooked River. There is little large woody debris in the stream to provide cover for spawning and juvenile rearing, because the majority of the woody debris does not span a significant part of the channel, but is mainly on the side slopes of the stream. Most of the riparian zone has very little soil or subsoil left after the mining and so now consists primarily of unconsolidated cobble tailings or heavily compacted gravel tailings. Knapweed and lodgepole pine are the most successful colonizers of these post mining landforms. Tributary fans which add complexity to many other streams in the region, have been isolated from the main reach due to placer mining and road building.

Watershed Consulting, LLC

2007-03-15

62

Evolution of regional stresses based on faulting and folding near the Pit River, Shasta County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolution of the regional stress state near the Pit River, northeastern California, by analyzing faults and folds preserved in and adjacent to a diatomite mine north of the Pit River near Burney. By measuring the orientation of 250 faults and 140 kinematic indicators on fault planes, we have determined principal stress directions preserved during the past million years. We observe the best exposures of faults in the diatomite mine, a paleolake deposit with an age tightly constrained by 1045 ka volcanic rocks below and the 973 ka Pole Creek basalt above (Muffler et al, 2012). To ensure a regionally representative analysis, we also include faults from the surrounding area, which are sparse but show consistent results. If we analyze all of the high angle faults as a single heterogeneous set, we find a stress state that would produce right-lateral strike-slip faulting on a moderately dipping southeast-striking fault plane. When we break the faults into groups based on orientation and include very low angle faults, we see an evolution of the stress state through time. The maximum principal stress directions (sigma 1) for the groups cluster along a north-south axis, and the lesser principal stresses (sigma 2 and sigma 3) are distributed along an east-west axis. Because moderately-dipping faults have strikes subparallel to regional normal faults and have kinematic indicators that are both down dip and parallel to strike, we infer that normal faulting occurred first and that some normal faults have been reactivated as strike slip faults. Because low angle faults form a distinct conjugate set and cut or deform high angle faults, we infer that they are the youngest. Low angle faults cluster into two groups that dip shallowly to the northwest and southwest. Analysis of the two groups as a conjugate set is consistent with individual analysis of each, and the slip vectors for the two groups cluster around the intersection with the sigma 1-3 plane. This would be very unlikely if low angle faults were simply accommodation structures or due to landsliding or compaction. High precision survey data along marker beds in the diatomite mine show at least two generations of subtle folding, which is distinct from the pre-paleolake basement topography. On a stereonet, poles to bedding planes in the diatomite cluster neatly along two great circles that define two fold axes. Folds are roughly orthogonal and trend southeast and southwest, plunging gently 2-4 degrees. We infer that the southeast generation of folds formed with other fault-parallel folds associated with normal faults in the region, such as the nearby Five Corners monocline. Evolution at this site through time is consistent with the spatial distribution of stress states at the northwest end of Walker Lane. We observe domains of normal faulting generally to the west, strike-slip faulting to the southeast, and reverse faulting to the northwest.

Austin, L. J.; Weldon, R. J.

2013-12-01

63

A study of faulting patterns in the Pearl River Mouth Basin through analogue modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pearl River Mouth Basin is one of the most favorable areas for gas exploration on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Differences of fault patterns between shelf and slope are obvious. In order to investigate the tectonic evolution, five series of analogue modeling experiments were compared. The aim of this study is to investigate how crustal thickness influences fault structures, and compare this to the observed present-day fault structures in the Pearl River Mouth Basin. The initial lithospheric rheological structure can be derived from the best fit between the modeled and observed faults. The results indicate. (1) Different initial crustal rheological structures can produce different rift structures in the Pearl River Mouth Basin. (2) We also model that the Baiyun Sag in the southern Pearl River Mouth Basin may have had a thinned crust before rifting compared to the rest of the basin. (3) The thickness ratio of brittle to ductile crust in southern Pearl River Mouth Basin is less than normal crust, suggesting an initially hot and weak lithosphere. (4) Slightly south of the divergent boundary magma may have taken part in the rifting process during the active rift stage.

Zhang, Yun Fan; Sun, Zhen

2013-12-01

64

Does Karakorum Fault Cut Across the Great Himalaya? Findings of Strike Slip Active Fault Along the Humla-Karnali River in the Northwestern Part of Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates does not cause only mega thrusting along the Himalayan front but also great strike-slip shear or N-S extensional zones in the Tibetan block. Active tectonics of Tibet is presumed to be extrusion of Tibetan block along great strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh and the Kunlun faults and consequent evolution of normal faults of N-S direction in the tensional stress field. The Karakorum fault seems to be terminated by Himalayan range on its southeastern edge (Searle,1996). As a southeastern extension of the fault, we found a new fault named Yari fault that was strike-slip fault across the Great Himalayan Range along Humla-Karnali River using a method of photo interpretation of aerial photographs and US spy satellite images. Nakata (1989) showed that MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system and Bari Gad fault which is located within the Lesser Himalaya of western Nepal are right-stepping echelon striking NW- SE for 170km based on photo interpretation and fieldwork, and also pointed out that those could connect to the Karakoram fault system. There was, however, a gap for about 100 km between the Karakoram fault and the northernmost of the MCT active fault system. In 1990_fs, the Topological Survey of Nepal took vertical air photographs covered all the territory with the aim of publishing topographical maps. With using those new aerial photographs, we recognized an active fault cutting the Great Himalaya in the northwestern Nepal up to the international border of China as NW extension of the MCT active fault system. It is named Yari fault after nearest village name, which has single trace for 50km striking NW-SE generally. In the east of Yari village, alluvial fans and river terraces of different age have been displaced along the fault trace continuously with marked by north-facing scarp and right-lateral offset stream. Yari fault should play very important role as a bridge connecting Karakorum fault on the north of Himalaya and MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system that is located along the topographical boundary of Higher Himalaya and Lower Himalaya. We would like to establish a hypothesis that not only Tibetan block but also Himalayan ranges are being divided by a series of strike-slip faults such as those strike-slip faults and extruded eastward.

Kumahara, Y.; Maemoku, H.; Yagi, H.; Nagatomo, T.; Upreti, B. N.

2005-12-01

65

Mobilization of arsenic and iron from Red River floodplain sediments, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from the Red River and from an adjacent floodplain aquifer were investigated with respect to the speciation of Fe and As in the solid phase, to trace the diagenetic changes in the river sediment upon burial into young aquifers, and the related mechanisms of arsenic release to the groundwater. Goethite with subordinate amounts of hematite were, using Mössbauer spectroscopy,

Dieke Postma; Søren Jessen; Nguyen Thi Minh Hue; Mai Thanh Duc; Christian Bender Koch; Pham Hung Viet; Pham Quy Nhan; Flemming Larsen

2010-01-01

66

Thrust faults and associated structures in the Deep River Basin: Evidence for post-extensional compression  

SciTech Connect

Thrust faulting, folding, and penetrative compressional fabrics (e.g. spaced cleavage, pencils, and coal cleats) have been found in several outcrops within the central Deep River Basin (the southern Durham subbasin to the northern Wadesboro subbasin). The trend of these structures is nearly parallel to the basin, and may locally control the present geometry of the basin boundaries. These features are distributed throughout the stratigraphic section and across the entire width of the basin. In outcrops where relative timing can be determined, the compressional structures post-date all extensional and intrusive features associated with basin formation. In particular, thrusts cut across and displace basin-parallel normal faults and basin-normal cross-faults. All thrusts found to date verge northwest, and displacements of cross-fault boundaries indicate that transport was approximately 325[degree].

Washington, P.A. (Washington (Paul A.), Southern Pines, NC (United States))

1994-03-01

67

First Elements of the Decision Support System for Flood Control in the Red - Thai Binh River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red - Thai Binh River System is the second biggest river system in Vietnam, after Mekong River. In recent years, big floods frequently happened in Vietnam, and flood disaster causes massive losses of human life and immense damages. To reduce these damages caused by floods, for short -term and long-term flood prevention and control in the Red - Thai Binh

Nguyen Van Diep; Ngo Huy Can; Hoang Van Lai; Nguyen Hong Khanh

68

Strain accumulation across the Denali fault in the Delta River canyon, Alaska.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deformation along the Denali fault in the Delta River canyon was determined from geodetic surveys in 1941/1942, 1970, 1975, and 1979. The data were best for the 1975-79 interval; in that period the average strain accumulation was essentially pure right lateral shear at a rate of 0.6+-0.1 murad/a (a is years) (engineering shear) across a vertical plane striking N87oE. The plane of maximum shear is rotated about 30o countercloskwise from the local strike of the Denali fault but closely coincides with the strike of a major linear segment of the fault that begins 50 km farther W. The deformation between 1941-42 and 1970 is consistent with a similar rate of strain accumulation if one removes the coseismic strain step contributed by the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The 1970-75 deformation is poorly defined owing to uncertainties in the 1970 survey, but the strain accumulation during that period is certainly much less than during the 1975-79 interval. The 1975-79 strain accumulation is interpreted by means of a dislocation model which suggests that the Denali fault in the vicinity of the Delta River Canyon behaves as a leaky transform fault.-Authors

Savage, J. C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W. H.

1981-01-01

69

Evolution of regional stress state based on faulting and folding near the pit river, Shasta county, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolution of the regional stress state near the Pit River, northern California, in order to understand the faulting style in a tectonic transition zone and to inform the hazard analysis of Fault 3432 near the Pit 3 Dam. By analyzing faults and folds preserved in and adjacent to a diatomite mine north of the Pit River, we have determined principal stress directions preserved during the past million years. We find that the stress state has evolved from predominantly normal to strike slip and most recently to reverse, which is consistent with regional structures such as the extensional Hat Creek Fault to the south and the compressional folding of Mushroom Rock to the north. South of the Pit River, we still observe normal and strike slip faults, suggesting that changes in stress state are moving from north to south through time.

Austin, Lauren Jean

70

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and\\u000a native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the\\u000a UCRS

David M. Walters; Mike J. Blum; Brenda Rashleigh; Byron J. Freeman; Brady A. Porter; Noel M. Burkhead

2008-01-01

71

Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

2009-05-04

72

Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas — Cambodia and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong,River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paperpresentsanoverviewofgroundwaterarsenicpollutionintheMekongdelta:arsenicconcentrationsrangedfrom1–1610 ?g\\/Lin Cambodia (average 217 ?g\\/L) and 1–845 ?g\\/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 ?g\\/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation

Michael Berg; Caroline Stengel; P TRANG; P HUNGVIET; M SAMPSON; M LENG; S SAMRETH; D FREDERICKS

2007-01-01

73

Influence of pore geometry on future enhanced recovery in Ordovician (Red River) carbonate reservoirs at Cabin Creek field, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study related the distribution of pore geometry to enhanced recovery within the Upper Ordovician Red River formation, Cabin Creek field, Montana. The field is located on the Cedar Creek anticline in SE Montana. The Red River formation is a sequence of alternating limestones and dolostones. Lateral and vertical variations of dolomitization are mostly responsible for reservoir heterogeneity. Production is

K. Ruzyla; G. M. Friedman

1981-01-01

74

Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential contributions of these features to the ground-water and surface-water flow systems. These calculations show that, because all of these features are found along the Red River in the Cabin Springs-Columbine Park-Goat Hill fan area, their combined effect increases the probability that the bedrock aquifer ground-water flow system provides discharge to the Red River along this reach.

Caine, Jonathan Saul

2006-01-01

75

Trace Gas Emissions from Extensive Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Delta of Vietnam is an area undergoing rapid land use change. Aquaculture development is among the most significant of these transformations, with important economic, social and environmental effects. We explored the potential for managed mangrove' and `converted paddy' aquaculture systems in the Delta to produce and\\/or consume greenhouse gasses. We measured dissolved concentrations of the radiatively-important trace

J. Beman; K. C. Seto

2002-01-01

76

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

77

Impact of subsurface drainage on streamflows in the Red River of the North basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring flood and agricultural drainage intertwined in the Red River of the North basin (RRNB).SWAT modeling and streamflow response analysis coupled to assess subsurface drainage effects.Subsurface drainage will increase smaller peak flows while decreasing larger peak flows in RRNB.

Rahman, Mohammed M.; Lin, Zhulu; Jia, Xinhua; Steele, Dean D.; DeSutter, Thomas M.

2014-04-01

78

Analyzing Past and Predicting Future Droughts with Comprehensive Drought Indices for Arkansas-Red River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intends to examine the past and predict future drought scenarios for Arkansas-Red River Basin with comprehensive drought indices in areas of study including meteorology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology. In this proceeding, we present some early results and analysis with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Historical climate data of 1900-2009 were archived to

Lu Liu; Yang Hong

2011-01-01

79

Side-Scan Sonar Survey of Bailey's Dam, Red River, Alexandria, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of the Upper and Lower Bailey's Dams, which are submerged structures located in the Red River at Alexandria, Louisiana. These structures wee built of timber, trees, and stone fill during the US Civil War and have his...

J. Pope

1985-01-01

80

Water Resources of the Red River of the North Drainage Basin in Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water problems in the Red River of the North basin in Minnesota include flooding, pollution, and water shortages. In the morainal area, problems generally are absent; but in the flat plain of former Glacial Lake Agassiz, they can be severe. About 5.1 mill...

R. W. Maclay T. C. Winter L. E. Bidwell

1972-01-01

81

RED SHINER INVASION OF THE UPPER COOSA RIVER SYSTEM: DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) has been widely introduced across 11 states outside its native range, presumably through bait-bucket and aquarium releases. Its native range includes Great Plain and Central Lowland tributaries of the Mississippi River and western Coastal Pla...

82

Stakeholder Preferences for Water Management Alternatives in the Red River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient water management implies understanding the wants and desires of the human populations through its key stakeholder groups. As a valuable resource that involves many regulating and managing players, the Red River of the North basin is an excellent case for studying stakeholder preferences and presenting them to involved managers. The primary goal of this research was to

David R. Torpen; Robert R. Hearne

2008-01-01

83

Community-based Disaster Management During the 1997 Red River Flood in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between community preparedness and response to natural disaster and their level and pattern of community development. This is done by investigating preparation and response to the 1997 Red River Flood by three rural communities in Manitoba, Canada. The communities were selected because of their different ethnic mix and associated level and pattern of community development.

Jerry Buckland; Matiur Rahman

1999-01-01

84

Occurrence of Plesiomonas shigelloides in cultured red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from tropical rivers, east coast Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 182 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides were identified from 40 healthy red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus cultured at two important rivers in Terengganu, Malaysia namely Como River and Terengganu River from east coast Malaysia. P. shigelloides count in Digestive Tract Content (DTC) and Muscle (MUS) of red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River was 1000-fold higher than Como River. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also performed on Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates. The incidence of antibiotic resistance was higher in Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River compared to Como river. Thus, the findings of the study indicate that P. shigelloides from tilapia muscle and an intestine could be an alarming for serious public health risk to consumers. PMID:24191623

Nadirah, M; Ruhil, H H; Jalal, K C A; Najiah, M

2012-06-15

85

Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river

Anna E. Tryfonas; John K. Tucker; Paul E. Brunkow; Kevin A. Johnson; Hussein S. Hussein; Zhi-Qing Lin

2006-01-01

86

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 21. Hydrology and Water Balance of the Red River Basin, New Mexico 1930-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the hydrology of the Red River Basin and documents the development of a water balance for pre-mining conditions for the part of the Red River Basin upstream from the USGS streamflow-gaging station Red River near Questa, N. Mex. (here...

C. A. Naus D. P. McAda N. C. Myers

2006-01-01

87

Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values < 0.05). No significant differences exist between organic matter content of soil beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless, soils underlying red cedar and cottonwood trees are functionally similar with regard to soil organic matter content.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2012-12-01

88

Preconstruction and simulated postconstruction ground-water levels at urban centers in the Red River Navigation Project area, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Valley in Louisiana is 3 to 10 miles wide and is underlain by the Red River alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is in hydraulic connection with the Red River. Precipitation infiltrates the aquifer and water discharges from the aquifer at the Red River and major tributaries. Construction of locks and dams along the Red River will cause new, higher minimum stages for the river for each of the pools. Water levels will rise and outflow from the alluvial aquifer to the river after construction of the locks and dams will be at higher elevations because of the new river stages. Mathematical models of the stream-aquifer system simulate the effects of the lock and dam system for plan B-3, modified. Water-level changes in the aquifer in response to the changes imposed by the system are greatest near the river and are progressively smaller away from the river. The saturated zone in the fine-grained material overlying the aquifer provides the principal potential impact on structures and vegetation in urban areas. As water levels in the aquifer rise, the saturated zone above the aquifer will decrease the thickness. The soil zone in low areas in some communities will be waterlogged. (USGS)

Rogers, J. E.

1984-01-01

89

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the UCRS via large, mainstem rivers since the mid to late 1990s. We measured the occurrence and abundance of parental species and hybrids near tributary-mainstem confluences and characterized populations at these incipient contact zones by examining variation across morphological traits and molecular markers. Red shiners represented only 1.2% of total catch in tributaries yet introgression was widespread with hybrids accounting for 34% of total catch. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids was highly correlated with occurrence of blacktail shiners, indicating that streams with native populations are preferentially colonized early in the invasion and that hybridization is a key process in the establishment of red shiners and their genome in new habitats. Tributary invasion was driven by post-F1 hybrids with proportionately greater genomic contributions from blacktail shiner. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids and the relative abundance of hybrids significantly increased with measures of human disturbance including turbidity, catchment agricultural land use, and low dissolved oxygen concentration. Red shiners are a significant threat to Southeast Cyprinella diversity, given that 41% of these species hybridize with red shiner, that five southeastern drainages are invaded, and that these drainages are increasingly disturbed by urbanization. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Walters, D. M.; Blum, M. J.; Rashleigh, B.; Freeman, B. J.; Porter, B. A.; Burkhead, N. M.

2008-01-01

90

Thermochronology of mineral grains in the Red and Mekong Rivers, Vietnam: Provenance and exhumation implications for Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sand samples from the mouths of the Red and Mekong Rivers were analyzed to determine the provenance and exhumation history of their source regions. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains shows that the main sources comprise crust formed within the Yangtze Craton and during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. Indosinian grains in the Mekong are younger (210-240 Ma) than those in the Red River (230-290 Ma), suggesting preferential erosion of the Qiangtang Block of Tibet into the Mekong. The Red River has a higher proportion of 700-800 Ma grains originally derived from the Yangtze Craton. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite grains demonstrates that rocks cooled during the Indosinian Orogeny are dominant in both rivers, although the Mekong also shows a grain population cooling at 150-200 Ma that is not seen in the Red River and which is probably of original Qiangtang Block origin. Conversely, the Red River contains a significant mica population (350-500 Ma) eroded from the Yangtze Craton. High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed in the Cenozoic shear zones of southeast Tibet-Yunnan are minority sources to the rivers. However, apatite and zircon fission track ages show evidence for the dominant sources, especially in the Red River, only being exhumed through the shallowest 5-3 km of the crust since ˜25 Ma. The thermochronology data are consistent with erosion of recycled sediment from the inverted Simao and Chuxiong Basins, from gorges that incise the eastern flank of the plateau. Average Neogene exhumation rates are 104-191 m/Myr in the Red River basin, which is within error of the 178 ± 35 m/Myr estimated from Pleistocene sediment volumes. Sparse fission track data from the Mekong River support the Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages in favoring tectonically driven rock uplift and gorge incision as the dominant control on erosion, with precipitation being an important secondary influence.

Clift, Peter D.; Carter, Andrew; Campbell, Ian H.; Pringle, Malcolm S.; van Lap, Nguyen; Allen, Charlotte M.; Hodges, Kip V.; Tan, Mai Thanh

2006-10-01

91

Integration of RADARSAT and GIS modelling for estimating future Red River flood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new geomatics-based approach for flood prediction was developed and used to model the magnitude and spatial extent of a\\u000a future Red River flood in southern Manitoba. This approach combines the statistical modelling capabilities of Markov (non-spatial)\\u000a analysis and logistic regression (spatial) within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, utilizing modelling inputs\\u000a derived from remotely sensed RADARSAT imagery and other

Michael Stephen Chubey; Salah Hathout

2004-01-01

92

Nutrient (N, P) budgets for the Red River basin (Vietnam and China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the degree of human-induced alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles at the scale of a tropical watershed of regional dimension, the budgets of these two elements were estimated in the four main sub-basins (Da, Lo, Thao, and Delta) of the Red River system (156 448 km2, Vietnam and China). The four sub-basins differ widely in

Le Thi Phuong Quynh; Gilles Billen; Josette Garnier; Sylvain Théry; Cédric Fézard; Chau Van Minh

2005-01-01

93

A climatology of airborne dust for the Red River Valley of North Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River Valley of North Dakota has been identified as one of the highest potential dust production regions in the United States. This paper provides a climatological summary of the airborne dust environment in the region using historical meteorological data for Fargo, North Dakota. Data for the period 1948-1994 were extracted for all 3-hourly weather observations which recorded an obstruction to vision due to dust, blowing dust or dust storms. Data were compiled on the year, month, day and hour of each observation, as well as the horizontal visibility, wind speed, wind direction, and other present weather occurring at the time of each event. Airborne dust events in the Red River Valley of the North normally involve local entrainment of dust, and show a strong peak in the frequency of occurrence during the afternoon and spring seasons, although a secondary winter peak is also present. Dust events have decreased in frequency over the study period, apparently in response to improved farm management practices. Most events fall into two basic categories: winter events generated by passing cold fronts or strong regional pressure gradients, and often accompanied by blowing snow and light snow showers, and spring events triggered by the passage of cyclones and fronts, and normally not accompanied by other prevailing weather at the time of the observation. Results are discussed in relation to the unique soil, meteorological and surface cover conditions of the Red River Valley of North Dakota.

Godon, Nancy A.; Todhunter, Paul E.

94

Long-term monitoring (1960–2008) of the river-sediment transport in the Red River Watershed (Vietnam): Temporal variability and dam-reservoir impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River (China\\/Vietnam, A=155,000km²) is a typical humid tropics river originating from the mountainous area of Yunnan Province in China. Based on information on daily discharge (Q) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration between 1960–2008 for the SonTay gauging station (outlet of the River and entry to the Delta) provided by the National Institute IMHE-MONRE, the mean annual SPM

Thi Ha Dang; Alexandra Coynel; Didier Orange; Gérard Blanc; Henri Etcheber; Lan Anh Le

2010-01-01

95

Extracting tectonic information using the integral method of river profile analysis: applications along the Wasatch fault, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic deformation at the Earth's surface is reflected in the morphology of river profiles, hill slopes, and drainage networks. Various topographic metrics derived from river profiles have been proposed to identify tectonic hotspots in neotectonic regions. Using a high resolution digital elevation model to extract topographic data from channel networks, the advantages of the 'integral method' are exploited to analyse river profiles and catchments across two segments of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah. The results demonstrate much lower data noise when compared to standard practices of taking derivatives of topographic data. Combined with statistical analysis, it is possible to identify segments of river profiles that have responded to spatially variable rates of rock-deformation along the fault zone. Using a channel steepness index derived from the integral method, we find that previously published 10Be catchment-wide erosion rates exhibit conflicting scaling relationships with basin-averaged steepness indices. This is possibly explained due to occurrence of glacial erosion in certain basins during the last glacial maximum. A simple method for calibrating stream power model parameters using the integral method is used to estimate areas of fault displacement acceleration along the Wasatch Fault.

Valters, Declan

2014-05-01

96

Nutrient (N, P) budgets for the Red River basin (Vietnam and China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the degree of human-induced alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles at the scale of a tropical watershed of regional dimension, the budgets of these two elements were estimated in the four main sub-basins (Da, Lo, Thao, and Delta) of the Red River system (156 448 km2, Vietnam and China). The four sub-basins differ widely in population density (from 101 inhabitants km-2 in the upstream basins to more than 1000 inhabitants km-2 in the delta), land use, and agricultural practices. In terms of agricultural production, on the one hand, and consumption of food and feed on the other, the upstream sub-basins are autotrophic systems, exporting agricultural goods, while the delta is a heterotrophic system, depending on agricultural goods imports. The budget of the agricultural soils reveals great losses of nitrogen, mostly attributable to denitrification in rice paddy fields and of phosphorus, mostly caused by erosion. The budget of the drainage network shows high retention/elimination of nitrogen (from 62 to 77% in the upstream basins and 59% in the delta), and of phosphorus, with retention rates as high as 80% in the Da and Lo sub-basins which have large reservoirs in their downstream course (Hoa Binh on the Da and Thac Ba on the Lo). The total specific delivery estimated at the outlet of the whole Red River System is 855 kg km-2 yr-1 total N and 325 kg km-2 yr-1 total P. Nitrogen rather than phosphorus seems to be the potential limiting factor of algal growth in the plume of the Red River in Tonkin Bay.

Quynh, Le Thi Phuong; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; ThéRy, Sylvain; FéZard, CéDric; Minh, Chau Van

2005-06-01

97

Lanzavecchia mangrovi sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from mangroves of Red River Estuary, Vietnam.  

PubMed

A new nematode species found in the Red River Estuary of Vietnam is described. Lanzavecchia mangrovi sp. n. is morphologically close to L. coomansi Nicholas, Stewart, 1984, but differs in its longer body (L = 2.71-3.76 µm versus L = 2.2-2.9 µm), shorter spicules (63-65 mm versus 72-88), longer prerectum (500-675 mm versus 262-310 µm) and shorter distal portion of tail in relation to the proximal portion (0.6-0.8 versus 0.9-2.3). PMID:24870651

Gagarin, Vladimir G

2014-01-01

98

Sediment data for mid-Arkansas and upper-Red River basins through 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment data have been collected at 279 locations within the Mid-Arkansas and Upper-Red River basins in and along the borders of Oklahoma and Kansas. This compilation of sediment records presents tables and plots of all suspended-sediment data collected between 1930 and 1980. The publication not only provides a published source of all available suspended-sediment data, but more importantly provides potential users with an efficient means to access this large amount of data through the U.S. Geological Survey WATSTORE system.

Blumer, Stephen P.

1983-01-01

99

Records of wells, water-level measurements, and drillers' logs, Red River Valley, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected through June 1975 as part of the Red River Waterways project in Louisiana. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, and the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Alexandria, La. Included are records of 332 wells and test holes, water levels in 324 wells, and drillers ' logs of 316 wells and test holes. Most of the data were collected between July 1968 and June 1975. Well locations are shown. All altitudes given in the tables are referenced to mean sea level. (Woodard-USGS)

Stephens, John W.

1976-01-01

100

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-09-30

101

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-06-30

102

Surface rupture on the Denali Fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta river Mw 7.2-7.4 earthquake: Implications for the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake slip distribution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 3 November 2002 Denali fault earthquake, surface rupture propagated through a small, old-growth forest in the Delta River valley and damaged many trees growing on the fault. Damage was principally the result of fault offset of tree roots and tilting of trees. Some trees were split by surface faults that intersected the base of their trunks or large taproots. A few trees appear to have been damaged by strong shaking. Many of the older trees damaged in 2002 were deformed and scarred. Some of these scarred trees exhibit past damage indicative of surface faulting and have abrupt changes in their annual ring patterns that coincide with the past damage. Annual ring counts from several of these older scarred trees indicate the damage was caused by surface rupture on the Denali fault in 1912. The only earthquake of sufficient magnitude that fits the requirements for timing and general location as recorded by the damaged trees is a widely felt Ms 7.2-7.4 earthquake on 6 July 1912 informally referred to as the 1912 Delta River earthquake. Seismologic data and intensity distribution for the 1912 Delta River earthquake indicate that its epicenter was within 60-90 km of the Delta River and that rupture probably propagated toward the west. Inferred fault length, displacement, and rupture direction suggest the 1912 rupture was probably largely coincident with the western, lower slip section of the 2002 rupture.

Carver, G.; Plafker, G.; Metz, M.; Cluff, L.; Slemmons, B.; Johnson, E.; Roddick, J.; Sorensen, S.

2004-01-01

103

Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.  

SciTech Connect

The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

2003-07-01

104

Modeling regional variation in riverine fish biodiversity in the Arkansas-White-Red River basin  

SciTech Connect

The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas White Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models and identified well-supported models. Subbasin attributes that were retained as predictors included discharge, elevation, number of downstream dams, percent forest, percent shrubland, nitrate, total phosphorus, and sediment. The random component of our models, which assumed a negative binomial distribution, included spatial correlation within larger river basins and overdispersed residual variance. This study differs from previous biodiversity modeling efforts in several ways. First, obtaining likelihoods for negative binomial mixed models, and thereby avoiding reliance on quasi-likelihoods, has only recently become practical. We found the ranking of models based on these likelihood estimates to be more believable than that produced using quasi-likelihoods. Second, because we had access to a regional-scale watershed model for this river basin, we were able to include model-estimated water quality attributes as predictors. Thus, the resulting models have potential value as tools with which to evaluate the benefits of water quality improvements to fish.

Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-01-01

105

Pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study assessed pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Xuan Khe and Hop Ly communes located along the Chau Giang River in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from agricultural areas within and outside of embankments built to prevent flooding. In Xuan Khe, the soils outside of the embankment were more clayey with higher organic matter contents compared with the inside, due to selective deposition during river flooding. Many of the soils contained significant amounts of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dicofol, isoprothiolane, and metalaxyl although their levels were below the maximum allowable concentration set by the Vietnamese government. The spectrum of DDT derivatives found suggested that the source of DDTs was not contaminated dicofol. Soils in Hop Ly resembled soils in Xuan Khe but were relatively sandy; one field showed appreciable contents of DDT derivatives. The ratios of (p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)/ summation operatorDDT in the surface and subsurface soils in Hop Ly were 0.34 and 0.57, suggesting that the DDTs originated from recent application. Pesticide residues in soils were not likely to translocate into vegetable crops, except for metalaxyl. High concentrations of cypermethrins in kohlrabi leaves could be ascribed to foliar deposition. PMID:19757109

Nishina, Takuro; Kien, Chu Ngoc; Noi, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Ha Minh; Kim, Chul-Sa; Tanaka, Sota; Iwasaki, K?z?

2010-10-01

106

Structural evolution of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic complex: Implications on the development of the Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic complex in North Vietnam is the southernmost high-grade metamorphic zone along the NW-SE trending Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in Indochina. The RRSZ was considered as a classical large-scale continental strike-slip fault that had played a significant role in the continental extrusion of Southeast Asia since the collision of India and Eurasia. Earlier ideas determined the RRSZ as a steep shear zone that penetrated the entire lithosphere. Both metamorphism and structures within rocks along the DNCV metamorphic complex have been previously thought to be formed syn-tectonically by left-lateral shearing of the RRSZ during the Oligocene-Miocene continental escape tectonics. However, our meso- and microstructural re-examination of this region shows that these metamorphic rocks were formed during earlier tectonic episodes unrelated to strike-slip shearing. High angle to near orthogonal overprinting fabrics indicated that this region recorded three episodes of ductile deformation followed by brittle faulting events with different intensity spanning from the Triassic to the Tertiary. D 1 is preserved as NW-SE striking upright folds under garnet grade regional metamorphism during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny as South China block amalgamated with the Indochina block. The large-scale horizontal D 2 folds with a dominant top to N-NW bottom to S-SW sense of shear, and sub-horizontal fold axial planes suggest that the DNCV metamorphic complex remained at midcrustal depths since the Indosinian orogeny. The youngest ductile deformation event, D 3, refolded D 2 recumbent folds into a dome, and uplifted the DNCV as lower-temperature fabrics, S 3, indicated. Steep mylonite zones with left-lateral kinematic indicators and brittle faulting were developed on both limbs of the dome along the steep Song Hong and Song Chay faults during left-lateral movement of the RRSZ. Our new spatial, temporal and kinematic correlations of metamorphic fabrics within the DNCV metamorphic complex support the suggestion that the RRSZ developed after regional metamorphism and remained purely a crustal fault. The complicated deformation history recorded within the DNCV metamorphic complex provides an alternative interpretation and suggests that crustal scale strike-slip faults (such as the RRSZ) need not root from the mantle.

Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lan, Ching-Ying; Anh, Tran Tuan

2008-12-01

107

Holocene lateral channel migration and incision of the Red River, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene evolution of the shallow alluvial valley occupied by the Red River was investigated at two successive river meanders near St. Jean Baptiste, Manitoba. A transect of five boreholes was sited across the flood plain at each meander to follow the path of lateral channel migration. From the cores, 24 wood and charcoal samples were AMS radiocarbon dated. The dates from the lower half of the alluvium in each core are interpreted to represent the age of the lateral accretion deposits within the flood plain at the borehole sites. The ages of these deposits increase progressively from ˜900 to 7900 and 1000 to 8100 cal years B.P. along each transect, respectively, from the proximal to distal portions of the flood plain. At the upstream meander, the average rate of channel migration was initially 0.35 m/year between ˜7900 and 7400 cal years B.P., then decreased to 0.18 m/year between ˜7400 and 6200 cal years B.P., and subsequently varied between 0.04 and 0.08 m/year. Net channel incision of the river since 8100 cal years B.P. is estimated to have ranged between 0.4 and 0.8 m/ky. The pre-6000-years-B.P. interval of greater channel migration is hypothesized to reflect a higher phase of sediment supply that was associated with the establishment of the river system on the former bed of glacial Lake Agassiz. Since 1000 years B.P., the outward migration of the meanders has caused a gradual enlarging of 0.7-2% in the cross-sectional area of the shallow valley at the two meanders. When considered proportionally over timescales of up to several centuries, the widening of the valley cross-section is very low to negligible and is deemed an insignificant factor affecting the modern flood hazard on the clay plain.

Brooks, Gregory R.

2003-09-01

108

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 23. Quantification of Mass Loading from Mined and Unmined Areas Along the Red River, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Along the course of the Red River, between the town of Red River, New Mexico, and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Questa, New Mexico, there are several catchments that contain hydrothermally altered bedrock. Some of these alterat...

B. A. Kimball D. K. Nordstrom K. R. Vincent P. L. Verplanck R. L. Runkel

2006-01-01

109

Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.  

PubMed

Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. PMID:23628547

Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

2013-07-15

110

Red Planet? Red River! Field Works on the Red-Mud Flood Polluted Marcal Riverside: pH Measurements by the Husar-5 NXT-Based Rover Model of the Széchenyi István High School, Sopron, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We took planetary analog field measurements of pH by the HUSAR-5 rover along the red-mud polluted riverside of the Marcal river after the sludge catastrophe in Ajka Alumina Plant, Hungary, and observed the gradually decreasing pH values.

Lang, Á.; Erdélyi, S.; Nickl, I.; Cserich, D.; Kiss, D.; Bérczi, Sz.

2011-03-01

111

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle (>1°) northeast

M. W. Longman; T. G. Fertal; J. R. Stell

1992-01-01

112

Generation of calcrete with chalky porosity in upper Ordovician Red River Grainstone Reservoirs, Cedar Creek anticline, Southwestern Williston basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red River dolomites produce from subtidal burrowed grainstones and algal-laminated shallow subtidal to intertidal grainstones. As the result of a detailed reservoir study on the Cedar Creek anticline, chalky porosity was recognized to originate from weathering of grainstones. Three shoaling-upward sedimentary cycles each ended with subaerial exposure. Weathering features are concentrated immediately below disconformity surfaces and decrease downward. These features

Dobrowski

1988-01-01

113

Simulation of retention and transport of copper, lead and zinc in a paddy soil of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal (HM) contaminations in the topsoil around handicraft villages with non-ferrous heavy metal recycling in the Red River Delta can impose serious threats to the subsoil as well as to the groundwater quality. This feature is very important for paddy soils due to relatively high leaching rates and the dissolution of Fe–Mn oxides under reducing conditions which can accelerate

Minh Nguyen Ngoc; Stefan Dultz; Jörn Kasbohm

2009-01-01

114

Late-summer food of red-winged blackbirds in a fresh tidal-river marsh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During late summer in the Delaware Valley and Chesapeake Bay region, hundreds of thousands of Red-winged Blackbirds feed in wild rice beds of fresh tidal-river marshes. The period during which wild rice seed is available coincides with the ripening period of a part of the corn crop, and there is evidence to indicate that the availability of the wild rice reduces bird feeding pressure on corn in the area. The importance of wild rice and other marsh plants to the redwing during the period when wild rice seed is available was studied further by field observations and by analysis of stomach contents of 130 birds collected in wild rice beds of the Patuxent River in southern Maryland. Seeds of marsh plants formed the bulk of the food of redwings collected. Dotted smartweed, wild rice, and Walter?s millet were the most important food plants. Corn was the fourth most important item. It occurred in 35, approximately one-fourth, of the stomachs

Meanley, B.

1961-01-01

115

Postseismic Deformation of Large Normal Faulting Earthquakes in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain with Implications for Lithospheric Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent deformation of the Hebgen Lake fault, MT, was measured by trilateration and campaign GPS from 1973 to 2000 following the 18 August 1959 Mw=7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake that occurred at the northwest edge of the Yellowstone volcanic system in an extensional tectonic regime. Integrated analysis of the geodetic measurements shows time-dependent extension of baseline-length across the area with average rates of 4 to 6 mm/yr. Rheological models derived by these data using VISCO1D suggest that the lithosphere is stronger near the fault zone, and weaker in the vicinity of the Yellowstone caldera where higher heat flow and a thinner brittle crust were suggested by surface temperature measurements, gravity data, and earthquake focal depths. Our models also imply a more viscous lower crust than the upper mantle, in agreement with a corollary that the continental mantle has relatively low long-term stress. Since 2005, the EarthScope-PBO project has deployed an array of 12 continuously operated GPS stations across the Hebgen Lake fault and aftershock zone to assess intraplate postseismic deformation and to model lithospheric rheology. The comparison between the observed and modeled horizontal velocities of the continuous GPS stations suggested that the magnitude of postseismic relaxation from the Hebgen Lake earthquake is less than 20% of the contemporary ground motion. In addition, we evaluated continuous GPS data from 14 stations that span the Lost River fault, ID, to measure the postseismic deformation associated with the1983 Mw=6.9 Borah Peak earthquake. The data reveal extensional rates of 1-2 mm/yr across the Lost River fault zone. Preliminary results of viscoelastic modeling using the results from our Hebgen Lake rheologic model suggest that the combined postseismic relaxation of the above two earthquakes produced horizontal ground motions up to ~1-2 mm/yr across the Lost River fault, thus notably affecting the contemporary deformation field of the eastern Basin-Range. This study provides new insights into the widespread effects on regional deformation from postseismic relaxation of large earthquakes that need to be considered in kinematic models and earthquake hazards of intraplate tectonic regions.

Chang, W.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C. M.

2012-12-01

116

Holocene evolution of the Song Hong (Red River) delta system, northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Song Hong (Red River) delta, located on the western coast of the Gulf of Bac Bo (Tonkin) in the South China Sea, formed as a result of the Song Hong sediment discharge throughout the Holocene. The river's sedimentary basin upstream from the delta plain is not large. The delta plain comprises emerged tidal/mangrove flats formed during the sea-level highstand at + 2-3 m (6-4 cal. kyr BP) and a beach-ridge strandplain, with straight-to-lobate beach ridges, on the landward and seaward sides of the delta plain, respectively. The delta affords us the opportunity to examine river-mouth morphodynamics comprehensively in relation to sediment discharge and sea-level changes. In this paper, we describe the Holocene evolution of the Song Hong delta system and the river-mouth morphodynamics on the basis of seven sediment cores, each 30-70 m long, taken from the delta plain during 1999-2001 and 101 radiocarbon dates obtained from the core sediments. Sediments from the seven cores, consisting of incised-valley fills since the last glacial maximum, can be divided, in ascending order, into fluvial sediments composed of gravelly sand and mottled clay, tide-influenced estuarine sediments containing shell and wood fragments, and deltaic sediments composed of tide-influenced sand and mud deposits, in which the contents of sand and wood fragments increase upward. By applying sequence stratigraphic concepts, a transgressive surface can be identified at the gravelly sand-mottled clay boundary, and the maximum flooding surface can be identified at the estuarine-deltaic sediments boundary. The lowstand systems tract, transgressive systems tract, and highstand systems tract record ˜15, 15-9, and 9-0 cal. kyr BP, respectively. During the past 9 kyr, the majority of the sediment discharged by the Song Hong accumulated in the incised valley and enhanced progradation at the river mouth. The river mouth prograded from the bay head toward the gulf, and its morphology changed from funnel-shaped (9-6 cal. kyr BP) to straight (6-2 cal. kyr BP) and finally to lobate (2-0 cal. kyr BP). The morphological change from a funnel-shaped to straight coast is interpreted to have been closely related to a hydrologic regime shift from a tide-dominated bay-head setting to a wave-influenced open-coast setting. The cessation of the sea-level rise at 6 cal. kyr BP may have played only a small role in the change of river-mouth morphology because the progradation rate decelerated from 22 to 4 m/yr, instead of accelerating at that time. The river-mouth morphodynamic change from straight to lobate was largely caused by an increase in the Song Hong sediment discharge from 17-27 (9-2 cal. kyr BP) to 49 million t/yr (2-0 cal. kyr BP) as a result of anthropogenic deforestation along the upper reaches of the Song Hong.

Tanabe, Susumu; Saito, Yoshiki; Lan Vu, Quang; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lan Ngo, Quang; Kitamura, Akihisa

2006-05-01

117

78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a...

2013-03-26

118

78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...entitled ``Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event,...

2013-06-27

119

Sediment loads in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, 2010--2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural-resource agencies are concerned about possible geomorphic effects of a proposed diversion project to reduce the flood risk in the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected data in the spring of 2010 and 2011, and from June to November 2011, during rainfall-runoff events and base-flow conditions to provide information on sediment transport. The data were used to examine sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions at nine selected sites in the Red River and its tributaries near the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. Suspended-sediment concentration varied among sites in 2010 and 2011. The least suspended-sediment concentrations were measured at the Red River (site 1) and the Buffalo River (site 9), and the greatest concentrations were measured at the two Sheyenne River sites (sites 3 and 4). Estimated daily suspended-sediment loads were highly variable in 2010 and 2011 in the Red River and its tributaries, with the greatest loads occurring in the spring and the smallest loads occurring in the winter. For the Red River, daily suspended-sediment loads ranged from 26 to 3,500 tons per day at site 1 and from 30 to 9,010 tons per day at site 2. For the Sheyenne River, daily loads ranged from less than 10 to 10,200 tons per day at site 3 and from less than 10 to 4,530 tons per day at site 4. The mean daily load was 191 tons per day in 2010 and 377 tons per day in 2011 for the Maple River, and 610 tons per day in 2011 for the Wild Rice River (annual loads were not computed for 2010). For the three sites that were only sampled in 2011 (sites 7, 8 and 9), the mean daily suspended-sediment loads ranged from 40 tons per day at the Lower Branch Rush River (site 8) to 118 tons per day at the Buffalo River (site 9). For sites that had estimated loads in 2010 and 2011 (sites 1–5), estimated annual (March–November) suspended-sediment loads were greater in 2011 compared to 2010. In 2010, annual loads ranged from 68,650 tons per year at the Maple River (site 5) to 249,040 tons per year at the Sheyenne River (site 3). In 2011, when all nine sites were sampled, annual loads ranged from 8,716 tons per year at the Lower Branch Rush River (site 8) to 552,832 tons per year at the Sheyenne River (site 3). With the exception of the Sheyenne River (site 4), the greatest monthly loads occurred in March for 2010, with as little as 27 percent (site 1) and as much as 42 percent (site 3) of the annual load occurring in March. For 2011, the greatest monthly loads occurred in April, ranging from 33 percent (site 1) to 63 percent (site 7) of the 2011 annual load. A relatively small amount of sediment was transported past the nine sites as bedload in 2010 and 2011. For most of the samples collected at the nine sites, the bedload composed less than 1 percent of the calculated daily total sediment load.

Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2012-01-01

120

Red Planet? Red River!FIELD Works on the Red-Mud Flood Polluted Marcal Riverside: ph Measurements by the HUSAR-5 Nxt-Based Rover Model of the SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN High School, Sopron, Hungary.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 2010, heavy industrial catastrophe polluted the Marcal river in West-Hungary. The Red-mud sludge, the byproduct of the alumina production, poured from a containment pond because of the broken dike. The environmental pollution first appeared in the creeks and rivers in the vicinity of the alumina plant at Ajka. Earlier our group prepared pH measurement robotics on the HUSAR-5 rover therefore our idea was to carry out - a planetary analog type - field works with the rover on the polluted region. The locality was about 100 kilometrs from our town, Sopron. We visited 3 times the region.

Lang, A.; Cserich, D.; Kiss, D.; Erdélyi, S.; Nickl, I.; Bérczi, S.

2011-10-01

121

The mechanism of post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-rift fault activities were often observed in deepwater basins, which have great contributions to oil and gas migration and accumulation. The main causes for post-rift fault activities include tectonic events, mud or salt diapirs, and gravitational collapse. In the South China Sea continental margin, post-rift fault activities are widely distributed, especially in Baiyun sag, one of the largest deepwater sag with its main body located beneath present continental slope. During the post-rift stage, large population of faults kept active for a long time from 32 Ma (T70) till 5.5 Ma (T10). Seismic interpretation, fault analysis and analogue modeling experiments indicate that the post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag between 32 Ma (T70) and 13.8 Ma (T30) was mainly controlled by gravity pointing to the Main Baiyun sag, which caused the faults extensive on the side facing Main Baiyun sag and the back side compressive. Around 32 Ma (T70), the breakup of the continental margin and the spreading of the South China Sea shed a combined effect of weak compression toward Baiyun sag. The gravity during post-rift stage might be caused by discrepant subsidence and sedimentation between strongly thinned sag center and wing areas. This is supported by positive relationship between sedimentation rate and fault growth index. After 13.8 Ma (T30), fault activity shows negative relationship with sedimentation rate. Compressive uplift and erosion in seismic profiles as well as negative tectonic subsiding rates suggest that the fault activity from 13.8 Ma (T30) to 5.5 Ma (T10) might be controlled by the subductive compression from the Philippine plate in the east.

Sun, Zhen; Xu, Ziying; Sun, Longtao; Pang, Xiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei

2014-08-01

122

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 21. Hydrology and water balance of the Red River basin, New Mexico 1930-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the hydrology of the Red River Basin of northern New Mexico, including development of a pre- mining water balance, contributes to a greater understanding of processes affecting the flow and chemistry of water in the Red River and its alluvial aquifer. Estimates of mean annual precipitation for the Red River Basin ranged from 22.32 to 25.19 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration for the Red River Basin ranged from 15.02 to 22.45 inches or 63.23 to 94.49 percent of mean annual precipitation. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated using regression equations ranged from 45.26 to 51.57 cubic feet per second. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated by subtracting evapotranspiration from mean annual precipitation ranged from 55.58 to 93.15 cubic feet per second. In comparison, naturalized 1930-2004 mean annual streamflow at the Red River near Questa gage was 48.9 cubic feet per second. Although estimates developed using regression equations appear to be a good representation of yield from the Red River Basin as a whole, the methods that consider evapotranspiration may more accurately represent yield from smaller basins that have a substantial amount of sparsely vegetated scar area. Hydrograph separation using the HYSEP computer program indicated that subsurface flow for 1930-2004 ranged from 76 to 94 percent of streamflow for individual years with a mean of 87 percent of streamflow. By using a chloride mass-balance method, ground-water recharge was estimated to range from 7 to 17 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from wells in Capulin Canyon and the Hansen, Hottentot, La Bobita, and Straight Creek Basins and was 21 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from the Red River. Comparisons of mean annual basin yield and measured streamflow indicate that streamflow does not consistently increase as cumulative estimated mean annual basin yield increases. Comparisons of estimated mean annual yield and measured streamflow profiles indicates that, in general, the river is gaining ground water from the alluvium in the reach from the town of Red River to between Hottentot and Straight Creeks, and from Columbine Creek to near Thunder Bridge. The river is losing water to the alluvium from upstream of the mill area to Columbine Creek. Interpretations of ground- and surface-water interactions based on comparisons of mean annual basin yield and measured streamflow are supported further with water-level data from piezometers, wells, and the Red River.

Naus, Cheryl A.; McAda, Douglas P.; Myers, Nathan C.

2006-01-01

123

Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model that is capable of learning from complex, multidimensional data without specification of what the outputs should be, and of generating a nonlinear classification of visually decipherable clusters. The use of the above framework allowed to analyze the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, reviling patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers and then likely (but still to be validated) fluvial processes. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale opening the way towards regional or national scale hydromorphological assessments through automatic GIS and statistical procedures with moderate effort, an urgent requirement of modern catchment management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

2012-12-01

124

Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.  

SciTech Connect

A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

Ashley, Paul

2004-11-01

125

Trace Gas Emissions from Extensive Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River Delta of Vietnam is an area undergoing rapid land use change. Aquaculture development is among the most significant of these transformations, with important economic, social and environmental effects. We explored the potential for managed mangrove' and `converted paddy' aquaculture systems in the Delta to produce and/or consume greenhouse gasses. We measured dissolved concentrations of the radiatively-important trace gasses methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as associated parameters. All ponds were super-saturated with CH4, with concentrations ranging from 132-1203 nM, (mean 561 nM) in managed mangrove, and 28-521 nM (mean 110 nM) in converted paddy. Surprisingly, none of the ponds was measurably supersaturated with N2O. Methane fluxes were calculated for all ponds using five well-accepted models of gas flux based on wind speed. Mean flux values ranged from 1.04 to 17.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 for managed mangrove, falling somewhere between fluxes reported for natural systems and those receiving sewage inputs. Further measurements should be made in more intensive systems to better understand the potential for trace gas production-particularly N2O-in aquaculture systems.

Beman, J.; Seto, K. C.

2002-12-01

126

Influence of pore geometry on future enhanced recovery in Ordovician (Red River) carbonate reservoirs at Cabin Creek field, Montana  

SciTech Connect

This study related the distribution of pore geometry to enhanced recovery within the Upper Ordovician Red River formation, Cabin Creek field, Montana. The field is located on the Cedar Creek anticline in SE Montana. The Red River formation is a sequence of alternating limestones and dolostones. Lateral and vertical variations of dolomitization are mostly responsible for reservoir heterogeneity. Production is from the U2, U4, and U6 dolostones, whereas the interstratified U1, U3, and U5 limestone units are nonproductive. Cumulative Ordovician and Silurian production was 61,574,000 bbl of oil as of September 1979, with reserves of 13,426,000 bbl. Waterflood began in 1964, and the field is a good candidate for tertiary recovery by the carbon dioxide miscible process. Studies of thin sections, mercury capillary pressure curves, and resin pore casts have shown that several different types of pore systems occur, each associated with a particular depositional environment and diagenetic regime.

Ruzyla, K.; Friedman, G.M.

1981-05-01

127

A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

1981-01-01

128

Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE for organic fields was less spatially and temporally variable than conventional, with average daily flux between 0.48 and 1.44 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1. Average daily flux in conventional fields ranged between 0.48 and 3.12 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1, with highest values in April and May. While soil moisture in organic fields was significantly greater than conventional, it did not interact with treatment to affect trace gas flux. Instead, the effect of organic on N2O, CO2 and the net GHE was strongly influenced by crop stage, an agronomically meaningful proxy integrating time and plant growth conditions. Most CH4 flux observations were 0. Integrated fluxes for each of the 40 sites over the growing season was averaged by field pair and treatment. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect for average seasonal integrated flux varied between field pairs for CO2 and N2O fluxes, the overall influence of treatment on the net GHE was similar. Overall, soils under organically produced wheat emitted 200 kg CO2 equiv. ha-1 per season less than conventionally produced wheat. We observed 1) the net GHE for similar field sites in the Red River Valley was reduced under organic versus conventional agriculture, 2) N2O flux in organic fields was significantly lower than conventional fields for both field pair sites, and 3) the effect of treatment on CO2 flux was site specific.

Phillips, R. L.

2004-12-01

129

The Ailao Shan\\/Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of thickening and strike-slip extrusion in continental collision is debated. Ductile shear in the Ailao Shan\\/Diancang Shan metamorphic belt, along the Red River in Yunnan, China, yields outstanding evidence of the latter process. For > 500 km, mylonites in this narrow northwest-southeast belt show horizontal lineations on steep, northwest-striking foliation planes, and left-lateral kinematic indicators. U-Pb radiometric

P. Tapponnier; R. Lacassin; P. H. Leloup; U. Schärer; Zhong Dalai; Wu Haiwei; Liu Xiaohan; Ji Shaocheng; Zhang Lianshang; Zhong Jiayou

1990-01-01

130

Modeling River Incision Across Active Normal Faults Using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development Model (CHILD): the case of the Central Apennines (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River systems constitute some of the most efficient agents that shape terrestrial landscapes. Fluvial incision rates govern landscape evolution but, due to the variety of processed involved and the difficulty of quantifying them in the field, there is no "universal theory" describing the way rivers incise into bedrock. The last decades have seen the birth of numerous fluvial incision laws associated with models that assign different roles to hydrodynamic variables and to sediments. In order to discriminate between models and constrain their parameters, the transient response of natural river systems to a disturbance (tectonic or climatic) can be used. Indeed, the different models predict different kinds of transient response whereas most models predict a similar power law relationship between slope and drainage area at equilibrium. To this end, a coupled field - modeling study is in progress. The field area consists of the Central Apennines that are subject to active faulting associated with a regional extensional regime. Fault initiation occurred 3 My ago, associated with throw rates of 0.3 +/- 0.2 mm/yr. Due to fault interaction and linkage, the throw rate on the faults located near the center of the fault system increased dramatically 0.7 My ago (up to 2 mm/yr), whereas slip rates on distal faults either decayed or remained approximately constant. The present study uses the landscape evolution model, CHILD, to examine the behavior of rivers draining across these active faults. Distal and central faults are considered in order to track the effects of the fault acceleration on the development of the fluvial network. River characteristics have been measured in the field (e.g. channel width, slope, sediment grain size) and extracted from a 20m DEM (e.g. channel profile, drainage area). We use CHILD to test the ability of alternative incision laws to reproduce observed topography under known tectonic forcing. For each of the fluvial incision models, a Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed, allowing the exploration of a wide range of values for the different parameters relative to tectonic, climate, sediment characteristics, and channel geometry. Observed profiles are consistent with a dominantly wave-like, as opposed to diffusive, transient response to accelerated fault motion. The ability of the different models to reproduce more or less accurately the catchment characteristics, in particular the specific profiles exhibited by the rivers, are discussed in light of our first results.

Attal, M.; Tucker, G.; Whittaker, A.; Cowie, P.; Roberts, G.

2005-12-01

131

Uncertainties in streamflow measurement under winter ice conditions: A case study: The Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computed streamflows on the Red River at Drayton in North Dakota, United States, have been generally higher under winter conditions than computed streamflows on the Red River at Emerson in Manitoba, Canada. The station at Drayton is located 85 km upstream from Emerson. Moreover, historically, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has measured higher streamflows under ice conditions than the Water Survey of Canada (WSC) on the Red River at Emerson. The difference between their discharge measurements under ice conditions is generally between +10 and 20%. To explain these differences, field and laboratory experiments were conducted in 1986, which included an international field metering program at Drayton and Emerson, rating of current meters and suspension equipment at national calibration services in Canada and the United States, and testing of current meters in flowing water. Through the analysis of the field and calibration data it was determined that significant differences exist between a current meter rated on rod and on cable suspension, and that this suspension effect is responsible for the large differences in measurements between the USGS and WSC. Changes in discharge measurement techniques under ice conditions are suggested, including the sampling of vertical velocity curves and increasing the time of exposure for current meter observations. Several investigations are suggested to improve the overall quality of streamflow records for the winter ice period.

Pelletier, Patrice M.

1989-08-01

132

77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park...Richmond, VA in support of the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks event. This action is necessary...on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is...

2012-05-09

133

Exhumation history of the Red River shear zone in northern Vietnam: New insights from zircon and apatite fission-track analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new set of zircon and apatite fission-track ages from the Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs of the Red River shear zone (RRSZ) and neighboring rocks in northern Vietnam is presented. A complex, along-strike diachronous, denudation history is revealed. The southern sector of the DNCV cooled to about 100 °C by the Late Oligocene, whereas its central compartment was affected by the later thermotectonic evolution of the Song Chay dome to the E of the RRSZ, whose final exhumation occurred during the Early Miocene. The northern sector of the RRSZ is characterized by the 35 Ma Phan Si Pang pre- to synkinematic intrusion. Fission-track ages from a vertical section within the Phan Si Pang granite indicate rapid exhumation and cooling. The Paleozoic tectonic block to the west of the RRSZ (fission-track ages between 40 and 30 Ma) was exhumed and cooled earlier than the fault mylonite belt (fission track ages of 30 Ma and younger) and also than the eastern block. Its structural level is consistent with field observations that suggest the RRSZ in northern Vietnam to be a transtensional system, with a regional NE-SW oriented extension component.

Viola, G.; Anczkiewicz, R.

2008-06-01

134

Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

Stewart, A. R.; Stern, G. A.; Lockhart, W. L.; Kidd, K. A.; Salki, A. G.; Stainton, M. P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G. B.; Savoie, D. A.; Billeck, B. N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D. C. G.

2003-01-01

135

Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

Gentzis, T. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Environmental Technologies; Goodarzi, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Geological Survey

1998-11-01

136

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 4. Historical surface-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 1965 to 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical water-quality samples collected from the Red River over the past 35 years were compiled, reviewed for quality, and evaluated to determine influences on water quality over time. Hydrologic conditions in the Red River were found to have a major effect on water quality. The lowest sulfate concentrations were associated with the highest flow events, especially peak, rising limb, and falling limb conditions. The highest sulfate concentrations were associated with the early part of the rising limb of summer thunderstorm events and early snowmelt runoff, transient events that can be difficult to capture as part of planned sampling programs but were observed in some of the data. The first increase in flows in the spring, or during summer thunderstorm events, causes a flushing of sulfide oxidation products from scars and mine-disturbed areas to the Red River before being diluted by rising river waters. A trend of increasing sulfate concentrations and loads over long time periods also was noted at the Questa Ranger Station gage on the Red River, possibly related to mining activities, because the same trend is not apparent for concentrations upstream. This trend was only apparent when the dynamic events of snowmelt and summer rainstorms were eliminated and only low-flow concentrations were considered. An increase in sulfate concentrations and loads over time was not seen at locations upstream from the Molycorp, Inc., molybdenum mine and downstream from scar areas. Sulfate concentrations and loads and zinc concentrations downstream from the mine were uniformly higher, and alkalinity values were consistently lower, than those upstream from the mine, suggesting that additional sources of sulfate, zinc, and acidity enter the river in the vicinity of the mine. During storm events, alkalinity values decreased both upstream and downstream of the mine, indicating that natural sources, most likely scar areas, can cause short-term changes in the buffering capacity of the Red River. The major-element water chemistry of the Red River is controlled by dissolution of calcite and gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite, and the river is generally not well buffered with respect to pH. During higher-flow periods, Red River water was diluted by calcium-carbonate waters, most likely from unmineralized Red River tributaries and areas upstream from scars. The effect of pyrite oxidation on Red River water chemistry was more pronounced after the early 1980's. Elevated zinc concentrations were most apparent during summer thunderstorm and rising limb times, which also were associated with a decrease in alkalinity and an increase in sulfate concentrations and conductivity. The water-quality results demonstrate that it is critical to consider hydrologic conditions when interpreting water chemistry in naturally mineralized or mined drainages.

Maest, Ann S.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; LoVetere, Sara H.

2004-01-01

137

Archaeological Investigations in the Red Lake River, Minnesota Proposed Dam and Reservoir Project for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose is to examine the area within the proposed Red Lake River Dam and Reservoir area to determine the presence of archaeological sites which would be destroyed by the impoundment of the river or by construction activities. There appeared to be few...

J. E. Streiff J. K. Roney

1973-01-01

138

Estimating the Abundance of Sacramento River Juvenile Winter Chinook Salmon with Comparisons to Adult Escapement. Final Report Red Bluff Research Pumping Plant Report Series. Volume 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed in-river quantitative methodologies for indexing juvenile winter chinook production (JPI) in the upper Sacramento River using data collected by rotary-screw traps at Red Bluff Diversion Dam. These indices were used in conjunction with and in ...

2001-01-01

139

Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm

140

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

141

Change in Sahelian Rivers hydrograph: The case of recent red floods of the Niger River in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the hydrological regime of Sahelian Rivers are considered based upon the example of the Middle Niger River and its exceptional flood in 2010 near the city of Niamey. It is shown that rainfall in 2010 was only average with respect to the long term record, with neither the monthly rainfall distribution in terms of the amount of rainfall nor the distribution of rainy events changing significantly in the last few decades. Particularly, no increase in the number of extreme rainfall events is observed. In spite of this, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970s, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in a modification of the Niger River's regime from a single hydrograph to a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. This modification is likely due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure, resulting mostly from the spatial extension of crop areas and the shortening of fallow periods. Changes in connectivity of the river networks on both banks of the Niger such as endorheism bursting events also caused an increase in the contributing basin area. Policy makers should be alerted to the effects of intensive cropping, land clearing and overgrazing in some areas, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian Rivers.

Descroix, Luc; Genthon, Pierre; Amogu, Okechukwu; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Sighomnou, Daniel; Vauclin, Michel

2012-12-01

142

Impact of riser reconstructions on estimation of secular variation in rates of strike slip faulting: Revisiting the Cherchen River site along the Altyn Tagh Fault, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip rates are heavily contested for many of the first-order strike-slip faults within the Indo-Asian collision zone. Rates determined geodetically are generally lower than those reported using reconstructions of offset landforms, and it is unclear if this discrepancy reflects true secular variation in slip history, systematic errors in interpretation, or both. Here I examine the methods used to derive slip rates from reconstructions of displaced fluvial risers, and show that such rates are subject to potentially important uncertainties that have largely been overlooked. Review of published data demonstrates that the slip rate can vary by a factor of 1.2 to 5 for the same site, depending on whether the reconstruction uses the age of the upper or lower terrace for the initiation of riser offset. To reduce this epistemic uncertainty, I have developed six geomorphic indices that can be used to identify the most accurate end-member reconstruction: (1) comparison of riser offset with inset channel width; (2) similarity of riser and tread displacements; (3) morphological analysis of the scarp profile; (4) riser deflection in plan view; (5) diachroneity of terrace abandonment; and (6) whether riser crests or bases yield the slip vector. Without the use of these geomorphic observations the epistemic uncertainty associated with current methods for determining slip rate from offset fluvial risers is likely to be so large that there is no resolvable discrepancy between the GPS and geologic rates within the Indo-Asian collision zone. Application of three of these indices to new field mapping of the Cherchen He (River) Site (˜ 86.4°E) along the central Altyn Tagh Fault yields a revised slip rate of 9.4 ± 2.3 mm/yr, equivalent within error to the rates previously derived from GPS and paleoseismic studies. Although reinterpretation of published data from the Sulamu Tagh site (˜ 87.4°) is consistent with this revised rate, additional work is needed to reconcile this result with some of the rates reported near Aksay (˜ 94°E).

Cowgill, Eric

2007-02-01

143

Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain activity on the west-vergent Sweitzer fault and the east-vergent blind reverse fault. All of the sampled catchments are underlain exclusively by Tehama Sandstone. Moreover, there are no mapped surface traces of faults in the sampled catchments. This minimizes the possibility of changes in lithogic resistance to impact the erosion rates and channel analyses. These analyses, combined with fault geometries derived from published seismic reflection data and structural cross sections, allows us to constrain the throw rates on these faults and thus better evaluate the associated seismic hazard.

Cyr, A. J.

2013-12-01

144

Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin  

SciTech Connect

Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.

David Gibbons; Larry A. Carrell; Richard D. George

1997-07-31

145

[Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, a new species of golden-line fish from the Red River drainage in Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)].  

PubMed

In the present study, a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus Fang 1936, Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, was described from the Ganhaizi tributary of Chouyang River, Red River drainage, located in southeast Yunnan, China. This species has normal eyes and a strong dorsal spine with serrations on the lower 3/5 part. In general, this species is similar in morphology to S. macrophthalmus, S. guishanensis, S. angustiporus, S. lateristritus, S. qiubeiensis, S. grahami, S. qujingensis, S. maculatus and S. purpureus distributed in the Nanpanjiang River, and S. qiubeiensis distributed in the Red River. It is distinguished from S. macrophthalmus by possessing fewer than 9 gill rakers. However, S. xichouensis can be distinguished from S. guishanensis by its interorbital width/SL of 8.1~9.9%, rostral barbels extended to posterior margin of eye and maxillary barbels extended to posterior preopercular. It is distinct from S. lateristritus by dorsal-fin origin opposite of pelvic fin origin, with no a black stripe along the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. grahami by 74~88 lateral-line scales, 20 scale rows above the lateral line, and 16 scale rows below the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. qujingensis by a curved lateral line, 74-88 lateral-line scales, 48 circumpeduncular scales. It can be distinguished from S. yimenensis by the ratio of predorsal length, dorsal-fin base length, preanal length, anal fin length, prepectoral length, caudal-peduncle length and lower jaw length to SL, 47.1%-53.7%, 12.8%-15.8%, 66.0%-71.0%, 13.7%-17.1%, 26.0%-29.5%, 19.3%-24.7%, 4.7%-7.0%, respectively. It is distinguished from S. maculatus and S. purpureus by possession of lateral line and scaled body and distinguished from S. angustiporus and S. qiubeiensis by 35~39 predorsal scales, 6 gill rakers, and interorbital width/SL of 8.1%-9.9%. PMID:23913886

Pan, Xiao-Fu; Li, Lie; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-08-01

146

Trace metal and metalloid levels in surface water of Marcal River before and after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare and assess the dissolved concentrations of trace elements (As, Zn, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu) in surface water of Marcal River before and after the red mud spill that occurred in Ajka, western Hungary, in October 2010. The caustic sludge flooded the surrounding settlements and polluted the nearby Torna Creek, which flows through the Marcal and Raba rivers into the Danube. A total of 92 surface water samples were collected from the Marcal River in the period of 2007-2012 and analysed for dissolved trace metal(loid)s by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After the spill, the water management authority initially focused on acid dosing of surface waters to lower pH and was effective in lowering both pH and metal(loid) concentrations. Among the dissolved trace metal(loid)s, arsenic and nickel levels were moderately higher in the Marcal River 2 years since the spill compared to that observed in the pre-disaster period. The concentrations of dissolved trace metal(loid)s did not exceed the European water quality standards and the US Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria values (excluding one sample for cadmium). PMID:23975713

Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

2013-11-01

147

Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, also less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level. Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicated statistically significant differences among bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations at the three gages. Regression equations to estimate bromide, chloride, and sulfate loads were developed for each of the three gages. The largest loads were estimated for a period of relatively large streamflow, June-September 2007, when about 50 percent of the load for the study period occurred at each gage. Adjusted R-squared values were largest for regression equations for the DeKalb gage, ranging from .957 for sulfate to .976 for chloride. Adjusted R-squared values for all regression equations developed to estimate loads of bromide, chloride, and sulfate at the three gages were .899 or larger.

Baldys, Stanley III; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

2010-01-01

148

77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...James River, Richmond, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard...James River in Richmond, VA in support of the Labor...2012-0114 using any one of the following methods...rulemaking, we will hold one at a time and place announced...vicinity of Richmond, VA from 9 p.m. to 10...

2012-03-07

149

Evidence of Late Quaternary Faulting along the Northeastern Segment of the Stagner Creek Fault in the Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stagner Creek fault, located along the southern margin of the Owl Creek Mountains in central Wyoming, is one of several east-west striking Quaternary faults that may correspond with scattered, present-day, intraplate seismicity in the region. These Quaternary faults are peculiar in that they strike nearly orthogonal to the Basin and Range faults observed in western Wyoming, and their orientation may reflect the influence of inherited, Laramide structures. These east-west striking faults are inferred to be predominantly normal faults. Previous studies have documented the Quaternary activity of the Stagner Creek fault affecting 6 distinct alluvial fan southeast of the Boysen Reservoir. This study aims to expand on these prior efforts using geomorphic and geophysical analyses. In this area, the Stagner Creek fault is expressed as a prominent scarp, visible in air photos and satellite imagery. Microtopographic mapping was accomplished using a real-time kinematic GPS surveying. The resulting DEM provides detailed scarp morphology, as well as documenting possible knick points within the alluvial surfaces upstream from the scarp. The alluvial surface has a regional slope of 2-3 degrees, and the scarp face has a relatively shallow slope of 6-12 degrees. Scarp heights range from 0.4 to 2 meters. The minimum scarp may reflect a single faulting event, corresponding with a magnitude 6.5 - 6.7. These surfaces are believed to be Late Pleistocene and younger, and geochronological constraints are pending. A shallow seismic reflection profile acquired across the scarp imaged structure to depths of about 500 meters. The profile suggests a steep fault coincident with the surface scarp that offsets Tertiary reflectors several 10s of meters in the subsurface. The steep dip is similar to Laradmide structures. These results suggest that the Stagner Creek fault is capable of generating moderate magnitude earthquakes in this low-strain tectonic environment.

Abousaif, A.; Wang, H.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Gomez, F.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

150

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and native species. We investigated whether disturbance has contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native b...

151

Active normal faults and river damming: the importance of tectonics and climate in shaping the landscape of the southern Tibetan plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interaction between tectonics, climate and erosion is key to unravel the geodynamic evolution of rapidly evolving landscapes. Normal faulting along the Ama Drime and fluvial incision of the Arun river are used to better describe the recent evolution of the south-central Tibetan plateau. The Arun catchment can be separated in two parts, an upper catchment characterized by the presence of abandoned shorelines testifying of the presence of a paleolake, and a lower basin with deep gorges characterized by strong fluvial incision. This geometry implies ancient damming of the Arun river in the vicinity of the Kharta normal fault. Two shorelines, the highest at 4400 m asl and a major one at 4260 m a.s.l. have been dated at about 200-250 ka and at 80-120 ka using both OSL and 10Be cosmogenic dating methods of surface and subsurface samples. In the south Kharta basin, river terraces ˜100 m above the present riverbed are offset between 10 and 15 m by one branch of the normal fault. 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of these terraces range between 9 and 11 ka, consistent with aggradation after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ˜20 ka), followed by rapid incision of the Arun. A few kilometres south of Kharta, the normal fault offsets by about 30 m abandoned lateral moraines with ages ranging from 20 to 70 ka. These measurements constrain the rates of vertical displacement along the normal faults to range between 0.7 and 1.4 mm/yr since 10-15 ka. The 20-70 ka rate is less well constrained but is of the same order. To the north, the range of ages (30 to 166 ka) of a terrace offset by 150 m suggests a formation during MIS-5e, and thus a vertical slip-rate of about 1±0.5 mm/yr. 70 kilometres farther north-east, moraines are offset by 20-40 m across the Mabja west-dipping normal fault in the nothward prologation of the Kharta fault. If the moraines are correlated with the LGM advance the Mabja fault vertical slip-rate is similar to that of the Kharta fault. All these data indicate vertical rates on the order of 0.6 to 1.7 mm/yr on the North-Ssouth active faults in the Ama Drime area. The peculiar course of the Arun river meandering within gorges into the footwall of the Kharta fault downstream of the paleolake remnants indicates interaction between river damming and active normal faulting. The high lake stands may be correlated to the penultimate and last interglacial stages corresponding to enhance moisture across the Himalayas. It further suggest dam buildup during cold and dry glacial stages favoring diminished fluvial erosion and enhanced morainic debris accumulation in the gorge during continuous tectonic uplift. The end of the last lake high-stand (100-120ka) is in agreement with the highest and oldest evidence of fluvial terraces downstream of the gorge. These results show the importance of fluvial and tectonic interaction in connecting closed basins to drained valleys and thus in shaping large parts of the Tibetan plateau.

Kali, E.; van der Woerd, J.; Liu-Zeng, J.; LeBéon, M.; Leloup, P.-H.; Mahéo, G.; Tapponnier, P.; Thuizat, R.

2012-04-01

152

Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

153

Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010) and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr-1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr-1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide). The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

Vu, D. V.; Ouillon, S.; Tran, D. T.; La, V. C.

2014-01-01

154

Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River.  

PubMed

The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river near Grafton, IL. This study was conducted to determine current levels of metal contamination in water, sediment, soil, and plants in the habitat, as well as to reveal temporal and spatial variations of metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider. Aluminum, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Sn, and Zn were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. High concentrations of metals were observed in lake sediment, compared with the concentrations in water, soil, and plant tissues. Sediment Ni concentrations (mg kg(-1)) varied from 66 to 95 and Sn from 1100 to 1600. Five detectable metals in egg content were Zn (24.2 +/- 13), Al (2.2 +/- 1.2), Sn (1.8 +/- 1.1), Mn (1.1 +/- 0.6), and Cu (0.9 +/- 0.5); nine detectable metals in egg shell were Zn (6.8 +/- 3.9), Sn (3.7 +/- 3.1), Cu (1.9 +/- 1.3), Cr (1.6 +/- 1.5), V (1.6 +/- 1.4), Pb (1.3 +/- 0.7), Ni (1.3 +/- 0.9), Mn (1.0 +/- 0.8), and Cd (0.16 +/- 0.11). Zinc accumulation in egg content was significantly correlated with Zn in egg shell (r = 0.445, P < 0.002, n = 42). While significant spatial variation was observed in egg shell, metal accumulation in eggs (content and shell) collected from the same ground of turtles consecutively for 4 years did not show a significant temporal change. PMID:16216308

Tryfonas, Anna E; Tucker, John K; Brunkow, Paul E; Johnson, Kevin A; Hussein, Hussein S; Lin, Zhi-Qing

2006-03-01

155

Oscillating brittle and viscous behavior through the earthquake cycle in the Red River Shear Zone: Monitoring flips between reaction and textural softening and hardening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures associated with cataclasites and mylonites in the Red River shear zone in the Diancang Shan block, Yunnan Province, China show evidence for both reaction hardening and softening at lower greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The earliest fault-rocks derived from Triassic porphyritic orthogneiss protoliths are cataclasites. Brittle fractures and crushed grains are cemented by newly precipitated quartz. These cataclasites are subsequently overprinted by mylonitic fabrics. Truncations and embayments of relic feldspars and biotites show that these protolith minerals have been dissolved and incompletely replaced by muscovite, chlorite, and quartz. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase porphyroclasts are truncated by muscovite alone, suggesting locally metasomatic reactions of the form: 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6SiO2(aq) + 2K+. Such reactions produce muscovite folia and fish, and quartz bands and ribbons. Muscovite and quartz are much weaker than the reactant feldspars and these reactions result in reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in contiguous bands that constitute textural softening. These mineral and textural modifications occurred at constant temperature and drove the transition from brittle to viscous deformation and the shift in deformation mechanism from cataclasis to dissolution-precipitation and reaction creep. These mylonitic rocks so produced are cut by K-feldspar veins that interrupt the mylonitic fabric. The veins add K-feldspar to the assemblage and these structures constitute both reaction and textural hardening. Finally these veins are boudinaged by continued viscous deformation in the mylonitic matrix, thus defining a late ductile strain event. Together these overprinting textures and microstructures demonstrate several oscillations between brittle and viscous deformation, all at lower greenschist facies conditions where only frictional behavior is predicted by experiments. The overlap of the depths of greenschist facies conditions with the base of the crustal seismic zone suggests that the implied oscillations in strain rate may have been related to the earthquake cycle.

Wintsch, Robert P.; Yeh, Meng-Wan

2013-03-01

156

Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992  

SciTech Connect

The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

Laves, K.S. [Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States). Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

1992-09-11

157

Signatures of high-magnitude 19th-century floods in Quercus macrocarpa tree rings along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quercus macrocarpa (Michx.) growing along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, contain an anatomical signature related to high-magnitude 19th-century floods. Tree-ring samples were collected from 194 Q. macrocarpa over a 100 km transect along the Red River valley. The combined tree-ring record extends from A.D. 1463 to A.D. 1999; sample depth between 1463 and 1650 is limited and made up exclusively of subfossil logs derived from alluvial deposits. Thirteen trees from four sites contain annual rings with reduced earlywood-vessel transverse areas that reflect flooding during the tree's growing season. Flood rings in 1826 are present in 24% of Q. macrocarpa samples and are coincident with the largest flood observed in the Red River valley. Flood rings in 1852 are exhibited in 5.9% of samples and correspond with the second largest Red River flood. These results confirm that Quercus species adapt to prolonged inundation by reducing the transverse area of their earlywood vessels and suggest that anatomical signatures in riverbank trees may be used to identify and delineate high-magnitude paleofloods for low-gradient rivers.

St. George, Scott; Nielsen, Erik

2000-10-01

158

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wells, M. L.; Snee, L. W.; Blythe, A. E.

2000-01-01

159

Sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, during the 2011 spring high-flow event  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the bedload samples had particle sizes in the 0.5 to 1 millimeter and 0.25 to 0.5 millimeter ranges from the Maple River, Wild Rice River, Rush River, Buffalo River, and Red River sites. The Rush and Lower Branch Rush Rivers also had a greater portion of larger particle sizes in the 1 to 2 millimeter range. The Sheyenne River sites had a greater portion of smaller particle sizes in the bedload in the 0.125 to 0.5 millimeter range compared to the other sites. The bed material in samples collected during the 2011 spring high-flow event demonstrated a wider distribution of particle sizes than were observed in the bedload; the coarsest material was found at the Red River near Christine and the Lower Branch Rush River and the finest material at the Sheyenne River sites.

Galloway, Joel M.; Blanchard, Robert A.; Ellison, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

160

Population dynamics of Rattus argentiventer , Rattus losea , and Rattus rattus inhabiting a mixed-farming system in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent pests cause significant damage to lowland irrigated rice crops in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. Data from a 4-year study were examined to look at the population dynamics of the ricefield rat, Rattus argentiventer (representing 50% of captures), the lesser ricefield rat, Rattus losea (30% of captures), and the black rat, Rattusrattus complex (9% of captures) that

Peter R. Brown; Nguyen Phu Tuan; Grant R. Singleton; Dao Thi Hue; Phung Thi Hoa; Phi Thi Thu Ha; Tran Quang Tan; Nguyen Van Tuat

2005-01-01

161

Water-use data for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1979-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North, located in the north-central plains of the United States, plays an important role in population growth and economic development of the region. Because of recent and projected growth in population, industry, and agriculture in the Red River of the North Basin, alternatives to additional water resources will be needed to supplement future water needs. Past and current water-use data are needed to help select the most viable water-resource alternatives. Withdrawal and return flow data were collected from various sources throughout the Red River of the North Basin from 1979 through 2001. The withdrawal data were aggregated by subbasin, monthly totals, and water-use categories. The return flow data were aggregated by subbasin and monthly totals. The Red River of the North Basin was divided into subbasins based on locations of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and by specifically-identified reaches. Results of the water-use compilation are provided in this report.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Arntson, Allan D.; Ryberg, Karen R.; Dahl, Ann L.; Lieb, Amy

2004-01-01

162

Simulation of Runoff and Wetland Storage in the Hamden and Lonetree Watershed Sites Within the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Re-establishment of wetlands has been promoted by various groups to control future floods in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota. Therefore, a study was conducted to simulate runoff and wetland storage in the Hamden and Lonetree...

K. C. Vining

2004-01-01

163

Diatom and thecamoebian signatures of Red River (Manitoba and North Dakota) floods: Data collected from the 1997 and 1999 spring freshets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overbank deposits that aggraded during the severe and moderate Red River, Manitoba and North Dakota floods of 1997 and 1999 were examined to characterize the typical diatom and thecamoebian flood assemblages. The deposits contain diatom assemblages dominated by Nitzschia spp., Stephanodiscus spp. and Navicula spp. as well as large quantities of Hantzschia amphioxys, Luticolaimbricata and L. mutica and lesser amounts

Barbara E. Medioli; Gregory R. Brooks

2003-01-01

164

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY SURVEYS WITHIN THE RED RIVER-DEVILS LAKE BASIN-GRIGGS AND NELSON COUNTIES. EPA-REGIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilize funding from the Regional Geographic Initiative Program to conduct a survey of ecological communities within the Red River-Devils Lake Basins. The study will be targeting Griggs and Nelson Counties to identify significant natural communities and to collect and interpret n...

165

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3. Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical ground-water quality data for 100 wells in the Red River Valley between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station (08265000), near Questa, and Placer Creek east of the town of Red River, New Mexico, were compiled and reviewed. The tabulation included 608 water-quality records from 23 sources entered into an electronic database. Groundwater quality data were first collected at the Red River wastewater-treatment facility in 1982. Most analyses, however, were obtained between 1994 and 2002, even though the first wells were developed in 1962. The data were evaluated by considering (a) temporal consistency, (b) quality of sampling methods, (c) charge imbalance, and (d) replicate analyses. Analyses that qualified on the basis of these criteria were modeled to obtain saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, fluorite, gibbsite, manganite, and rhodocrosite. Plots created from the data illustrate that water chemistry in the Red River Valley is predominantly controlled by calcite dissolution, congruent gypsum dissolution, and pyrite oxidation.

LoVetere, Sara H.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, Ann S.; Naus, Cheryl A.

2003-01-01

166

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a surface geophysical investigation of near-surface and deep ground water in the vicinity of the Red River Aluminum site conducted in April, 2003 to determine the possible extent and depth of salt contamination in grou...

G. P. Stanton, W. Kress, C. M. Hobza, J. B. Czarnecki

2003-01-01

167

Biofilms on submerged River Red Gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae) wood in billabongs: an analysis of bacterial assemblages using phospholipid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were allowed to develop on wooden slides of the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Myrtaceae) submerged in two billabongs of south-eastern Australia. The slides were placed in the photic zone and the aphotic zone, and the biofilms sampled after eight week's growth over the summer of 1989–1990 and winter of 1990. Bacterial numbers, estimated with epifluorescence microscopy, ranged

Oliver Scholz; Paul I. Boon

1993-01-01

168

Interpreting flood disasters and flood hazard perceptions from newspaper discourse: Tale of two floods in the Red River valley, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on content analysis of the Winnipeg Free Press reports on the 1950 and 1997 floods in the Red River valley, Manitoba, Canada, this study demonstrates that newspaper discourse on these historic floods provides a basis for assessing a number of research assumptions dealing with media framing of disaster news and the role of newspapers in risk communication and hazard

Harun Rashid

2011-01-01

169

Fault tree analysis of the F&H Canyon Exhaust Systems at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Canyon Exhaust System (CES) for the F&H Canyon chemical Separations Facilities are considered safety class items (SCIs). SCIs are defined in DOE Order 6430.1A as systems, components, and structures, including portions of process systems, whose failure could adversely affect the environment or safety and health of the public. As such, any modification to SCIs must be carefully reviewed for impact to safety. During the last year, the Savannah River Technology Center of WSRC has been requested to perform two major evolutions on the Canyon Exhaust Systems. These evaluations include an Upgrade to Canyon Exhaust System (UCES) Project for both F&H Areas and a Backfit analysis for a standby diesel generator in F-Area. The purpose of the first evaluation was to evaluate the impact of cost reduction options on the UCES reliability. The purpose of the second analysis was to provide justification for not upgrading an existing standby diesel generator to meet current safety class standards.

Low, J.M.; Marshall, K.M.

1993-10-01

170

Origin and extent of fresh groundwater, salty paleowaters and recent saltwater intrusions in Red River flood plain aquifers, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model has been established on the origin and extent of fresh groundwater, salty paleowaters and saltwater from recent seawater intrusions in the Red River flood plain in Vietnam. This was done with geological observations, geophysical borehole logging and transient electromagnetic methods. Salt paleowater is present up to 50-75 km from the coastline, with occurrence controlled by the Holocene transgression. A density-driven leaching of salty porewater has occurred from high-permeability Holocene sediments into underlying Pleistocene deposits, whereas diffusion has dominated in low-permeability layers. In the Pleistocene aquifer, the highest content of dissolved solids is found below two intrinsic valleys with Holocene marine sediments and along the coastline. Recent intrusion of saltwater from the South China Sea is observed in shallow groundwater 35 km inland, probably a result of transport of salty water inland in rivers or leaching of paleowaters from very young near-coast marine sediments. The observed inverted salinity profile, with high saline water overlying fresher groundwater, has been formed due to the global eustatic sea-level changes during the last 8,000-9,000 years. The proposed model may therefore be applicable to other coastal aquifers, with a proper incorporation of the local geological environments.

Tran, Luu T.; Larsen, Flemming; Pham, Nhan Q.; Christiansen, Anders V.; Tran, Nghi; Vu, Hung V.; Tran, Long V.; Hoang, Hoan V.; Hinsby, Klaus

2012-11-01

171

Imaging the M7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake 2002 rupture at the Delta River using LiDAR, RADAR, and SASW Surface Wave Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake of 3 November 2002 resulted in approximately 5.5 meters of right-lateral offset and sub-meter (0.6m average) up-to-the north vertical displacement of alluvial deposits of the Delta River. We characterize the surface rupture and shallow fault structure of the Denali fault zone at the Delta River in order to better understand these most recent displacements and to estimate the total vertical offset of alluvium above glacially scoured bedrock. To analyze deformations along the fault-trace, we performed tripod-mounted ground-based LiDAR surveys, and Spectral analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) and Ground Penetrating RADAR (GPR) geophysical investigations. These studies were performed between the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAPS) corridor on the terrace deposits of the eastern flanks of the Delta River valley and the steeply sloping bedrock surface on the western side of the river. To produce digital terrain models (DTM) of the surface break we used a Riegl Z210i Laser-scanner to image eight independent LiDAR scans, and ISite3D modeling software to merge these scans into three DTM surfaces. We find that using a rotating scanning-laser allows us to produce ultra-high resolution quantitative DTMs for geomorphic analysis that can be used to resolve features and detect topographic changes on a fine-scale (0.9-2.5cm). Local geo-referencing control points are established using fixed auto reflectors. The near subsurface alluvium was imaged using reflection-based (GPR). A suite of parallel and orthogonal GPR reflection lines were measured to develop block models of the surface rupture at two locations. Radar imagery clearly delineates a plane of chaotic reflectors across the rupture zone. To characterize the depth of alluvium over bedrock on either side of the fault, we used the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) approach to invert the near-surface shear wave velocity profile. An Alyeska Co. Catepillar D9N track-mounted dozer was used as a high-energy random-wave source for the SASW test. This source allowed us to profile to depths in excess of 200 meters on either side of the fault. We found the combination of LiDAR and GPR allows us to analyze the surface and near-surface characteristics of a complex oblique rupture across the braid bars of the Delta River. SASW-based shear wave velocity profiles on either side of the fault indicate total up-to-the north uplift on the Denali fault of between 60-90 meters since Pleistocene (?) deglaciation. This investigation is the product of a collaborative research and development agreement between the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company, Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Kayen, R.; Barnhardt, W.; Carkin, B.; Collins, B. D.; Grossman, E. E.; Minasian, D.; Thompson, E.

2004-12-01

172

Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

2012-12-01

173

Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

Galloway, Joel M.

2014-01-01

174

Millennial slip-rates along the eastern Kunlun fault and rapid evolution of channel morphology in the yellow river headwaters, northeastern Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanical description of the interplay between ongoing crustal deformation and topographic evolution within the Tibetan Plateau remains outstanding, and thus our ability to describe the mechanisms responsible for the creation of this and other continental plateaus is limited. In this work, we employ a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the Quaternary record of active tectonism and coeval topographic evolution in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Fluvial channel topographic data paired with geochronologically calibrated measures of erosion rate reveal a headward migrating wave of dramatically accelerated incision rates in the headwaters of the Yellow River, which drains a large portion of northeastern Tibet. This transient increase in incision is likely driven by downstream base-level changes along the plateau margin and is superimposed onto a broad region of higher erosion rates confined to the plateau itself, within the Anyemaqen Shan (mountains). The Kunlun fault, one of the major active strike-slip faults of Tibet, trends through the Anyemaqen Shan. Using a careful approach towards quantifying millennial slip-rates along this fault zone based on the age of offset landforms, we constrain the Pleistocene kinematics of the eastern portion of the Kunlun fault and link this deformation to tectonically-driven erosion in the Anyemaqen Shan. Consideration of the age and morphology of fluvial terraces offset by the fault both highlights uncertainties associated with slip-rate determinations and allow more confident quantification of the allowable range of slip-rates at sites that take advantage of these features. Several new slip-rate determinations from this study at select locations corroborate a small number of previous determinations to identify an eastward decreasing slip-rate gradient and termination of the Kunlun fault within the Anyemaqen Shan. Existing geodetic data reveals a similar pattern of eastward-decreasing distributed shear across the fault zone. The spatial coincidence of tectonically driven erosion in the Anyemaqen Shan with the slip-rate gradient and termination the Kunlun fault implies that the crust of the northeastern plateau has the ability to accumulate regionally distributed permanent strain. Therefore, traditional 'rigid-body' rotation type descriptions of Tibetan Plateau kinematics fail to describe deformation on the northeastern plateau.

Harkins, Nathan W.

175

Impact of riser reconstructions on estimation of secular variation in rates of strike–slip faulting: Revisiting the Cherchen River site along the Altyn Tagh Fault, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slip rates are heavily contested for many of the first-order strike–slip faults within the Indo–Asian collision zone. Rates determined geodetically are generally lower than those reported using reconstructions of offset landforms, and it is unclear if this discrepancy reflects true secular variation in slip history, systematic errors in interpretation, or both. Here I examine the methods used to derive slip

Eric Cowgill

2007-01-01

176

Does Karakorum Fault Cut Across the Great Himalaya? Findings of Strike Slip Active Fault Along the Humla-Karnali River in the Northwestern Part of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates does not cause only mega thrusting along the Himalayan front but also great strike-slip shear or N-S extensional zones in the Tibetan block. Active tectonics of Tibet is presumed to be extrusion of Tibetan block along great strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh and the Kunlun

Y. Kumahara; H. Maemoku; H. Yagi; T. Nagatomo; B. N. Upreti

2005-01-01

177

Pervasive post-Eocene faulting and folding in unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi River, Central U.S. as imaged by high-resolution CHIRP seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite being located in the stable continental interior of the North American plate, in 1811-1812 the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) experienced among the largest magnitude historical earthquakes that ever occurred in the U.S. Paleoseismological evidence shows that large earthquakes have been occurring every 500 yr in the region for the past few thousand years, and historical and instrumental seismicity demonstrate that the NMSZ fault system is actively deforming today. By contrast, motion rates emerging from almost twenty years of geodetic observations substantiate a very slow rate of deformation across the NMSZ faults, suggesting that present velocities are not representative of the long-term deformation rate of the NMSZ fault system, and that deformation has likely been accommodated along structures additional to the NMSZ. In the summer of 2010, a high-resolution marine seismic reflection survey was carried out along the Mississippi River as part of a multi-year cooperative effort to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation in the Mississippi Embayment. Coincident to the seismic reflection profile, the survey also acquired ~300 km of CHIRP (Edgetech SB-512i) data from Cape Girardeau, MO to Caruthersville, MO. The CHIRP used a 0.7-1.2 kHz source pulse and recorded to a depth of 5-50 m sub-bottom. Here we present the preliminary interpretation of part of the CHIRP profile along the Mississippi River north of Hickman, KY, where the survey imaged a highly reflective sedimentary package down to a depth of ~50 m. The sedimentary sequence is about 20 m thick and appears to be bounded at the top and at the bottom by angular unconformities. The package is mildly folded and pervasively faulted, in some cases by extensional faults that exhibit up to 2 m of displacement and that reach the riverbed. Based on exposure of Eocene deposits 7 km to the east of the study area, and on the correlation of electric and gamma logs of nearby oil, gas and water wells, projected from 12 km to the west and which penetrated the Eocene units at a depth of 67 m, we determined that the reflective package corresponds to one of the elements of the Jackson Fm, (i.e. the top of the Eocene and of the Tertiary sequences), sealed at the top by the basal unconformity of the Mississippi River Quaternary alluvium and at the bottom by the Claiborne Group deposits. ¬

Fave, X. J.; Magnani, M.; Waldron, B. A.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S.; Guo, L.

2010-12-01

178

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

1980-01-01

179

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

White, Donald Edward; Gates, J. S.; Smith, J. T.; Fry, B. J.

1978-01-01

180

First local seismic tomography for Red River shear zone, northern Vietnam: Stepwise inversion employing crustal P and Pn waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 900-km-long Red River shear zone (RRSZ) lends a compelling support to the continental extrusion model for the tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia, but has been challenged by many of views, as some new records mainly from northern Vietnam, suspecting the dimensions of RRSZ neither in depth nor in displacement are as large as we expected before. However, compared to the northwestern half of the RRSZ in Yunnan province better studied by many fields, the southeastern half in northern Vietnam is relatively poorly constrained by seismic study, due to insufficient stations and data in the past. This study, using a newly deployed portable broadband seismic network, obtained the first local seismic tomography with a stepwise inversion using P and Pn phases. Surface geology, major structures, and rock properties are well correlated and identified in our model, suggesting the RRSZ is a lithospheric structure at least penetrating to the uppermost mantle with mantle thermal anomalies. In general, the crust of northern Vietnam appears to be weak and sits on a relatively hot uppermost mantle, showing a long and complex thermo tectonic history. A mid-lower crustal segmentation of RRSZ is also proposed to compromise the discrepancies recently observed between Yunnan province and northern Vietnam.

Huang, Hsin-Hua; Xu, Zhen J.; Wu, Yih-Min; Song, Xiaodong; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Nguyen, Le Minh

2013-01-01

181

Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

2001-01-01

182

Generation of calcrete with chalky porosity in upper Ordovician Red River Grainstone Reservoirs, Cedar Creek anticline, Southwestern Williston basin  

SciTech Connect

Red River dolomites produce from subtidal burrowed grainstones and algal-laminated shallow subtidal to intertidal grainstones. As the result of a detailed reservoir study on the Cedar Creek anticline, chalky porosity was recognized to originate from weathering of grainstones. Three shoaling-upward sedimentary cycles each ended with subaerial exposure. Weathering features are concentrated immediately below disconformity surfaces and decrease downward. These features include: manganese dioxide dendrites, degrading neomorphism of carbonate crystals, extensive micrite cement precipitation, chalky weathered nodules, recrystallization and leaching along vertical microfractures, organic-rich calcrete soil horizons with calcrete floatstone breccias, and secondary chalky porosity that cuts across depositional features. Weathering features were superimposed on grainstones after incomplete vadose cementation and leaching but prior to dolomite replacement. Locally, at least one post-dolomite weathering episode also occurred. Extensive weathering of grainstones resulted in development of white chalky beds of calcrete 1-3 ft thick, which are highly porous but impermeable; these are interbedded within the saccharoidal reservoir and are recognizable on wireline logs.

Dobrowski, A.

1988-01-01

183

Data for selected gaging stations in the upper Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, September 2001 through September 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface-water and water-quality data were collected to use in development of upper Red River of the North Basin Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). This report presents the data that were collected. During September 2001 through September 2003, data were collected at 13 selected gaging stations in the upper Red River of the North Basin. Continuous streamflow data were collected at three of the gaging stations. Water-quality samples were collected at all 13 gaging stations; and, simultaneous with sample collection, in-stream specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were measured. Samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, selected bacteria, chlorophyll a, and suspended sediment. Continuous in-stream water-quality monitors were installed at two gaging stations to measure specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity.

Damschen, William C.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2005-01-01

184

Discussion of tectonic models for Cenozoic strike-slip fault-affected continental margins of mainland SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the roles of Cenozoic strike-slip faults in SE Asia observed in outcrop onshore, with their offshore continuation has produced a variety of structural models (particularly pull-apart vs. oblique extension, escape tectonics vs. slab-pull-driven extension) to explain their relationships to sedimentary basins. Key problems with interpreting the offshore significance of major strike-slip faults are: (1) reconciling conflicting palaeomagnetic data, (2) discriminating extensional, and oblique-extensional fault geometries from strike-slip geometries on 2D seismic reflection data, and (3) estimating strike-slip displacements from seismic reflection data. Focus on basic strike-slip fault geometries such as restraining vs. releasing bends, and strongly splaying geometries approach the gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin, suggest major strike-slip faults probably do not extend far offshore Splays covering areas 10,000's km2 in extent are characteristic of the southern portions of the Sagaing, Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Ailao Shan-Red River faults, and are indicative of major faults dying out. The areas of the fault tips associated with faults of potentially 100 km+ displacement, scale appropriately with global examples of strike-slip faults on log-log displacement vs. tip area plots. The fault geometries in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin are inappropriate for a sinistral pull-apart geometry, and instead the southern fault strands of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault are interpreted to die out within the NW part of the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin. Hence the fault zone does not transfer displacement onto the South China Seas spreading centre. The strike-slip faults are replaced by more extensional, oblique-extensional fault systems offshore to the south. The Sagaing Fault is also superimposed on an older Paleogene-Early Miocene oblique-extensional rift system. The Sagaing Fault geometry is complex, and one branch of the offshore fault zone transfers displacement onto the Pliocene-Recent Andaman spreading centre, and links with the West Andaman and related faults to form a very large pull-apart basin.

Morley, C. K.

2013-10-01

185

Nutrient (N, P, Si) transfers in the subtropical Red River system (China and Vietnam): Modelling and budget of nutrient sources and sinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River system, which has a population density that varies from 80 to over 1000 inhabitants km -2 in the different sectors of its watershed, is a typical example of a subtropical system experiencing high human pressure. A monthly survey of nutrient concentration was conducted at the outlet of the three main tributaries (Da, Thao and Lo) and at Hanoi on the main branch of the Red River in the upper part of the delta. Samples from headwater streams or irrigation channels draining homogeneous land use classes also were analysed. A GIS database describing the characteristics of the watershed in terms of morphology, climate, land use and population has been established. This served as the basis for implementing the Seneque/Riverstrahler model, which allowed calculation of nutrient transfers and transformations along the whole drainage network of the Red River system. The model was validated using the measured nutrient concentrations obtained during the survey and was used to establish an overall description and a comprehensive budget of nutrient transfer, retention and delivery for the three main sub-basins and the upper part of the delta upstream from Hanoi.

Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Gilles, Billen; Garnier, Josette; Sylvain, Théry; Denis, Ruelland; Anh, Nghiem Xuan; Minh, Chau Van

2010-02-01

186

Transcript of Proceedings: Progress Evaluation Meeting in the Matter of Pollution of the Interstate Waters of the Red River of the North and Its Tributaries North Dakota-Minnesota. Held at Fargo, North Dakota on 6 December 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to evaluate progress toward pollution control in the waters covered by the Conference in the matter of pollution of the interstate waters of the Red River of the North and its tributaries.

1968-01-01

187

Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas. PMID:12462491

Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

2002-09-01

188

Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles  

SciTech Connect

The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

2012-02-29

189

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to either surface-water flow or the component of ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The inflow to the watershed, calculated to be 701 gallons per minute, is from precipitation. The calculated outflow from the watershed at or upstream from seismic-line 5 (the downstream-most line in Straight Creek prior to entering the Red River Valley) is 540 gallons per minute of evapotranspiration in the watershed upstream from line 5 (77.0 percent of precipitation), 5 gallons per minute of surface-water flow (0.7 percent of precipitation), 122 gallons per minute of ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith defined by the seismic data (17.4 percent of precipitation), and 34 gallons per minute of ground-water flow through fractured bedrock below the defined seismic line (4.9 percent of precipitation). The ground-water flow through the alluvium and inter-tonguing debris-flow deposits of the Red River Valley was calculated to be 5,227 gallons per minute at seismic-line 7, the first seismic line in the Red River Valley downstream from Straight Creek. The water budget indicates the amount of ground-water flow that enters the Red River alluvium from the debris-flow deposits and regolith in Straight Creek is small (about 2.3 percent; 122 gallons per minute) compared to the volume of flow that moves through the Red River alluvium. The total amount of ground-water flow from Straight Creek (156 gallons per minute; 122 gallons per minute from debris-flow deposits and regolith plus 34 gallons per minute through fractured bedrock) is about 3.0 percent of the ground-water flow calculated at line 7 for the Red River alluvium.

McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

2008-01-01

190

Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.  

PubMed

The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment. PMID:20048292

Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

2010-01-01

191

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle ({lt}1{degree}) northeast regional dip allows oil entrapment in both areas of updip porosity pinch-out and small ({lt}2 km diameter), low-relief ({lt}30 m) structural closures. Reservoir rocks in both types of traps are burrowed dolomitized carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in open to restricted shelf environments. The best reservoir rocks occur where up to 25% porosity is present between completely dolomitized burrow fills. Reservoir-quality porosity is mainly intercrystalline and vuggy in finely crystalline dolomites, but even in the most porous intervals, permeability only locally exceeds 30 md. Amounts of porosity in wells producing from the 'D' zone can be used to estimate a well's ultimate oil recovery when integrated with data on structural position, thickness of porous dolomite, and the nature of the fluid saturation (best indicated by bulk volume water values). Production in the structurally trapped 'D' zone oil pools in each field, where initial water saturation was 22%, will average about 625 thousand bbl of oil/well with initially negligible water, but with increasing watercut through time. The stratigraphically trapped oil pools in the fields, where initial water saturations ranged from 32 to 66%, will average 237 thousand bbl of oil/well with higher initial watercuts, but little increase in watercut through time.

Longman, M.W. (Consulting Geologist, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Fertal, T.G. (Samuel Gary, Jr. and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stell, J.R. (Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1992-04-01

192

Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 mug/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese. PMID:19371612

Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Minh, Tu Binh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2009-04-15

193

Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.j [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2010-02-01

194

Rivers of Red.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several solutions implemented by school districts to control special-education costs. For example, expect and budget for predictable needs, provide literacy support, use more than one reading approach, consider the consequences of curriculum changes, actively teach basic study skills and organizational strategies, link resource authority…

Byrnes, MaryAnn

2003-01-01

195

Data mining of external and internal forcing of fluvial systems for catchment management: A case study on the Red River (Song Hong), Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since interactions of natural and anthropogenic forces within the catchment drives fluvial geomorphic processes, which shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. The characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location and time specific and highly resource demanding. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales and the assessment of spatio-temporal changes as reaction to internal and external disturbances is rarely feasible at present. Information ranging from recently available high-resolution remote-sensing data (such as DEM), historic data such as land use maps or aerial photographs and monitoring networks of flow and rainfall, open up novel and promising capacity for basin-wide understanding of dominant hydromorphological drivers. Analysing the resulting multiparametric data sets in their temporal and spatial dimensions requires sophisticated data mining tools to exploit the potential of this information. We propose a novel framework that allows for the quantitative assessment of multiparametric data sets to identify classes of channel reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers using remote-sensing data and monitoring networks available in the catchment. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Song Hong) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 sq.km) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to recent construction of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high development rate, current efforts to increase water productivity and minimize impacts on the fluvial systems by means of focused infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of the fluvial system and, in particular, basin-wide assessment of resilience to human-induced change. . The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale while integrating recent and historic point records for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model in combination with fuzzy clustering. The above framework is able to identify non-trivial correlations in driving forces and to derive a fuzzy classification at reach scale which represents continuities and discontinuities in the river systems. The use of the above framework allowed analyzing the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, revealing patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing a classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers, fluvial processes and response to external forcing. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale integrating historical and recent available high resolution data. The framework aims at opening the way to a more structured organization and analyses of recently available information on river geomorphic features, so far often missing or rarely exploited. This approach poses the basis to produce efficient databases of river geomorphic features and processes related to natural and anthropogenic drivers. That is a necessity in order to enhance our understanding of the internal and external forces which drive fluvial systems, to assess the resilience and dynamic of river landscapes and to develop the more efficient river management strategies of the future.

Schmitt, Rafael; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

2013-04-01

196

Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both the seasonal and annual variability removed are called standardized concentrations. Numerous changes that could not be attributed to natural streamflow-related variability occurred in the standardized concentrations during the trend-analysis period. During various times from the late 1970's to the mid-1990's, significant increases occurred in standardized dissolved sulfate, dissolved chloride, and dissolved- solids concentrations for eight of the nine stations for which water-quality trends were analyzed. Significant increases also occurred from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's for standardized dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations for the main-stem stations. The increasing concentrations for the main-stem stations indicate the upward trends may have been caused by human activities along the main stem of the Red River. Significant trends for standardized total ammonia plus organic nitrogen concentrations occurred for most stations. The fitted trends for standardized total phosphorus concentrations for one tributary station increased from the late 1970's to the early 1980's and decreased from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's. Small but insignificant increases occurred for two main-stem stations. No trends were detected for standardized dissolved iron or dissolved manganese concentrations. However, the combination of extreme high-frequency variability, few data, and the number of censored values may have disguised the streamflow-related variability for iron. The time-series model used to detect historical concentration trends also was used to evaluate sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. Various sampling designs were evaluated with regard to their sensitivity to detect both annual and seasonal trends during three 4-month seasons. A reasonable overall design for detecting trends for all stations and constituents consisted of eight samples per year, with monthly sampling from April to August and bimonthly sampling from Oct

Vecchia, Aldo V.

2005-01-01

197

Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Cultured and Wild-Caught Freshwater Fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Ersb?ll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

2010-01-01

198

Segmentation and the coseismic behavior of Basin and Range normal faults: examples from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The range-front normal faults of the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and the Beaverhead and Tendoy Mountains in east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana have well-preserved fault scarps on Quaternary deposits along much of their lengths. Fault-scarp morphology, the age of deposits displaced by the faults, and the morphology of the range fronts provide a basis for dividing the faults into segments that are typically 20-25 km long. The Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead fault zones are 141-151 km long, and each has six segments. The 60-km-long Red Rock fault (the range-front fault of the Tendoy Mountains) has two central segments that have been active in late Quaternary time; these two segments span the central 27 km of the fault. We recognize four characteristics that help to identify segment boundaries: (1) major en e??chelon offsets or pronounced gaps in the continuity of fault scarps; (2) distinct, persistent, along-strike changes in fault-scarp morphology that indicate different ages of faulting; (3) major salients in the range front; and (4) transverse bedrock ridges where the cumulative throw is low compared to other places along the fault zone. Only features whose size is measured on the scale of kilometers are regarded as significant enough to represent a segment boundary that could inhibit or halt a propagating rupture. The ability to identify segments of faults that are likely to behave as independent structural entities will improve seismic-hazard assessment. However, one should not assume that the barriers at segment boundaries will completely stop all propagating ruptures. The topographic expression of mountain ranges is evidence that, at times during their history, all barriers fail. Some barriers apparently create 'leaky' segment boundaries that impede propagating ruptures but do not completely prevent faulting on adjacent segments. ?? 1991.

Crone, A. J.; Haller, K. M.

1991-01-01

199

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

200

Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total ammonia concen- trations are most sensitive to the point-source total ammonia concentrations at all three sites. Other input variables that contribute substantially to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are the headwater-source total ammonia and the instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite. Simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at all three sites are most sensitive to headwater-source dissolved-oxygen concentration. This input variable is the key source of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at sites 5 and 10. Headwater-source and point-source dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the key sources of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at site 14. During ice-free conditions, simulated specific-conductance values at all three sites are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values. Headwater-source specific- conductance values also are the key source of uncertainty. The input variables to which total ammonia and dissolved oxygen are most sensitive vary from site to site and may or may not correspond to the input variables that contribute the most to the variability. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are point-source total ammonia, instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite, and Manning's roughness coefficient. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations are reaeration rate, sediment oxygen demand rate, and headwater-source algae as chlorophyll a.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1996-01-01

201

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2007-01-01

202

Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and smectite increasing toward to the fault, whereas illite decreases. These trends are likely the result of CO2-related diagenesis, and similar trends are also observed in sandstone units at the site. Fracture mechanics testing of unaltered and CO2-altered sandstone and siltstone samples shows that CO2-related diagenesis, which is indicated by bleaching of the Entrada Fm, has significantly decreased the fracture resistance. The subcritical fracture index is similarly affected by alteration. These compositional and mechanical changes are expected to affect the extent, geometry, and flow properties of fracture networks in CO2 sequestration systems, and thus may significantly affect reservoir and seal performance in CO2 reservoirs. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

2012-12-01

203

Can we follow the neotectonic activity of the Hluboká-fault by reconstructing the evolution of the Vltava river course? - Mapping of fluvial terraces around the Budejovice-basin using historic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bud?jovice Basin in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) is a fault-bounded sedimentary basin with a multiple subsidence history overlying Variscan crystalline basement. Permian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments record repeated reactivations of faults at or close to the basin margin, which may have continued into the Quaternary. The latter is indicated by geomorphological features such as linear topographic scarps, which characterize part of the faults within and at the border of the Bud?jovice Basin. In a current study we assess possible Quaternary displacements along the faults delimiting the basin using geomorphological data, analyses of river planform patterns and correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River, which crosses the basin and its boundary faults. The regionally most important tectonic feature - the Hluboká fault -forms the northeastern margin of the Bud?jovice basin. The fault crosses the course of the river Vltava, a fact that guided our research to take a more precise look at the character and distribution of fluvial sediments in this area. Our main focus is on dating of terrace bodies around the Hluboká fault. According to the scheme used in most European regions, influences by the Pleistocene glacial cycles, the Vltava river terraces were assigned by most scientists to the 4(5) main alpine glacial periods. This dating is not straightforward as terraces are not connected to moraine bodies like in the Alps. The terraces were basically correlated by their altitude above the river and by their lithology (clastic content and grain size composition), but mostly without any numerical age determination. Our studies include several field and laboratory methods, supported by computer analyses of various types of spatial data. Data sources include: (i) modern topographic maps, (ii) geological maps, (iii) georeferenced historic map sheets of the Austrian Second Military Survey (provided by the Geoinformatics Laboratory of the University J. E. Purkyn?, 2005). The georeferenced map sheets of the Second Military Survey provide a very exact base map (Timár et al., 2006) for investigating the location of possible terrace bases. Since the georeferencing accuracy is < 10 m, data from these map sheets can be integrated into the geomorphologic studies providing information about the geomorphologic situation in the study area of the years 1836-1842, i.e., with less anthropogenic impact on geomorphological features than today. These data sources are combined with data from boreholes and thus help us identifying potential terrace bodies and choosing appropriate investigation sites. In the field, morphological, sedimentological and pedological methods are used to obtain relevant data about the sediment stratigraphy. Several laboratory analyses were carried out to gain information on the age of the terraces. We use OSL-dating in combination with the analysis of heavy minerals and clay minerals, as well as grain size analysis. After gathering information about the absolute ages of the terrace bodies upstream and downstream the Hluboká fault, we may be able to declare if the building of terrace staircases was influenced by tectonic activity of the fault or not. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

Homolova, Dana; Lomax, Johanna; Prachar, Ivan; Spacek, Petr; Zamolyi, Andras; Decker, Kurt

2010-05-01

204

The effect of management and ecological factors on the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana.  

PubMed

The relationship between clinical anaplasmosis and other disease morbidity, nutritional supplementation, vaccinations, external and internal parasite control, tetracycline supplementation, reproductive management and use of veterinary services was assessed in 320 beef cow-calf herds in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana. Data were collected both by mailed questionnaires and by interviews with owners who reported the presence or absence of clinical anaplasmosis. A relationship was found between other disease conditions and anaplasmosis, suggesting disease as a stressor in Anaplasmosis marginale carrier cattle. The herd location of A. marginale seropositive animals and clinical cases of anaplasmosis were related to areas of bottomland hardwood vegetation in which tabanid flies were abundant. This relationship with vegetation was tested by mapping the location of 209 beef and dairy herds which had been serologically tested for anaplasmosis and 256 cases of clinical anaplasmosis in 113 beef and dairy herds. PMID:2588476

Morley, R S; Hugh-Jones, M E

1989-01-01

205

The highest red flood of the Niger River ever recorded at Niamey: climate change or land use change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2010, the middle Niger River valley suffered from a severe flood. The water reached its highest level ever recorded during a monsoon, inundating an area of about 3.1 sq.km in the city of Niamey where some 5,000 people lost their homes. Data on rainfall, on the runoff of the tributaries of the Niger River near Niamey and on Land Use Changes since the 50s in this region will be shown and analyzed. It is shown that although there was a partial recovery after the severe droughts of the 1970's and 1980's, rainfall was not the main causative factor of this exceptional flood: the annual rainfall amount for 2010 was below that of 20 other rainy seasons in the middle Niger Basin since 1950, and neither the monthly rainfall distribution, nor the rainfall amount distribution of events changed significantly in the last few decades. Rather, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970's, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in an evolution of the Niger River's hydrograph at Niamey during the rainy season. We show that this is due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure and/or of non reversible effects of the drought. Changes in connectivity such as endorheism bursting events caused an increase in catchment area. Policy makers should be aware of the effect of human pressure, mainly cropping and grazing, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian rivers.

Descroix, L.; Genthon, P.; Amogu, O.; Rajot, J.; Sighomnou, D.

2011-12-01

206

Simulation of runoff and wetland storage in the Hamden and Lonetree watershed sites within the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Re-establishment of wetlands has been promoted by various groups to control future floods in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota. Therefore, a study was conducted to simulate runoff and wetland storage in the Hamden and Lonetree watershed sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Data from geographic information system analyses, collected weather data, additional historic weather data, and geomorphology were used in a wetlands hydrologic model to simulate precipitation accumulation, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, soil infiltration, seepage to ground water, surface runoff, and streamflow. Simulated daily mean water volumes for the soil and wetlands in the Hamden and Lonetree watershed sites showed that the soils of the two sites stored as much water as the wetlands throughout most of the simulation period. Total simulated runoff for the Hamden watershed site for the period of record was reduced about 38 percent by increasing the Bisson Lake spillage threshold from 0.009 to 0.60. The additional simulated storage at the larger spillage threshold led to reductions in simulated runoff. Simulated daily mean streamflows for the Hamden watershed site at a Bisson Lake spillage threshold of 0.60 were less than those simulated for the same day at a Bisson Lake spillage threshold of 0.009. However, the peak streamflows simulated for June 2000 and April 2001 at a spillage threshold of 0.60 were about the same as those simulated at a spillage threshold of 0.009. Simulated runoff during flood conditions in April and June 2000 and March and April 2001 was reduced 1 to 6 percent for an increased spillage threshold. Total runoff for the period of record was reduced about 31 percent for the increased spillage threshold. Simulation results indicate total streamflow from a flood event may be reduced by wetland storage, but peak streamflows during a flood event may not be affected substantially.

Vining, Kevin C.

2004-01-01

207

The Kunlun Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kunlun fault is one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet. Left-lateral motion along the 1,500-kilometer (932-mile) length of the Kunlun has occurred uniformly for the last 40,000 years at a rate of 1.1 centimeter per year, creating a cumulative offset of more than 400 meters. In this image, two splays of the fault are clearly seen crossing from east to west. The northern fault juxtaposes sedimentary rocks of the mountains against alluvial fans. Its trace is also marked by lines of vegetation, which appear red in the image. The southern, younger fault cuts through the alluvium. A dark linear area in the center of the image is wet ground where groundwater has ponded against the fault. Measurements from the image of displacements of young streams that cross the fault show 15 to 75 meters (16 to 82 yards) of left-lateral offset. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) acquired the visible light and near infrared scene on July 20, 2000. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

208

Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North.  

PubMed

Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements, the objectives of this study, which focused on Fargo, ND, and Moorhead, MN, were to assess floodwater quality and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited after floodwaters recede and the quality of soil underlying sediment deposits. 17?-Estradiol was detected in 9 of 24 water samples, with an average concentration of 0.61 ng L. Diesel-range organics were detected in 8 of 24 samples, with an average concentration of 80.0 ?g L. The deposition of sediment across locations and transects ranged from 2 to 10 kg m, and the greatest mass deposition of chemicals was closest to the river channel. No gasoline-range organics were detected, but diesel-range organics were detected in 26 of the 27 overbank sediment samples (maximum concentration, 49.2 mg kg). All trace elements detected in the overbank sediments were within ranges for noncontaminated sites. Although flooding has economic, social, and environmental impacts, based on the results of this study, it does not appear that flooding in the RR in F-M led to decreased quality of water, sediment, or soil compared with normal river flows or resident soil. PMID:22370418

Guy, A C; Desutter, T M; Casey, F X M; Kolka, R; Hakk, H

2012-01-01

209

Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2009-04-01

210

Depth Transects of Sediment Age, Reflectance, and Aquifer Arsenic in the Bac Bo Plain, Vietnam: Implications for Groundwater Arsenic Heterogeneity in the Red River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow aquifer groundwater arsenic heterogeneity is well documented in many of the fluvial regions of Asia. To this day, the cause for the heterogeneity remains poorly understood in part because of the heterogeneity of sediment properties inherent to a young floodplain depositional environment. In April 2006, a needle-sampler device was used to obtain depth transects of both sediment and porewater samples as the first step towards understanding the heterogeneous subsurface environment. Depth transects were taken between sites with opposing trends in tube-well arsenic, e.g. low As cluster to high As cluster, in a stable, fault controlled river bend in Van Phuc, Vietnam, to determine how sediment properties such as grainsize and reflectance relate to dissolved arsenic. Luminescence dating of aquifer sands and He3/H3 dating of the groundwater was conducted to investigate how aquifer redox conditions and groundwater arsenic evolve in Van Phuc's river-bend over time. Results indicate that localized zones of sediments enriched in leachable arsenic exist at depth within the aquifer and provide a mostly local source of arsenic. It also appears that groundwater flow encountering sediments of different ages can account for some of the observed spatial patterns of groundwater heterogeneity. Compiled with observations that reducing groundwaters with both low dissolved and extractable arsenic exist in the upper deltaic region, it appears that heterogeneities in shallow floodplain arsenic can be driven by magnitude differences in sediment-labile arsenic. Finally, given that these localized packages of arsenic enrichment correspond to a particular in-filling type of facies, it appears that fluvial cycling along the delta is the underlying cause of arsenic heterogeneity in the shallow floodplain.

Weinman, B.; Goodbred, S. L.; Radloff, K.; Aziz, Z.; Jung, H.; Frei, F.; Berg, M.; Trang, P. K.; Singhvi, A.; van Geen, A.

2007-12-01

211

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Pavlovsky, Rich

212

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 17. Geomorphology of the Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, and Influence on Ground-Water Flow in the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north-central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The bedrock of the Taos Range surrounding the Red River is composed of Proterozoic rocks of various types, which are intruded and overlain by Oligocene volcanic rocks associated with the Questa caldera. Locally, these rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity. The alteration zones that contain sulfide minerals are particularly important because they constitute the commercial ore bodies of the region and, where exposed to weathering, form sites of rapid erosion referred to as alteration scars. Over the past thousand years, if not over the entire Holocene, erosion rates were spatially variable. Forested hillslopes eroded at about 0.04 millimeter per year, whereas alteration scars eroded at about 2.7 millimeters per year. The erosion rate of the alteration scars is unusually rapid for naturally occurring sites that have not been disturbed by humans. Watersheds containing large alteration scars delivered more sediment to the Red River Valley than the Red River could remove. Consequently, large debris fans, as much as 80 meters thick, developed within the valley. The geomorphology of the Red River Valley has had several large influences on the hydrology of the shallow alluvial aquifer, and those influences were in effect before the onset of mining within the watershed. Several reaches where alluvial ground water emerges to become Red River streamflow were observed by a tracer dilution study conducted in 2001. The aquifer narrows where erosion-resistant bedrock, which tends to form vertical cliffs, restricts the width of the valley bottom. Although the presence of a shallow bedrock sill, overlain by shallow alluvium, is a plausible cause of ground-water emergence, this cause was not demonstrated in the study area. The water-table gradient can locally decrease in the downstream direction because of changes in the hydraulic properties of the alluvium, and this may be a contributing cause of ground-water emergence. However, at one site (near Cabin Springs), ground-water emergence could not be explained by spatial changes in geometric or hydraulic properties of the aquifer. Furthermore, the available evidence demonstrates that ground water flowing through bedrock fractures or colluvium entered the north side of the alluvial aquifer, and is the cause of ground-water emergence. At that location the alluvial aquifer was already flowing full, causing the excess water to emerge into the stream. An indirect consequence of altered rock in the tributary watersheds is the rapid erosion rate of alteration scars combined with the hydraulic properties of sediments shed from those scars. Where alteration scars are large the debris fans at the mouths of the tributary watersheds substantially encroach into the Red River Valley. At such locations debris-fan materials dominate the width and thickness of the alluvium in the valley and reduce the rate of flow of ground water within the Red River alluvial aquifer. Most sites of groundwater emergence are located immediately upstream from or along the margins of debris fans. A substantial fraction of the ground water approaching a debris fan can emerge to become streamflow. This last observation has three implications. First, very little water can flow the entire length of the study area entirely within the alluvial aquifer because the ground water repeatedly contacts debris-fan sediments over that length. Second, it follows that emerging water containing

Vincent, Kirk R.

2008-01-01

213

Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

2014-07-01

214

The use of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard) as indicator of the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental monitoring in the River Guadiamar (SW, Spain).  

PubMed

A translocation experiment of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to different sites located in the River Guadiamar was performed in order to assess the ability of this species as bioindicator of heavy metal and metalloid contamination. Crayfish were placed in cages and exposed to polluted environment during either 6 or 12days in the three sites with different concentration of contaminants. Their tissues (exoskeleton+gills, hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle) were dissected and analysed by ICP-MS to assess for concentration of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and As. Both exposure times result in significant bioaccumulation of some metals in crayfish tissues as compared to their concentration in the environment. According to overall metal concentration, crayfish tissues rank as follows: hepatopancreas/viscera>exoskeleton/gills>abdominal muscle. Essential metals for crayfish metabolism (Cu and Zn) are always found in high concentrations independently of their quantities in the environment because of the ability of crayfish to manipulate their levels for their own metabolic profit. Metals not involved in crayfish metabolism (Cd, Pb, As) tend to increase with increasing concentration in the surrounding environment and with longer exposure times. Thus crayfish could be used as bioindicator of these pollutants because their dose- and time-dependent accumulation may be reflective of the levels of non-essential metals present in contaminated wetlands. Future guidelines in plans for monitoring contamination on polluted Mediterranean rivers and wetlands should take into account the implementation of the incubation of crayfish during 6days and their subsequent analyses of metal contents, as a routine. PMID:16546239

Alcorlo, Paloma; Otero, Marina; Crehuet, María; Baltanás, Angel; Montes, Carlos

2006-07-31

215

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

216

Fault finder  

DOEpatents

A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

Bunch, Richard H. (1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665) [1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665

1986-01-01

217

Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

2005-01-01

218

Use of LANDSAT MSS imagery and soil type in a geographic information system to assess site-specific risk of fascioliasis on Red River Basin farms in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed in an ERDAS environment using maps of soil types from the USDA Soil Conservation Service, LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner data (MSS), boundaries for 25 study farms, and slope and hydrologic features shown in a two-quadrangle (USGS, 7.5') area in the Red River Basin near Alexandria, Louisiana. Fecal sedimentation examinations were done in the fall of 1989, spring of 1990, and fall and winter of 1990-1991 on 10-16 random samples per herd. Fecal egg shedding rates for F. hepatica ranged from 10-100% prevalence and 0.3-21.7 eggs per two grams of feces (EP2G). For Paramphistomum spp., a rumen fluke also transmitted by F. bulimoides but not affected by flukicides, egg shedding rates ranged from 10-91% prevalence and 0.1-42.8 EP2G. Soil types present ranged from sandy loams to hydric, occasionally flooded clays. Herd Paramphistomum spp. egg shedding rates increased with the proportion of hydric clays present, adjusted for slope and major hydrologic features. F. hepatica infection intensity followed a similar trend, but were complicated by differing treatment practices. Results suggest that earth observation satellite data and soil maps can be used, with an existing climate forecast based on the Thornthwaite water budget, to develop a second generation model that accounts for both regional climate variation and site-specific differences in fascioliasis risk based on soils prone to snail habitat. PMID:1626889

Malone, J B; Fehler, D P; Loyacano, A F; Zukowski, S H

1992-06-16

219

Flood of April 1989 in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and Fargo-Moorhead areas, Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most severe flooding during the April 1989 flood in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota occurred in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area. Flood stage on April 5, 1989, was the highest stage that has been reported in almost 100 years. The 1989 peak flow was not as large as that of the 1969 flood, which had the largest peak flow since the Wahpeton gage was installed in 1942. The 1989 peak stage, however, was more than 1 foot higher than during the 1969 flood because of backwater from ice. Cooler weather subsequent to the peak at Wahpeton slowed the snowmelt and allowed the peak to attenuate as it moved downstream; thus, the severity of flooding in the Fargo-Moorhead area and in areas farther downstream was reduced. Advance flood warning allowed communities downstream from the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area to prepare for the flood and was instrumental in reducing flood damage. Aerial photographs were used to delineate the extent of the April 1989 flood in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and the Fargo-Moorhead areas on topographic maps. The aerial photographs of the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area were taken during the flood peak on April 5 and those of the Fargo-Moorhead area were taken during the flood peak on April 9.

Ryan, Gerald L.; Harkness, R. E.

1994-01-01

220

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2004-01-01

221

Complementing data-driven and physically-based approaches for predictive morphologic modeling: Results and implication from the Red River Basin, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 30 years, the delta of the Red River (Song Hong) in northern Vietnam experienced grave morphologic degradation processes which severely impact economic activities and endanger region-wide livelihoods. Rapidly progressing river bed incision, for example, threatens the irrigation of the delta's paddy rice crops which constitute 20% of Vietnam's annual rice production. Morphologic alteration is related to a drastically changed sediment balance due to major upstream impoundments, sediment mining and land use changes, further aggravated by changing hydro-meteorological conditions. Despite the severe impacts, river morphology was so far not included into the current efforts to optimize basin wide water resource planning for a lack of suitable, not overly resource demanding modeling strategies. This paper assesses the suitability of data-driven models to provide insights into complex hydromorphologic processes and to complement and enrich physically-based modeling strategies. Hence, to identify key drivers of morphological change while evaluating impacts of future socio-economic, management and climate scenarios on river morphology and the resulting effects on key social needs (e.g. water supply, energy production and flood mitigation). Most relevant drivers and time-scales for the considered processes (e.g. incision) - from days to decades - were identified from hydrologic and sedimentologic time-series using a feature ranking algorithm based on random trees. The feature ranking pointed out bimodal response characteristics, with important contributions of long-to-medium (5 - 15 yrs.) and rather short (10d - 6 months) timescales. An artificial neural network (ANN), built from identified variables, subsequently quantified in detail how these temporal components control long term trends, inter-seasonal fluctuations and day to day variations in morphologic processes. Whereas the general trajectory of incision relates, for example, to the overall regional sediment balance over an extended time-horizon (>15 yrs.), upstream impoundments induce a much more rapid adaptation (1-5 yrs.). The applicability of the ANN as predictive model was evaluated by comparing its results with a traditional, 1D bed evolution model. The next decade's morphologic evolution under an ensemble of scenarios, considering uncertainties in climatic change, socio-economic development and upstream reservoir release policies was derived from both models. The ANN greatly outperforms the 1D model in computational requirements and presents a powerful tool for effective assessment of scenario ensembles and quantification of uncertainties in river hydro-morphology. In contrast, the processes-based model provides detailed, spatio-temporally distributed outputs and validation of the ANN's results for selected scenarios. We conclude that the application of both approaches constitutes a mutually enriching strategy for modern, quantitative catchment management. We argue that physically based modeling can have specific spatial and temporal constrains (e.g. in terms of identifying key drivers and associated temporal and spatial domains) and that linking physically-based with data-driven approaches largely increases the potential for including hydro-morphology into basin-scale water resource management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bernardi, D.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2013-12-01

222

Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

2012-12-01

223

Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was calibrated for ice-free conditions is capable of simulating water quality for both ice-free and ice-cover conditions.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1995-01-01

224

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water was sampled periodically from 2001 to 2004 at the down stream end of surface drainage near the point at which it disappeared into the debris fan. This water has a minimal range in pH (2.7 to 3.2) but a substantial concentration range in many solutes; for example, sulfate concentrations varied from 525 to 2,660 mg/L. Many elements covary with sulfate suggesting that dilution is the primary control of the range in solute concentrations. A transect of water samples higher in the scar area were collected in October of 2003. They had a lower range in pH (2.44 to 3.05) and higher solute concentrations than those collected periodically from lower in the catchment. Water isotopes for the upper transect samples indicated slight evaporation, and in part, may account for the higher solute concentrations. Drainage waters also were collected from Hottentot, Junebug, Hansen, Little Hansen, and Goat Hill Gulch drainages. Most constituents from other scar drainage waters showed ranges of concentration similar to those of the Straight Creek waters. An exception was water collected from Goat Hill Gulch, which has some of the highest concentrations of any surface-water sample collected but also contained waste-rock leachates.

Verplanck, P. L.; McCleskey, R. B.; Nordstrom, D. K.

2006-01-01

225

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reactive-transport processes in the Red River, downstream from the town of Red River in north-central New Mexico, were simulated using the OTEQ reactive-transport model. The simulations were calibrated using physical and chemical data from synoptic studies conducted during low-flow conditions in August 2001 and during March/April 2002. Discharge over the 20-km reach from the town of Red River to the USGS streamflow-gaging station near the town of Questa ranged from 395 to 1,180 L/s during the 2001 tracer and from 234 to 421 L/s during the 2002 tracer. The pH of the Red River ranged from 7.4 to 8.5 during the 2001 tracer and from 7.1 to 8.7 during the 2002 tracer, and seep and tributary samples had pH values of 2.8 to 9.0 during the 2001 tracer and 3.8 to 7.2 during the 2002 tracer. Mass-loading calculations allowed identification of several specific locations where elevated concentrations of potential contaminants entered the Red River . These locations, characterized by features on the north side of the Red River that are known to be sources of low-pH water containing elevated metal and sulfate concentrations, are: the initial 2.4 km of the study reach, including Bitter Creek, the stream section from 6.2 to 7.8 km, encompassing La Bobita well and the Hansen debris fan, Sulphur Gulch, at about 10.5 km, the area near Portal Springs, from 12.2 to 12.6 km, and the largest contributors of mass loading, the 13.7 to 13.9 km stream section near Cabin Springs and the 14.7 to 17.5 km stream section from Shaft Spring to Thunder Bridge, Goathill Gulch, and Capulin Canyon. Speciation and saturation index calculations indicated that although solubility limits the concentration of aluminum above pH 5.0, at pH values above 7 and aluminum concentrations below 0.3 mg/L inorganic speciation and mineral solubility controls no longer dominate and aluminum-organic complexing may occur. The August 2001 reactive-transport simulations included dissolved iron(II) oxidation, constrained using measured concentrations of dissolved iron(II) and dissolved iron(total). Both simulations included precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3 and hydrous ferric oxide as Fe(OH)3, and sorption of copper and zinc to the precipitated hydrous ferric oxide. Simulations revealed that hydrogen, iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were non-conservative and that mineral precipitation can account for iron and aluminum concentrations. Copper and zinc concentrations can be accounted for by simulating their sorption to hydrous ferric oxide forming in the water column of the Red River , although hydrous manganese oxides also may be important sorption substrates.

Ball, James W.; Runkel, Robert L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

2005-01-01

226

Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

Control, U. S.

227

Lateral drilling and completion technologies for shallow-shelf carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin. Topical report, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil-well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius lateral in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2,590 to 2,890 m in Richland County, MT; Bowman County, ND; and Harding County, SD. In theory, all of the horizontal drilling techniques explored in this project have merit for application fitting specific criteria. From a realistic point of view, the only relatively trouble-free, adequately-proven technology employed was the medium-radius steered motor/MWD technology. The slim-tool steered motor/MWD re-entry technology has been used extensively but appears to still be significantly in developmental stages. This technology will probably always be more troublesome than the technology used to drill new wells because the smaller diameter required for the tools contributes to both design and operational complexities. Although limited mechanical success has been achieved with some of the lateral jetting technologies and the Amoco tools, their predictability and reliability is unproven. Additionally, they appear to be limited to shallow depths and certain rock types. The Amoco technology probably has the most potential to be successfully developed for routinely reliable, field applications. A comparison of the various horizontal drilling technologies investigated is presented.

Carrell, L.A.; George, R.D.; Gibbons, D.

1998-07-01

228

Risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 occurrence at the village and farm levels in the Red River Delta Region in Vietnam.  

PubMed

A case-control study at both village and farm levels was designed to investigate risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 during the 2007 outbreaks in one province of Northern Vietnam. Data related to human and natural environments, and poultry production systems were collected for 19 case and 38 unmatched control villages and 19 pairs of matched farms. Our results confirmed the role of poultry movements and trading activities. In particular, our models found that higher number of broiler flocks in the village increased the risk (OR?=?1.49, 95% CI: 1.12-1.96), as well as the village having at least one poultry trader (OR?=?11.53, 95% CI: 1.34-98.86). To a lesser extent, in one of our two models, we also identified that increased density of ponds and streams, commonly used for waterfowl production, and greater number of duck flocks in the village also increased the risk. The higher percentage of households keeping poultry, as an indicator of households keeping backyard poultry in our study population, was a protective factor (OR?=?0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.98). At the farm level, three risk factors at the 5% level of type I error were identified by univariate analysis: a greater total number of birds (P?=?0.006), increase in the number of flocks having access to water (P?=?0.027) and a greater number of broiler flocks in the farm (P?=?0.049). Effect of vaccination implementation (date and doses) was difficult to investigate because of a poor recording system. Some protective or risk factors with limited effect may not have been identified owing to our limited sample size. Nevertheless, our results provide a better understanding of local transmission mechanisms of HPAI H5N1 in one province of the Red River Delta region in Vietnam and highlight the need to reduce at-risk trading and production practices. PMID:21545692

Desvaux, S; Grosbois, V; Pham, T T H; Fenwick, S; Tollis, S; Pham, N H; Tran, A; Roger, F

2011-12-01

229

Tectonics and Landforms: Types of Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers animations depicting the defining motions of five different types of faults. Also included is a data visualization showing the geographic patterns of faults and earthquakes, and a documentary video which discusses a series of great earthquakes that occurred between 1811 - 1812 and includes an animation of how the Mississippi River Valley was created.

Ritter, Michael

230

Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01

231

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

232

Red clover  

MedlinePLUS

Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

233

Plasma Cortisol Levels and Behavioral Stress Responses of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passed Through Archimedes Lifts and an Internal Helical Pump at Red Bluff Research Pumping Plant, Sacramento River, California. Red Bluff Research Pumping Plant Report Series. Volume 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examined plasma cortisol levels and behavioral stress-responses of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha) passed through the Archimedes lifts and internal helical pump at Red Bluff Research Pumping Plant (RBRPP). If juvenile chinook salmon a...

2000-01-01

234

Fault diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

Abbott, Kathy

1990-01-01

235

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

236

Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring and Regression Analysis to Estimate Constituent Concentrations and Loads in the Red River of the North, Fargo, North Dakota, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to estimate water-quality constituent concentrations in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota. Regression analysis of water-quality data collected in 2003-05 was used to estimate concentrations and loads for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables examined for regression relation were continuously monitored physical properties of water-streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. For the conditions observed in 2003-05, streamflow was a significant explanatory variable for all estimated constituents except dissolved solids. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were not statistically significant explanatory variables for any of the constituents in this study. Specific conductance was a significant explanatory variable for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride. Turbidity was a significant explanatory variable for total phosphorus and suspended sediment. For the nutrients, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, cosine and sine functions of time also were used to explain the seasonality in constituent concentrations. The regression equations were evaluated using common measures of variability, including R2, or the proportion of variability in the estimated constituent explained by the regression equation. R2 values ranged from 0.703 for total nitrogen concentration to 0.990 for dissolved-solids concentration. The regression equations also were evaluated by calculating the median relative percentage difference (RPD) between measured constituent concentration and the constituent concentration estimated by the regression equations. Median RPDs ranged from 1.1 for dissolved solids to 35.2 for total nitrite plus nitrate. Regression equations also were used to estimate daily constituent loads. Load estimates can be used by water-quality managers for comparison of current water-quality conditions to water-quality standards expressed as total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). TMDLs are a measure of the maximum amount of chemical constituents that a water body can receive and still meet established water-quality standards. The peak loads generally occurred in June and July when streamflow also peaked.

Ryberg, Karen R.

2006-01-01

237

Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent for both data sets. Overall, application of the Fargo WASP water-quality model to the 1989 and 1990 data sets resulted in poor agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. This likely is a result of changes in the waste-load composition for the Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment plants as a result of improvements to the wastewater-treatment plants since 1990. The change in waste-load composition probably resulted in a change in decay rates and in dissolved oxygen no longer being substantially depressed downstream from the Moorhead and Fargo wastewater-treatment plants. The Fargo WASP water-quality model is valid for the current (2008) treatment processes at the wastewater-treatment plants.

Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

238

Extirpation of Red Shiner in Direct Tributaries of Lake Texoma (Oklahoma-Texas): A Cautionary Case History from a Fragmented River-Reservoir System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reservoirs on composition of fish assemblages are well documented in and downstream of reservoirs but are less well known upstream, especially in small tributaries. Here we report that a historically very abundant native minnow species (red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis) has been extirpated from several direct tributaries of Lake Texoma, a large impoundment of the Red and Washita

William J. Matthews; Edie Marsh-Matthews

2007-01-01

239

Background and triggered microseismicity in the Alpine Fault zone, central Southern Alps, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpine Fault is a 460 km-long continental transform fault that bounds the western edge of the Southern Alps and constitutes the primary structure accommodating Pacific-Australia relative plate motion in the central South Island. Paleoseismic evidence suggests that large earthquakes (MW~7.9) occur every 200-400 years and that the central Alpine Fault last ruptured in 1717 AD. In historic times, however, there have been no large earthquakes and the central section of the Alpine Fault exhibits particularly low levels of seismicity above magnitude ML=2. This central portion of the fault is associated with the highest rates of dip-slip faulting (~10 mm/yr) and hanging-wall uplift (6-9 mm/yr). Previous geological and geophysical studies have suggested that large volumes of fluid are present in the rapidly exhumed crustal section immediately to the east of the central Alpine Fault. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) of 11 short-period seismometers installed in 1-100 m-deep boreholes was established in early 2009. SAMBA extends for 50 km along the Alpine Fault between the Whataroa and Karangarua Rivers and recorded ~1300 earthquakes of magnitude -0.5 < ML < 3. This is the longest microseismicity study in this region to date and has yielded a cut-off magnitude of approximately ML=1. This presentation addresses absolute and relative locations, magnitudes and focal mechanisms for microearthquakes recorded by SAMBA in the central Southern Alps. Most microearthquakes occur at depths shallower than 10 km and exhibit predominantly strike-slip focal mechanisms. The observations reinforce previous results indicating very low levels of seismicity northeast of the Whataroa River, a possible site of future deep drilling. The highest daily number of events recorded so far occurred after the MW=7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake of 15 July 2009, which ruptured the subduction interface beneath Fiordland and offshore, approximately 360 km southwest of the center of the SAMBA array. The triggered microearthquakes occurred in the middle of a pre-existing cluster. After five days, the rate of seismicity returned to the previous level. Map of the central Southern Alps showing the national station network (GeoNet, black triangles) and the SAMBA station network (red triangles) and place names mentioned in the text. Inset: Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault in the central South Island, New Zealand

Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Smith, E. G.; Townend, J.; Henderson, M.

2010-12-01

240

Fault simulation using small fault samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article emphasizes simulation-based sampling techniques for estimating fault coverage that use small fault samples. Although random testing is considered to be the primary area of application of the technique it is also suitable for estimating the fault coverage of nonrandom tests based on specific fault models. Especially for fault coverages exceeding 95%, it is shown that a precise estimate

Wilfried Daehn

1991-01-01

241

Seismic and gravity investigations of the shallow (upper 1 km) hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the vicinity of the Whataroa River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic evidence from the vicinity of the plate-bounding Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island suggests that earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occur every 200-400 years, with the last earthquake occurring in AD 1717. No human observations of this event are recorded. Therefore, the Deep Fault Drilling Project 2 (DFDP-2) drill hole, which is planned for 2014 on the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley, provides a critical opportunity to study the behavior of this transpressive plate boundary late in its seismogenic cycle. New seismic and gravity data collected since 2011 have been analyzed to assist with the positioning of the drill hole in this glacial valley that provides rare low-elevation access to the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The WhataDUSIE controlled-source seismic project, led by researchers from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada), provided relatively high-resolution coverage (4-8 m geophone spacing, 25-100 m shot spacing) along a 5-km-long profile across the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley. This work has been supplemented by focused hammer-seismic studies and gravity data collection in the valley. The former targets surface layer properties, whereas the latter targets the depth to the base of the glacially carved paleovalley. In positioning DFDP-2, an understanding of the nature of overburden and valley-fill sediments is critical for drilling design. A velocity model has been developed for the valley based on refraction analysis of the WhataDUSIE and hammer-seismic data combined with a ray-theoretical travel-time tomography (RAYINVR) image of the shallow (uppermost 1 km or so) part of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The model shows that the glacial valley, which presumably was last scoured by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum, has been filled with 200-350 m of post-glacial sediments and outwash gravels. The hanging-wall rocks into which the valley was cut are presumed to be mylonitized Alpine Schist. Considering uplift rates of 6-10 mm/a on the hanging wall of the fault and a glacial withdrawal date of 10,000 years before present (i.e., 60-100 m of uplift since the ice vacated the valley), the floor of the valley would have been as deep as about 350 m below sea level at the time that the ice withdrew (given the current elevation of ~100 m on the valley floor). Basal sediments in the valley could therefore be either marine (if the valley was open to the ocean) or lacustrine (if the valley was isolated from the open ocean by elevated footwall rocks along the west coast of the South Island). Once the original water body in the valley was filled, sediments would accumulate as outwash gravels above sea level.

Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lay, V.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

242

Fault models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major problem in the qualification of integrated circuit cells and in the development of adequate tests for the circuits is to lack of information on the nature and density of fault models. Some of this information is being obtained from the test structures. In particular, the Pinhole Array Capacitor is providing values for the resistance of gate oxide shorts, and the Addressable Inverter Matrix is providing values for parameter distributions such as noise margins. Another CMOS fault mode, that of the open-gated transistor, is examined and the state of the transistors assessed. Preliminary results are described for a number of open-gated structures such as transistors, inverters, and NAND gates. Resistor faults are applied to various CMOS gates and the time responses are noted. The critical value for the resistive short to upset the gate response was determined.

Sayah, H. R.; Buehler, M. G.

1985-01-01

243

Birthmarks - red  

MedlinePLUS

Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. They ... There are two main categories of birthmarks. Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

244

Trends in Streamflow and Nutrient and Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes River Basins, 1975-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many actions have been taken to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and the amount of nutrients and sediment transported in streams as a result of the Clean Water Act and subsequent regulations. This report assesses how nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in selected streams have changed during recent years to determine if these actions have been successful. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in concentrations and trends in loads from 1993 to 2004 were computed for total nitrogen, dissolved ammonia, total organic nitrogen plus ammonia, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total suspended material (total suspended solids or suspended sediment), and total suspended sediment for 49 sites in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes Basins. Changes in total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended-material loads were examined from 1975 to 2003 at six sites to provide a longer term context for the data examined from 1993 to 2004. Flow-adjusted trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 19 of 24 sites showed tendency toward increasing concentrations, and overall trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 16 of the 24 sites showed a general tendency toward increasing concentrations. The trends in these flow-adjusted total nitrogen concentrations are related to the changes in fertilizer nitrogen applications. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations from 1993 to 2004 showed a widespread tendency toward decreasing concentrations. The widespread, downward trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations indicate that some of the ammonia reduction goals of the Clean Water Act are being met. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in total organic plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations from 1993 to 2004 did not show a distinct spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations from 1993 to 2004 also did not show a distinct spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted trends in total phosphorus concentrations were upward at 24 of 40 sites. Overall trends in total phosphorus concentrations were mixed and showed no spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in dissolved phosphorus concentrations were consistently downward at all of the sites in the eastern part of the basins studied. The reduction in phosphorus fertilizer use and manure production east of the Mississippi River could explain most of the observed trends in dissolved phosphorus. Flow-adjusted trends in total suspended-material concentrations showed distinct spatial patterns of increasing tendencies throughout the western part of the basins studied and in Illinois and decreasing concentrations throughout most of Wisconsin, Iowa, and in the eastern part of the basins studied. Flow-adjusted trends in total phosphorus were strongly related to the flow-adjusted trends in suspended materials. The trends in the flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations from 1993 to 2004 resembled those for suspended materials. The long-term, nonmonotonic trends in total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended-material loads for 1975 to 2003 were described by local regression, LOESS, smoothing for six sites. The statistical significance of those trends cannot be determined; however, the long-term changes found for annual streamflow and load data indicate that the monotonic trends from 1993 to 2004 should not be extrapolated backward in time.

Lorenz, David L.; Robertson, Dale M.; Hall, David W.; Saad, David A.

2009-01-01

245

Red Sea  

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

2013-04-16

246

Neotectonics of Panama. I. Major fault systems  

SciTech Connect

The direction and rate of relative plate motion across the Caribbean-Nazca boundary in Panama is poorly known. This lack of understanding can be attributed to diffuse seismicity; lack of well constrained focal mechanisms from critical areas; and dense tropical vegetation. In order to better understand the relation of plate motions to major fault systems in Panama, the authors have integrated geologic, remote sensing, earthquake and UTIG marine seismic reflection data. Three areas of recent faulting can be distinguished in Panama and its shelf areas; ZONE 1 of eastern Panama consists of a 70 km wide zone of 3 discrete left-lateral strike-slip faults (Sanson Hills, Jaque River, Sambu) which strike N40W and can be traced as continuous features for distances of 100-150 km; ZONE 2 in central Panama consists of a diffuse zone of discontinuous normal(.) faults which range in strike from N40E, N70E; ZONE 3 in western Panama consists of a 60 km wide zone of 2 discrete, left-lateral(.) strike-slip faults which strike N60W and can be traced as continuous features for distances of 150 km; ZONE 3 faults appear to be continuous with faults bounding the forearc Teraba Trough of Costa Rica. The relation of faults of ZONE 3 to faults of ZONE 2 and a major fault bounding the southern Panama shelf is unclear.

Corrigan, J.; Mann, P.

1985-01-01

247

New thermochronological constraints on the timing of shear from the Khlong Marui and Ranong faults, Peninsular Thailand: implications for Himalayan lateral extrusion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Ar-Ar data from the strike-slip faults of Peninsular Thailand indicate rapid uplift of mid-crustal ductile shear zones during the Eocene. The cooling ages are consistent with a northwards younging pattern of Ar-Ar cooling ages from the NW-trending Three Pagodas and Mae Ping faults in Northern Thailand, to the Ailao Shan-Red River fault in Vietnam and Yunnan, taken to reflect the northwards movement of India during the Cenozoic. The peninsular structures: the Khlong Marui fault (KMF) and Ranong fault (RF), are major NNE trending strike-slip faults of respectively 220 km and 420 km length. Exposed mylonitic rocks bear consistently dextral kinematic indicators, unlike the sinistral mylonites of the NW-trending structures to the north. Brittle strike-slip and dip-slip faults overprint all the shear zones. Rocks ranging from low grade mylonites to syn-kinematic amphibolite facies migmatites from the RF and KMF yield similar biotite Ar-Ar cooling ages, suggesting that uplift from all depths in the shear zone was rapid. Retrograde shear fabrics in places show that dextral shear may have continued during uplift. While the new thermochronological data show that the peninsular mylonites cooled during the Eocene, constraint from pre- and post-kinematic granitoids strongly suggests that ductile shear occurred during the Late-Cretaceous to Paleocene. Since this is well before the onset of India-Eurasia collision, much of the ductile shear must pre-date that orogeny, and therefore cannot be related to Himalayan lateral extrusion, as has been speculated. The regional cooling pattern, however, shows that Indian indentation may have triggered progressive northward exhumation of mylonitic rocks. If the model of the peninsular faults is applied to the NW-trending faults in northern Thailand, then a pre-Himalayan history may also be recorded by those mylonites, rather than a simple, lateral extrusion-related history.

Watkinson, I.; Elders, C.; Hall, R.

2009-04-01

248

Preliminary map showing freshwater heads for the Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks of Ordovician age in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map showing freshwater heads for the Ordovician Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks has been prepared as part of a study to determine the water-resources potential of the Mississippian Madison Limestone and associated rocks in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming. Most of the data used to prepare the map are from drill-stem tests of exploration and development wells drilled by the petroleum industry from 1964 to 1978. A short explanation describes the seven categories of reliability used to evaluate the drill-stem-test data and identifies several factors that might explain the apparent anomalous highs and lows on the potentiometric surface. The map is at a scale of 1:1,000 ,000 and the potentiometric contour interval is 100 feet. (USGS)

Miller, W. Roger; Strausz, S. A.

1980-01-01

249

Geometry of miocene extensional deformation, lower Colorado River Region, Southeastern California and Southwestern Arizona: Evidence for the presence of a regional low-angle normal fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry of Miocene extensional deformation, which changes along a 120 km-long, northeast-trending transect from the southestern Chocolate Mountains, southeastern California, to the Trigo and southern Dome Rock Mountains, southwestern Arizona is discussed. Based upon regional differences in the structural response to extension and estimated extensional strain, the transet can be divided into three northwesterly-trending structural domains. From southwest to northeast, these domains are: (1) southestern Chocolate-southernmost Trigo Mountains; (2) central to northern Trigo Mountains; and (3) Trigo Peaks-southern Dome Rock Mountains. All structures formed during the deformation are brittle in style; fault rocks are composed of gouge, cohesive gouge, and local microbreccia. In each structural domain, exposed lithologic units are composed of Mesozoic crystalline rocks unconformably overlain by Oligocene to Early Miocene volcanic and minor interbedded sedimentary rocks. Breccia, conglomerate, and sandstone deposited synchronously with regional extension locally overlie the volcanic rocks. Extensional deformation largely postdated the main phase of volcanic activity, but rare rhyolitic tuff and flows interbedded with the syndeformational clastic rocks suggest that deformation began during the waning stages of valcanism. K-Ar isotopic ages indicate that deformation occurred in Miocene time, between about 22 and m.y. ago.

Tosdal, R. M.; Sherrod, D. R.

250

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department O.

251

CMOS Bridging Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the performance of two test generation techniques, stuck fault testing and current testing, when applied to CMOS bridging faults. Accurate simulation of such faults mandated the development of several new design automation tools, including an analog-digital fault simulator. The results of this simulation are analyzed. It is shown that stuck fault test generation, while inherently incapable of

Thomas M. Storey; Wojciech Maly

1990-01-01

252

About Random Fault Detection of Combinational Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault detection by applying a random input sequence simultaneously to a network under test and to a reference network is conside-red. A distinction between testing quality and detection quality is given. The detection surface is introduced as a characteristic parameter of a combinational network. The results are applied to TTL combinational circuits.

René David; Gérard Blanchet

1976-01-01

253

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

254

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2013-05-29

255

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2011-04-14

256

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

With those fossil fuel reserves dwindling, the scientific race is on to convert the sunlight harvested by plants into new fuels that will augment and eventually replace petroleum. It's a critical challenge. But there is a powerful tool tackling it: Sandia National Laboratories' Red Sky Supercomputer with a special cluster called Red Mesa dedicated specifically to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

None

2011-01-01

257

Quaternary sediments in the Dien Bien Phu fault zone, NW Vietnam: a record of young tectonic processes in the light of OSL-SAR dating results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dien Bien Phu fault zone (DBP), orientated NNE to N, is one of the most seismically active zones in Indochina. In NW Vietnam, this zone is 160 km long and 6-10 km wide, cutting sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the Late Proterozoic, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age, as well as Palaeozoic and Late Triassic granitoids. Along the DBP relatively small, narrow pull-apart basins occur, the three largest of which (Chan Nua, Lai Chau and Dien Bien Phu) have been studied in detail. All of them are bounded by sinistral and sinistral-normal faults, responsible for offset and deflected drainage, presence of numerous shutter ridges and displaced terraces and alluvial fans. The normal component of motion is testified to by well-preserved triangular facets on fault scarps, highly elevated straths in river watergaps, overhanging tributary valleys, as well as high and uneven river-bed gradients. Our observations indicate a minimum recent sinistral offset ranging from 6-8 to 150 m for Holocene valleys to 1.2-9.75 km for middle-late Pleistocene valleys in different fault segments. The thickness of Quaternary sediments varies from 5-25 m in the Lai Chau area to some 130 m in the Dien Bien Phu Basin. In the Lai Chau Basin, the middle terrace (23 m) alluvia of Nam Na River at Muong Te bridge have been optically stimulated luminescence/single aliquot regenerative dose technique (OSL-SAR) dated at 23-40 to 13 ka. These sediments were normal-faulted by some 11 m after 13 ka, and mantled by vari-coloured slope loams, 8-12 m thick, containing colluvial wedges composed of angular debris. These wedges were probably formed due to at least three palaeoseismic events postdating 6 ka. In the Dien Bien Phu Basin, in turn, alluvium of the upper Holocene terraces has been OSL-SAR dated to 6.5-7 and 1.7-1.0 ka, whereas the younger (sub-recent) terrace sediments give ages of 0.5-0.2 ka. Displaced terraces and alluvial fans allow us to suppose that the sinistral and sinistral-normal faults bounding narrow pull-apart basins in the southern portion of the DBP fault reveal minimum rates of left-lateral strike-slip ranging from 0.6 to 2 mm/year in Holocene and 0.5-3.8 mm/year in Pleistocene times, whereas rates of Holocene uplift tend to attain 1 mm/year north of Lai Chau and 0.4-0.6 mm/year west of Dien Bien Phu. More precise estimations, however, are difficult to obtain due to poor age control of the displaced drainage. Rates of Quaternary strike-slip are comparable with those of the Red River fault; the sense of movement being, however, opposite. Taking into account the presence of two phases of Late Cenozoic strike-slip of contrasting sense of motion, as well as the geometry of the two fault zones, we hypothesize that the Red River and Dien Bien Phu faults are conjugate faults capable of generating relatively strong earthquakes in the future.

Zuchiewicz, Witold; Cuong, Nguyen Quoc; Bluszcz, Andrzej; Michalik, Marek

2004-06-01

258

Timing and offset on strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Belt, B. C. and WA, and 40--80 MA fault reconstructions  

SciTech Connect

New evidence for displacement and timing on the Yalakom fault system (YFS) and from other dextral strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Mountains and North Cascades gives an improved fault reconstruction for Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time. About 125 km of dextral offset on the YFS occurred in three stages: a cryptic [approximately]80--[approximately]55 Ma dextral-transpressive stage; a dextral-slip and extensional stage from [approximately]55--44 Ma; and a 44-->34 Ma stage on the marshall Creek-Yalakom faults. The authors fault reconstruction includes speculative offset estimates on the Hozameen (80--90 km) and Ross Lake Faults (10 km), previous estimates on the Fraser River (90 km) and Straight Creek faults (160 km), and accounts for timing differences on the Fraser River and Straight Creek faults.

Umhoefer, P.J. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology); Schiarizza, P. (British Columbia Geological Survey, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-04-01

259

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Red yeast might affect the muscles. Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might also affect the muscles. Taking ...

260

High-resolution 3D seismic waveform imaging of the fault zone structure in southwest China using double-difference seismic tomography and generalized Radon transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan-Yunnan region in southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. This region has a very complicated geological structure and is one of the most active areas of continental earthquakes in the world. We collected 3-component waveforms recorded by 26 Yunnan provincial stations for ~5000 events in the period of 1999 to 2004 and calculated waveform cross-correlation delay times using the BCSEIS algorithm of Du et al. (2004). The double-difference seismic tomography method is used to determine event locations and the velocity structure. Clear velocity contrasts are associated with some faults, such as the Lancangjiang Fault, the Red River Fault and the Xiaojiang Fault. Seismic tomography can, however, only resolve the smooth variations in elastic properties in Earth's interior. To better characterize the structure discontinuities, the scattered seismic waveforms need to be used. The generalized Radon transform (GRT), an inverse scattering method, was recently successfully applied to the local earthquake data around the SAFOD site, California and revealed several vertical reflectors, similar to the imaging results from an active source survey (Zhang et al., 2009). We will apply the GRT to the seismic waveform data in the Yunnan region to better understand the fault geometry in depth. This research is partly supported by SinoProbe-2 Project of Ministry of Land and Resources of China.

Zhang, Haijiang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Weijun

2010-05-01

261

Fault architecture, fault rocks and fault rock properties in carbonate rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault architecture, fault rocks and fault rock properties in carbonate rocks The current study addresses a comparative analysis of fault zones in limestone and dolomite rocks comparing the architecture of fault core and damage zones, fault rocks, and the hydrodynamic properties of faults exposed in the Upper Triassic Wetterstein Fm. of the Hochschwab Massif (Austria). All analysed faults are sinistral

Helene Bauer; Kurt Decker

2010-01-01

262

Architecture and sedimentary facies evolution in a delta stack controlled by fault growth (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain, late Tortonian)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic control is revealed in various ways (synsedimentary deformation structures, facies, architecture) in the coarse-grained delta systems that developed in the southeastern margin of the Guadix Basin, an intramontane basin in the central sector of the Betic Cordillera, Spain, during the late Tortonian (Miocene). Vertical trends in the architecture of the deltaic succession (230 m thick) show changes in the stratal stacking pattern related to the variation in time in subsidence rates (in accommodation space). A period of high subsidence controlled by a normal growth fault began at the base of the succession, producing retrogradational units representing Gilbert-type delta systems onlapped by shallow platform calcarenites. A period of low subsidence followed, controlled by growth of a listric fault producing aggradational units representing shoal-water deltas capped by red algal biostromes. A non-subsidence period and decrease in accommodation space at the top of the succession (sediment supply remained constant) produced progradational deltas. The manuscript focuses on the part of the succession where the delta deposits show the effects of extensional tectonics, a listric growth fault and its rollover, on delta development. The progressive increase in accommodation space inherent in fault growth controlled the style of delta sedimentation in the river mouth. Gilbert-type deltas developed during periods of increase in subsidence rates and shoal-water deltas during periods of decrease in subsidence rates. Horizontal trends in the architecture of the delta lobes show changes in the stratal stacking pattern affected by differential subsidence and pre-existing basin-floor topography. Periods of increase in subsidence rates near the fault scarp correlate with accommodation space kept constant, thinning of the units and shoal-water deltas development over the rollover, away from the fault scarp.

García-García, Fernando; Fernández, Juan; Viseras, César; Soria, Jesús M.

2006-03-01

263

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

2005-01-01

264

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during selected samplings. One set of ground-water samples was collected for helium-3/tritium and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) age dating. Several lines of evidence indicate that surface water is the primary input to the Straight Creek ground-water system. Straight Creek streamflow and water levels in wells closest to the apex of the Straight Creek debris fan and closest to Straight Creek itself appear to respond to the same seasonal inputs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in Straight Creek surface water and ground water are similar, and concentrations of most dissolved constituents in most Straight Creek surface-water and shallow (debris-flow and alluvial) aquifer ground-water samples correlate strongly with sulfate (concentrations decrease linearly with sulfate in a downgradient direction). After infiltration of surface water, dilution along the flow path is the dominant mechanism controlling ground-water chemistry. However, concentrations of some constituents can be higher in ground water than can be accounted for by concentrations in Straight Creek surface water, and additional sources of these constituents must therefore be inferred. Constituents for which concentrations in ground water can be high relative to surface water include calcium, magnesium, strontium, silica, sodium, and potassium in ground water from debris-flow and alluvial aquifers and manganese, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium, and potassium in ground water from the bedrock aquifer. All ground water is a calcium sulfate type, often at or near gypsum saturation because of abundant gypsum in the aquifer material developed from co-existing calcite and pyrite mineralization. Calcite dissolution, the major buffering mechanism for bedrock aquifer ground water, also contributes to relatively higher calcium concentrations in some ground water. The main source of the second most abundant cation, magnesium, is probably dissolution of magnesium-rich carbonates or silicates. Strontium may also be

Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

2005-01-01

265

Design of fault simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical\\/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation

Hossam A. Gabbar; Hanaa E. Sayed; Ajiboye S. Osunleke; Hara Masanobu

2009-01-01

266

On Distributed Fault Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the computational aspects of fault simulation of digital circuits and address issues related to the efficient partitioning of a fault simulation task to a number of subtasks assignable for execution to the nodes of a distributed system. They review the basic concepts involved in the operation of fault simulation. They describe the implementation of a distributed fault

Tassos Markas; Mark Royals; Nick Kanopoulos

1990-01-01

267

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Swanson, Sue

268

High impedance fault detection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus, system, and method for detecting high impedance faults in electrical power lines using a composite high impedance fault detection system having a voter logic that samples the logical outputs from a plurality of independent high impedance detection systems and determines a high impedance fault if any two of the plurality of independent high impedance detection systems indicates a high impedance fault. Preferably, the plurality of high impedance detection systems include a wavelet based high impedance fault detection system having a first logical output, a higher order statistics based high impedance fault detection system having a second logical output, and a neural net based high impedance fault detection system having a third logical output. Preferably, each of the plurality of high impedance fault detection systems includes an independent high impedance fault detection application that independently detects a high impedance fault on the electrical power line.

2006-06-27

269

Fault analysis based on fault reporting in JSP software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault analysis procedure is proposed for software development using JSP (Jackson structured programming). In the procedure, it is assumed that developers submit a fault report, which includes information (such as fault type, cause of fault and product) on actual fault correction activities. The procedure can identify the step in the JSP process at which fault might be introduced. Fault

Yukio MOHRI; T. Kikuno

1991-01-01

270

Behavioral Fault Simulation in VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two tools which facilitate the fault simulation of behavioral models described using VHDL. The first tool is the Behavioral Fault Mapper (BFM). The BFM algorithm accepts a fault-free VHDL model and a fault list of N faults from which it produces N faulty models. The process of mapping the faults in the fault list onto copies of

P. C. Ward; James R. Armstrong

1990-01-01

271

Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [geological faults in California mountain regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery shows that the southern segment of the San Gabriel fault which controls the west fork of the San Gabriel River is strikingly similar to the Mill Creek Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains. It has also been noted that there is a similarity between the Sierra Madre thrust zone of the San Gabriel Mountains to the Banning thrust of the San Bernardino Mountains. This suggests that the southern San Gabriel fault was once continuous with the Mill Creek fault. When the San Bernardino Mountain block is theoretically moved to the northwest along the San Jacinto fault so that the Mill Creek fault is aligned with the southern part of the San Gabriel fault, it was found that the four transverse fault segments become aligned with the Pinto Fault on the east and with the Raymond-Santa Monica Malibu Fault zone on the west. The reconstruction identifies a continuous zone of transverse faulting extending from the Colorado River Desert to the Pacific. It seems likely that the entire fault zone was once a continuous left-lateral shear. This Anacapa Shear has probably been subjected to a 50 km left lateral movement. This analysis strongly indicates that the tectonic history of the Transverse Range has been characterized by left lateral shear on transverse faults and right lateral shear on the San Andreas fault system.

Abdel-Gawad, M. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

272

Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and climatic scenarios. To address these goals, we developed models and approaches to spatially represent storage volumes and interception areas of existing and potentially restorable wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin within Grant County, Minn. We then developed and applied a model to simulate wetland water storage increases that would result from restoring 25 and 50 percent of the farmed and drained wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin. The model simulations were performed during the growing season (May-October) for relatively wet (1993; 0.79 m of precipitation) and dry (1987; 0.40 m of precipitation) years. Results from the simulations indicated that the 25 percent restoration scenario would increase water storage by 21-24 percent and that a 50 percent scenario would increase storage by 34-38 percent. Additionally, we estimated that wetlands in the subbasin have potential to store 11.57-20.98 percent of the total precipitation that fell over the entire subbasin area (52,758 ha). Our simulation results indicated that there is considerable potential to enhance water storage in the subbasin; however, evaluation and calibration of the model is necessary before simulation results can be applied to management and planning decisions. In this report we present guidance for the development and application of models (e.g., surface area-volume predictive models, hydrology simulation model) to simulate wetland water storage to provide a basis from which to understand and predict the effects of natural or human-induced hydrologic alterations. In developing these approaches, we tried to use simple and widely available input data to simulate wetland hydrology and predict wetland water storage for a specific precipitation event or a series of events. Further, the hydrology simulation model accounted for land use and soil type, which influence surface water inputs to wetlands. Although information presented in this report is specific to the Mustinka subbasin, the approaches

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.

2007-01-01

273

Mid-Cretaceous strike-slip and contractional fault zones in the western intermontane terrane, Washington, and their relation to the North Cascades-Southeastern Coast Belt Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and geochronologic data from the 111-114 Ma Okanogan Range batholith in north central Washington are used to characterize the timing and style of deformation during the early stages of the mid-to Late Cretaceous North Cascades-southeastern Coast Belt (NC-SECB) orogen. The Pasayten fault zone bounds Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Methow basin to the west against predominantly Mesozoic igneous rocks of the Intermontane terrane to the east. The Pasayten fault zone accommodated intrusion of the western units of the Okanogan Range batholith during high-angle slip, then approximately 20 km of left-lateral strike-slip at 109-95 Ma. South of the Pasayten fault zone, the Red Shirt and Methow River thrust zones accommodated (1) west vergent contraction at amphibolite grade that began by 113 Ma and ended by 112 Ma, based on new U-Pb zircon dates for deformed and undeformed granitoids, and (2) northwest vergent contraction in the Methow River thrust zone followed by west vergent contraction in the Red Shirt thrust zone, both at greenschist grade prior to 104 Ma. These contractional displacements thrust the Methow basin 10-20 km southeastward beneath the western Okanogan Range batholith. Deformation in the NC-SECB thus began by earliest Albian time, earlier than previously thought, and was characterized by coeval sinistral transcurrent and west vergent contractional faulting. Sinistral strike-slip in the Pasayten fault zone may have reflected the pre-100 Ma sense of oblique plate convergence or relatively minor southward tectonic escape of the adjacent Methow basin during contractional deformation. The slip history of the Pasayten fault zone is undocumented between approximately 80 Ma and 60 Ma when, on the basis of paleomagnetic data, some workers have proposed that the Methow basin moved 1700 km northward to its present position relative to the Intermontane terrane. However, significant Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene dextral slip on the Pasayten fault zone is unlikely because the western intrusive units of the Okanogan Range batholith continue without disruption across its southeastward trend.

Hurlow, Hugh A.

1993-10-01

274

Slab break-off influence on the formation of the major intra-continental faulting systems during India-Asia convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing global tomographic images and Asian tectonics reconstruction, allows formulating hypotheses on how deep subduction and indentation tectonics are coupled that we tested by doing numerical models which show the link between slab breakoff event and initiation of strike-slip faults in the upper plate. The long term evolution of Indian lithosphere during the indentation process has been deduced from remnants of slabs in the mantle shown by P-waves global tomography. A complete breakoff occurs at the transition between the Tethys oceanic subduction and the Indian continental one (OCB), then the Indian lithosphere resumes subducting, but with drastic variation of timing from west to east, late subduction far north of the trench to the west, early subduction following by a second breakoff more to the east. The long term evolution of the Asian continental deformation constrains the age and style of the upper plate deformation during the collision. Drastic changes occur in the fault pattern, with successive strike-slip faults crossing the entire Asian continent. The Bangong-Red River initiated early in the collision time, to the south of the collision zone, while the Altyn Tagh fault initiates later in the collision time, to the north of the collision zone. We perform self-consistent three-dimensional numerical models of coupled subducting/upper plates in an ambient mantle. We find that when slab detaches at the OCB, the subduction of the buoyant continent progressively decreases the driving force available, yet transient stresses propagate far into the upper plate interiors, localising along a belt at a high angle with the trench. The large stresses in the upper plate interiors propagate at large distance from the margin with a trend similar to the major lithospheric faults of Asia. The successive breakoff episodes evidenced using global tomography likely provided the conditions for large stress surge in the Asian lithosphere that resulted in the formation of the long-lived major intra-continental faulting systems, first of the Red River and second of the Altyn Tagh. The transient coupling gradients at the trench caused by the breakoff events have generated successive localised stress pulses which provide the conditions for episodic nucleation of lithospheric faults within the Asian continent and their link to deep processes.

capitanio, F. A.; Replumaz, A.

2013-12-01

275

Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years ago.

Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

2007-01-01

276

Geometry and fracture distribution in fault-propagation folds in nature and experiments  

SciTech Connect

Fault-propagation folds in compressional terranes are attractive reservoir targets, particularly where deformation processes such as fracturing and faulting enchance reservoir and transport properties. Field examples and laboratory modeling suggest that fold geometry, fracture distribution, and propagation of the master fault vary with lithologic layering. Fault-propagation folds in the Absaroka thrust sheet, Salt River Range, Wyoming, are characterized by a complexly folded and faulted sequence overlying imbricate thrust ramps. The lower Paleozoic section consists of a mechanically anisotropic rock sequence that has variable bedding thickness and relative ductility. Above thrust ramps, thick-bedded brittle units shorten by isolated faulting and fracturing. The faulted and fractured zones are separated by disharmonic folds and zones of interlayer slip in the thinly bedded units. This geometry suggests that fault-propagation folds in mechanically layered rock grow by the linking of structurally higher isolated faulted segments rather than by the continuous propagation of the master thrust upsection.

Chester, J.S.

1988-01-01

277

Fault Tolerant Strategies for BLDC Motor Drives under Switch Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the fault tolerant system for BLDC motors has been proposed to maintain the control performance under switching device faults of inverter. The proposed fault tolerant system provides compensation for open-circuit faults and short-circuit faults in power converter. The fault identification is quickly achieved by simple algorithm using the characteristic of BLDC motor drives. The drive system after

Byoung-Gun Park; Tae-Sung Kim; Ji-Su Ryu; Dong-Seok Hyun

2006-01-01

278

Bridge fault diagnosis using stuck-at fault simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diagnostic fault simulator is described that diagnoses both feedback and nonfeedback bridge faults in combinational circuits while using information from fault simulation of single stuck-at faults. A realistic fault model is used which considers the existence of the Byzantine Generals problem. Sets representing nodes possibly involved in a defect are partitioned based on logic and fault simulation of

Jue Wu; Elizabeth M. Rudnick

2000-01-01

279

Fault Mapping in Haiti  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS geologist Carol Prentice surveying features that have been displaced by young movements on the Enriquillo fault in southwest Haiti.  The January 2010 Haiti earthquake was associated with the Enriquillo fault....

2010-08-13

280

Nonlinear Fault Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of several research projects in the nonlinear fault diagnosis is given. Several alternative algorithms for the solution of the nonlinear fault diagnosis problem are presented, together with a diagnosibility theory, and a set of criteria which an...

R. W. Liu K. Nakajima P. Olivier Q. D. Ngo R. Saeks

1981-01-01

281

Style of the surface deformation by the 1999 Chichi earthquake at the central segment of Chelungpu fault, Taiwan, with special reference to the presence of the main and subsidiary faults and their progressive deformation in the Tsauton area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the style of surface deformation in the 1999 Chichi earthquake in the central segment of the Chelungpu Fault. The study covers the Kung-fu village, north of Han River, to the south of Tsauton area. A characteristic style of the surface deformation is a convex scarp in profile and sinuous plan view, due to the low angle thrust fault. Two subparallel faults, including the west facing Tsauton West fault, and the east facing Tsauton East fault, limit the western and eastern margin of the Tsauton terraced area. The Tsauton West fault is the continuation of the main Chelungpu fault and the Tsauton East fault is located about 2 km apart. Both faults record larger amounts of vertical displacement on the older terraces. The 1999 surface rupture occurred exactly on a pre-existing fault scarp of the Tsauton West and East faults. Thus, repeated activities of these two faults during the Holocene, possibly since the late Quaternary, are confirmed. The amount of vertical offset of the Tsauton East fault is smaller, and about 40-50% of that of the Tsauton West fault for the pre-existing fault. This indicates that the Tsauton East fault is a subsidiary fault and moved together with the main fault, but accommodated less amount.

Ota, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Miyawaki, A.; Sawa, H.

2007-11-01

282

Fault recovery characteristics of the fault tolerant multi-processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fault handling performance of the fault tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) was investigated. Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles byzantine or lying faults. It is pointed out that these weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good LRU (line replaceable unit) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software. It is concluded that fault injection can help detect and analyze the behavior of a system in the ultra-reliable regime. Although fault injection testing cannot be exhaustive, it has been demonstrated that it provides a unique capability to unmask problems and to characterize the behavior of a fault-tolerant system.

Padilla, Peter A.

1990-01-01

283

A tectonic model for the Tertiary evolution of strike slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models for the Tertiary evolution of SE Asia fall into two main types: a pure escape tectonics model with no proto-South China Sea, and subduction of proto-South China Sea oceanic crust beneath Borneo. A related problem is which, if any, of the main strike-slip faults (Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Aliao Shan-Red River (ASRR)) cross Sundaland to the NW Borneo margin to facilitate continental extrusion? Recent results investigating strike-slip faults, rift basins, and metamorphic core complexes are reviewed and a revised tectonic model for SE Asia proposed. Key points of the new model include: (1) The ASRR shear zone was mainly active in the Eocene-Oligocene in order to link with extension in the South China Sea. The ASRR was less active during the Miocene (tens of kilometres of sinistral displacement), with minor amounts of South China Sea spreading centre extension transferred to the ASRR shear zone. (2) At least three important regions of metamorphic core complex development affected Indochina from the Oligocene-Miocene (Mogok gneiss belt; Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep; around the ASRR shear zone). Hence, Paleogene crustal thickening, buoyancy-driven crustal collapse, and lower crustal flow are important elements of the Tertiary evolution of Indochina. (3) Subduction of a proto-South China Sea oceanic crust during the Eocene-Early Miocene is necessary to explain the geological evolution of NW Borneo and must be built into any model for the region. (4) The Eocene-Oligocene collision of NE India with Burma activated extrusion tectonics along the Three Pagodas, Mae Ping, Ranong and Klong Marui faults and right lateral motion along the Sumatran subduction zone. (5) The only strike-slip fault link to the NW Borneo margin occurred along the trend of the ASRR fault system, which passes along strike into a right lateral transform system including the Baram line.

Morley, C. K.

2002-04-01

284

The San Andreas Fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of the San Andreas fault was brought dramatically to world attention on April 18, 1906, when sudden displacement along the fault produced the great San Francisco earthquake and fire. This earthquake, however, was but one of many that have resulted from episodic displacement along the fault throughout its life of about 15-20 million years.

Schulz, Sandra S.; Wallace, Robert E.

1993-01-01

285

Reservoir-Seal-Fault Systems Leakage Evolution Though Time and Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to the study of natural CO2 reservoirs, tools are developed in order to understand the CO2 storage efficiency and long-term evolution. The Colorado Plateau red sandstones, in southern Utah, are marked by fluid driven mineralization and alteration along joints, fractures and faults. These traces are considered as evidences for paleo and present-day migration pathways of the exotic fluids coming from reservoirs (located at different depths) to the surface across or along the transfer faulted zones. Understanding these mechanisms through time is crucial not only in the determination of the fault activity, for identifying the transient and permanent processes along this fault system, but also in the long-term paleo-sequestration calibration, and finally in the evaluation of hydrocarbon, gas, water and CO2 migration. In order to investigate the nature and the origin of the different leaking fluids or gas, we conducted a study along Moab and Green River Fault systems, from Moab to the western side of the San Raphael Swell, in Utah. A geological fieldwork highlights several former and current transfer and leakage processes, evidenced by (1) chemical bleaching, (2) gypsum, (3) different kinds of oxides, (4) carbonate precipitations, and (5) present day CO2 expulsion located all along the faults traces from Jurassic units to the present-day surface. Due to the different erosion pattern in the area, access to several reservoir and seals was possible for observation and sampling. This first step allowed to characterize the orientation and position of each leaky fluid family, and to analyze the fluids and carbonate precipitation with respect to the structural context. For instance, the strong impact of salt tectonics implies that some of the faults are probably rooted within this decollement, and that a system of small wavelength syncline/anticline is added a significant variability to the drainage pattern of these faults. In order to define the nature and the origin of the fluids responsible for the traces and seepages observed, we used a multi-disciplinary approach using the different following methods coming from: geology, geochemistry, petrography, XRD, trace elements analyses and U/Th datings. Finally, so as to understand the link between flow and tectonic histories of the reservoir-seal-fault systems, we integrate the analytical and the structural data set. This last step allows to propose a precise chronology and history of the fluid leakage in this western part of the Colorado Plateau, from Jurassic to present day. These combined technical methodologies represents a great tool to understand the leaking, and remediation processes, to characterize the variation through time and space of the fault activity and finally to evaluate the lost volume from reservoirs along a major fault system.

Frery, E.; Ellouz, N.; Gratier, J.; Deschamps, P.

2011-12-01

286

77 FR 73976 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project AGENCY: Forest...Environmental Impact Statement for the Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project. The Red River Ranger District of the Nez Perce-...

2012-12-12

287

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

1976-01-01

288

Diagnosing CMOS bridging faults with stuck-at fault dictionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the traditional approach to diagnosing stuck-at faults with fault dictionaries generated for stuck-at faults is not appropriate for diagnosing CMOS bridging faults. A novel technique for using stuck-at-fault dictionaries to diagnose bridging faults is described. Teradyne's LASAR was used to simulate bridging and stuck-at faults in a number of combinational circuits, including parity trees, multiplexers, and

Steven D. Millman; Edward J. McCluskey; John M. Acken

1990-01-01

289

Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1–2 mm) fault-parallel veins.

W. Ashley Griffith; Stefan Nielsen; Giulio Di Toro; Steven A. F. Smith

2010-01-01

290

PCB cleanup battle wages on in the Hudson River Valley  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River between Troy, NY and Fort Edward, NY has sediments contaminated with polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The author discusses the legal red tape and public opinion problems associated with the clean up of this river.

Nichols, A.B.

1990-07-01

291

INVASION DYNAMICS OF RED SHINERS (CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS) IN SOUTHEASTERN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Red shiners have invaded a range of North American ecosystems, including several southeastern U.S. river drainages. A principle consequence of these invasions is extirpation of native congeners, either through competition or hydridization. We are conducting research to identify...

292

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2012-07-12

293

Physical properties of surface outcrop cataclastic fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a unified analysis of physical properties of cataclastic fault rocks collected from surface exposures of the central Alpine Fault at Gaunt Creek and Waikukupa River, New Zealand. Friction experiments on fault gouge and intact samples of cataclasite were conducted at 30-33 MPa effective normal stress (?n') using a double-direct shear configuration and controlled pore fluid pressure in a true triaxial pressure vessel. Samples from a scarp outcrop on the southwest bank of Gaunt Creek display (1) an increase in fault normal permeability (k = 7.45 × 10-20 m2 to k = 1.15 × 10-16 m2), (2) a transition from frictionally weak (? = 0.44) fault gouge to frictionally strong (? = 0.50-0.55) cataclasite, (3) a change in friction rate dependence (a-b) from solely velocity strengthening, to velocity strengthening and weakening, and (4) an increase in the rate of frictional healing with increasing distance from the footwall fluvioglacial gravels contact. At Gaunt Creek, alteration of the primary clay minerals chlorite and illite/muscovite to smectite, kaolinite, and goethite accompanies an increase in friction coefficient (? = 0.31 to ? = 0.44) and fault-perpendicular permeability (k = 3.10 × 10-20 m2 to k = 7.45 × 10-20 m2). Comminution of frictionally strong (? = 0.51-0.57) cataclasites forms weaker (? = 0.31-0.50) foliated cataclasites and fault gouges with behaviors associated with aseismic creep at low strain rates. Combined with published evidence of large magnitude (Mw ˜ 8) surface ruptures on the Alpine Fault, petrological observations indicate that shear failure involved frictional sliding within previously formed, velocity-strengthening fault gouge.

Boulton, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Toy, V.; Marone, C.

2012-01-01

294

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 15.-Methods of Phase II and III Well Installation and Development and Results of Well Logging, Hydraulic Testing, and Water-Level Measurements in the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2002-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico Environment Department began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north- central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Weathering of hydrothermally altered bedrock in the study area has resulted in steep, highly erosive, and sparsely vegetated scar areas that are clearly visible from the ground and in aerial photographs. Runoff from intense summer rainfall over tributary drainages containing scar areas can transport large quantities of sediment and form debris fans where these tributaries join the Red River. Twenty-nine observation wells were installed in three phases as part of this study in the Red River Valley and tributary drainages. Eight Phase II observation wells were drilled using an air-rotary/hammer rig. Three Phase II and 10 phase III small-diameter wells were installed using a direct-push rig. Lithologic logs were recorded for all eight Phase II drilled wells. Borehole geophysical logging (including natural gamma, induction, and single-detector neutron) was conducted in three Phase II wells. Aquifer tests conducted during 2003 to estimate the hydraulic properties of debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits in and near Straight Creek included a flow-meter survey, slug tests, and a pumping test. Results of a flow-meter survey in well SC-7A indicated that about 77 percent of the water entered the well from a 10-foot-thick zone near the top of the screened interval and about 23 percent of the water entered the well from a 15-foot-thick zone near the bottom of the screened interval. Slug tests, performed in 11 wells during June 3-5, 2003, indicated that the mean and median estimated hydraulic conductivities for debris-flow deposits were 15.25 and 15.35 feet per day, respectively, for bedrock were 0.12 and 0.08 feet per day, respectively, and for mixed debris flow and Red River alluvium were 73-207 (estimated range) and 80 feet per day. In general, bedrock has the smallest hydraulic conductivity, debris-flow material has the next highest hydraulic conductivity, and mixed debris flow and Red River alluvium has the largest hydraulic conductivity. A pumping test conducted December 3-4, 2003, using well AWWT-1 as the pumped well, and wells AWWT-2, SC-5A, SC-5B, SC-7A, and SC-8A as observation wells, indicated estimated transmissivity of 12,000 to 34,000 feet squared per day and estimated hydraulic conductivity of 230 to 340 feet per day. Water-level measurements in wells SC-6A, SC-7A, SC-8A, and the Hottentot, Hansen, and La Bobita wells show that water levels typically rose rapidly during melting of the winter snowpack in the springtime and then generally declined during the rest of the year. The water-level rise in response to spring snowmelt occurred earlier and was smaller at larger distances from the Red River. Differences between the stage in the Red River and water levels in wells SC-8A and SC-9A, and the absence of water in well SC-9A at the time of well completion, indicate that the Red River has a poor hydraulic connection to the underlying ground-water system and the surface-water system is perched above the ground-water system at this site. Water levels in Phase III wells indicate that the Red River and the shallow ground-water system are connected hydraulically from near wells 4-1D and 4-1S downstream to near wells 2-1 and 2-2 but are poorly connected near the La Bobita well and well 1.

Blanchard, Paul J.; Bartolino, James R.; Donohoe, Lisa C.; McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.; Morin, Roger H.

2007-01-01

295

How do we identify big rivers? And how big is big?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Big rivers" are the trunk rivers that carry the water and sediment load from major orogens, or that drain large areas of a continent. Identifying such rivers in the ancient record is a challenge. Some guidance may be provided by tectonic setting and sedimentological evidence, including the scale of architectural elements, and clues from provenance studies, but such data are not infallible guides to river magnitude. The scale of depositional elements is the most obvious clue to channel size, but evidence is typically sparse and inadequate, and may be misleading. For example, thick fining-upward successions may be tectonic cyclothems. Two examples of the analysis of large ancient river systems are discussed here in order to highlight problems of methodology and interpretation. The Hawkesbury Sandstone (Triassic) of the Sydney Basin, Australia, is commonly cited as the deposit of a large river, on the basis of abundant very large-scale crossbedding. An examination of very large outcrops of this unit, including a coastal cliff section 6 km long near Sydney, showed that even with 100% exposure there are ambiguities in the determination of channel scale. It was concluded in this case that the channel dimensions of the Hawkesbury rivers were about half the size of the modern Brahmaputra River. The tectonic setting of a major ancient fluvial system is commonly not a useful clue to river scale. The Hawkesbury Sandstone is a system draining transversely from a cratonic source into a foreland basin, whereas most large rivers in foreland basins flow axially and are derived mainly from the orogenic uplifts (e.g., the large tidally influenced rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta). Epeirogenic tilting of a continent by the dynamic topography process may generate drainages in unexpected directions. For example, analyses of detrital zircons in Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine successions in the SW United States suggests significant derivation from the Appalachian orogen. Many large rivers in SE Asia flow along structural trends generated during the Himalayan orogeny (e.g., Brahmaputra/Jamuna, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Red), but evidence for large channel systems is not always present where it might be expected. For example, in the Gulf of Thailand, up to 8 km of Cenozoic nonmarine sediments have been recorded in fault-bounded basins, but seismic time-slice images of the Pliocene-Holocene section indicate rivers of modest dimensions. The existing major trunk river, the Chao Phraya, which empties into the gulf at Bangkok, may be but a remnant of the Mekong, which was tectonically diverted to its present course at some point during the late Cenozoic.

Miall, Andrew D.

2006-04-01

296

Late Quaternary normal and strike-slip faulting pattern along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008, Ms 8 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured the Longmenshan fault zone for about 280 km long along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Focal solution and field survey have demonstrated that this rupture event is characterized by oblique reverse faulting with dextral strike-slip component, resulting from an eastward push of the Tibetan Plateau. The question how to link this rupture event with the mountain build-up along the eastern marginal zone of the Tibetan Plateau is posing. In this paper, we investigate late Quaternary normal and strike-slip faulting pattern along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Late Quaternary normal faulting has been observed to occur in zones along the N-S trending Anning He river valley, in the Zoige basin, and along the Minjiang fault zone. It is manifested in geomorphology by narrow river valleys that are filled with Late Quaternary fluvial-lacustrine deposits. Normal faults were clearly seen along the Anning He valley and along the Minjiang Upstream, which indicate E-W extension. In the Zoige basin, normal faults strike in N-S, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. These normal faults were active during Middle Pleistocene and become inactive during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The Middle Pleistocene normal faulting could be the consequence of post-orogen collapse following the build-up of the mountains along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Its dynamic origin could be associated either with mantle uplift or with vertical extrusion of the lower crust under this region. Active faulting pattern in eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is different with the Middle Pleistocene normal faulting. Three combinations of active faults can be recognized: a sinistral strike-slip faulting along the Maxing-Maqu and Minshan fault zone; an oblique dextral reverse faulting along the Longmenshan fault zone and a sinistral strike-slip faulting along the Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone. Each combination of active faults has been investigated in detail in terms of slip rate and paleoseismicity. The sinistral strike-slip Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone accommodated a clockwise rotation of the block, which seems to be loaded by lower crust flow. The sinistral strike-slip Maxing-Maqu- Minshan fault zone represents the eastward termination of the East Kunlun fault zone, and its slip rate decreases obviously. Oblique dextral reverse faulting along the Longmenshan fault zone seems to be partitioned into three major faults: dextral slip along the back Longmenshan fault, oblique dextral reverse slip long the central Longmenshan fault and reverse slip along the frontal Longmenshan fault. These active faulting systems are interacted each other, and their propagation affects the seismicity in this region.

Zhang, Y.; Li, H.; Li, J.

2009-12-01

297

Accelerated Fault Simulation and Fault Grading in Combinational Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of fault simulation and fault grading are introduced by a general description of the problem. Based upon the well-known concept of restricting fault simulation to the fanout stems and of combining it with a backward traversal inside the fanout-free regions of the circuit, proposals are presented to further accelerate fault simulation and fault grading. These proposals aim at

Kurt Antreich; Michael H. Schulz

1987-01-01

298

On the Emulation of Software Faults by Software Fault Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the emulation of software faults by fault injection. In a first experiment, a set of real software faults has been compared with faults injected by a SWIFI tool (Xception) to evaluate the accuracy of the injected faults. Results revealed the limitations of Xception (and other SWIFI tools) in the emulation of different classes

Henrique Madeira; Diamantino Costa; Marco Vieira

2000-01-01

299

Seeing Red  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

2008-01-01

300

It's Not Your Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn about tectonic plate movement. They will discover that we can measure the relative motions of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault. Students will be able to compare and contrast movements on either side of the San Andreas Fault, calculate the amount of movement of a tectonic plate over a period of time, and describe the processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes along the fault.

301

How Faults Shape the Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1992-01-01

302

Analysis of fault traps  

SciTech Connect

Unfaulted four-way-dip closures are the simplest and most attractive hydrocarbon traps. A single sealing lithology can provide both top and lateral seals. Seal risks are minimized with unfaulted four-way-dip closures. Unfortunately, most large four-way-drip closures have already been drilled, particularly in mature areas such as the US Gulf Coast. Exceptions may exist in deep water, at great depth, or in areas with significant lateral velocity variations, but for the most part, explorationists working mature areas are looking for either fault traps or stratigraphic traps. This article focuses on extensional fault systems, although many of the observations are applicable to compressional and strike-slip faulting. The following topics are discussed: mapping faults including discussions on the aliasing problem, fault shape, 3-D data, en echelon faults and the coherence cube; a general discussion of fault traps; juxtaposition traps and the use of ``Allan sections;`` and fault-sealing traps and the three mechanisms that cause fault-zone capillary properties to differ from unfaulted rock -- clay smear, grain crushing and diagenesis.

Brenneke, J.C. [Subsurface Consultants and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

303

THE MIDDLE SACRAMENTO RIVER: HUMAN IMPACTS ON PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES ALONG A MEANDERING RIVER 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native plant and wildlife communities along Northern California's middle Sacramento River (Red Bluff to Colusa) originally adapted to a changing pat- tern of erosion and deposition across a broad meander belt. The erosion-deposition process was in balance, with the river alternately building and eroding terraces. Human-induced changes to the Sacramento River, in- cluding bank protection, gravel mining, pollution, ripar- ian

Koll Buer; Dave Forwalter; Mike Kissel; Bill Stohler

1989-01-01

304

Association of the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summervile with a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system and triple-fault junctions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-reflection data were integrated with other geophysical, geologic, and seismicity data to better determine the location and nature of buried faults in the Charleston, South Carolina, region. Our results indicate that the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summerville are related to local stresses caused by a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system (ECFS) and two triple-fault junctions. One triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northwest-trending Ashley River fault with the two segments of the ECFS north and south of the bend. The other triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northeast-trending Summerville fault and a newly discovered northwest-trending Berkeley fault with the ECFS about 10 km north of the bend. The Summerville fault is a northwest-dipping border fault of the Triassic-age Jedburg basin that is undergoing reverse-style reactivation. This reverse-style reactivation is unusual because the Summerville fault parallels the regional stress field axis, suggesting that the reactivation is from stresses applied by dextral motion on the ECFS. The southwest-dip and reverse-type motion of the Berkeley fault are interpreted from seismicity data and a seismic-reflection profile in the western part of the study area. Our results also indicate that the East Coast fault system is a Paleozoic basement fault and that its reactivation since early Mesozoic time has fractured through the overlying allochthonous terranes.

Marple, R.; Miller, R.

2006-01-01

305

Deriving fault-slip histories to test for secular variation in slip, with examples from the Kunlun and Awatere faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although offset and age data from displaced landforms are essential for identifying earthquake clusters and thus testing whether faults slip at uniform or secularly varying rates, it is not clear how the uncertainties in such measurements should be propagated so as to yield a robust fault-slip history (i.e., record of fault displacement over time). Here we develop a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the distribution of geologically reasonable fault-slip histories that fit the offset and age data from a population of dated and displaced landforms. The model assumes that the landforms share common faulting histories, the offset and age constraints are correct, and the fault has not reversed shear sense. Analysis of the model results yields both a precise average slip rate, in the case where a linear fit is applied to the data, and a best-fit fault-slip history, in the case where the linear constraint is removed. The method can be used to test for secular variation in slip because the uncertainty on this best-fit history is quantified. By applying the method to previously published morphochronologic data from faulted late Quaternary terrace risers along the Kunlun fault in China and the Awatere fault in New Zealand, we have assessed the extent to which our modeled average slip rates match previously reported values and the data support previous interpretations of uniform slip rate. The Kunlun data set yields average slip rates of 8.7 + 3.6/-2.1 mm/yr and 5.1 + 1.6/-1.2 mm/yr (68.27% confidence), for the central and eastern reaches of the fault, respectively, both of which match previously published slip rates. Our analysis further indicates that these fault reaches have both slipped uniformly over the latest Quaternary. In contrast, analysis of data from the Saxton River site along the Awatere fault reveals a mid-Holocene deceleration in slip rate from 6.2 + 1.6/-1.4 mm/yr to 2.8 + 1.0/-0.6 mm/yr. This result contradicts previous interpretations of uniform slip along the Awatere fault. The Monte Carlo method we present here for quantifying fault-slip histories using the offset and age data from a population of faulted landforms provides an important tool for distinguishing temporally uniform from secularly varying fault slip.

Gold, Ryan D.; Cowgill, Eric

2011-01-01

306

Structural Interpretation of extensional Deformation along the Dali Fault System, Southeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dali fault system is a prominent active tectonic feature along the southeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, developed between the Three River fold belt and the South China block. It includes three main strands bending eastward, from east to west—the Chenghai, Heqing, and Heihuijiang faults. Quaternary deformation along these strands involves both left-lateral strike slip and normal dip slip.

Fan Chun; Wang Gang; Wang Shifeng; erchie Wang

2006-01-01

307

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

308

Denali Fault: Susitna Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Helicopters and satellite phones were integral to the geologic field response. Here, Peter Haeussler is calling a seismologist to pass along the discovery of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault. View is to the north up the Susitna Glacier. The Denali fault trace lies in the background where the two lan...

2008-12-15

309

Folds and Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how rock layers are folded and faulted and how to represent these structures in maps and cross sections. They will use playdough to represent layers of rock and make cuts in varying orientations to represent faults and other structures.

310

Fault tree handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

1981-01-01

311

Fault rocks lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is intended to give students some hands on experience looking at fault rocks with a suite of cataclasites and mylonites I have collected. The focus is on identifying key textural features in both hand sample and thin section and understanding how deformation within a fault zone varies with depth.

Singleton, John

312

SFT: scalable fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency---requiring

Fabrizio Petrini; Jarek Nieplocha; Vinod Tipparaju

2006-01-01

313

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

314

Palaeoseismology of the L'Aquila faults (central Italy, 2009, Mw 6.3 earthquake): implications for active fault linkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urgent urban-planning problems related to the 2009 April, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake prompted immediate excavation of palaeoseismological trenches across the active faults bordering the Aterno river valley; namely, the Mt. Marine, Mt. Pettino and Paganica faults. Cross-cutting correlations amongst existing and new trenches that were strengthened by radiocarbon ages and archaeological constraints show unambiguously that these three investigated structures have been active since the Last Glacial Maximum period, as seen by the metric offset that affected the whole slope/alluvial sedimentary succession up to the historical deposits. Moreover, in agreement with both 18th century accounts and previous palaeoseismological data, we can affirm now that these faults were responsible for the catastrophic 1703 February 2, earthquake (Mw 6.7). The data indicate that the Paganica-San Demetrio fault system has ruptured in the past both together with the conterminous Mt. Pettino-Mt. Marine fault system, along more than 30 km and causing an Mw 6.7 earthquake, and on its own, along ca. 19 km, as in the recent 2009 event and in the similar 1461 AD event. This behaviour of the L'Aquila faults has important implications in terms of seismic hazard assessment, while it also casts new light on the ongoing fault linkage processes amongst these L'Aquila faults.

Galli, Paolo A. C.; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Peronace, Edoardo; Zuppi, Giovanni Maria

2011-12-01

315

The Dead Sea Fault and Its Effect on Civilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea fault (DSF) is the most impressive tectonic feature in the Middle East. It is a plate boundary, which transfers sea floor spreading in the Red Sea to the Taurus collision zone in Turkey. The DSF has influenced many aspects of this region, including seismicity and ground water availability. It may have even affected the course of human evolution. Numerous geophysical and geological studies of the Dead Sea fault provide insight into its structure and evolution. Crustal structure studies have shown that the crust at the fault zone is slightly thinner than that of the regions west and east of it. A transition zone between the lower crust and the Moho under the fault was mapped.

Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Lazar, Michael; Schattner, Uri; Marco, Shmuel

316

Characterization of Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- There are currently three major competing views on the essential geometrical, mechanical, and mathematical nature of faults. The standard view is that faults are (possibly segmented and heterogeneous) Euclidean zones in a continuum solid. The continuum-Euclidean view is supported by seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic imaging studies; by successful modeling of observed seismic radiation, geodetic data, and changes in seismicity patterns; by detailed field studies of earthquake rupture zones and exhumed faults; and by recent high resolution hypocenter distributions along several faults. The second view focuses on granular aspects of fault structures and deformation fields. The granular view is supported by observations of rock particles in fault zone gouge; by studies of block rotations and the mosaic structure of the lithosphere (which includes the overall geometry of plate tectonics); by concentration of deformation signals along block boundaries; by correlation of seismicity patterns on scales several times larger than those compatible with a continuum framework; and by strongly heterogeneous wave propagation effects on the earth's surface. The third view is that faults are fractal objects with rough surfaces and branching geometry. The fractal view is supported by some statistical analysis of regional hypocenter locations; by long-range correlation of various measurements in geophysical boreholes; by the fact that observed power-law statistics of earthquakes are compatible with an underlying scale-invariant geometrical structure; by geometrical analysis of fault traces at the earth's surface; and by measurements of joint and fault surfaces topography.There are several overlaps between expected phenomenology in continuum-Euclidean, granular, and fractal frameworks of crustal deformation. As examples, highly heterogeneous seismic wavefields can be generated by granular media, by fractal structures, and by ground motion amplification around and scattering from an ensemble of Euclidean fault zones. A hierarchical granular structure may have fractal geometry. Power-law statistics of earthquakes can be generated by slip on one or more heterogeneous planar faults, by a fractal collection of faults, and by deformation of granular material. Each of the three frameworks can produce complex spatio-temporal patterns of earthquakes and faults. At present the existing data cannot distinguish unequivocally between the three different views on the nature of fault zones or determine their scale of relevance. However, in each observational category, the highest resolution results associated with mature large-displacement faults are compatible with the standard continuum-Euclidean framework. This can be explained by a positive feedback mechanism associated with strain weakening rheology and localization, which attracts the long-term evolution of faults toward progressive regularization and Euclidean geometry. A negative feedback mechanism associated with strain hardening during initial deformation phases and around persisting geometrical irregularities and conjugate sets of faults generates new fractures and granularity at different scales. We conclude that long-term deformation in the crust, including many aspects of the observed spatio-temporal complexity of earthquakes and faults, may be explained to first order within the continuum-Euclidean framework.

Ben-Zion, Y.; Sammis, C. G.

317

Post-Pennsylvanian reactivation along the Washita Valley fault, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Surface exposures of faults of the Washita Valley fault (WVF) system in Garvin, Murray, Carter, and Johnston counties of southern Oklahoma were studied to determine if there has been post-Pennsylvanian fault reactivation and to determine if there has been any Quaternary fault movement. This was undertaken through field mapping, by dating alluvium which overlies the faults, and by logging trenches excavated across the WVF. In northern Murray County and southern Garvin County (site A), the WVF displaces Late-Pennsylvanian Oscar Group showing post-Pennsylvanian movement; however, no faulting was observed in 2000 year old alluvium of Wildhorse Creek along strike of the WVF. Three sites (B, C, and D) are located within the Arbuckle Mountains. Faulting of Virgilian age Vanoss Conglomerate and Vanoss Shale reveal post-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) activity along a subsidiary fault in northern Murray County (site B). A 12000 to 15000 year old terrace at this site is unfaulted. Absence of any fault related features in paleosols which overly the WVF along the Washita River (site C) show that the fault has not been active during the last 1570 /+-/ 190 years in southern Murray County. Similarly, absence of any fault related features along Oil Creek (site D) indicates that the WVF has not been active during the last 1810 /+-/ 80 years in northern Carter and Johnston Counties. Faults in the Antlers Sandstone in southern Johnston County (site E) reveal post-Lower Cretaceous reactivation of the WVF. 49 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

VanArsdale, R.; Ward, C.; Cox, R.

1989-06-01

318

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-02-01

319

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

320

Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

D. P. McKenzie; D. Davies; P. MOLNAR

1970-01-01

321

Seismic site characterization for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shot points along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as preliminary imaging results will be presented. The high-quality data show various indicators of the Alpine Fault such as strong reflections and distorted first-arrival wavefields which are clearly visible already in single shot gathers. With the help of high resolution seismic images we can study the shallow structures of the subsurface thus gaining information about the location and dip of reflectors. Further detailed processing and intensive interpretative work will enable a seismic site characterization providing important information for the selection of the borehole location. Additionally the high resolution seismic images themselves allow a better understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic settings.

Glomb, Vera; Buske, Stefan; Kovacs, Adrienn; Gorman, Andrew

2013-04-01

322

Behavioral-level fault simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to fault simulation is presented in which behavioral fault models represent complex failures in VLSI designs. Errors are deliberately introduced into the description of a design that contains no faults. These errors can be fault values of variables that represent state or timing parameters, a faulty description that is substituted for part of the good description, or a

SUMIT GHOSH

1988-01-01

323

VSC transmission control under faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the VSC (voltage source converter) transmission control for fault conditions. A small-signal VSC transmission controller considers only small deviations around steady state and in case of faults there would be large overvoltages and overcurrents. An additional fault controller is introduced to reduce transient overvoltages and overcurrents which occur in case of faults. Parallel configuration is used in

L. A. Lamont; D. Jovcic; K. Abbott

2004-01-01

324

Faults and Folds Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation explores the forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. You will learn how landmasses move, see the resulting deformation, and learn how this deformation relates to plate tectonics.

2002-01-01

325

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

326

Tolerance to Unbounded Byzantine Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal approach to deal with faults in large-scale distributed systems is to contain the effects of faults as locally as possible and, additionally, to ensure some type of tolerance within each fault-affected locality. Existing results using this approach accommodate only limited faults (such as crashes) or assume that fault occurrence is bounded in space and\\/or time. In this paper,

Mikhail Nesterenko; Anish Arora

2002-01-01

327

Fault tolerant magnetic bearings  

SciTech Connect

A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Aimone, R.J. [Mobile Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1999-07-01

328

Distributed deformation around the eastern tip of the Kunlun fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether active strain within the Indo-Asian collision zone is primarily localized along major strike-slip fault systems or is distributed throughout the intervening crust between faults remains uncertain. Despite refined estimates of slip rates along many of the major fault zones, relatively little is known about how displacement along these structures is accommodated at fault terminations. Here, we show that a systematic decrease in left-lateral slip rates along the eastern ~200 km of the Kunlun fault, from >10 mm/year to <1 mm/year, is coincident with high topography in the Anyemaqen Shan and with a broad zone of distributed shear and clockwise vorticity within the Tibetan Plateau. Geomorphic analysis of river longitudinal profiles, coupled with inventories of cosmogenic radionuclides in fluvial sediment, reveal correlated variations in fluvial relief and erosion rate across the Anyemaqen Shan that reflect ongoing differential rock uplift across the range. Our results imply that the termination of the Kunlun fault system is accommodated by a combination of distributed crustal thickening and by clockwise rotation of the eastern fault segments.

Kirby, Eric; Harkins, Nathan

2013-03-01

329

Packaged Fault Model for Geometric Segmentation of Active Faults Into Earthquake Source Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the empirical formula proposed by Matsuda (1975) mainly based on the length of the historical surface fault ruptures and magnitude, is generally applied to estimate the size of future earthquakes from the extent of existing active faults for seismic hazard assessment. Therefore validity of the active fault length and defining individual segment boundaries where propagating ruptures terminate are essential and crucial to the reliability for the accurate assessments. It is, however, not likely for us to clearly identify the behavioral earthquake segments from observation of surface faulting during the historical period, because most of the active faults have longer recurrence intervals than 1000 years in Japan. Besides uncertainties of the datasets obtained mainly from fault trenching studies are quite large for fault grouping/segmentation. This is why new methods or criteria should be applied for active fault grouping/segmentation, and one of the candidates may be geometric criterion of active faults. Matsuda (1990) used _gfive kilometer_h as a critical distance for grouping and separation of neighboring active faults. On the other hand, Nakata and Goto (1998) proposed the geometric criteria such as (1) branching features of active fault traces and (2) characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution along the fault traces as tools to predict rupture length of future earthquakes. The branching during the fault rupture propagation is regarded as an effective energy dissipation process and could result in final rupture termination. With respect to the characteristic pattern of vertical-slip distribution, especially with strike-slip components, the up-thrown sides along the faults are, in general, located on the fault blocks in the direction of relative strike-slip. Applying these new geometric criteria to the high-resolution active fault distribution maps, the fault grouping/segmentation could be more practically conducted. We tested this model successfully on the active faults generated the 1943 Tottori earthquake, the Chojagahara-Yoshii fault zone in Chugoku district in southwest Japan, as well as the active fault system in northern Luzon, the Philippines. Thus, we name this conceptual model as _gPackaged Fault Model_h and call the active faults grouped by the model as _gPackaged Faults_h for individual earthquake source faults. Moreover, we come to know that active fault mapping with _gPackaged Fault Model_h in mind enables us to find many new active fault traces (e.g., the Shigenobu fault along the MTL in Japan).

Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.

2004-12-01

330

Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eastern Egypt, the Red Sea and Saudi Arabia can all be seen in this single view of the Near East (26.5N, 36.5E). Not since The Gemini XI photo taken in 1966, have NASA astronauts been able to capture such a scope of the Earth's surface as this mission provided from its 330 nautical mile orbit. Easily seen from this vantage point is eastern Egypt, the Nile River, Lake Nassar, the Red Sea and almost half of Saudi Arabia.

1990-01-01

331

Fault reactivation control on normal fault growth: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies frequently emphasize how fault reactivation is involved in the deformation of the upper crust. However, this phenomenon is generally neglected (except in inversion models) in analogue and numerical models performed to study fault network growth. Using sand/silicon analogue models, we show how pre-existing discontinuities can control the geometry and evolution of a younger fault network. The models show that the reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities and their orientation control: (i) the evolution of the main fault orientation distribution through time, (ii) the geometry of relay fault zones, (iii) the geometry of small scale faulting, and (iv) the geometry and location of fault-controlled basins and depocenters. These results are in good agreement with natural fault networks observed in both the Gulf of Suez and Lake Tanganyika. They demonstrate that heterogeneities such as pre-existing faults should be included in models designed to understand the behavior and the tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Daniel, Jean Marc

2005-04-01

332

Seismic characteristics and kinematic models of Makkah and central Red Sea regions, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makkah and central Red Sea regions have been re-evaluated from recent earthquake data analysis. Epicenters of recent seismic activity are concentrated in three local seismic zones. These are: Ad Damm Fault (NE), Nu'man-Makkah-Fattim (NW) and Jiddah-Red Sea (NW) seismic zones. Moreover, an extended seismic zone along the central part of Red Sea is observed. Most of these epicenters are distributed along tectonic faults, as indicated from the subsurface structure analysis of the aeromagnetic anomaly map. Some epicenters of small magnitudes are inaccurately located The study indicates the existence of large active structural basin south of Makkah region which traverse Ad Damm fault zone with the Red Sea transform faults.Slip vector analyses were carried out for 50 available earthquake focal mechanisms around Makkah region. In Nu'man, Makkah and Fatima structural zones, the slip vectors generally trending NW and NNW. However, in the southern part at the Ad Dam structure zone the slip vector trending NE-SW. These may result from the current complicated drifting motion of Arabian plate away from African plate combined with the opening of the Red Sea Rift. Keywords: Red Sea, Makkah, Fault plane solutions, slip vectors.

Al-Saud, Mashael M.

2009-04-01

333

Northern Arm Fault and the location of the Appalachian ocean suture in Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The Northern Arm Fault is a major crustal fracture which separates the Exploits and Botwood tectonostratigraphic zones of central Newfoundland. Several authors have correlated it with the Reach Fault to the north, and the Noels Paul Line and Cape Ray Fault to the south. Because this fault system was suggested to separate vastly different faunal provinces it has often been regarded as the suture zone marking the place where the Appalachian (alias Iapetus) Ocean finally closed during the Acadian Orogeny. The Northern Arm Fault was structurally analyzed at Northern Arm, Bay of Exploits, using: (1) fracture surface orientations; (2) slickenline stria; (3) fault gouge foliations and; (4) extensional vein orientations. Orientations and characteristics of these structures were found to be compatible with right-lateral motion along the Northern Arm Fault. A regional geologic synthesis suggests that this dextral fault system does not mark the location of the Appalachian Ocean suture but, rather, represents a major wrench fault possibly developed, within a zone of oblique convergence, prior to the Acadian Orogeny. The distribution of sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Botwood Group) in a basin to the east of the Northern Arm Fault suggests that they were deposited in a pull-apart basin during late-Silurian movement along this fault system; however, some motion occurred again during the Devonian. The Appalachian Ocean suture must therefore lie further to the east, possibly along the Gander River - Carmanville melange belt.

Kusky, T.M.; Poissant, S.A.

1985-01-01

334

Thermochronological investigation of fault zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of faulting episodes can be constrained by radiometric dating of fault-zone rocks. Fault-zone material suitable for dating is produced by tectonic processes, such as (1) fragmentation of host rocks, followed by grain-size reduction and recrystallization to form mica and clay minerals, (2) secondary heating/melting of host rocks by frictional fault motions, and (3) mineral vein formation as a result of fluid advection associated with the fault motions. The thermal regime of fault zones consists primarily of the following three factors: (a) regional geothermal structure across the fault zone and background thermal history of studied province bounded by fault systems, (b) frictional heating of wall rocks by fault motions, and (c) heating of host rocks by hot fluid advection in and around the fault zone. Thermochronological methods widely applied in fault zones are K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar), fission-track, and U-Th methods, for which methodological principles as well as analytical procedures are briefly described. The thermal sensitivities of individual thermochronological systems are then reviewed, which critically control the response of each method against the thermal processes. Based on the knowledge above, representative examples as well as key issues are highlighted to date fault gouges, pseudotachylytes, mylonites and carbonate veins, placing new constraints upon geological, geomorphological and seismological frames. Finally, the Nojima Fault is presented as an example for multiple applications of thermochronological methods in a complex fault zone.

Tagami, Takahiro

2012-05-01

335

The Nile River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

336

Mariculture of Red Seaweeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As new applications for using red seaweed have developed, the demand for red seaweed has increased, to the point where commercial harvesting techniques now need to be developed to lessen dependence on wild seaweed stocks. The history of red seaweed use as...

J. E. Hansen J. E. Packard W. T. Doyle

1981-01-01

337

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) is a small bird measuring about 7 inches in length. Identifiable by its white cheek patch and black and white barred back, the males have a few red feathers, or cockade. These red feathers usually remain hidden underneath...

2002-01-01

338

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

339

3-D mapping of segmented active faults in the Vienna Basin from integrated geophysical, geomorphological and geological data: building up an active fault database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vienna Basin basin formed as a Miocene pull-apart basin along a sinistral transform system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. Moderate seismicity in the southern Vienna Basin as well as thick Quaternary deposits in the center of the basin prove that part of the faults within the Miocene basin are active today. However, nearly no systematical data exist on the positions, segmentation, and geometry of active faults, which yield important input parameters for seismic hazard evaluations. Spatial mapping of active faults and kinematical analyses are based on 3-D reflection seismic data by OMV Austria, geomorphological features such as tilted Quaternary river terraces and fault scarps, the geometry of Quaternary basins, and published geodetic data. Interpretation of combined data sets are summarized in a map and an active fault catalog of for future seismic hazard evaluations. The map reveals two regions with different types of Quaternary and active faults. (A) The southern part of the Vienna Basin reveals a seismically active NE-striking sinistral strike-slip fault with a large negative flower structure. Recent activity of the flower structure is documented by the accumulation of up to 150 m thick Quaternary gravels. The Quaternary basin is limited by faults, depicted by 3-D seismics and near surface geophysics (Gegenleitner et al, 2003, this volume). At the surface, a prominent morphological scarp parallels the fault traces mapped from the 3-D seismic. (B) The western and central part of the Vienna Basin is characterized by major listric E-dipping normal faults branching off from the strike-slip fault system, which is localized in the seismically active area at the eastern border of the Basin. Deformation is partitioned on several normal faults via a common detachment horizon. These faults kinematically link up with the strike-slip fault system. At the surface normal faulting is documented by tilted Quaternary terraces of the Danube caused by the hangingwall collapse above listric faults. Major branch points are marked by changes in the geomorphological expression and Quaternary basin architecture, indicating a segmentation of the main fault along strike. We propose that at least one major mapped branch point coincide with a seismogenic segment-boundary at depth. This interpretation is supported by hypocenters clustering near the two adjacent fault segments mapped in the 3-D seismic survey. However, not all major branch points are presently defined well enough to allow an assessment of fault segment surfaces for the calculation of earthquake magnitudes.

Hinsch, R.; Decker, K.

2003-04-01

340

Fly Up the Hudson River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows the western end of Long Island, New York City, the New Jersey shore, and the mouth of the Hudson River. The imagery is Landsat Thematic Mapper data using the shortwave infrared, red, and green channels. Terrain information comes from the USGS Digital Elevation Map data.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

341

M. Gordon “Reds” Wolman (1924-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M. Gordon Wolman, known to all as “Reds,” died at his home in Baltimore, Md., on 24 February 2010. He was 85. His career was defined by fundamental contributions to scientists' understanding of rivers, pioneering work in developing interdisciplinary environmental education, and an extraordinary commitment to the application of research to water management and policy. His warmth, affection, and delight inspired generations of students, colleagues, and friends.

Wilcock, Peter

2010-08-01

342

The main features of morphostructure of the transregional Amur-Songhua-Huanghe fault zone in east Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperative Russian-Chinese morphostructural investigations have been carried out during the last several years along\\u000a the transregional fault zone—Amur-Songhua-Huanghe Lineament, which is stretching from the lower Huanghe (Yellow) River across\\u000a the Bohai Sea to Liaohe-Songhua and further along the lower Amur River to North Sakhalin (more than 3000 km). It is the wide\\u000a fault zone (some hundred km) that has

A. P. Kulakov; E. A. Miasnikov; S. M. Tashchi; Shanwen Qiu; Huachang Zhao; Qusheng Li

1997-01-01

343

Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

344

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

345

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

2008-06-13

346

An Empirical Comparison of Software Fault Tolerance and Fault Elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared two major approaches to the improvement of software-software fault elimination and software fault tolerance-by examination of the fault detection (and tolerance, where applicable) of five techniques: run-time assertions, multiversion voting, functional testing augmented by structural testing, code reading by stepwise abstraction, and static data-flow analysis. The focus was on characterizing the sets of faults detected by the

Timothy J. Shimeall; Nancy G. Leveson

1991-01-01

347

The Philippine wrench fault system in the Ilocos Foothills, northwestern Luzon, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luzon is part of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro mobile belt which marks the plate boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. On Luzon, the Philippine Fault runs parallel to the Philippine archipelago for more than 1300 km, and is an active, left-lateral, strike-slip fault which forms a braided system. Detailed field mapping together with structural and biostratigraphic analysis have been conducted in the Ilocos Foothills, on the western flank of the Central Cordillera Cenozoic magmatic arc. This area, on the northwestern tip of Luzon, appears to consist of three large tectonic units which are continuous for more than 200 km and bounded by major left-lateral strike-slip faults related to the Philippine Fault. From west to east these units are as follows: (1) the Vigan-Laoag Coastal Strip (VLCS) consists of an ultramafic basement which is strongly tectonized and unconformably overlain by a relatively undeformed Middle Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary cover. (2) The Vintar Median Strip (VMS) is bounded to the west by the Vigan-Aggao wrench fault which upthrusts westwards, and to the east by the Abra River strike-slip fault. This unit is composed of a thick (6-10 km) Late Eocene to Pliocene volcaniclastic sequence deposited in a basin which was fed mainly by the Central Cordillera but also, until the early Miocene, by an ultramafic high composed of the VLCS basement; this sequence is strongly folded. (3) The Eastern Strip (ES) is a Late Eocene to Miocene volcaniclastic sequence intruded by Oligocene and Miocene rocks. This structural pattern results from two major tectonic episodes: (1) The late Middle to Late Miocene episode comprises the Abra River strike-slip faulting. This is characterized by the folding of a 20 km wide band and by the creation of a ridge (transverse to the tectonic strips) related to the Abra River Fault restraining bend. This ridge seems to have absorbed the compressive deformation, whereas the strike-slip component was accommodated by the nearly pure strike-slip faulting along the Abra River Fault. (2) The Pliocene(?) to Quaternary episode involved strike-slip activity propagating westward from the Abra River Fault (relatively inactive during this phase) to the Vigan-Aggao wrench fault. The Vigan-Aggao Fault is located at the boundary between an ultramafic palaeo high (highly deformed Mesozoic ophiolite) and a palaeobasin filled with a thick Late Eocene to Miocene sedimentary sequence. This particular location seems to attest to the recent use of an older major tectonic feature.

Pinet, Nicolas; Stephan, Jean François

1990-11-01

348

The application of Skylab imagery to analysis of fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Frame 114 of the Salton Sea area was studied in all bands to analyze the appearance of important faults. These faults were also studied in the field as well as from aircraft and in aerial photography. The San Andreas/Banning and the Mission Creek faults can be traced across Coachella Valley even though they are buried by alluvium. The faults form ground water barriers and the near surface ground water on the northeast sides of the faults supports patches of vegetation (mesquite and palms) in an otherwise barren desert. These oases are best seen in band 3 (color IR). Otherwise, faults are best seen in band 4 (aerial color). Of the B and W bands, 5 (red) is best for delineating faults. Bands 1 and 2 are excessively grainy and the resolution is considerably inferior to the other bands.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

349

Computer hardware fault administration  

DOEpatents

Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Megerian, Mark G. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

2010-09-14

350

Ius Chasma Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-415, 8 July 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 'text-book example' of an offset in layered rock caused by a fault. The offset is most easily seen near the upper right of the image. The martian crust is faulted, and the planet has probably experienced 'earthquakes' (or, marsquakes) in the past. This scene is located on the floor of Ius Chasma near 7.8oS, 80.6oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2003-01-01

351

Newly found Tunglo Active Fault System in the fold and thrust belt in northwestern Taiwan deduced from deformed terraces and its tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found active faults in the fold and thrust belt between Tunglo town and the Tachia River in northwestern Taiwan. The surface rupture occurred in 1999 and 1935 nearby the study area, but no historical surface rupture is recorded in this area, suggesting that the seismic energy has been accumulated during the recent time. Deformed fluvial terraces aid in understanding late Quaternary tectonics in this tectonically active area. This area contains newly identified faults that we group as the Tunglo Fault System, which formed after the area's oldest fluvial terrace and appears at least 16 km long in roughly N-S orientation. Its progressive deformations are all recorded in associated terraces developed during the middle to late Quaternary. In the north, the system consists of two subparallel active faults, the Tunglo Fault and Tunglo East Fault, striking N-S and facing each other from opposite sides of the northward flowing Hsihu River, whose course may be controlled by interactions of above-mentioned two active faults. The northern part of the Tunglo Fault, to the west of the river, is a reverse fault with upthrown side on the west; conversely the Tunglo East Fault, to the east, is also a reverse fault, but with upthrown side on the east. Both faults are marked by a flexural scarp or eastward tilting of fluvial terraces. Considering a Quaternary syncline lies subparallel to the east of this fault system, the Tunglo Fault might be originated as a bending moment fault and the Tunglo East Fault as a flexural slip fault. However, they have developed as obvious reverse faults, which have progressive deformation under E-W compressive stress field of Taiwan. Farther south, a west-facing high scarp, the Tunglo South Fault, strikes NNE-SSW, oblique to the region's E-W direction of compression. Probably due to the strain partitioning, the Tunglo South Fault generates en echelon, elongated ridges and swales to accommodate right-lateral strike-slip displacement. Other structures in the area include eastward-striking portion of the Sanyi Fault, which has no evidence for late Quaternary surface rupture on this fault; perhaps slip on this part of Sanyi Fault ceased when the Tunglo Fault System became active.

Ota, Yoko; Lin, Yu-nong Nina; Chen, Yue-Gau; Chang, Hui-Cheng; Hung, Jih-Hao

2006-05-01

352

Fault Rate Acceleration and Low Angle Normal Faulting: The Hunter Mountain Fault, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panamint Valley, Hunter Mountain, Saline Range (PHS) faults are, together with the Death Valley and Owens Valley faults, one of the three major fault zones within the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). The ECSZ is the most active fault system bounding the Basin and Range to the southwest with approximately 10 mm/yr of cumulative slip along strike-slip and trans-tensional segments. Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a geodetic technique that allows measurement of ground motion at a mm/yr accuracy over large areas with a high measurement sampling. We processed a large number of data to investigate ground motion in the PHS fault system to shed light on the interseismic strain accumulation and its relation to the fault geometry. Results indicate high strain rate over the Hunter Mountain fault, possibly showing slip rate acceleration of the fault since inception time. The locking depth of the fault inferred from elastic modeling of interseismic strain accumulation is on the order of a few kilometers, significantly shallower than for neighboring faults. The shallow locking depth inferred for the Hunter Mountain fault corresponds to the extension at depth of two suggested bounding low angle normal faults. This finding reinforced recent field study findings about possible activity of the low angle normal fault system.

Gourmelen, N.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.; Manzo, M.; Casu, F.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

2008-05-01

353

Impacts of Fault Geometry on Fault System Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexity in earthquake populations arises primarily due to two components: friction and fault geometry. We present preliminary investigations into contributions to event population complexity due to fault geometry variation. In one key application, we investigate probabilities of events continuing along multiple, en echelon fault segments in both compressional and extensional regimes as a function of distance between the segments and segment overlap. These and other results are produced in the course of developing the extended finite element method, XFEM (e.g. [Dolbow, Moes, and Belytschko, 2001]), for static, quasistatic, and dynamic rupture problems on complicated fault networks. This method, part of a broader class of mesh-free methods, allow faults to be included nearly arbitrarily in a simulation, enabling many simulations with varying fault geometries to be conducted with minimal remeshing. We introduce the enforcement of failure criteria in dynamic rupture problems and test the method through a series of two-dimensional static and dynamic benchmarks. We also introduce a novel, ``two and a half-dimensional'' formulation, where two-dimensional plates intersect at faults that include a dip parameter which can vary along-strike. This enables us to model fault systems with strike-slip, thrust, normal, and mixed-mode faults. To demonstrate this capability, we examine fault systems composed of faults taken from the SCEC Community Fault Model Surface Traces. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the XFEM for both static and dynamic rupture problems. Furthermore, we demonstrate usage of the XFEM in studies with uncertain fault geometry, and enable new studies of fault system behaviors due to fault geometry.

Coon, E. T.; Shaw, B. E.; Spiegelman, M. W.

2009-12-01

354

River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

2012-04-01

355

Geology Fieldnotes: Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information on the Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve in Alaska, including geology, visitor information, photographs, and links to further resources. The Yukon is a large river flowing along a fault through Alaska, and the Charley is a major tributary flowing into it. Some gold rush history is discussed, as well as wildlife and vegetation.

356

Fault Detection in Routing Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routing protocol faults cause problems ranging from an inability to communicate to excessive routing overhead. This paper proposes a system for detecting a wide range of routing protocol faults. Our system deploys virtual routers called RouteMonitors to monitor a routing protocol. We de- ployed RouteMonitors in the MBone's DVMRP infrastruc- ture and uncovered a number of faults. We were also

Daniel Massey; Bill Fenner

1999-01-01

357

Improving fault handling software techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the new software library supporting development of the fault-robust applications. The main goals of the proposed software hardening mechanisms are: usage simplicity for the programmer, independence from the development tool, effectiveness in terms of fault coverage, low static and dynamic overheads. The paper describes implemented software mechanisms and discusses their effectiveness verified with fault injection experiments.

Piotr Gawkowski; Tomasz Rutkowski; Janusz Sosnowski

2010-01-01

358

Modelling the Fault Correction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, software reliability models have focused on modeling and predicting failure occurrence and have not given equal priority to modeling the fault correction process. However, there is a need for fault correction prediction, because there are important applications that fault correction modeling and prediction support. These are the following: predicting whether reliability goals have been achieved, developing stopping rules

Norman F. Schneidewind

2001-01-01

359

Fault testing quantum switching circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test pattern generation is an electronic design automation tool that attempts to find an input (or test) sequence that, when applied to a digital circuit, enables one to distinguish between the correct circuit behavior and the faulty behavior caused by particular faults. The effectiveness of this classical method is measured by the fault coverage achieved for the fault model and

Jacob Biamonte; Marek Perkowski

2005-01-01

360

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2010-02-23

361

Fault tolerant anonymous channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous anonymous channels, called MIX nets, do not workif one center stops. This paper shows new anonymous channels which allowless than a half of faulty centers. A fault tolerant multivalued electionscheme is obtained automatically. A very efficient ZKIP for the centersis also presented.

Wakaha Ogata; Kaoru Kurosawa; Kazue Sako; Kazunori Takatani

1997-01-01

362

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN) [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN) [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN) [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN) [Rochester, MN

2008-10-14

363

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2012-02-07

364

Formal Fault Tree Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In train control systems, more and more (electro-)mechanical devices are substituted by software based devices. To sustain the high level safety standards for these embedded systems, we propose the integration of fault tree analysis and formal methods. This combines two important safety analysis methods from the involved domains of engineering and software development. Our approach proposes to build a formal

Gerhard Schellhorn; Andreas Thums; Wolfgang Reif Lehrstuhl

2002-01-01

365

Fault isolation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

Dumas, A.

1981-01-01

366

Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting in the NE Mojave Block: Deformation at the southwest boundary of the Walker Lane belt  

SciTech Connect

New structural and stratigraphy data from the NE Mojave Block (NEMB) establish the timing and style of Cenozoic deformation south of the Garlock fault and west of the Avawatz Mts. Unlike adjacent areas, most of the NEMB did not undergo early-mid Miocene extension. Major fault zones strike EW; offset markers and small-scale shear criteria indicate left-lateral strike slip with a small reverse component. Lateral offsets average ca. 1--6 km and vertical offset is locally >200m. Pre-Tertiary markers indicate minimum cumulative sinistral shear of ca. 15 km in the area between the Garlock and Coyote Lake faults. Tertiary strata are deformed together with the older rocks. Along the Ft. Irwin fault, alluvial fan deposits interpreted to be <11Ma appear to be displaced as much as Mesozoic igneous rocks. EW sinistral faults S. of the Garlock fault cut unconsolidated Quaternary deposits; geomorphologic features and trench exposures along segments of the McLean Lake fault and the Tiefort Mt. fault suggest Late Quaternary activity. The EW faults do not cut modern drainages and are not seismically active. NW-striking faults are largely absent within the NEMB; the largest faults bound the domain of EW-striking faults. Offset of Cretaceous and Miocene rocks suggests the W boundary (Goldstone Lake fault) has <2km right separation. Along the E boundary (Soda-Avawatz fault zone), the presence of distinctive clasts in mid-late Miocene conglomerates west of the Avawatz Mts. supports the suggestion of Brady (1984) of ca. 20 km dextral displacement. Other NW-striking faults are cut by EW faults, have unknown or minor dextral displacement (Desert King Spring Fault, Garlic Spring fault) or are low- to moderate-angle left-oblique thrust faults (Red Pass Lake fault zone).

Schermer, E.R. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-04-01

367

Recirculation cells in rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary flow cells are commonly observed in straight laboratory channels, where they have been extensively studied. However, they have not been directly reported in rivers, despite the recent development of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). A possible explanation is the limited spatial resolution of an ADCP, which precludes it from detecting flow structures smaller than the flow depth. Here, we present velocity measurements acquired with an ADCP in a straight reach of the Seine river in Paris, France, where the cross-section is nearly rectangular. Stationary flow cells spanning across the entire river can be evidenced by averaging the velocity measurements over a long enough period. These observations are completed by high-resolution measurements in a small stream with an unidirectional acoustic profiler, which reveal similar flow structures. Although the physical origin of these secondary structures is still a matter of debate, their intensity suffices to impact significantly the distribution of streamwise momentum. We propose a depth-averaged momentum balance to evaluate this impact. The results are then compared to field measurements. Velocity measurements in Seine river. (a) Time-averaged vertical velocity along a transect, at half the flow depth. The red curve is a cosine fitted to get the wavelength and the amplitude. (b) River cross-section at the measurement location. The distance is measured from the middle of the channel.

Chauvet, H.; Devauchelle, O.; Métivier, F.; Lajeunesse, E.

2013-12-01

368

Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

Nason, R.

1979-01-01

369

Fault Scarp Offsets and Fault Population Analysis on Dione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini images of Dione show several fault zones cutting through the moon’s icy surface. We have measured the displacement and length of 271 faults, and estimated the strain occurring in 6 different fault zones. These measurements allow us to quantify the total amount of surface strain on Dione as well as constrain what processes might have caused these faults to form. Though we do not have detailed topography across fault scarps on Dione, we can use their projected size on the camera plane to estimate their heights, assuming a reasonable surface slope. Starting with high resolution images of Dione obtained by the Cassini ISS, we marked points at the top to the bottom of each fault scarp to measure the fault’s projected displacement and its orientation along strike. Line and sample information for the measurements were then processed through ISIS to derive latitude/longitude information and pixel dimensions. We then calculate the three dimensional orientation of a vector running from the bottom to the top of the fault scarp, assuming a 45 degree angle with respect to the surface, and project this vector onto the spacecraft camera plane. This projected vector gives us a correction factor to estimate the actual vertical displacement of the fault scarp. This process was repeated many times for each fault, to show variations of displacement along the length of the fault. To compare each fault to its neighbors and see how strain was accommodated across a population of faults, we divided the faults into fault zones, and created new coordinate systems oriented along the central axis of each fault zone. We could then quantify the amount of fault overlap and add the displacement of overlapping faults to estimate the amount of strain accommodated in each zone. Faults in the southern portion of Padua have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.0097, central Padua exhibits a strain of .032(+/-) 0.012, and faults in northern Padua have a strain of 0.025(+/-) 0.0080. The western faults of Eurotas have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.011, while the eastern faults have a strain of 0.037(+/-) 0.025. Lastly, Clusium has a strain of 0.10 (+/-) 0.029. We also calculated the ratio of maximum fault displacement vs. the length of the faults, and we found this ratio to be 0.019 when drawing a trend line through all the faults that were analyzed. D/L measurements performed on two faults on Europa using stereo topography showed a value of .021 (Nimmo and Schenk 2006), the only other icy satellite where this ratio has been measured. In contrast, faults on Earth has a D/L ratio of about .1 and Mars has a D/L Ratio of about .01 (Schultz et al. 2006).

Tarlow, S.; Collins, G. C.

2010-12-01

370

An empirical comparison of software fault tolerance and fault elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability is an important concern in the development of software for modern systems. Some researchers have hypothesized that particular fault-handling approaches or techniques are so effective that other approaches or techniques are superfluous. The authors have performed a study that compares two major approaches to the improvement of software, software fault elimination and software fault tolerance, by examination of the fault detection obtained by five techniques: run-time assertions, multi-version voting, functional testing augmented by structural testing, code reading by stepwise abstraction, and static data-flow analysis. This study has focused on characterizing the sets of faults detected by the techniques and on characterizing the relationships between these sets of faults. The results of the study show that none of the techniques studied is necessarily redundant to any combination of the others. Further results reveal strengths and weakness in the fault detection by the techniques studied and suggest directions for future research.

Shimeall, Timothy J.; Leveson, Nancy G.

1991-01-01

371