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Sample records for red river fault

  1. DEM Simulated Results And Seismic Interpretation of the Red River Fault Displacements in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, H. T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Song Hong basin is the largest Tertiary sedimentary basin in Viet Nam. Its onset is approximately 32 Ma ago since the left-lateral displacement of the Red River Fault commenced. Many researches on structures, formation and tectonic evolution of the Song Hong basin have been carried out for a long time but there are still remained some problems that needed to put into continuous discussion such as: magnitude of the displacements, magnitude of movement along the faults, the time of tectonic inversion and right lateral displacement. Especially the mechanism of the Song Hong basin formation is still in controversy with many different hypotheses due to the activation of the Red River fault. In this paper PFC2D based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM) was used to simulate the development of the Red River fault system that controlled the development of the Song Hong basin from the onshore to the elongated portion offshore area. The numerical results show the different parts of the stress field such as compress field, non-stress field, pull-apart field of the dynamic mechanism along the Red River fault in the onshore area. This propagation to the offshore area is partitioned into two main branch faults that are corresponding to the Song Chay and Song Lo fault systems and said to restrain the east and west flanks of the Song Hong basin. The simulation of the Red River motion also showed well the left lateral displacement since its onset. Though it is the first time the DEM method was applied to study the deformation and geodynamic evolution of the Song Hong basin, the results showed reliably applied into the structural configuration evaluation of the Song Hong basin.

  2. Late Tertiary tectonics of the Red River Fault Zone: Structural evolution of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Tokarski, Antoni K.; ?wierczewska, Anna; Zuchiewicz, Witold A.; Yêm, Nguy?n Tr?ng

    2013-09-01

    The Red River Fault Zone (RRFZ), lying between eastern Tibet and the Tonkin Gulf, is the most conspicuous geological and geomorphological discontinuity in Southeast Asia. Despite different opinions, the tectonics of this zone can be explained best in terms of Oligocene to Recent lateral escape related to the India/Eurasia collision and opening of the East Vietnam Sea (South China Sea). The widely accepted models of the RRFZ tectonics are largely based on the analysis of metamorphic rocks, offshore data and geomorphological results. According to these models, the late Tertiary to Recent structural development of the RRFZ comprised three successive stages: (1) 34 Ma until 17 Ma - sinistral shift coinciding with an initial event of rapid cooling and uplift; (2) 17 Ma until 5(?) Ma - slow cooling and uplift; and (3) 5(?) Ma until present day - dextral shift coinciding with a second event of rapid cooling and uplift. The main drawback of these results is the paucity of information on the kinematics of the RRFZ in the period between 17 and 5 Ma. Therefore, reconstruction of the structural evolution of the RRFZ during that period is the main target of this paper. Structural analysis of the Miocene strata was performed at 76 exposures located along the entire Vietnamese segment of the RRFZ (ca. 200 km) has concluded that the Miocene succession was syn-sedimentary folded in a stress field with maximum horizontal compression axis (?1) oriented NE-SW. The folding was of a thin-skin type affecting only the Miocene succession and not its basement. This folding was followed by three successive stages of brittle deformation: (i) jointing, clastic dyking, and strike-slip and reverse faulting, which took place in a stress regime typified by ?1 oriented W-E to NE, roughly perpendicular to the RRFZ; (ii) normal faulting, which occurred due to N-S oriented extension; and (iii) strike-slip faulting taking place in a stress field with ?1 oriented WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW, roughly compatible with sinistral shift along the RRFZ.

  3. Extensional step-over between the Zhongdian and Red River faults: kinematics of the Daju normal fault constrained by cosmogenic dating of the Yangtze terraces (Yulong Shan, Yunnan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woerd, J.; Perrineau, A.; Gaudemer, Y.; Leloup, P.-H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Barrier, L.; Thuizat, R.

    2012-04-01

    Extension in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibet, is limited by two dextral strike-slip faults, the Zhongdian and Red River faults, to the north and south, respectively, and is characterized by N-S directed normal faults and basins. In the northwestern corner of this large extensional step-over, the Yangtze River crosses the Daju normal fault at the foot of the Yulong Shan. Due to uplift of the Yulong Shan, the Yangtze carved the huge Huxiao Jia (Tiger Leap) Gorges (˜3500 m deep) and abandoned sets of fluvial terraces across the fault zone and in the Daju basin to the north. Cosmogenic dating of blocks sampled on top of the terraces provide ages ranging from 8 to 30 ka. In the hanging wall basin to the north, the terraces may have been abandoned after the breach of a natural dam formed in the river (moraine or landslide) during the last glacial period. The average incision rate of the river in the basin is about 5.9 mm/yr, the vertical slip-rate on the Daju fault is 4.9±1.3 mm/yr, thus implying an incision rate of the river inside the gorge reaching about 11 mm/year. These rates may explain the exceptional size and steepness of the gorge. These results show that active faulting plays a major role in shaping the present relief of this region and that recent strain changes involve movement along the largest strike-slip faults of the region, in accordance with models implying large-scale block extrusion.

  4. Potassic magma genesis and the Ailao Shan-Red River fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, Martin F. J.; Hoàng, Nguy?n; Lo, Chinh-hua; Chí, Cung Thu'?'ng; Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Liu, Fu-tian; Deng, Jin-fu; Mo, Xuan-xue

    2013-09-01

    Two types of K-rich magma of Eocene to Early Oligocene (ca. 40-30) and Plio-Pleistocene (ca. 5-0.1 Ma) age were emplaced prior to and following left-lateral slip on the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, a regional shear zone extending between southwest China and the Tonkin Gulf (South China Sea) that accommodated 'escape' of the Indochina block. The first type is exposed in the Dali-Lijiang and adjacent regions of western Yunnan and Sichuan and comprises ultramafic potassic to ultrapotassic 'absarokites' and their shoshonite, banakite, and SiO2-rich derivatives which were emplaced immediately prior to activation of the ASRR fault. They are characterized by high Mg.-nos, and low contents of fusible oxides (FeO*, CaO, Al2O3), for equivalent MgO content, and pronounced primitive mantle-normalized high-field strength element (HFSE) depletions. In contrast, 'post-escape' K-rich magmas were erupted in the Puer, Maguan-Pingbian regions of south and southeast Yunnan. Apart from their relative enrichments in potassium they show typical HFSE-rich intra-plate compositional affinity. Geological and geomorphic evidence, and thermochronologic age dating of metamorphisc events, suggest that left-lateral shearing occurred between ca. 30 and 17 Ma; thereby accommodating the southeastward 'escape' of Indochina and (possibly) two episodes of spreading in the South China Sea. The southwestern part of Dali-Lijiang magmatic products was detached and offset by ca. 600 km and are now located in Phan Xi Pang in northern Viet Nam. The same is true for the Permo-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts, whose western exposures were likewise displaced by the same amount and are now represented by the Song Da complex, also in northern Viet Nam. Here, we report geochemical, isotopic, and 40Ar/39Ar age data for samples from both the 'pre-escape' Dali-Lijiang magmas and the 'post-escape' K-rich Puer, Maguan-Pingbian basalts and basanites, with a view to comparing and contrasting their interpolated source compositions, estimated conditions of upper mantle melt segregation and, by inference, their mantle dynamic and contamination histories insofar as these were conditioned by the India-Asia collision. Our interpretations yielded two complementary conclusions. The first contends that the pre-escape magmas result from adiabatic melting of crust-contaminated asthenosphere comprising a 'mélange' of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) (hydrated by sab-derived hysdrous fluids released at 0.2-0.5 GPa) and lower crust, delaminated from the overriding plate during mantle wedge corner flow and further enriched by metasomatic melts of subducted continental crust. We postulate that incipient H2O-saturated melting of the 'mélange' occurs at depths of between ca. 100 and 200 km after being 'dragged' down by relict oceanic slab fragments, in response to the dehydration of supra-subduction amphibole- and phlogopite. The ensuing viscosity 'crisis' and buoyancy relative to ambient 'fertile' convecting mantle of such asthenospheric 'pockets', and the collision-related change from lithospheric compression to extension, almost certainly predisposes such a refractory yet crust-contaminated 'pockets' to rapid adiabatic melting. The second conclusion concerns the post-escape K-rich basalts and basanites and is based on the contention that decompression melting of thermally anomalous K-rich asthenospheric occurred in response to regional post-escape transtension, concomitant with the cessation Indochina escape and contiguous seafloor spreading. However, although these magmas share the HFSE-rich fertile source character of other, widely dispersed, post-escape Cenozoic basalts they more specifically resemble relatively rare examples of intra-plate, K-rich activity observed in northeast China, central Spain, and elsewhere in Asia and Europe, arguably (indirectly) reflecting mantle perturbations caused by major continental collisions.

  5. How crustal-scale strike-slip faults initiate and further develop: The Red River fault and the East Himalaya Syntaxis as a result of the two-stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2014-05-01

    One major question of tectonics is how and where major intracontinental transcurrent strike-slip faults initiate. Models assume an important rheological contrast between rheologically weak and strong lithologies, e.g. at margins of a stiff craton and juxtaposed mobile belts (Molnar & Dayem, 2010 and references therein). Several models assume weakening of the lithosphere by uprise of magma, e.g., formed by subduction or break off of the previously subducted lithosphere or as K-granites at the bases of a metasomatized lithosphere. In the case of slab break-off following oblique convergence, orogen-parallel strike-slip accommodation has been documented. Especially, the spatiotemporal relationships between synkinematic plutons and crustal-scale strike-slip faults have been documented worldwide. It is a matter of continuous debate whether strike-slip faults nucleate where melts have previously weakened the crust/lithosphere or whether pre-existing faults represent the preferred pathways for the ascending melt. A few further models document the role of lateral boundaries of metamorphic core complexes. The significance of some of these processes could be studied along the Red River (RR) fault, SE, Asia. Here we propose a model, how the development of RR fault evolved in response to the two-stage India-Asia collision that recently was proposed by van Hinsbergen et al., (2012 and references therein) and the interaction of the northeastern corner of the East Himalayan Syntaxis with Himalayan-Burman/Indochina collision belt. We propose a four-phase tectonic evolution for the RR fault. During the Eocene accretion of the Tethyan block to Asia, the Sichuan foreland subducted and Eocene K-granites evolved, which started to vertically extrude and introduced, causing a zone of weakness within the crust (Phase 1) along the future RR fault. Another consequence of continuing shortening after the Tethyan block-Asia collision (Stage 1 collision) is lateral extrusion of blocks, and the Lhasa-Indochina block extruded towards east and southeast (Phase 2) initiating and continuously evolving to the Oligocene sinistral RR fault. Synkinematic granites and evolving migmatites within obliquely uprising metamorphic core complexes localized and enhanced the rheologically weak boundary. Possibly, southward subduction of oceanic crust underneath the Indonesian island arc created suction and a pulling force for the southeastward extruding Lhasa-Indochina block up to ca. 20 Ma, later interrupted by the westward progression of the opening South China Sea across the southern termination of the RR fault. The second, main stage of India-Asia collision (Stage 2 collision), after consumption of the Greater India oceanic basin, led to disruption of the coherent Lhasa-Indochina block by inception of the East Himalayan syntaxis (Phase 3) at the interface between Himalayan and Burman A-subduction zones. A consequence of the disruption is the first dextral (Phase 3) and subsequent ENE-WSW extensional (Phase 4) reactivation of the RR fault. References Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467. van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Lippert, Peter C., Dupont-Nivet, G., McQuarrie, N., Doubrovine, P. V., Spakman, W., Torsvik, T. H., 2012. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 , 7659-7664.

  6. Shallow faults mapped with seismic reflections: Lost River Fault, Idaho

    E-print Network

    Mubarik, Ali; Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1991-09-01

    A high-resolution seismic-reflection survey, conducted at the intersection of Arentson Gulch road and the western splay of the Lost River fault scarp in central Idaho, defines a bedrock surface about 80 m deep which is segmented by several faults...

  7. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  8. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland... across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed...

  9. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland, Cass,...

  10. USGS Research on the Flooded Red River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The 2011 Red River flood was the third largest in Fargo, ND since 1900. In the background of this photo, USGS authorized personnel take a boat out on the river to record streamflow and water level measurements....

  11. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  12. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  13. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  14. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  15. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  16. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  17. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  18. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  19. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  1. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  2. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated...

  3. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-11-14

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion.

  4. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take...

  5. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take...

  6. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take...

  7. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take...

  8. USGS Research on the Red River in Fargo

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Joel Galloway and Dan Thomas prepare to take streamflow and water level measurements of the flooded Red River in downtown Fargo, ND. The USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage can be seen in the background....

  9. Cubic Foot - Red River at Fargo

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A white box in the foreground of this photograph demonstrates one cubic foot. The peak streamflow at the USGS Red River of the North at Fargo, ND streamgage was around 26,000 cubic feet per second on April 9, 2011....

  10. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone... from entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line...

  11. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  12. [McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    [McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

  13. Water resources of Red River Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcome, Roy; Page, Leland Vernon

    1963-01-01

    Red River Parish is on the eastern flank of the Sabine uplift in northwestern Louisiana. The 'area is underlain by lignitic clay and sand of Paleocene and Eocene age which dip to the east at the rate of about 30 feet per mile. The Red River is entrenched in these rocks in the western part of the parish. Alternating valley filling and erosion during the Quaternary period have resulted in the present lowland with flanking terraces. In the flood-plain area moderate to large quantities of very hard, iron-bearing water, suitable for irrigation, are available to wells in the alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 20 to slightly more than 100 feet. It is recharged by downward seepage of rainfall through overlying clay and silt, by inflow from older sands adjacent to and beneath the entrenched valley, and by infiltration from the streams where the water table is below stream level during flood stages or as a result of pumping. Water levels are highest in the middle of the valley. Ground water moves mainly toward the Red River on the east and Bayou Pierre on the west, but small amounts move down the valley. Computations based on water-level and aquifer-test data indicate that the Quaternary alluvium contains more than 330 billion gallons of ground water in storage and that the maximum discharge of ground water to the streams is slightly more than 30 mgd (million gallons per day). At times of high river stage, surface water flows into the aquifer at a rate that depends in part upon the height and duration of the river stage. Moderate supplies of soft, iron-bearing water may be obtained from dissected Pleistocene terrace deposits that flank the flood plains of the Red River and Black Lake Bayou. However, the quantity of water that can be pumped from these deposits varies widely from place to place because of differences in the areal extent and saturated thickness of the segments of the deposits; this extent and thickness are governed in turn by the amount of erosion the deposits have undergone. Beds of fine-grained lignitic sands of Tertiary age contain water of generally good quality to depths of 150 to 450 feet. The thinness and low permeability of the sands restrict their development to low-yield wells. Water from these sands in the western part of the parish, where they lie beneath the alluvial valley, is more mineralized than that from the younger Tertiary sands exposed in the east-central area. Streamflow records have been collected on the principal streams in Red River Parish since 1939. Additional spot low-flow data were obtained on several small streams originating within the parish for a study made in connection with the preparation of this report. Quality-of-water data for streams in the parish were collected on an occasional spot-sampling basis prior to and during this investigation. The largest source of surface water in the parish is the Red River, which drains approximately 63,400 square miles upstream from the parish. The Red River has an average flow of about 13,100 cfs (cubic feet per second), or about 8,500 mgd. Many of the streams that drain the upland area are not dependable sources of supply because their flows are not well sustained during dry seasons. The average annual precipitation over the parish is about 52 inches, of which about 17 inches becomes runoff; this runoff is equivalent to a continuous flow of about 1.25 cfs per square mile. Seasonal and annual runoff varies, but no significant trends have been noticed. The principal surface-water problems in the parish pertain to flood control, drainage, irrigation, and navigation. Flood problems have been alleviated considerably by the operation of Denison Dam (Lake Texoma), the completion of levees on the Red River, channel improvements on Bayou Pierre, and the completion of Wallace Lake reservoir on Cypress Bayou. There are wet lands along the Red River that would be very productive if properly drained

  14. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

  15. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

  16. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

  17. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

  18. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

  19. 33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The...

  2. 33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The...

  3. 33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The...

  4. 33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The...

  6. 33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The...

  9. PROVENCHER BRIDGE OVER THE RED RIVER WINNIpEG, MANITOBA

    E-print Network

    ABSTRACT PROVENCHER BRIDGE OVER THE RED RIVER WINNIpEG, MANITOBA C.D. Stewart and B.D. Thompson of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba Alternative design schemes to replace the 76-year-old Provencher Bridge over for construction of the bridge is discussed. I Stewart, Thompson and Rizkalla. Provencher Bridge over the Red River

  10. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  11. River Captures and Erosional Disequilibrium Along Strike-slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Fayon, A. K.; Perg, L. A.; Paola, C.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Mota, M.; Moran-Ical, S.

    2005-12-01

    River captures are internal instabilities of erosion systems and are inherently promoted by strike-slip faulting. A capture event can generate a wave of incision that propagates from the capture site upstream and/or downstream, resulting in an increased bulk erosion rate around the capture site. Thus, under steady boundary conditions, drainage diversions trigger pulses of erosion, sediment production, rock exhumation and isostatic rebound. Therefore, a significant part of the erosion in oblique tectonics can be achieved in a state of significant departure from short-term dynamic equilibrium. The frequency, intensity, and duration of these events set the timescale over which their integrated effects can be regarded as the expression of a long-term dynamic equilibrium. We are investigating the effects of a large river capture on the oblique collision between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala. Several thousands of kilometers of strike-slip displacement have been accommodated along this boundary during the Tertiary. The deformation is now concentrated mostly along the E-W Motagua strike-slip fault. Oblique tectonics is discernable within a 50 km wide topographic belt, north of this fault (Sierra de las Minas - Sierra de Chuacus range). On the northern flank of this range, deformation includes 130 km offset across the Polochic strike-slip fault, documented by both geological structures and drainage patterns. Numerous elbows and dry valleys show the progressive transformation of the initial transverse (S-N) drainage crossing the fault into a transverse-parallel (E-W) system that developed during increasing displacement along the fault. The drainage reorganization operates by river lengthening, captures, and avulsions. One of the latest capture sites is surrounded by a large (110x30 km) zone of deeply (1500 m) dissected landscape that coincides with the captured catchment. This zone sharply contrasts with the surrounding areas where large fragments of a very subdued topography are preserved on the highlands. The capture has been interpreted as the diversion of the former headwaters of a westward flowing river located south of the fault (Rio Selegua) into a northward flowing river located north of the fault (Rio Chixoy), based on drainage pattern and preserved conglomerates. The capture event, the dissection of the landscape, and the uplift of the summit paleosurface are closely related, and likely Miocene in age. Newly discovered conglomerates confirm that the captured basin was drained by the Selegua River before being drained into the Chixoy River. Other newly discovered paleovalleys and conglomerates further document the expansion of the dissected captured watershed at the expense of surrounding catchments. Since the capture event, both the captured stream paleovalley and the subdued topography have been displaced by large normal faults, many of them striking parallel to the Polochic strike-slip fault. Recent faulted sediments on the Polochic Fault trace also display a significant vertical component of slip. The inception of this tectonic activity after the abandonment of the paleovalleys suggests that the faults may have accommodated the isostatic uplift that followed unloading of the captured drainage basin by erosion.

  12. Paleoseismology of the Denali fault at the Nenana River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, T. P.; Bemis, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Denali fault is a major right-lateral strike-slip fault that has seen increased investigation since the 2002 M 7.9 rupture. The western limit of the 2002 rupture lies 60 km east of the Parks Highway and the remainder of the Denali fault west of this point has not experienced a historic rupture. The Denali fault trace at the Parks Highway has seen only reconnaissance investigation and paleoseismic data remains nonexistent. If the Denali fault slip rate at the Parks Highway is similar to the slip rates determined to the east (~10mm/yr.) and west (~7-9mm/yr.), then at least one meter of strain has accumulated since the last major earthquake on this portion of the fault. To contribute to the development of the paleoearthquake history of the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture, we chose to target the portion of the fault adjacent to the Parks Highway where it crosses the Nenana River. Using LiDAR digital elevation models we identified a portion of the Denali Fault immediately east of the Parks Highway to investigate. The site, Dead Mouse, is located on a fluvial terrace approximately 10 m above the modern Nenana River, and the scarp is characterized by 3 en-echelon fissures that trend 30 degrees clockwise relative to the main fault trace. We excavated two trenches, DM1 and DM2, exposing evidence for 3, possibly 4, earthquakes. Our first trench, DM1, crosses the well-defined surface trace of the Denali fault, whereas the second trench, DM2, is approximately 5 m northeast of DM1 and across an en-echelon fissure. DM1 exposed up to 1.7 m of fine grained sediment lying on top of fluvial gravels; hand-augering revealed up to 1 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM1 also exposed evidence of multiple deformation events, with the most recent event creating two fissure-like rubble zones with normal displacement. DM2 exposed up to 1.5 m of fine grained sediment also lying on top of fluvial gravels; further augering revealed up to 2 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM2 exposed a series of north-dipping reverse faults and south-dipping normal faults suggesting multiple deformational events. Fault displacements in both DM1 and DM2 trenches are well-constrained by organic-bearing horizons and dating of radiocarbon samples from these horizons are in progress. The thickness of fine-grained sediment and abundant dateable material illustrate the significant potential for this site to expand the paleoseismic record of the Denali fault. Furthermore, our interpretation of the emplacement of these fine-grained sediments suggests significant flood events during the recent history of the Nenana River.

  13. USGS Red River of the North at Fargo Streamgage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Water level measurement from the USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage in downtown Fargo, ND. The water level peaked at around 39 feet at this streamgage on April 9. Real-time water level and streamflow data from this gage can be accessed online....

  14. Red River College Graduate Employment Report, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red River Community Coll. (Manitoba).

    Red River College (Canada) conducts this graduate employment survey annually to obtain information on employment status and program satisfaction from graduates of diploma, certificate, and refresher programs. For this report, a questionnaire and personalized letter from the College president were sent to each student who graduated between July 1,…

  15. The paragenesis chemistry of alteration associated with the P2and fault in metamorphic rocks underlying the Athabasca Basin

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Kéiko H.

    ~Start of Green Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite Zone 2 McArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose

  16. 33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River. 165.T09-0260 Section 165.T09-0260... § 165.T09-0260 Safety zone; Red River. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: Waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota,...

  17. 78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...Project No. 13160-004] Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability...Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the...

  18. 78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ...Project No. 13160-004] Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability...Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the...

  19. 78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental... prepared a draft environmental assessment (draft EA). The project would be located on the Red River...

  20. 78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application for an... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... prepared a final environmental assessment (EA). The project would be located on the Red River in...

  1. 33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River. 165.T09... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0260 Safety zone; Red River. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: Waters of the Red River in the State of...

  2. Deep-fault connection characterization from combined field and geochemical methodology; examples from Green River and Haiti fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadine, E. Z.; Frery, E.; Leroy, S.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Momplaisir, R.

    2011-12-01

    Fault transfer properties are depending on different parameters, such as fault plane geometry, regional to local offset guiding the morphology through time, but are also very sensitive on other factors which may vary through time and space. Detailed along-strike observations and analyses of the Green River Fault system (Utah) outline the strong impact of several parameters; pre-existing structures or basement heterogeneities, lateral variation of the host-rock mechanical properties, the change of paleostress field through time which creates complex fault intersections. This last parameter, is often associated either with along-and-across fluid drainage (fault leaking) or with abnormal sealing deformation and uplifts corresponding to the locked fault segments. Along the Green River anticline, which is dissected by Salt wash and Little Grand wash major faults, several leaking segments are distributed. They have been analysed for geochemical characterization. In fact, carbon dioxide rich waters expelled from natural or artificial (well-driven geyser) springs, are located preferentially at structural intersection points. Changes in fault transfer properties has been proved as discontinuous from detailed datings (U/Th datings: see Frery et al AGU 2011 this meeting) on the top-fault travertines precipitation. The correlation with fault mineralisation at depth is still under investigation. In this area, not considered as very seismic one compared to the adjacent Basin and Ranges area, fault activity relates both on slow processes indicating a long seismic recurrence time, and on local reservoir short-time de-pressurisation processes. The same methods of investigation will be used on the very active Haitian fault system. The new constraints applied on the Enriquillo-Plantain-garden Fault (EPGF) responsible for the initial deep tectonic stress release (12 January 2010), have not been expressed by a clear surface fault rupture (surface locked segment), but by a northward widening of the impacted zones indicating a strong partitioning of the deformation. The resulting stress re-location is well expressed by (1) the dispersion of the aftershocks, essentially North of the strike-slip fault, (2) a progressive local uplift on the hanging wall, and (3) by along-fault fluid flow variation (leaking segments) either along the EPGF recently active segments but also around the Cul-de-Sac plain. As a first approach, we focus our attention on fault-related fluid leakage distribution, located at intersection points between strike-slip and compressive faults. Using this combined approach, mixing structural and geochemical analytical work, we will hopefully be able (i) to identify the transient and permanent fault activity, and (ii) to characterize the time recurrence (if any) and (iii) the location of the seismic activity during the Quaternary in this two natural analogues.

  3. The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1928-01-01

    in Denton County. The subsoils are likewise low in plant food and they are more acid than the surface soils. The upland prairie soils are better supplied with plant food and with lime than the forested soils. They contain two or three times as much... of analyses of soils averaged by groups. - upland (Forested) Surface Soil Bowie County. .................................. Denton County (Cross Timbers). .................. Freestone County. ............................... Red River County...

  4. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... c. Date Filed: May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned...: The project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana at an existing lock and...

  5. Strain partitioning and deformation mode analysis of the normal faults at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Schuman

    1989-12-01

    In a low-temperature environment, the thin-section scale rock-deformation mode is primarily a function of confining pressure and total strain at geological strain rates. A deformation mode diagram is constructed from published experimental data by plotting the deformation mode on a graph of total strain versus the confining pressure. Four deformation modes are shown on the diagram: extensional fracturing, mesoscopic faulting, incipient faulting, and uniform flow. By determining the total strain and the deformation mode of a naturally deformed sample, the confining pressure and hence the depth at which the rock was deformed can be evaluated. The method is applied to normal faults exposed on the gently dipping southeast limb of the Birmingham anticlinorium in the Red Mountain expressway cut in Birmingham, Alabama. Samples of the Ordovician Chickamauga Limestone within and adjacent to the faults contain brittle structures, including mesoscopic faults and veins, and ductile deformation features including calcite twins, intergranular and transgranular pressure solution, and deformed burrows. During compaction, a vertical shortening of about 45 to 80% in shale is indicated by deformed burrows and relative compaction of shale to burrows, about 6% in limestone by stylolites. The normal faults formed after the Ordovician rocks were consolidated because the faults and associated veins truncate the deformed burrows and stylolites, which truncate the calcite cement. A total strain of 2.0% was caused by mesoscopic faults during normal faulting. A later homogenous deformation, indicated by the calcite twins in veins, cement and fossil fragments, has its major principal shortening strain in the dip direction at a low angle (about 22°) to bedding. The strain magnitude is about 2.6%. By locating the observed data on the deformation mode diagram, it is found that the normal faulting characterized by brittle deformation occurred under low confining pressure (< 18 MPa) at shallow depth (< 800 m), and the homogenous horizontal compression characterized by uniform flow occurred under higher confining pressure (at least 60 MPa) at greater depth (> 2.5 km).

  6. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...20'00'' N, including those portions of the river in Wilkin, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and Kittson counties, to the United...20'00'' N, including those portions of the river in Wilkin, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and Kittson counties, to the...

  7. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River...the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull has contracted to...

  8. The paragenesis of alteration associated with the P2 fault in the basement rocks of the Athabasca Basin E. E. Adlakha , K. Hattori , University of Ottawa: adla028@uottawa.ca, khattori@uOttawa.ca

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Kéiko H.

    Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite ArkoseArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose Graphitic Pelitic

  9. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  10. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden... portion of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is necessary to protect... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, ] between 9...

  11. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 17106). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...

  12. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...

  13. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The...agent, shall operate the Altus Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

  14. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The...agent, shall operate the Altus Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

  15. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The...agent, shall operate the Altus Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

  16. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The...agent, shall operate the Altus Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

  17. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The...agent, shall operate the Altus Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as...

  18. Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

  19. The Red Sea - New insights from recent geophysical studies and the connection to the Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Michael; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Garfunkel, Zvi

    2012-06-01

    The Red Sea is part of a long system of rifts, which formed as a result of African-Arabian continental breakup during the Oligocene-Miocene. Two phases of volcanism are generally accepted, the first occurring 31 mya and the second ˜25 mya. Sometime between 20 and 14 Ma motion along the Dead Sea fault developed and new plate geometry arose to reflect the collision of Arabia with Eurasia. As a result, extension along the northern Red Sea switched from rift-normal (N60°E) to highly oblique and parallel to the newly formed fault. Sea-floor spreading commenced in the southern Red Sea at about 5 Ma leading to a change in the way extension is accommodated along its length. In general the Red Sea is divided into three segments with distinct morphologies and geophysical characteristics: southern (between 15°N and 20°N) - active seafloor spreading, central transition zone (20-23.3°N) with discontinuous axial trough and isolated cells of seafloor spreading, northern dominated by an axial depression is currently in the late stages of continental rifting. Magnetic and gravity data support the differences between the southern and northern sections, while new tomographic studies indicate that the central section behaves as a separate entity that does not act as a transfer zone that gradually transmits processes from south to north. Rifting in the southern Red Sea is under the influence of the Afar plume, while in the north, new evidence points to a strong connection with the Dead Sea fault (fault-parallel and perpendicular features indicating motion parallel to the fault). Motion along the fault may be the stronger force acting on the northern Red Sea and hence, it will behave differently than the southern section. The northern section may act as an area, which transfers motion from seafloor spreading (central-southern Red Sea) to strike-slip (Dead Sea fault).

  20. 77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort...Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola rowing event. The...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...necessary information about the Red Bull Candola until February...

  1. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ela?niewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Tr?n Tr?ng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along dextral, strike-slip NW-trending zones in the vicinity the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone but that became a type of NE/N-ward extensional/contractional, regional movement further away of it. An early shearing on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone may date back to the Permo-Triassic and we consider that this probably originated in a continental fault zone initiated in the hinterland of the oblique Indosinian collisional zone.

  2. Quaternary faulting of basalt flows on the Melones and Almanor fault zones, North Fork Feather River, northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, J. , Hayward, CA ); Page, W.D. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Field relations indicate multiple sequences of late Cenozoic basalt flowed down the canyon of the North Fork Feather River from the Modoc Plateau during the Pliocene and early Quaternary. Remnants of at least three flow sequences are exposed in the canyon, the intermediate one yielding a K/Ar plagioclase date of 1.8 Ma. Topographic profiling of the remnants allows identification of Quaternary tectonic deformation along the northern Plumas trench, which separates the Sierra Nevada from the Diamond Mountains. The authors have identified several vertical displacements of the 1.8-Ma unit in the North Fork canyon and the area NE of Lake Almanor. NE of the lake, three NW-striking faults, each having down-to-the-west displacements of up to 35 m, are related to faulting along the east side of the Almanor tectonic depression. Analysis of the displaced basalt flows suggests that uplift of the Sierra Nevada occurred with canyon development prior to 2 Ma, and has continued coincident with several subsequent episodes of basalt deposition. Quaternary faulting of the basalt is associated with the Melones fault zone and the Plumas trench where they extend northward from the northern Sierra Nevada into the Modoc Plateau and southern Cascades. In contrast to the Mohawk Valley area, where the Plumas trench forms a 5-km-wide graben, faulting in the Almanor region is distributed over a 15-km-wide zone. A change in the strike of faulting occurs at Lake Almanor, from N50W along the Plumas trench to N20W north of the lake. The right-slip component on the fault of the Plums trench may result in a releasing bend at the change in strike and explain the origin of the Almanor depression.

  3. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  4. 76 FR 49462 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...July 29, 2011. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned subsidiary...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the...

  5. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned subsidiary...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the...

  6. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...12757-004--Louisiana] Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric...of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric...as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project...Baton Rouge, LA 70804. Street, Room 230, Vicksburg, MS...

  7. 77 FR 56826 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned subsidiary...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the...

  8. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC... affected by issuance of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No... Hydroelectric LLC, as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project No. 12757, is invited...

  9. Magnetic fabric study across the Ailao Shan Red River shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Ping; Wu, Shi Min; Shi, Xiao Bin; Zhang, Jing Jiang

    2002-03-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 351 specimens from 51 sites across the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (ASRR) was measured to determine its magnetic fabric. Rocks range westward from core schistose gneiss, through low-grade schist, to Triassic sediment. Magnetic ellipticity analysis shows that 41 of 51 sites have an oblate compressional fabric and the other 10 sites have a prolate fabric. PJ value drops by 22.4% in the low-grade schist and by 27.4% in the Triassic sediment on average with respect to the gneiss, suggesting a rapid decrease of deformational intensity. The directions of principal susceptibilities are closely related to the deformation of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. The susceptibility plane always coincides with the schistosity or cleavage plane. Most of the maximum susceptibility axes trend NW-SE. In the shear zone, the maximum susceptibility axes ( Kmax) are parallel to the lineation within the foliation plane. With increasing distance from the shear zone, there is a trend that they become parallel to the down-dip of reverse faults or cleavage. This indicates changes in deformation mode, inside and outside the shear zone. Within the shear zone, horizontal movement is dominant. Outside, shortening prevails. The overall minimum magnetic axes align NE-SW with subhorizontal to low dip angles, suggesting that the dominant shortening is NE-SW directed. Caution should be exercised when AMS is used to determine shear sense in strong shear zones because the angle between the minimum susceptibility axis ( Kmin) and pole of foliation is small, and also because the attitude of foliation varies from place to place. They result in unreliable or even wrong shear sense. Another important result is the axial ratio of magnetic susceptibility ellipsoid along the study section. With these data, it is possible to establish an axial ratio relationship between the finite strain ellipsoid and magnetic susceptibility ellipsoid for quantitative calculation of offset.

  10. Statistical Correlation between Red Wood Ant Sites and Neotectonic Strike-Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, G.; Klimetzek, D.; Wöhler, C.; Grumpe, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research in the West Eifel (West Germany) has demonstrated the correlation of soil gas anomalies and spatial distribution of red wood ant (RWA) mounds along strike-slip faults. RWA can be used as biological indicators for the identification of neotectonic fault systems (Berberich 2010, Schreiber & Berberich 2011). For myrmecologists, the causes and stringency of such a linkage are paramount, since linear patterns have been mostly associated with edge effects of forest stands and/or roads (Klimetzek 1970, Klimetzek & Kaiser 1995, Wellenstein 1990). Therefore, geostatistical techniques were applied in the West Eifel and the Bodanrück (South West Germany) to distribution data of approx. 3,000 resp. 2,300 mounds of RWA (Formica spp., Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in correlation with known neotectonic fault systems Both study areas are located in areas with a complex tectonic history. Commenced during the Neogene and persisted during the Quaternary, the uplift of both, the Rhenoherzynikum and the Black Forest, affects the dynamics of the study areas and reactivates pre-existing Palaeozoic crustal discontinuities. The West Eifel (Rhenoherzynikum) was tectonically sheared in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. The current NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases. At the same time, Variscan faults as part of a conjugated shear system, are reactivated. At the Bodanrück, the compressional stress field (NNW-SSE) leads to a WSW-ENE extensional regime, in which faults cut through the entire crust (Ziegler & Dèzes 2007, Nagra 1992). The prominent large-scale neotectonic structure is the NW-SE to WNW-ESE trending "Freiburg-Bonndorf-Hegau-Bodensee-Graben" that consists of several sub-trenches (Müller et al. 2002). Field surveys indicate a possible existence of a NNE-SSW trending strike-slip fault extending east of Stein am Rhein (Büchi & Müller 2003) possibly reactivated in the Quaternary (Birkhäuser et al. 2001). Available focal mechanism solutions show a lack of possible fault planes striking between 40 and 90 degrees from north (Deichmann 1990). In addition, a NNW-SSE and NS trending fault system exist. We tested the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of RWA mounds would map the neotectonic stress field directly (Berberich et al. 2012). A statistical method for the automatic extraction of linear patterns from point clouds (Hough transform) was applied to the spatial distribution of RWA mounds. The maxima of the resulting histograms denote the preferential alignment directions. In both cases, it could be clearly shown that the spatial distribution of RWA mounds directly map the main stress field and the conjugated shear system in hierarchically succession. In the West Eifel, RWA depict mainly the opening direction of the Quaternary volcanic field (NW-SE), the WSW-ENE extensional regime and the reactivated Variscan fault systems (NNE-SSW, NE-SW). At the Bodanrück, the hypothesized existence of the NNE-SSW strike-slip fault systems (Büchi & Müller 2003) and additionally NE-SW, NNW-SSE and NS directions could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the statistical analyses show that spatial distribution of RWA maps neotectonic, gaspermeable strike-slip faults. This is especially useful in those cases, where information about the neotectonic regime is incomplete or the resolution by technical means is insufficient.

  11. Does Karakorum Fault Cut Across the Great Himalaya? Findings of Strike Slip Active Fault Along the Humla-Karnali River in the Northwestern Part of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahara, Y.; Maemoku, H.; Yagi, H.; Nagatomo, T.; Upreti, B. N.

    2005-12-01

    It is well known that collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates does not cause only mega thrusting along the Himalayan front but also great strike-slip shear or N-S extensional zones in the Tibetan block. Active tectonics of Tibet is presumed to be extrusion of Tibetan block along great strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh and the Kunlun faults and consequent evolution of normal faults of N-S direction in the tensional stress field. The Karakorum fault seems to be terminated by Himalayan range on its southeastern edge (Searle,1996). As a southeastern extension of the fault, we found a new fault named Yari fault that was strike-slip fault across the Great Himalayan Range along Humla-Karnali River using a method of photo interpretation of aerial photographs and US spy satellite images. Nakata (1989) showed that MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system and Bari Gad fault which is located within the Lesser Himalaya of western Nepal are right-stepping echelon striking NW- SE for 170km based on photo interpretation and fieldwork, and also pointed out that those could connect to the Karakoram fault system. There was, however, a gap for about 100 km between the Karakoram fault and the northernmost of the MCT active fault system. In 1990_fs, the Topological Survey of Nepal took vertical air photographs covered all the territory with the aim of publishing topographical maps. With using those new aerial photographs, we recognized an active fault cutting the Great Himalaya in the northwestern Nepal up to the international border of China as NW extension of the MCT active fault system. It is named Yari fault after nearest village name, which has single trace for 50km striking NW-SE generally. In the east of Yari village, alluvial fans and river terraces of different age have been displaced along the fault trace continuously with marked by north-facing scarp and right-lateral offset stream. Yari fault should play very important role as a bridge connecting Karakorum fault on the north of Himalaya and MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system that is located along the topographical boundary of Higher Himalaya and Lower Himalaya. We would like to establish a hypothesis that not only Tibetan block but also Himalayan ranges are being divided by a series of strike-slip faults such as those strike-slip faults and extruded eastward.

  12. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany)

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, approx. 3,000 Red Wood Ant (RWA; Formica rufa-group) mounds had been identified and correlated with tectonically active gas-permeable faults, mostly strike-slip faults. Linear alignment of RWA mounds and soil gas anomalies distinctly indicate the course of these faults, while clusters of mounds indicate crosscut zones of fault systems, which can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. This demonstrates that RWA are bioindicators for identifying active fault systems and useful where information on the active regime is incomplete or the resolution by technical means is insufficient. Abstract In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel. PMID:26487413

  13. More Evidence for Young Tectonism Along the Saline River Fault Zone, Southern Mississippi Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, R. T.; Harris, J. B.; Hill, A. A.; Forman, S. L.; Gardner, C.; Csontos, R.

    2004-12-01

    Within the southern Mississippi embayment the 315-striking Saline River fault zone (SRFZ) was recently recognized from linear river segments, aligned epicenters, fault and fold exposures, sand blows, seismic reflection profiles, and trench investigations. In our latest work, shallow S-wave reflection profiles were acquired across the SRFZ within a sand blow field in Holocene alluvium at the southeastern limit of the mapped SRFZ. Along the central part of the SRFZ our field surveys of linear river segments subparallel to the SRFZ reveal that these segments are associated with faulting, fracturing, and folding of Eocene, late Pleistocene, and Holocene strata. In addition, we used logs of coal exploration holes to map shallow Eocene structure across the central SRFZ. In the SE of our study region, two S-wave reflection profiles (parallel and overlapping) were acquired along a 0.6 km N-S transect of the fault zone in NE Ashley County, AR. They reveal the SRFZ has a flower structure geometry with both positive and negative elements. The Eocene/Quaternary contact is clearly seen at 0.3 s (30 to 40 m depth). Several faults cut through the Quaternary section, and Quaternary and Eocene strata are folded harmonically. A fault in the overlap zone can be shown to strike 289 deg. New luminescence (IRSL) dates constrain a significant sand blow episode near this locality to between 7690 and 5725 yrs BP and a later significant episode to younger than 6845 yrs BP, consistent with previous results of middle to late Holocene sand venting here. In the central portion of the SRFZ, previous investigations of a linear river segment revealed a faulted anticline deforming alluvium younger than 720 years old. Our latest river surveys reveal that other linear river segments are associated with fractures and folds in Eocene substrate and young alluvium. Some oblique structures suggest a subsidiary strike-slip array. Shallow subsurface structure in Eocene strata mapped from coal exploration logs across the central portion of the SRFZ in Cleveland County, AR suggest a restraining-bend anticline/horst near the site of a moderate 1911 earthquake and the young river-bank anticline. This positive structure strikes NE, at a high angle to the SRFZ strike. Growing geologic, geomorphic, and geophysical evidence documents young tectonism in the southern Mississippi embayment, specifically in association with the SRFZ. Characterization of the SRFZ and any similar fault zones is crucial to understanding the seismotectonics and seismic hazard of the southern midcontinent.

  14. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...those portions of the river in Wilkin, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and Kittson...those portions of the river in Wilkin, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and Kittson...those portions of the river in Wilkin, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and...

  15. Red River Stream Improvement Final Design Nez Perce National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Watershed Consulting, LLC

    2007-03-15

    This report details the final stream improvement design along the reach of Red River between the bridge below Dawson Creek, upstream for approximately 2 miles, Idaho County, Idaho. Geomorphic mapping, hydrologic profiles and cross-sections were presented along with existing fish habitat maps in the conceptual design report. This information is used to develop a stream improvement design intended to improve aquatic habitat and restore riparian health in the reach. The area was placer mined using large bucket dredges between 1938 and 1957. This activity removed most of the riparian vegetation in the stream corridor and obliterated the channel bed and banks. The reach was also cut-off from most valley margin tributaries. In the 50 years since large-scale dredging ceased, the channel has been re-established and parts of the riparian zone have grown in. However, the recruitment of large woody debris to the stream has been extremely low and overhead cover is poor. Pool habitat makes up more than 37% of the reach, and habitat diversity is much better than the project reach on Crooked River. There is little large woody debris in the stream to provide cover for spawning and juvenile rearing, because the majority of the woody debris does not span a significant part of the channel, but is mainly on the side slopes of the stream. Most of the riparian zone has very little soil or subsoil left after the mining and so now consists primarily of unconsolidated cobble tailings or heavily compacted gravel tailings. Knapweed and lodgepole pine are the most successful colonizers of these post mining landforms. Tributary fans which add complexity to many other streams in the region, have been isolated from the main reach due to placer mining and road building.

  16. Asymmetrical River Valleys in Response to Tectonic Tilting and Strike-Slip Faulting, NE Margin of Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    The NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau, as a particularly important area to understand the mechanism of plateau formation, is characterized by large transpressional arcuate faults. There is debate on the amount of Quaternary sinistral displacement on the major Haiyuan Fault. Previously unrecognized systemic asymmetrical valleys have developed between the Haiyuan and Xiangshan faults. Southeast tilting and sinistral displacement on the NE side of the Haiyuan Fault resulted in SE migration of large rivers and asymmetrical widening of their valleys, leaving a systematic distribution of tilted strath terraces along the their NW sides. Where asymmetrical widening created by tilting kept pace with sinistral displacement, rivers have not been deflected, and the increase in valley width downstream from the fault should equate to total lateral displacement since river formation (e.g. Yuan River, a 7 km asymmetrical valley with a c. 2.2Ma paleomagnetic age). Where river deflection and asymmetrical valley growth are coeval, valley width is less than total horizontal displacement (e.g. Hebao River, a c. 2.1km asymmetrical valley with c. 2km deflection). All rivers north of the Haiyuan Fault converge to cut across the Xiangshan Mountains as a gorge. Northeast thrusting of the upthrown side of the Xiangshan Fault has resulted in degradation and related strath terrace formation as the valleys asymmetrically widened. A probable earthquake-induced landslide caused by movement on the Xiangshan Fault in latest Pleistocene blocked the gorge causing aggradation along all rivers and their tributaries. Deposition terraces were formed after the landslide dam was breached. Together with previous research on the Xiangshan Fault, it is concluded that there has been c.7km of Quaternary sinistral displacement on the Haiyuan and Xiangshan faults along the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau since the formation of rivers that intersect them.

  17. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-12-17

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface.

  18. For Immediate Release --Thursday, June 14, 2012 Red Deer River Oil Spill Provides Unique Research

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    already started on a study of the Red Deer River oil spill, looking at more break and oil spill was unfortunate, a study opportunity arises and this should remarkably little scientific study on the environmental impacts of oil spills

  19. 77 FR 43591 - Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River... North Country Ethanol (Tri-State), and Red River Energy, LLC (Red River) filed an application, pursuant... No. CP05-75-000, and for Red River to acquire and operate Tri-State's facilities located in...

  20. Streamflow losses along the Balcones Fault Zone, Nueces River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, L.F.; Boning, C.W.; Harmsen, Lynn; Reeves, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to quantify and to determine distribution of streamflow losses and gains that occur during base flow conditions in the Balcones Fault Zone of the Neuces River basin. The streams studied include the West Nueces, Nueces , Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers, and Seco, Hondo, and Verde Creeks. Discharge measurements made during storm recession flows of these streams identified direct recharge to outcrops of the Edwards aquifer and related limestones that ranged from as high as 393 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to as low as 42 cubic feet per second for the Sabinal River. Recharge to outcrops of the Buda Limestone, Eagle Ford Shale, and Austin Group also eventually reaches the Edwards aquifer, and measurements identified losses to these formations ranging from as high as 174 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to near zero for Verde Creek. (USGS)

  1. 77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River... east of the South Andrews Avenue Bascule Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola... Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.,...

  2. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sabry, H.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  3. 77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13525). We ] received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule....

  4. The changing flow regime and sediment load of the Red River, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Garnier, Josette; Gilles, Billen; Sylvain, Théry; Van Minh, Chau

    2007-02-01

    SummarySouth-East Asian Rivers contribute very significantly to the global sediment load to the ocean, hence to global biogeochemical cycles, and are subject to rapid changes owing to recent population and economic growth. The Red River system (Viet Nam and China) offers a good example of these changes. Previous estimates (before the year 1980) of the suspended matter loading of the Red River ranged from 100 to 170 × 10 6 t yr -1, i.e. from 640 to 1060 t km -2 yr -1. The strong dependence of suspended solid transport on hydrology results in a large year-to-year variability. Based on the available hydrological data from the period 1997-2004, and on a one-year survey of daily suspended matter of the three main tributaries of the Red River system in 2003, a simplified modeling approach, distinguishing between surface runoff and base flow, is established to estimate the mean suspended loading of the Red River under present conditions. The obtained value is 40 × 10 6 t yr -1, corresponding to a specific load of 280 t km -2 yr -1. It reflects a 70% decrease of the total suspended load since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh and Thac Ba reservoirs in the 1980s. Following the planned construction of two additional reservoirs, the model predicts a further reduction by 20% of the suspended load of the Red River, which might be compensated by an expected increase in suspended loading due to enhanced rainfall induced by climate change. Using measurements of the total phosphorus content of the suspended material in the different Red River tributaries, the present phosphorus delivery by the Red River can be estimated as 36 × 10 6 kgP yr -1.

  5. The Eastern Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone in central Portugal: Active faulting in a low-deformation region within a major river environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Carolina; Vilanova, Susana P.; Besana-Ostman, Glenda M.; Carvalho, João; Heleno, Sandra; Fonseca, Joao

    2015-10-01

    Active faulting in the Lower Tagus Valley, Central Portugal, poses a significant seismic hazard that is not well understood. Although the area has been affected by damaging earthquakes during historical times, only recently has definitive evidence of Quaternary surface faulting been found along the western side of the Tagus River. The location, geometry and kinematics of active faults along the eastern side of the Tagus valley have not been previously studied. We present the first results of mapping and paleoseismic analysis of the eastern strand of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ). Geomorphological, paleoseismological, and seismic reflection studies indicate that the Eastern LTVFZ is a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The detailed mapping of geomorphic features and studies in two paleoseismic trenches show that surface fault rupture has occurred at least six times during the past 10 ka. The river offsets indicate a minimum slip rate on the order of 0.14-0.24 mm/yr for the fault zone. Fault trace mapping, geomorphic analysis, and paleoseismic studies suggest a maximum magnitude for the Eastern LTVFZ of Mw ~ 7.3 with a recurrence interval for surface ruptures ~ 1.7 ka. At least two events occurred after 1175 ± 95 cal yr BP. Single-event displacements are unlikely to be resolved in the paleoseismic trenches, thus our observations most probably represent the minimum number of events identified in the trenches.

  6. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  7. Millennial slip rate of the Longitudinal Valley fault from river terraces: Implications for convergence across the active suture

    E-print Network

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    Millennial slip rate of the Longitudinal Valley fault from river terraces: Implications; published 12 August 2006. [1] The Longitudinal Valley fault is a key element in the active tectonics's hanging wall block. This allowed us to determine both its subsurface geometry and its long-term slip rate

  8. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.

  9. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential contributions of these features to the ground-water and surface-water flow systems. These calculations show that, because all of these features are found along the Red River in the Cabin Springs-Columbine Park-Goat Hill fan area, their combined effect increases the probability that the bedrock aquifer ground-water flow system provides discharge to the Red River along this reach.

  10. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  11. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary. PMID:18513758

  12. 77 FR 47493 - DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Red River Valley & Western Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head--Acquisition of Control Exemption-- Red River..., has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control of Red River Valley & Western...

  13. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from < 0.02 to 20.2 mg L(-1), < 0.01 to 6.66 mg L(-1), and 0.10 to 262 microg L(-1), respectively. Overall, the 25th percentiles of TN data specific to the Red River Basin were generally similar to the USEPA-recommended ecoregion nutrient criteria of 0.31 to 0.88 mg L(-1), whereas median TP and chl-a data specific to the Red River Basin showed 25th percentiles higher than the USEPA-recommended criteria (0.010-0.067 mg TP L(-1); 0.93-3.00 microg chl-a L(-1)). The unique location of the Red River Basin in the south-central United States places it near the boundaries of several aggregate ecoregions; therefore, the development of ecoregion nutrient criteria likely requires using data specific to the Red River Basin, as shown in these analyses. This study provided basin-specific frequency distribution of median concentrations of water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin. PMID:21284293

  14. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, E. )

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  15. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, E.

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  16. A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins 

    E-print Network

    Cook, John Henry

    1967-01-01

    This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

  17. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River;...

  18. 77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of James River in Richmond, VA in support of the Labor Day Fireworks event. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners and spectators from the hazards......

  19. Floods in a Changing Climate: A Case Study From the Red River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    In many parts of the world, the frequency of large flood events appears to have increased. Although it is impossible to associate any particular event with climate change, there is a general perception that climate change may be at least part of the reason for changes in the statistical distribution of floods. The Red River, sometimes called the Red River of the North, originates at the borders of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota and flows north through the Province of Manitoba before emptying into Lake Winnipeg. There have been several severe spring floods on the Red River in recent years, creating speculation that increased greenhouse gas concentrations are changing the frequency of floods. In this study, we investigate whether this is a reasonable assumption based on global climate model output. A regression model has been developed to predict spring peak discharge on the Red River at a streamflow gage located at the border of the US and Canada. The predictor variables include antecedent fall precipitation used as a proxy for soil moisture at freeze-up, winter snow accumulation, and spring precipitation during the period of melt. Data from the CMIP5 GCM model ensemble are used to determine change factors for the predictor variables. The modified predictor variables are then used to produce scenarios of floods in a changed climate. The use of multiple GCMs and multiple Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) allows for an estimate of uncertainty to be associated with the results.

  20. Feasibility Study of the Effects of Water Quality on Soil Properties in the Red River Valley 

    E-print Network

    Gerard, C. J.; Hipp, B. W.; Runkles, J. R.; Bordovsky, D. J.; McCully, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Study of the Effects of Water Quality on Soil Properties in the Red River Valley C.J. Gerard B.W. Hipp J.R. Runkles D.J. Bordovsky W.G. McCully Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  1. RED SHINER INVASION OF THE UPPER COOSA RIVER SYSTEM: DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) has been widely introduced across 11 states outside its native range, presumably through bait-bucket and aquarium releases. Its native range includes Great Plain and Central Lowland tributaries of the Mississippi River and western Coastal Pla...

  2. The Mint River Fault: an Extensional Detachment in the York Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, J.; Burnette, L.; Amato, J.; Repetski, J.; Gehrels, G.

    2005-12-01

    The role of crustal extension in the origin of the gneiss domes of the Bering Strait region of Alaska and Russia has been debated for over a decade. Alternative models for gneiss dome formation include 1) thermal re-equilibration after crustal thickening by arc collision (Lieberman, 1988; Patrick and Evans, 1989); 2) extensional collapse of the crust during with mid-Cretaceous magmatism (Miller et al., 1992; Amato et al., 1994) and 3) thermally-induced diapiric rise of the high-grade rocks (Calvert et al., 1999). One major difference with the classic metamorphic core complexes of the Basin and Range is that, because of deep exhumation, evidence for mid-Cretaceous supra-crustal extension has not been widely documented in the Bering Strait region. In the York Mountains, the one area of the Seward Peninsula where unmetamorphosed rocks are preserved, the structure was originally described as a thrust belt (Sainsbury, 1969). New detailed mapping, structural analysis, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology, and conodont biostratigraphy carried out in the York Mountains show that the Mint River Fault, which is the basal detachment of the supposed thrust belt, is actually a low angle extensional detachment fault. This fault separates polydeformed low greenschist grade rocks in the lower plate from unmetamorphosed Lower Ordovician to Silurian carbonates in the upper plate. The upper plate is cut by three major normal faults, the largest of which has about 4 km of down-to-the-south slip. These faults also tilt the Early Paleozoic carbonate succession. A younger-on-older relationship across one of the mayor faults is documented by conodont biostratigraphy demonstrating that these are not thrusts, as was previously believed. Stress inversion, based on minor brittle faults in the upper plate, indicates a direction of extension of 194, which is consistent with the strike of major normal faults. No direct evidence of bedding-plane thrusting could be documented, although minor folds do exist, probably formed during shortening that predated extensional deformation. The lower plate is composed of latest Proterozoic to early Cambrian lithic quartzites and slates intruded by 540+/-5 Ma gabbros (LA-ICPMS U/Pb in zircon), overlain by Lower Ordovician metacarbonates. The structure of the lower plate is characterized by at least two generations of folds. The kinematics of the earliest event are obscure, as the F1 fold axes are widely scattered and fold vergence is inconsistent. The D2 event resulted in vertical flattening and the dominant sub-horizontal metamorphic fabric. Lower plate slates yielded disturbed 40Ar/39Ar spectra with predominantly mid-Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous age steps. Although the quality of these data does not allow unambiguous interpretation, it does suggest that greenschist facies metamorphism took place in the Late Mesozoic. Extensional deformation must have occurred after metamorphism and prior to intrusion of the Brooks Mountain granite, which cuts the Mint River Fault, and is dated at 77.8+/-1 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar in biotite. Basaltic dikes in the upper plate, which are subparallel to the mayor normal faults, yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 77 to 78 Ma. Although the timing of the onset of extension in the York Mountains is poorly constrained so far, it appears to be compatible with the rise of the Kigluiak dome, which culminated at about 90 Ma (Amato et al., 2001).

  3. Preconstruction and simulated postconstruction ground-water levels at urban centers in the Red River Navigation Project area, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Red River Valley in Louisiana is 3 to 10 miles wide and is underlain by the Red River alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is in hydraulic connection with the Red River. Precipitation infiltrates the aquifer and water discharges from the aquifer at the Red River and major tributaries. Construction of locks and dams along the Red River will cause new, higher minimum stages for the river for each of the pools. Water levels will rise and outflow from the alluvial aquifer to the river after construction of the locks and dams will be at higher elevations because of the new river stages. Mathematical models of the stream-aquifer system simulate the effects of the lock and dam system for plan B-3, modified. Water-level changes in the aquifer in response to the changes imposed by the system are greatest near the river and are progressively smaller away from the river. The saturated zone in the fine-grained material overlying the aquifer provides the principal potential impact on structures and vegetation in urban areas. As water levels in the aquifer rise, the saturated zone above the aquifer will decrease the thickness. The soil zone in low areas in some communities will be waterlogged. (USGS)

  4. Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Blum, M.J.; Rashleigh, B.; Freeman, B.J.; Porter, B.A.; Burkhead, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the UCRS via large, mainstem rivers since the mid to late 1990s. We measured the occurrence and abundance of parental species and hybrids near tributary-mainstem confluences and characterized populations at these incipient contact zones by examining variation across morphological traits and molecular markers. Red shiners represented only 1.2% of total catch in tributaries yet introgression was widespread with hybrids accounting for 34% of total catch. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids was highly correlated with occurrence of blacktail shiners, indicating that streams with native populations are preferentially colonized early in the invasion and that hybridization is a key process in the establishment of red shiners and their genome in new habitats. Tributary invasion was driven by post-F1 hybrids with proportionately greater genomic contributions from blacktail shiner. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids and the relative abundance of hybrids significantly increased with measures of human disturbance including turbidity, catchment agricultural land use, and low dissolved oxygen concentration. Red shiners are a significant threat to Southeast Cyprinella diversity, given that 41% of these species hybridize with red shiner, that five southeastern drainages are invaded, and that these drainages are increasingly disturbed by urbanization. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Impact of subsurface drainage on streamflows in the Red River of the North basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Lin, Zhulu; Jia, Xinhua; Steele, Dean D.; DeSutter, Thomas M.

    2014-04-01

    The debate about subsurface drainage effects on streamflows has been reignited in the Red River of the North basin in North America, after a decades-long abnormally wet weather pattern in the region. Our study evaluated the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in modeling subsurface drainage in a cold environment; we then employed streamflow response analyses to assess the potential impacts of the extensive subsurface drainage development in the Red River Valley (RRV) on streamflows in the Red River. The results showed that extensive subsurface drainage in the RRV would likely increase the magnitude of smaller peak flows while decreasing the magnitude of larger peak flows. Discharge reduction of large peak flows was mainly caused by reducing the flow volumes rather than increasing the time-to-peak of the hydrograph. Our analysis also suggested that extensive subsurface drainage could move more water from the watershed to the rivers in the fall season, creating more storage capacity in the soils. However, such increase in storage capacity in soils would have a negligible effect in reducing the monthly flow volumes in the following spring. The proposed method of coupling a watershed model with streamflow response analysis can be readily adopted by other researchers to evaluate the streamflow impact of land-use and climate changes around the world.

  6. A comprehensive fluvial geomorphology study of riverbank erosion on the Red River in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimiaghalam, Navid; Goharrokhi, Masoud; Clark, Shawn P.; Ahmari, Habib

    2015-10-01

    Riverbank erosion on the Red River in Winnipeg, Manitoba has raised concerns over the last 20 years and more. Although several recent studies have shown that fluvial erosion can reduce riverbank stability and promote geotechnical slope failure, there are too few that have focused on this phenomenon. The present study includes field measurements, experimental testing, and numerical modelling to quantify fluvial erosion through a 10 km reach of the Red River. Results have shown that seasonal freeze-thaw processes can dramatically reduce the critical shear stress and increase erodibility of the riverbanks. Moreover, a simple method has been employed using hydrodynamic numerical models to define the applied shear stresses on the river banks based on the river water level, which will be useful for further research and design purposes. The TEMP/W numerical model was used to define seasonal frost depth to estimate freeze-thaw effects. Finally all field measurements, experimental and numerical models results were used to predict annual fluvial erosion through this reach of the river.

  7. Application of an inverse method for calculating three-dimensional fault geometries and clip vectors, Nun River Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.G.; White, N.

    1996-03-01

    A general, automatic method for determining the three-dimensional geometry of a normal fault of any shape and size is applied to a three-dimensional seismic reflection data set from the Nun River field, Nigeria. In addition to calculating fault geometry, the method also automatically retrieves the extension direction without requiring any previous information about either the fault shape or the extension direction. Solutions are found by minimizing the misfit between sets of faults that are calculated from the observed geometries of two or more hanging-wall beds. In the example discussed here, the predicted fault surface is in excellent agreement with the shape of the seismically imaged fault. Although the calculated extension direction is oblique to the average strike of the fault, the value of this parameter is not well resolved. Our approach differs markedly from standard section-balancing models in two important ways. First, we do not assume that the extension direction is known, and second, the use of inverse theory ensures that formal confidence bounds can be determined for calculated fault geometries. This ability has important implications for a range of geological problems encountered at both exploration and production scales. In particular, once the three-dimensional displacement field has been constrained, the difficult but important problem of three-dimensional palinspastic restoration of hanging-wall structures becomes tractable.

  8. Water type and suitability of Oklahoma surface waters for public supply and irrigation Part 4: Red River mainstem and North Fork Red River basin through 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, Jerry D.

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data for the Red River mainstem and the North Fork Red River basin within Oklahoma, through 1979, were examined for water type and suitability for public water supply and irrigation use. Of 96 stations with available data, 53 stations or 55 percent were considered to have sufficient data for analysis. The classification of water type was based on the relation of the major ions: calcium, magnesium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride to each other within the range of measured specific conductance. The suitability of the water for use as a public supply was based on the concentration distribution of selected constituents. The constituents selected were those with maximum contaminant levels established by regulation, or constituents for which recommended maximum limits have been established and for which historic data are available. The irrigation-classification method of Wilcox was used to relate sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations and the salinity distribution to the use of the water for irrigation. If data are available, the chance of phytotoxic effects by boron is discussed.

  9. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  10. Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

  11. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

  12. Spatial/temporal patterns of Quaternary faulting in the southern limb of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic parabola, northeastern Basin and Range margin

    SciTech Connect

    McCalpin, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    During the period 1986--1991, 11 backhoe trenches were excavated across six Quaternary faults on the northeastern margin of the Basin and Range province. These faults comprise the southern limb of a parabola of Quaternary faults and historic moderate-magnitude earthquakes which is roughly symmetrical about the Snake River Plain, and heads at the Yellowstone hot spot. Fifteen Holocene paleoseismic events have been bracketed by radiocarbon or thermoluminescence ages. On the six central faults, the latest rupture event occurred in a relatively short time interval between 3 ka and 6 ka. The period between 6 ka and the end of the latest glaciation (ca. 15 ka) was a period of relative tectonic quiescence on the central faults, but not on the two end faults with higher slip rates (Wasatch and Teton faults). Southward-younging of events in the 3--6 ka period may indicate that temporally-clustered faulting was initiated at the Yellowstone hot spot. Faults at the same latitude, such as the Star Valley-Grey's River pair of faults, or the East Cache-Bear Lake-Rock Creek system of faults, show nearly identical timing of latest rupture events within the pairs or systems. Faults at common latitudes probably sole into the same master decollement, and thus are linked mechanically like dominoes. The timing of latest ruptures indicates that faulting on the westernmost fault preceded faulting on successively more eastern faults by a few hundred years. This timing suggests that slip on the westernmost faults mechanically unloaded the system, causing tectonic instabilities farther east.

  13. Effects of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic faulting on the geology and hydrology of the coastal plain near the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, R.E.; Prowell, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey have defined stratigraphic and hydraulic anomalies suggestive of faulting within Coastal Plain sediments between the Ogeechee River in east-central Georgia and the Edisto River in west-central South Carolina. Examination of borehole cuttings, cores, and geophysical logs from test wells indicate that Triassic rocks and Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments near the Barnwell-Allendale County line near Millett, South Carolina, are offset by a northeast-trending fault downthrown to the northwest. The location of this suspected Coastal Plain fault generally coincides with the location of an inferred fault in basement rocks as interpreted from aeromagnetic surveys. Apparent vertical offsets range from about 700 feet at the base of Upper Cretaceous sediments to about 20 feet in strata of Late Eocene age. As a result, the Upper Cretaceous Middendorf Formation which directly overlies crystalline and Triassic rocks updip (northwest) of this fault, is absent immediately downdip of the fault. The thickness of Tipper Cretaceous sediments is also sharply reduced from about 700 feet to about 180 feet across the fault. Sediments of the basal Coastal Plain aquifer are largely truncated by uplifted Triassic rocks at the fault near Millett, South Carolina. Lateral ground-water flow near the Savannah River Is consequently disrupted updip of the fault and ground water is transferred vertically into overlying sediments and possibly into the Savannah River. At several locations, abrupt changes in potentiometric head occur across this fault. Computed transmissivity of the basal Coastal Plain aquifer is also radically reduced downdip of the fault, sharply reversing a downdip trend of rapidly increasing aquifer transmissivity. Other anomalous potentiometric data along a northeast-trending line between Statesboro, Georgia, and Fairfax, South Carolina, suggest the possibility of similar faulting in correlative geologic units. The location of the suspected fault near Statesboro, Georgia, generally coincides with the eastward extension of the Gulf Trough, a regional potentiometric anomaly in central Georgia.

  14. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  15. Topography, river network and recent fault activity at the margins of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, Paola; Corti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Along its length, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) in East Africa records a transition from early fault-dominated morphology in the South to axial magma assisted-rifting typical of continental break-up in the North. It is one of the few locations on Earth offering a complete picture of the evolution of continental rifting and thus provides a unique opportunity to directly analyze how the drainage network reorganizes under extensional tectonic forcing. In this paper we present a new analysis of the river network and relative landforms-complemented with a summary of recent geological data-at both rift margins of the Central MER, a key sector of the rift capturing the phase of drainage reorganization between incipient and mature rifting. This analysis shows that hydrography is strongly influenced by recent tectonics. Rectangular drainage patterns, windgaps, and lacustrine/swampy areas formed by structural dams document that the rivers are in continuous competition with fault activity. The irregular longitudinal profiles (with knickpoints/knickzones in correspondence with faults) also suggest that rivers are in a transient state of disequilibrium related to recent tectonic activity at rift margins, in agreement with previous geological and seismological data. A more regional analysis extended to the adjoining Northern and Southern MER indicates that rifting evolves from initial stages characterized by margins poorly incised by rivers with gentle channel gradients (except in correspondence with faults), to mature phases in which rift margins are highly incised by a well organized fluvial network composed by concave and steep rivers. Our regional analysis also indicates a stronger and/or more recent tectonic activity at the rift margins proceeding to the south, in line with previous models of rift development.

  16. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sufficient force of log drivers to keep their logs in motion throughout the section of river above mentioned... quantity of logs running at any time. (f) This section shall remain in force until modified or rescinded....

  17. Sediment data for mid-Arkansas and upper-Red River basins through 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumer, Stephen P.

    1983-01-01

    Sediment data have been collected at 279 locations within the Mid-Arkansas and Upper-Red River basins in and along the borders of Oklahoma and Kansas. This compilation of sediment records presents tables and plots of all suspended-sediment data collected between 1930 and 1980. The publication not only provides a published source of all available suspended-sediment data, but more importantly provides potential users with an efficient means to access this large amount of data through the U.S. Geological Survey WATSTORE system.

  18. Paragenesis and composition of tourmaline types along the P2 fault and McArthur River uranium1 deposit, Athabasca Basin,Canada2

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Kéiko H.

    1 Paragenesis and composition of tourmaline types along the P2 fault and McArthur River uranium1 deposit in the eastern Athabasca Basin, northern Saskatchewan,9 Canada. Three types of tourmaline were the entire P2 fault, but only produced ore in31 localized areas.32 Keywords: tourmaline, oxy-schorl, oxy

  19. Mobilization of arsenic and iron from Red River floodplain sediments, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postma, Dieke; Jessen, Søren; Hue, Nguyen Thi Minh; Duc, Mai Thanh; Koch, Christian Bender; Viet, Pham Hung; Nhan, Pham Quy; Larsen, Flemming

    2010-06-01

    Sediments from the Red River and from an adjacent floodplain aquifer were investigated with respect to the speciation of Fe and As in the solid phase, to trace the diagenetic changes in the river sediment upon burial into young aquifers, and the related mechanisms of arsenic release to the groundwater. Goethite with subordinate amounts of hematite were, using Mössbauer spectroscopy, identified as the iron oxide minerals present in both types of sediment. The release kinetics of Fe, As, Mn and PO 4 from the sediment were investigated in leaching experiments with HCl and 10 mM ascorbic acid, both at pH 3. From the river sediments, most of the Fe and As was mobilized by reductive dissolution with ascorbic acid while HCl released very little Fe and As. This suggests As to be associated with an Fe-oxide phase. For oxidized aquifer sediment most Fe was mobilized by ascorbic acid but here not much As was released. However, the reduced aquifer sediments contained a large pool of Fe(II) and As that is readily leached by HCl, probably derived from an unidentified authigenic Fe(II)-containing mineral which incorporates As as well. Extraction with ascorbic acid indicates that the river sediments contain both As(V) and As(III), while the reduced aquifer sediment almost exclusively releases As(III). The difference in the amount of Fe(II) leached from river and oxidized aquifer sediments by ascorbic acid and HCl, was attributed to reductive dissolution of Fe(III). The reactivity of this pool of Fe(III) was quantified by a rate law and compared to that of synthetic iron oxides. In the river mud, Fe(III) had a reactivity close to that of ferrihydrite, while the river sand and oxidized aquifer sediment exhibited a reactivity ranging from lepidocrocite or poorly crystalline goethite to hematite. Mineralogy by itself appears to be a poor predictor of the iron oxide reactivity in natural samples using the reactivity of synthetic Fe-oxides as a reference. Sediments were incubated, both unamended and with acetate added, and monitored for up to 2 months. The river mud showed the fastest release of both Fe and As, while the effect of acetate addition was minor. This suggests that the presence of reactive organic carbon is not rate limiting. In the case of the river and aquifer sediments, the release of Fe and As was always stimulated by acetate addition and here reactive organic carbon was clearly the rate limiting factor. The reduced aquifer sediment apparently can sustain slower but prolonged microbially-driven release of As. The highly reactive pools of Fe(III) and As in the river mud could be due to reoxidation of As and Fe contained in the reducing groundwater from the floodplain aquifers that are discharging into the river. Deposition of the suspended mud on the floodplain during high river stages is proposed to be a major flux of As onto the floodplain and into the underlying aquifers.

  20. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    PubMed

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. PMID:22192584

  1. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  2. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    SciTech Connect

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  3. Old-growth definition for Red River bottom forests in the eastern United States. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Shear, T.; Young, M.; Kellison, R.

    1997-05-01

    Our goal was to develop a description of old-growth red river bottom forests of the Southeastern United States. We compared the characteristics of forests described in the scientific literature and forests we examined to various published criteria for old-growth condition. Because red rivers are a relatively new landscape feature (most < 250 years old, resulting from human-induced soil erosion) and because dramatic changes to their floodplains continue to occur, we do not believe that any old-growth red river forests exist. All the stands along these rivers present at European settlement have been cut and/or otherwise severely altered. In the dynamic landscape after settlement, there have been no opportunities for new old-growth forests to develop. Stands older than 50 to 60 years are rare. Therefore, we propose a stand condition called older growth and list the characteristics. With time and stable site conditions, we believe that old-growth and red river forests can develop from older-growth forests.

  4. Modeling regional variation in riverine fish biodiversity in the Arkansas-White-Red River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, Peter E; Jager, Yetta

    2011-01-01

    The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas White Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models and identified well-supported models. Subbasin attributes that were retained as predictors included discharge, elevation, number of downstream dams, percent forest, percent shrubland, nitrate, total phosphorus, and sediment. The random component of our models, which assumed a negative binomial distribution, included spatial correlation within larger river basins and overdispersed residual variance. This study differs from previous biodiversity modeling efforts in several ways. First, obtaining likelihoods for negative binomial mixed models, and thereby avoiding reliance on quasi-likelihoods, has only recently become practical. We found the ranking of models based on these likelihood estimates to be more believable than that produced using quasi-likelihoods. Second, because we had access to a regional-scale watershed model for this river basin, we were able to include model-estimated water quality attributes as predictors. Thus, the resulting models have potential value as tools with which to evaluate the benefits of water quality improvements to fish.

  5. 77 FR 43591 - Tri-State Financial Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...Co., LLC, (d/b/a North Country Ethanol), Red River Energy, LLC; Notice of...Financial Co., LLC, d/ b/a North Country Ethanol (Tri-State), and Red River Energy...North Dakota, to the Tri- State's ethanol facility near Rosholt, in Roberts...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T08-0080 - Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati...District § 165.T08-0080 Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4,...

  7. Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and latest Quaternary faulting: Migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Mark H.; Geissman, John Wm.; Piety, Lucille A.; Sullivan, J. Timothy

    1989-02-01

    The Intermountain and Idaho seismic belts within Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana form an unusual parabolic pattern about the axis of the aseismic eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). This pattern is also reflected in the distribution of latest Quaternary normal faults. Several late Cenozoic normal faults that trend perpendicular to the axis of the eastern SRP extend from the aseismic region to the region of latest Quaternary faulting and seismicity. A study of the late Miocene to Holocene displacement history of one of these, the Grand Valley fault system in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming, indicates that a locus of high displacement rates has migrated away from the eastern SRP to its present location in southern Star Valley in western Wyoming. In Swan Valley the studied area closest to the eastern SRP, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data for over 300 samples from 47 sites on well-exposed late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (the tuff of Spring Creek, the tuff of Heise, the Huckleberry Ridge tuff, the Pine Creek Basalt, and an older tuff thought to be the tuff of Cosgrove Road) are used to demonstrate differences in the displacement rate on the Grand Valley fault over the last ˜10 m.y. Tectonic tilts for these volcanic rocks are estimated by comparing the results of paleomagnetic analyses in Swan Valley to similar analyses of samples from undeformed volcanic rocks outside of Swan Valley. Basin geometry and tilt axes are established using seismic reflection profiles and field mapping. Combining these data with the tilt data makes it possible to calculate displacement rates during discrete temporal intervals. An average displacement rate of ˜1.8 mm/yr is calculated for the Grand Valley fault in Swan Valley between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. In the subsequent 2.0-m.y. interval the rate dropped 2 orders of magnitude to ˜0.014 mm/yr; during the preceding 5.5-m.y. interval the displacement rate is ˜0.15 mm/yr, or about 1 order of magnitude less than the rate between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. Mapping of fault scarps and unfaulted deposits along the Grand Valley fault system shows that latest Quaternary fault scarps are restricted to the portion farthest from the eastern SRP, the southern part of the Star Valley fault. Surface displacements estimated from scarp profiles and deposit ages estimated from soil development suggest a latest Quaternary displacement rate of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault. Morphologic evidence suggests that this displacement rate persisted on the Star Valley fault throughout most of the Quaternary. The latest Quaternary displacement rate calculated for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault is similar to the rate calculated for Swan Valley during the interval from 2.0 to 4.4 Ma. This similarity, together with evidence for a low Quaternary displacement rate on the fault system in Swan Valley, suggests that the location of the highest displacement rate has migrated away from the eastern SRP. Other normal faults in southeastern Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, and southwestern Montana, while less well described than the Grand Valley fault system, exhibit a similar outward migrating pattern of increased fault activity followed by quiescence. Furthermore, a temporal and spatial relationship between fault activity and the 3.5 cm/yr northeastward track of the Yellowstone hotspot is observable on the Grand Valley fault system and on other north-northwest trending late Cenozoic faults that border the eastern SRP. The temporal and spatial relationship of Miocene to present high displacement rates for other circumeastern SRP faults and the observable outwardly migrating pattern of fault activity suggest that a similar parabolic distribution of seismicity and high displacement rates was symmetrically positioned about the former position of the hotspot. Moreover, the tandem migration of the hotspot and the parabolic distribution of increased fault activity and seismicity are closely followed by a parabolic-shaped "collapse shadow," or region of fault inactivity and aseismicity. We suggest that t

  8. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved. These solutions are then evaluated under various scenarios of climate change and projected socio-economic conditions to identify their vulnerabilities and, possibly, to design improved operating policies, which are more robust to the future uncertainties.

  9. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  10. Constructing an Alpine Fault Paleoseismicity Record from Slumped Lacustrine Deposits in the Cascade River Valley, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, G.; Moy, C. M.; Toy, V. G.; Ohneiser, C.; Howarth, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a major structure in New Zealand capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater, which delineates the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. Paleoseismic records of these earthquakes indicate recurrence intervals of 300 - 400 years over the last 1,300 years. However, there are no pre-Holocene records. Documenting the late Pleistocene record of magnitude, timing, and frequency of earthquakes would significantly reduce uncertainty in hazard analyses. The tectonically complex Cascade River Valley follows the Southern Alpine Fault, where the fault dominantly accommodates strike-slip motion. Two ~7m outcrops of proglacial lacustrine silt are exposed along the river in which, deformed rhythmites bounded by planar laminated rhythmites have been identified. These exhibit a variety of fold geometries in outcrop and x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, all of which show some degree of asymmetry. Initial radiocarbon ages of 14,400 and 13,300 14C yr BP have been obtained from terrestrial plant material isolated from samples near the base of one outcrop. Given the age range and laminae density, these dates suggest that the rhythmites are varves, but additional radiocarbon dates and CT-scans will be used to confirm this. The deformed horizons are interpreted to be seismites formed by slumping. Earthquake shaking triggers an increase in pore fluid pressure, which destabilises the sublacustrine slope causing failure and the release of silt into the sedimentary system. As silt is transported by downslope shear it is deformed in distinct layers. Displacement of volumes of silt also causes the formation of seiche waves that apply shear stress to lake floor sediments causing further deformation. Deviations in magnetic susceptibility and the declination of magnetic remanence observed underneath and within deformed horizons are interpreted to be a response of earthquake shaking. Data from these different proxies will be presented and compiled to generate a record of earthquake shaking from the Southern Alpine Fault.

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  12. The mechanism of post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhen; Xu, Ziying; Sun, Longtao; Pang, Xiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei

    2014-08-01

    Post-rift fault activities were often observed in deepwater basins, which have great contributions to oil and gas migration and accumulation. The main causes for post-rift fault activities include tectonic events, mud or salt diapirs, and gravitational collapse. In the South China Sea continental margin, post-rift fault activities are widely distributed, especially in Baiyun sag, one of the largest deepwater sag with its main body located beneath present continental slope. During the post-rift stage, large population of faults kept active for a long time from 32 Ma (T70) till 5.5 Ma (T10). Seismic interpretation, fault analysis and analogue modeling experiments indicate that the post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag between 32 Ma (T70) and 13.8 Ma (T30) was mainly controlled by gravity pointing to the Main Baiyun sag, which caused the faults extensive on the side facing Main Baiyun sag and the back side compressive. Around 32 Ma (T70), the breakup of the continental margin and the spreading of the South China Sea shed a combined effect of weak compression toward Baiyun sag. The gravity during post-rift stage might be caused by discrepant subsidence and sedimentation between strongly thinned sag center and wing areas. This is supported by positive relationship between sedimentation rate and fault growth index. After 13.8 Ma (T30), fault activity shows negative relationship with sedimentation rate. Compressive uplift and erosion in seismic profiles as well as negative tectonic subsiding rates suggest that the fault activity from 13.8 Ma (T30) to 5.5 Ma (T10) might be controlled by the subductive compression from the Philippine plate in the east.

  13. Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (1oS drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p--0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the duster groups. There were significant differences (p=O.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different C0=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

  14. Strike-slip faulting, topographic growth and block movements as deduced from drainage anomalies: The Ye?il?rmak River basin, northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, Esra; Kazanc?, Nizamettin; Gürbüz, Alper

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to understand the various effects of known tectonism on a fluvial network and to interpret the tectonic deformations using described, and analysed systematic anomalies in the drainage basin of the Ye?il?rmak River in northern Turkey at countermarch. This region, which is divided into several faulted wedges by right-lateral strike-slip faulting of the North Anatolian fault zone and its individual splays, has experienced several moderate to large earthquakes with high amounts of surface ruptures during the historical and instrumental periods. The Ye?il?rmak River basin includes several geomorphic imprints of such widespread and frequent strike-slip deformations. Offsets (between 750 m and 19 km), aligned drainages, and linear valleys (170 km) are expected geomorphic and tectonic responses to strike-slip faulting in the fluvial system. We used such indicators to determine the long term effects of strike-slip faulting in the Ye?il?rmak River drainage network. The measured stream offsets represent decreasing values toward southern splay faults consistent with published geodetic data for the region. However, some other large-scale geomorphic anomalies extracted from the drainage network are not explainable by only strike-slip tectonics. Compressional structures, i.e., anticlines, synclines, in the region are responsible for such large-scale drainage diversions (20-24 km) along the river courses. Although these diversions, the North Anatolian fault zone is the main driving force shaping present geomorphology on a regional scale. The Sungurlu-Ezinepazar? fault also plays a critical role in landscape evolution. Their activities and associated block movements have resulted with tilting processes. On the other hand, the entire fluvial network should be modified by the sea level changes of the Black Sea, particularly in the late Quaternary.

  15. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  16. Plate boundary behaviour, recent uplift, and seismic hazard along the Central Alpine Fault near the Whataroa River, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, G. P.; Davies, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding plate boundary behaviour is a major objective in seismotectonics to better understand and mitigate seismic hazards. Field- and light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived topographic mapping, geological characterisation, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of on-fault sediments were used to better constrain rangefront deformation of the Southern Alps at the Alpine Fault near the Whataroa River. The Alpine Fault, which forms the plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand, is thought to rupture in large to great earthquakes (most recently in 1717 AD). Here the fault is dextral-reverse, although primarily strike-slip with clear fault traces cutting across older surfaces of varying elevations and ages. Deformational bulges are observed along these traces that are likely thrust-bounded. A terrace of Whataroa River sediments on the hanging wall of the fault approximately ~ 55-75 m (when considering uncertainties) above the floodplain of the Whataroa. OSL ages for hanging wall sediments of ~ 11 ka in this terrace, ~ 2.8 ka for Whataroa River terrace deposits in a deformational bulge, and ~ 11.1 ka for a rangefront-derived fan and aggradation along the rangefront and Holocene hanging wall uplift rates of ~6.0 + or - 1 mm/yr at the fault. These Whataroa River-sourced terrace deposits suggest that the adjacent bounding faults are steeply-dipping, with no geometries in the shallow subsurface that would tend to cause rotation and tilting. Because GPS-derived "interseismic" vertical uplift rates are < 1 mm/yr here, the majority of rock uplift at the rangefront happens during episodic major Alpine Fault earthquakes. Additionally, our recent data on fault behaviour based on mapping and field measurements indicate that the fault may not exhibit characteristic rupture behaviour. We suggest instead 'bimodal behavior' where the AF exhibits both 'partial' (rupture length <300 km; moment magnitude, Mw, 6.5 to 7.8) and 'full' (rupture length ?300 km; Mw ? 7.9) ruptures. This further questions the validity of the characteristic earthquake model for seismic hazard assessments. Finally, we present a appraisal of the active South Westland Fault Zone, including new outcrop mapping that demonstrates other important sources of seismic hazard exist near this plate boundary.

  17. New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, P. H.; Arnaud, N.; Lacassin, R.; Kienast, J. R.; Harrison, T. M.; Trong, T. T. Phan; Replumaz, A.; Tapponnier, P.

    2001-04-01

    New structural, petrographic, and 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the kinematics of the ASRR (Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone). In the XueLong Shan (XLS), geochronological data reveal Triassic, Early Tertiary, and Oligo-Miocene thermal events. The latter event (33-26 Ma) corresponds to cooling during left-lateral shear. In the FanSiPan (FSP) range, thrusting of the SaPa nappe, linked to left-lateral deformation, and cooling of the FSP granite occurred at ?35 Ma. Rapid cooling resumed at 25-29 Ma as a result of uplift within the transtensive ASRR. In the DayNuiConVoi (DNCV), foliation trends NW-SE, but is deflected near large-scale shear planes. Stretching lineation is nearly horizontal. On steep foliations, shear criteria indicate left-lateral shear sense. Zones with flatter foliations show compatible shear senses. Petrographic data indicate decompression from ?6.5 kbar during left-lateral shear (temperatures >700°C). 40Ar/39Ar data imply rapid cooling from above 350°C to below 150°C between 25 and 22 Ma without diachronism along strike. Along the whole ASRR cooling histories show two main episodes: (1) rapid cooling from peak metamorphism during left-lateral shear; (2) rapid cooling from greenschist conditions during right-lateral reactivation of the ASRR. In the NW part of the ASRR (XLS, Diancang Shan), we link rapid cooling 1 to local denudations in a transpressive environment. In the SW part (Ailao Shan and DNCV), cooling 1 resulted from regional denudation by zipper-like tectonics in a transtensive regime. The induced cooling diachronism observed in the Ailao Shan suggests left-lateral rates of 4 to 5 cm/yr from 27 Ma until ?17 Ma. DNCV rocks always stayed in a transtensive regime and do not show cooling diachronism. The similarities of deformation kinematics along the ASRR and in the South China Sea confirms the causal link between continental strike-slip faulting and marginal basin opening.

  18. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model that is capable of learning from complex, multidimensional data without specification of what the outputs should be, and of generating a nonlinear classification of visually decipherable clusters. The use of the above framework allowed to analyze the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, reviling patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers and then likely (but still to be validated) fluvial processes. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale opening the way towards regional or national scale hydromorphological assessments through automatic GIS and statistical procedures with moderate effort, an urgent requirement of modern catchment management.

  19. Dynamic Emulation Modeling of irrigation water deficit in the Red-Thai Binh River Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Q.; Cassaro, L.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Water deficit (WD) is the factor that most affects agricultural productivity in irrigated land. The optimal management of water resources requires estimating and forecasting its intensity in space and time. In large irrigation systems, the adoption of a physically-based (PB), distributed, dynamic model (e.g.Mike11) is a viable solution, since it can simulate the hydraulic processes that occurs in the system, including the operation of hydraulic structures according with rules based on water demand and water availability. However PB models always have a high dimensional state that prevents their adoption within optimization algorithms, even the most advanced ones. Additionally, the information they produce (the time trajectories of all the variables of the systems) is definitively larger than what is actually required (the trajectories of WDs in pre-specified areas) in the management problem. Thus input/output (I/O) lumped models would be more appropriate, but their calibration is generally prevented by the lack of sufficiently long time series of the output variables (WDs in our case). The solution we explored is to split the process into two steps: the first is the calibration of a PB model (Mike11 in our case study) in a traditional way, using the available time series; the second is the identification of an I/O model from the WD time series generated by the PB model We present a dynamic emulation modelling (DEMo) approach which leads to the identification of an emulation model, namely a simplified, computationally-efficient model built over a sample data-set produced via simulation of the original model (Mike11). The core mechanism of the procedure is a feature-ranking algorithm, based on Extremely Randomized Trees, through which the suitable input variables of the emulation model are automatically selected. The emulation model, in the form of an I/O relationship, is then identified using Artificial Neural Networks. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a real-world case study: the Red-Thai Binh River Delta in Vietnam. It is a large and complex river system, supplied by five unregulated rivers and four large multi-purpose reservoirs, the operating rules of which have to be designed. In order to ascertain the effects of their regulation on the WD in the Delta, a Mike11 model was calibrated and validated. It describes 320 rivers and canals for a total length of 4200 km, 11 irrigation districts and many structures, among which 88 sluice gates and 302 irrigation water intakes (simulated as controlled pumps). Its inputs are the four reservoirs releases, the non-regulated flows of the five rivers, the sea levels at the nine river mouths, the water demand at each one of the irrigation water intakes. The considered outputs are the daily WD in the 11 districts. The dimension of the state vector of the model is of the order of 16,000. From the high dimensional Mike11, a low dimensional (11 dimension) DEMo model was identified that mimics very well (R2=0.95) the WDs as computed by the Mike11 model. The DEMo model will be later on embedded within a large multi-objective optimal control problem to design the operating rules of the four reservoirs.

  20. A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

  1. Characterisation of Adaptive Genetic Diversity in Environmentally Contrasted Populations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (River Red Gum)

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Shannon; McEvoy, Rachel; Baldwin, Darren S.; Rees, Gavin N.; Parsons, Yvonne; Southerton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    As an increasing number of ecosystems face departures from long standing environmental conditions under climate change, our understanding of the capacity of species to adapt will become important for directing conservation and management of biodiversity. Insights into the potential for genetic adaptation might be gained by assessing genomic signatures of adaptation to historic or prevailing environmental conditions. The river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) is a widespread Australian eucalypt inhabiting riverine and floodplain habitats which spans strong environmental gradients. We investigated the effects of adaptation to environment on population level genetic diversity of E. camaldulensis, examining SNP variation in candidate gene loci sampled across 20 climatically diverse populations approximating the species natural distribution. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (FST?=?17%), exceeding previous estimates based on neutral markers. Complementary statistical approaches identified 6 SNP loci in four genes (COMT, Dehydrin, ERECTA and PIP2) which, after accounting for demographic effects, exhibited higher than expected levels of genetic differentiation among populations and whose allelic variation was associated with local environment. While this study employs but a small proportion of available diversity in the eucalyptus genome, it draws our attention to the potential for application of wide spread eucalypt species to test adaptive hypotheses. PMID:25093589

  2. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  3. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE for organic fields was less spatially and temporally variable than conventional, with average daily flux between 0.48 and 1.44 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1. Average daily flux in conventional fields ranged between 0.48 and 3.12 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1, with highest values in April and May. While soil moisture in organic fields was significantly greater than conventional, it did not interact with treatment to affect trace gas flux. Instead, the effect of organic on N2O, CO2 and the net GHE was strongly influenced by crop stage, an agronomically meaningful proxy integrating time and plant growth conditions. Most CH4 flux observations were 0. Integrated fluxes for each of the 40 sites over the growing season was averaged by field pair and treatment. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect for average seasonal integrated flux varied between field pairs for CO2 and N2O fluxes, the overall influence of treatment on the net GHE was similar. Overall, soils under organically produced wheat emitted 200 kg CO2 equiv. ha-1 per season less than conventionally produced wheat. We observed 1) the net GHE for similar field sites in the Red River Valley was reduced under organic versus conventional agriculture, 2) N2O flux in organic fields was significantly lower than conventional fields for both field pair sites, and 3) the effect of treatment on CO2 flux was site specific.

  4. 33 CFR 165.T08-0080 - Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH. 165.T08-0080 Section 165.T08-0080... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.T08-0080 Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds...

  5. 77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...VA in support of the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks event. This...navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...entitled Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows...

  6. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware...safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden...Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey...Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground...B. Basis and Purpose Red Bull is sponsoring a...

  7. 78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor...local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor...Docket Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor...Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National...

  8. 78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National...regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National...Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey...Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground...Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag...

  9. 77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing...navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...T05-0114 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows...

  10. Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages, management boundaries, compliance points, and impaired water body endpoints. Incorporation of the LiDAR datasets has been critical to representing the topographic characteristics that impact hydrologic and water quality processes in the extremely flat, heavily drained sub-basins of the RRB. Beyond providing more detailed elevation and slope measurements, the high resolution LiDAR datasets have helped to identify drainage alterations due to agricultural practices, as well as improve representation of channel geometry. Additionally, when available, LiDAR based hydraulic models completed as part of the RRB flood mitigation efforts, are incorporated to further improve flow routing. The MPCA will ultimately use these HSPF models to aid in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, permit development/compliance, analysis of Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation scenarios, and other watershed planning and management objectives. LiDAR datasets are an essential component of the water quality models build for the watersheds within the RRB and would greatly benefit water quality modeling efforts in similarly characterized areas.

  11. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.

    1998-11-01

    Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

  13. Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain activity on the west-vergent Sweitzer fault and the east-vergent blind reverse fault. All of the sampled catchments are underlain exclusively by Tehama Sandstone. Moreover, there are no mapped surface traces of faults in the sampled catchments. This minimizes the possibility of changes in lithogic resistance to impact the erosion rates and channel analyses. These analyses, combined with fault geometries derived from published seismic reflection data and structural cross sections, allows us to constrain the throw rates on these faults and thus better evaluate the associated seismic hazard.

  14. Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2004-01-01

    Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

  15. Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Red River Region, Yunnan Province, China

    E-print Network

    Schoenbohm, Lindsay M. (Lindsay Marie), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system during growth of the southeast plateau margin. Cosmogenic ²?A1 and ¹?Be basin-wide erosion rate and burial ages indicate a background incision rate of [approximately] 0.05 to 0.10 ...

  16. Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    David Gibbons; Larry A. Carrell; Richard D. George

    1997-07-31

    Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.

  17. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  18. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, also less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level. Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicated statistically significant differences among bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations at the three gages. Regression equations to estimate bromide, chloride, and sulfate loads were developed for each of the three gages. The largest loads were estimated for a period of relatively large streamflow, June-September 2007, when about 50 percent of the load for the study period occurred at each gage. Adjusted R-squared values were largest for regression equations for the DeKalb gage, ranging from .957 for sulfate to .976 for chloride. Adjusted R-squared values for all regression equations developed to estimate loads of bromide, chloride, and sulfate at the three gages were .899 or larger.

  19. Systematic deflection and offset of the Yangtze River drainage system along the strike-slip Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Lin, Aiming

    2015-07-01

    The Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe Fault Zone (GYXFZ) is a typical active strike-slip fault that has triggered many large historic earthquakes, including the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake in the central Tibetan Plateau. This fault zone extends for ca. 800 km from the central Tibetan Plateau to its southeastern margin and varies in trend from WNW-ESE in the northwestern segment of the fault zone to NNW-SSE in the southeastern segment, having the geometry of an arc projecting northeastwards. In this study, we present evidence for the systematical sinistral deflection and/or offset of the Yangtze River and its branch stream channels and valleys along the GYXFZ. Topographic analysis of three-dimensional (3D) perspective images constructed using digital elevation model (DEM) data, 0.5 m-resolution WorldView and GeoEye images, and 15 m-resolution Landsat-Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images, together with analysis of geological structures, reveals the following: (i) the main river channels and valleys of the Yangtze River drainage system show systematic sinistral deflections and/or offsets along the GYXFZ; (ii) various amounts of sinistral offset have accumulated on the tributary stream channels, valleys, and gullies of the Yangtze River along the fault, with a linear relation, D = aL, between the upstream length L from the deflected point and the offset amount D with a certain coefficient a; (iii) the maximum amount of sinistral offset is up to ca. 60 km, which was accumulated in the past 13-5 Ma; and (iv) the long-term average strike-slip rate is ca. 4.6-12 mm/year. Geological and geomorphic evidence, combined with geophysical data, demonstrates that the GYXFZ is currently active as one of the major seismogenic faults in the Tibetan Plateau, dominated by left-lateral strike-slip motion. Our findings supply important evidence for the tectonic evolution of strike-slip faults in the Tibetan Plateau since the Eurasia-India continental collision.

  20. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Oscillating brittle and viscous behavior through the earthquake cycle in the Red River Shear Zone: Monitoring flips between reaction and textural softening and hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintsch, Robert P.; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2013-03-01

    Microstructures associated with cataclasites and mylonites in the Red River shear zone in the Diancang Shan block, Yunnan Province, China show evidence for both reaction hardening and softening at lower greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The earliest fault-rocks derived from Triassic porphyritic orthogneiss protoliths are cataclasites. Brittle fractures and crushed grains are cemented by newly precipitated quartz. These cataclasites are subsequently overprinted by mylonitic fabrics. Truncations and embayments of relic feldspars and biotites show that these protolith minerals have been dissolved and incompletely replaced by muscovite, chlorite, and quartz. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase porphyroclasts are truncated by muscovite alone, suggesting locally metasomatic reactions of the form: 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6SiO2(aq) + 2K+. Such reactions produce muscovite folia and fish, and quartz bands and ribbons. Muscovite and quartz are much weaker than the reactant feldspars and these reactions result in reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in contiguous bands that constitute textural softening. These mineral and textural modifications occurred at constant temperature and drove the transition from brittle to viscous deformation and the shift in deformation mechanism from cataclasis to dissolution-precipitation and reaction creep. These mylonitic rocks so produced are cut by K-feldspar veins that interrupt the mylonitic fabric. The veins add K-feldspar to the assemblage and these structures constitute both reaction and textural hardening. Finally these veins are boudinaged by continued viscous deformation in the mylonitic matrix, thus defining a late ductile strain event. Together these overprinting textures and microstructures demonstrate several oscillations between brittle and viscous deformation, all at lower greenschist facies conditions where only frictional behavior is predicted by experiments. The overlap of the depths of greenschist facies conditions with the base of the crustal seismic zone suggests that the implied oscillations in strain rate may have been related to the earthquake cycle.

  2. Kinematics and tectonic implications of the Mae Kuang Fault, northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Brady P.; Perez, Robert; Lamjuan, Apichard; Kosuwan, Suwith

    2004-10-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that northeast-trending strike-slip faults partially accommodated mid-Tertiary east-west extension in northern Thailand, we investigated a prominent lineament that marks the trace of the Mae Kuang fault. The trace of the this fault follows the linear Mae Kuang Valley for approximately 30 km through the Mae Tho Range northeast of Chiang Mai, where it cuts granitic rocks of the Fang - Mae Suai batholith and roof pendants of Paleozoic terranes. Along the trace of the fault we identified offset contacts, and slickenlines on fault surfaces that suggest a total sinistral slip of 3.5 km and a dip-slip of 600 m. The fault also offsets three north-flowing tributaries to the Mae Kuang River by 400-700 m. At its southwestern end, the Mae Kuang fault is apparently truncated by the right-lateral Mae Tha fault and does not extend to the west side of the Chiang Mai Basin. Therefore, it cannot be accommodating the transfer of extension from basin to basin, however, it may accommodate small amounts of differential rotation between adjacent crustal blocks. The fault probably initiated between 20 and 5 Ma, simultaneous with the slip inversion on the Mae Ping and Red River Faults.

  3. Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and native species. We investigated whether disturbance has contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native b...

  4. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute <1 km of stream, compared to the >20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (<8 ?m). This enhances transport out of the system of red mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids. PMID:25312516

  5. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, K.S.

    1992-09-11

    The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

  6. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1990-12-31

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). We managed to stabilize the population in the first couple of years through an intensive flying squirrel removal project as well as augmentation of female RCW`s to the SRS population. We are now in the expansion phase of the project. In 1990 we have focused our efforts on: (1) developing a cavity excavation method and excavating cavities in suitable habitat; (2) flying squirrel control; (3) translocation of RCW`s; (4) monitoring clan composition and reproduction; (5) identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion; and (6) surveying lands near SRS where RCW`s were thought to exist. This report summarizes activities for FY 1990 and plans for FY 1991.

  7. Sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, during the 2011 spring high-flow event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Blanchard, Robert A.; Ellison, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the bedload samples had particle sizes in the 0.5 to 1 millimeter and 0.25 to 0.5 millimeter ranges from the Maple River, Wild Rice River, Rush River, Buffalo River, and Red River sites. The Rush and Lower Branch Rush Rivers also had a greater portion of larger particle sizes in the 1 to 2 millimeter range. The Sheyenne River sites had a greater portion of smaller particle sizes in the bedload in the 0.125 to 0.5 millimeter range compared to the other sites. The bed material in samples collected during the 2011 spring high-flow event demonstrated a wider distribution of particle sizes than were observed in the bedload; the coarsest material was found at the Red River near Christine and the Lower Branch Rush River and the finest material at the Sheyenne River sites.

  8. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that permitted red cedar invasion of the riparian habitat and that the type of depositional environment partially determines where along the riparian landscape red cedar invades.

  9. Long-term monitoring (1960-2008) of the river-sediment transport in the Red River Watershed (Vietnam): temporal variability and dam-reservoir impact.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thi Ha; Coynel, Alexandra; Orange, Didier; Blanc, Gérard; Etcheber, Henri; Le, Lan Anh

    2010-09-15

    The Red River (China/Vietnam, A=155,000 km(2)) is a typical humid tropics river originating from the mountainous area of Yunnan Province in China. Based on information on daily discharge (Q) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration between 1960-2008 for the SonTay gauging station (outlet of the River and entry to the Delta) provided by the National Institute IMHE-MONRE, the mean annual SPM flux was estimated at 90 Mt/yr, corresponding to a sediment yield of 600 t/km(2)/yr. The temporal variability of annual SPM fluxes (ranging from 24 to 200 Mt/yr) is strongly related to the interannual hydrological conditions. However, some years of high water flow were not associated with high sediment fluxes, especially after 1989 when the HoaBinh dam came into operation. Therefore, the median discharge pre- (3389 m(3)/s) and post 1989 (3495 m(3)/s) are similar indicating there was little or no change between both periods. Sediment rating curves (power law-type; SPM=aQ(b)) were fitted for both periods (1960-1989; 1990-2008). The analysis of the pre- and post-1989 sediment rating parameters (a, b) suggests a downshift of b-parameter values after 1989, attributed to a decrease of the sediment supply due to the commissioning of the HoaBinh dam. A single sediment rating curve derived from 1960-1989 data was used to simulate the annual variability of former sediment delivery, generating excellent cumulative flux estimates (error ~1%). In contrast, applying the same rating curve to the 1990-2008 data resulted in systematic and substantial (up to 109%) overestimation. This suggests that the HoaBinh dam reduces annual SPM delivery to the delta by half, implying important metal/metalloid storage behind the HoaBinh dam. PMID:20673966

  10. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

  11. The kinematic and cloud-to-ground lightning structure of the 9-10, June 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System 

    E-print Network

    Santarpia, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the kinematic and electrical properties of the 9-10 June, 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as observed by the NOAA P3 Tail Radar and the National Lightning Detection Network, is presented. This system exhibits...

  12. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

  13. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  14. Hydrogeological restrictions to saline ground-water discharge in the Red River of the North drainage basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, M.L. Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND )

    1992-01-01

    Discharge of saline water from bedrock aquifers along the eastern margin of the Williston basin is restricted by surficial glacial till and lacustrine deposits in the Red River of the North drainage basin. Water from these aquifers reaches the surface by (1) diffusion; (2) slow, upward seepage along zones of relatively larger hydraulic conductivity in the till and lacustrine deposits; or (3) flow from artesian wells. Ground-water quality varies near the surface because of mixing of water being discharged from bedrock aquifers with shallower ground water in the surficial deposits. Ground-water quality, hydraulic-gradient, and hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from pumped-well and slug tests indicate that flow in the surficial deposits is eastward, but at slow rates because of small hydraulic conductivities. Base-flow and specific-conductance measurements of water in tributaries to the Red River of the North indicate that focused points of ground-water discharge result in substantial increases in salinity in surface water in the northern part of the basin in North Dakota. Core analyses and drillers' logs were used to generalize hydrogeologic characteristics of the deposits in the basin, and a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the basin's geohydrologic processes. Model results indicate that the ground-water flow paths in the bedrock aquifers and surficial deposits converge, and that water from the bedrock aquifers contributes to the overall increase in ground-water discharge toward the east. Model results are supported by water-quality data collected along an east-west hydrogeologic section.

  15. Discussion of tectonic models for Cenozoic strike-slip fault-affected continental margins of mainland SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the roles of Cenozoic strike-slip faults in SE Asia observed in outcrop onshore, with their offshore continuation has produced a variety of structural models (particularly pull-apart vs. oblique extension, escape tectonics vs. slab-pull-driven extension) to explain their relationships to sedimentary basins. Key problems with interpreting the offshore significance of major strike-slip faults are: (1) reconciling conflicting palaeomagnetic data, (2) discriminating extensional, and oblique-extensional fault geometries from strike-slip geometries on 2D seismic reflection data, and (3) estimating strike-slip displacements from seismic reflection data. Focus on basic strike-slip fault geometries such as restraining vs. releasing bends, and strongly splaying geometries approach the gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin, suggest major strike-slip faults probably do not extend far offshore Splays covering areas 10,000's km2 in extent are characteristic of the southern portions of the Sagaing, Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Ailao Shan-Red River faults, and are indicative of major faults dying out. The areas of the fault tips associated with faults of potentially 100 km+ displacement, scale appropriately with global examples of strike-slip faults on log-log displacement vs. tip area plots. The fault geometries in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin are inappropriate for a sinistral pull-apart geometry, and instead the southern fault strands of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault are interpreted to die out within the NW part of the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin. Hence the fault zone does not transfer displacement onto the South China Seas spreading centre. The strike-slip faults are replaced by more extensional, oblique-extensional fault systems offshore to the south. The Sagaing Fault is also superimposed on an older Paleogene-Early Miocene oblique-extensional rift system. The Sagaing Fault geometry is complex, and one branch of the offshore fault zone transfers displacement onto the Pliocene-Recent Andaman spreading centre, and links with the West Andaman and related faults to form a very large pull-apart basin.

  16. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

  17. Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

  18. Late Pleistocene to Holocene river terrace deformation within the Little Salmon Fault Zone: insights to tectonic transition from Cascadia Subduction to San Andreas transform stress regimes, Van Duzen river, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M. A.; Leroy, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) of northwestern California exhibits northeast-directed contraction, transitioning to north-northwest directed translation within the broad San Andreas fault (SAF) transform margin to the south. The Little Salmon fault (LSF) is one of the southern-most, active thrust faults within the onshore fold and thrust belt of the CSZ, and lies proximal to the transition from compressional to dextral stress across the Mendocino Triple Junction. Thus, it is an ideal location to characterize strain associated with this complex region of transitional stress regimes. High precision topographic data (LiDAR) enabled detailed mapping of geomorphic features that would otherwise be obscured by dense vegetation of the area. A northwest trending lineament, sub-parallel and south of the main splay of the LSF is observed on LiDAR imagery. The lineament exhibits potential up-to-the-northeast offset and traverses several Van Duzen river terrace risers and treads that range from Pleistocene to potentially Holocene in age. A shallow, exploratory trench was hand-excavated across the lineament. The shallow, roughly 1.5 m-deep, 16 m-long trench exposed imbricated gravels that dip into the base of the trench in the upper end. Coring within the lower end of the trench mapped the southern extent of the gravels. The architecture of the unconsolidated, clast-supported gravel deposit displays a diffuse up-to-the-northeast step. More obvious offset may be expressed at lower depths and/or in mediums with more confining stress. The linear map expression of the lineament across relatively steep terrain suggests that the fault may be relatively steeply dipping. Conjugate deformation shear bands within Neogene bedrock nearby along the Van Duzen river provide additional information about the state of stress within this area of transition.

  19. Current slip rates on conjugate strike-slip faults in central Tibet using synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Michael Halford; Peltzer, Gilles

    2006-12-09

    Himalaya syntaxis. This eastward movement initiated when the left-lateral slip ceased on the Red River Fault along with the extrusion of the Indochina Block in the mid-Miocene [Leloup et al., 1995; Tapponnier et al., 1990]. This kinematic relationship... echelon fault system as the Karakoram-Jiali fault zone (KJFZ) (Figure 1) and proposed it to be the structure along which eastward movement of the Qiangtang terrane relative to the Lhasa terrane is localized (Figure 1). Thus the KJFZ was inter- preted...

  20. Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. ); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. )

    1991-06-01

    The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

  1. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Gates, J.S.; Smith, Joe T.; Fry, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

  3. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  4. Timing and rate of exhumation along the Litang fault system, implication for fault reorganization in Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Replumaz, Anne; Wang, Guo-Can; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Beek, Peter; Paquette, Jean Louis; Wang, An; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Li, Hai-Bing

    2015-06-01

    The Litang fault system that crosses the Litang Plateau, a low relief surface at high elevation (~4200-4800 m above sea level) that is not affected by regional incision, provides the opportunity to study exhumation related to tectonics in the SE Tibetan Plateau independently of regional erosion. Combining apatite and zircon fission track with apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data, we constrain the cooling history of the Litang fault system footwall along two transects. Apatite fission track ages range from 4 to 16 Ma, AHe ages from 2 to 6 Ma, and one zircon fission track age is ~99 Ma. These data imply a tectonic quiet period sustained since at least 100 Ma with a slow denudation rate of ~0.03 km/Ma, interrupted at 7 to 5 Ma by exhumation at a rate between 0.59 and 0.99 km/Ma. We relate that faster exhumation to the onset of motion along the left-lateral/normal Litang fault system. That onset is linked to a Lower Miocene important kinematic reorganization between the Xianshuihe and the Red River faults, with the eastward propagation of the Xianshuihe fault along the Xiaojiang fault system and the formation of the Zhongdian fault. Such strike-slip faults allow the sliding to the east of a wide continental block, with the Litang fault system accommodating differential motion between rigid blocks. The regional evolution appears to be guided by the strike-slip faults, with different phases of deformation, which appears more in agreement with an "hidden plate-tectonic" model rather than with a "lower channel flow" model.

  5. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Koster, M.D.; Chek, A.A.; Hussell, D.J.T.; Jock, K.

    1995-03-01

    In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

  7. Simultaneous and continuous measurements of dissolved CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in rivers using Fourier-Transform-InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, Thorsten; Müller, Denise; Caldow, Christopher; Rixen, Tim; Notholt, Justus

    2015-04-01

    We have coupled a Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) trace gas analyser to an equilibrator, which allows the simultaneous and continuous measurement of dissolved CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in water. The FTIR-technique has a high precision over a wide range of concentrations, making it very suitable for the measurement of these gases in freshwater systems. We have employed this measurement system on a commercial river barge on the Elbe river (Czech Republic, Germany) and on a fisher boat in the coastal area of Sarawak (Malaysia). In addition we have performed stationary continuous measurements at a small river in Northern Germany over the duration of 3 months. The presentation will outline the advantages and disadvantages of the FTIR-technique for freshwater measurements and will present results from the measurement campaigns.

  8. Segmentation and the coseismic behavior of Basin and Range normal faults: examples from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The range-front normal faults of the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and the Beaverhead and Tendoy Mountains in east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana have well-preserved fault scarps on Quaternary deposits along much of their lengths. Fault-scarp morphology, the age of deposits displaced by the faults, and the morphology of the range fronts provide a basis for dividing the faults into segments that are typically 20-25 km long. The Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead fault zones are 141-151 km long, and each has six segments. The 60-km-long Red Rock fault (the range-front fault of the Tendoy Mountains) has two central segments that have been active in late Quaternary time; these two segments span the central 27 km of the fault. We recognize four characteristics that help to identify segment boundaries: (1) major en e??chelon offsets or pronounced gaps in the continuity of fault scarps; (2) distinct, persistent, along-strike changes in fault-scarp morphology that indicate different ages of faulting; (3) major salients in the range front; and (4) transverse bedrock ridges where the cumulative throw is low compared to other places along the fault zone. Only features whose size is measured on the scale of kilometers are regarded as significant enough to represent a segment boundary that could inhibit or halt a propagating rupture. The ability to identify segments of faults that are likely to behave as independent structural entities will improve seismic-hazard assessment. However, one should not assume that the barriers at segment boundaries will completely stop all propagating ruptures. The topographic expression of mountain ranges is evidence that, at times during their history, all barriers fail. Some barriers apparently create 'leaky' segment boundaries that impede propagating ruptures but do not completely prevent faulting on adjacent segments. ?? 1991.

  9. Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa).

    PubMed

    Berger, Eva M; Leus, Kristin; Vercammen, Paul; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in African and South East Asian pig species kept in European zoos. Species studied were the warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Faecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n = 9), red river hogs (n = 7) and babirusas (n = 5). Enzyme-immunoassays for faecal progesterone, androgen, and oestrogen metabolites, were tested for their ability to determine follicular and luteal phases. In all three species, oestrous cycles could be monitored with 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane assays. In contrast, oestrogens and androgens were not useful in characterising follicular activity during the oestrous cycle in any species. Faecal 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane values were significantly correlated. Faecal pregnane concentrations revealed species-specific differences. Luteal phase values of 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were considerably higher than 20-oxo-pregnanes; 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were in the range of 3-10 microg/g in warthogs and red river hogs, whereas concentrations were 30-200 microg/g faeces in the babirusa. Regular oestrus cycles had a length of about 35 days in all three species studied. Results indicated a seasonal influence on the occurrence of reproductive cycles in the warthog with anoestrous periods in the European summer. The red river hog was found to be a seasonal and poly oestrous breeder; oestrus cycles started by January and continued until summer. In contrast, the babirusa showed non-seasonal ovarian cyclicity. In pregnant red river hogs, progesterone metabolites were comparable to luteal phase values of the oestrous cycle during the first 3 months of gestation, but did further increase during the last month of pregnancy. Oestrogens and 17-oxo-androstanes were significantly elevated during the second half of gestation. In summary, the reproductive biology of three exotic pig species was studied using non-invasive faecal steroid analysis and these methods were used for comparative investigations of oestrous cycles, pregnancy and seasonality. PMID:15876499

  10. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine Holocene sediments. Consequently, 14C groundwater age dating suggests increasing groundwater ages from fresh to saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene up to 14 ka, presuming that contamination with dead carbon is neglectable. Highest 14C ages of low saline water has been observed in the center of the exploited fresh water lens reaching up to 10 ka, reflecting low groundwater flux and recharge rates. Due to the overexploitation, the natural coastward directed groundwater flow has turned towards the centre of the abstraction cone with horizontal apparent velocities of up to 0.6 m/a. This suggests, that brackish and higher saline groundwater from the Red River area (East Nam Dinh) and offshore migrates towards the fresh water lens. Thus, more sustainable exploitation strategies urgently must be implemented to reduce overexploitation of limited and valuable fresh groundwater resources in Nam Dinh Province. Reference: Hoan H., Pham Q. N., Larsen F. Tran L. V., Wagner F., Christiansen A.V. (2010): Processes Controlling High Saline Groundwater in the Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam. 2nd Asia-Pacific Coastal Aquifer Management Meeting (ACAMM), October 18-21, 2011, Jeju Island, Korea.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Minh, Tu Binh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-04-15

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 {mu}g/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese.

  13. 76 FR 49462 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... cutoffs to shorten the river. The existing Overton dam is a concrete gravity structure that is 104 feet in... viewed on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket... authorized by Congress in 1968 to stabilize river banks, straighten river bends, and maintain a...

  14. Data mining of external and internal forcing of fluvial systems for catchment management: A case study on the Red River (Song Hong), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Rafael; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since interactions of natural and anthropogenic forces within the catchment drives fluvial geomorphic processes, which shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. The characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location and time specific and highly resource demanding. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales and the assessment of spatio-temporal changes as reaction to internal and external disturbances is rarely feasible at present. Information ranging from recently available high-resolution remote-sensing data (such as DEM), historic data such as land use maps or aerial photographs and monitoring networks of flow and rainfall, open up novel and promising capacity for basin-wide understanding of dominant hydromorphological drivers. Analysing the resulting multiparametric data sets in their temporal and spatial dimensions requires sophisticated data mining tools to exploit the potential of this information. We propose a novel framework that allows for the quantitative assessment of multiparametric data sets to identify classes of channel reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers using remote-sensing data and monitoring networks available in the catchment. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Song Hong) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 sq.km) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to recent construction of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high development rate, current efforts to increase water productivity and minimize impacts on the fluvial systems by means of focused infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of the fluvial system and, in particular, basin-wide assessment of resilience to human-induced change. . The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale while integrating recent and historic point records for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model in combination with fuzzy clustering. The above framework is able to identify non-trivial correlations in driving forces and to derive a fuzzy classification at reach scale which represents continuities and discontinuities in the river systems. The use of the above framework allowed analyzing the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, revealing patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing a classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers, fluvial processes and response to external forcing. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale integrating historical and recent available high resolution data. The framework aims at opening the way to a more structured organization and analyses of recently available information on river geomorphic features, so far often missing or rarely exploited. This approach poses the basis to produce efficient databases of river geomorphic features and processes related to natural and anthropogenic drivers. That is a necessity in order to enhance our understanding of the internal and external forces which drive fluvial systems, to assess the resilience and dynamic of river landscapes and to develop the more efficient river management strategies of the future.

  15. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both the seasonal and annual variability removed are called standardized concentrations. Numerous changes that could not be attributed to natural streamflow-related variability occurred in the standardized concentrations during the trend-analysis period. During various times from the late 1970's to the mid-1990's, significant increases occurred in standardized dissolved sulfate, dissolved chloride, and dissolved- solids concentrations for eight of the nine stations for which water-quality trends were analyzed. Significant increases also occurred from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's for standardized dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations for the main-stem stations. The increasing concentrations for the main-stem stations indicate the upward trends may have been caused by human activities along the main stem of the Red River. Significant trends for standardized total ammonia plus organic nitrogen concentrations occurred for most stations. The fitted trends for standardized total phosphorus concentrations for one tributary station increased from the late 1970's to the early 1980's and decreased from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's. Small but insignificant increases occurred for two main-stem stations. No trends were detected for standardized dissolved iron or dissolved manganese concentrations. However, the combination of extreme high-frequency variability, few data, and the number of censored values may have disguised the streamflow-related variability for iron. The time-series model used to detect historical concentration trends also was used to evaluate sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. Various sampling designs were evaluated with regard to their sensitivity to detect both annual and seasonal trends during three 4-month seasons. A reasonable overall design for detecting trends for all stations and constituents consisted of eight samples per year, with monthly sampling from April to August and bimonthly sampling from Oct

  16. The timing of strike-slip shear along the Ranong and Khlong Marui faults, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, Ian; Elders, Chris; Batt, Geoff; Jourdan, Fred; Hall, Robert; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2011-09-01

    The timing of shear along many important strike-slip faults in Southeast Asia, such as the Ailao Shan-Red River, Mae Ping and Three Pagodas faults, is poorly understood. We present 40Ar/39Ar, U-Pb SHRIMP and microstructural data from the Ranong and Khlong Marui faults of Thailand to show that they experienced a major period of ductile dextral shear during the middle Eocene (48-40 Ma, centered on 44 Ma) which followed two phases of dextral shear along the Ranong Fault, before the Late Cretaceous (>81 Ma) and between the late Paleocene and early Eocene (59-49 Ma). Many of the sheared rocks were part of a pre-kinematic crystalline basement complex, which partially melted and was intruded by Late Cretaceous (81-71 Ma) and early Eocene (48 Ma) tin-bearing granites. Middle Eocene dextral shear at temperatures of ˜300-500°C formed extensive mylonite belts through these rocks and was synchronous with granitoid vein emplacement. Dextral shear along the Ranong and Khlong Marui faults occurred at the same time as sinistral shear along the Mae Ping and Three Pagodas faults of northern Thailand, a result of India-Burma coupling in advance of India-Asia collision. In the late Eocene (<37 Ma) the Ranong and Khlong Marui faults were reactivated as curved sinistral branches of the Mae Ping and Three Pagodas faults, which were accommodating lateral extrusion during India-Asia collision and Himalayan orogenesis.

  17. Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

  18. Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

  19. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

  20. Exploration of Wadi Zerka Ma'in rotational fault and its drainage pattern, Eastern of Dead Sea, by means of remote sensing, GIS and 3D geological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, Taleb; Gloaguen, Richard; Schirmer, Mario; Geyer, Stefan; Rödiger, Tino; Siebert, Christian

    2009-09-01

    The Wadi Zerka Ma'in catchment area is located in the North East of the Dead Sea. It contains a confined river of about 23 km length. The region is characterized by a recent sharp base level drop and a strong orographic control on climatic parameters such as temperature and precipitation. It is controlled by three regional structural systems as follow: 1) the anticline - syncline system (late Cretaceous - end of Miocene) which is a part of Syrian fold arc system; 2) NW - SE faults system which were generated simultaneously and parallel to the Red Sea spreading; 3) NWW - SSE faults system which are perpendicular to the Dead Sea and younger than the Red Sea fault system; 4) NNW - SSE faults system (middle Miocene - until now) which were generated simultaneously and parallel to the active Dead Sea transform fault. The structural setting of the study area was evaluated by means of a three-dimensional (3D) geological model, a digital elevation model (DEM) with resolutions 15 meters and stream profile analysis. DEM generation was performed using ASTER data. We found that the Wadi is located at the junction of two main fault systems. The major feature is a trans-tensional fault displacement which changes from 0 to 200 m. We showed that the catchment area is a result of a rotational fault while the river changes its flow direction according to the different fault system directions. The lower portion of the basin is affected by the major base level drops and display contributing rivers in exceptional non-equilibrium. Thus this catchment allows observing the rapid adaptation of the drainage system to both climatic and tectonic forcing.

  1. Faulted Barn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This barn is faulted through the middle; the moletrack is seen in the foreground with the viewer standing on the fault. From the air one can see metal roof panels of the barn that rotated as the barn was faulted....

  2. Water-Quality Data for Water- and Wastewater-Treatment Plants Along the Red River of the North, North Dakota and Minnesota, January through October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Hansel, John A.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From January through October 2006, six sets of water-quality samples were collected at 28 sites, which included inflow and outflow from seven major municipal water-treatment plants (14 sites) and influent and effluent samples from seven major municipal wastewater treatment plants (14 sites) along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota. Samples were collected in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the development of return-flow boundary conditions in a 2006 water-quality model for the Red River of the North. All samples were analyzed for nutrients and major ions. For one set of effluent samples from each of the wastewater-treatment plants, water was analyzed for Eschirichia coli, fecal coliform, 20-day biochemical oxygen demand, 20-day nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. In general, results from the field equipment blank and replicate samples indicate that the overall process of sample collection, processing, and analysis did not introduce substantial contamination and that consistent results were obtained.

  3. Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and smectite increasing toward to the fault, whereas illite decreases. These trends are likely the result of CO2-related diagenesis, and similar trends are also observed in sandstone units at the site. Fracture mechanics testing of unaltered and CO2-altered sandstone and siltstone samples shows that CO2-related diagenesis, which is indicated by bleaching of the Entrada Fm, has significantly decreased the fracture resistance. The subcritical fracture index is similarly affected by alteration. These compositional and mechanical changes are expected to affect the extent, geometry, and flow properties of fracture networks in CO2 sequestration systems, and thus may significantly affect reservoir and seal performance in CO2 reservoirs. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  5. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Kunlun Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kunlun fault is one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet. Left-lateral motion along the 1,500-kilometer (932-mile) length of the Kunlun has occurred uniformly for the last 40,000 years at a rate of 1.1 centimeter per year, creating a cumulative offset of more than 400 meters. In this image, two splays of the fault are clearly seen crossing from east to west. The northern fault juxtaposes sedimentary rocks of the mountains against alluvial fans. Its trace is also marked by lines of vegetation, which appear red in the image. The southern, younger fault cuts through the alluvium. A dark linear area in the center of the image is wet ground where groundwater has ponded against the fault. Measurements from the image of displacements of young streams that cross the fault show 15 to 75 meters (16 to 82 yards) of left-lateral offset. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) acquired the visible light and near infrared scene on July 20, 2000. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  7. Fault management Fault management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    degradation 1 3% Natural events 1 3% Hard Failures: service interruption Network Management and Qo in the event of a failure causing few or no Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 7Andrea Bianco ­ TNGFault management Pag. 1 Fault management Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco

  8. Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

  9. LA-ICP-MS mineral chemistry of titanite and the geological implications for exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Leiluo; Bi, Xianwu; Hu, Ruizhong; Tang, Yongyong; Wang, Xinsong; Xu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The Jinshajiang-Red River alkaline igneous belt in the eastern Indian-Asian collision zone, of southwestern China, hosts abundant, economically important Cu-Mo-Au mineralization of Cenozoic age. Major- and trace-element compositions of titanites from representative Cu-mineralized intrusions determined by LA-ICP-MS show higher values for Fe2O3/Al2O3, ?REE + Y, LREE/HREE, Ce/Ce*, (Ce/Ce*)/(Eu/Eu*), U, Th, Ta, Nb and Ga, and lower values for Al2O3, CaO, Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta and Sr than those for titanites from barren intrusions. Different ?REE + Y, LREE/HREE, U, Th, Ta and Nb values of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were controlled mainly by the coexisting melt compositions. However, different Sr concentrations and negative Eu anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most probably caused by different degrees of crystallization of feldspar from melts. In addition, different Ga concentrations and positive Ce anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most likely caused by different magmatic fO2 conditions. Pronounced compositional differences of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions can provide a useful tool to help discriminate between ore-bearing and barren intrusions at an early stage of exploration, and, thus, have a potential application in exploration for porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, and to other areas.

  10. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P....

  11. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P....

  12. Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-01-04

    For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

  13. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

  14. Fault finder

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Richard H. (1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665)

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  15. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces exist is still in researching. This study has a significant meaning of major earthquake risk analysis at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block.

  16. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane–Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane–habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes’ habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR. PMID:26065417

  17. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

  18. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR. PMID:26065417

  19. Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

  20. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: implications for the management of environmental flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  1. Complementing data-driven and physically-based approaches for predictive morphologic modeling: Results and implication from the Red River Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bernardi, D.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2013-12-01

    During the last 30 years, the delta of the Red River (Song Hong) in northern Vietnam experienced grave morphologic degradation processes which severely impact economic activities and endanger region-wide livelihoods. Rapidly progressing river bed incision, for example, threatens the irrigation of the delta's paddy rice crops which constitute 20% of Vietnam's annual rice production. Morphologic alteration is related to a drastically changed sediment balance due to major upstream impoundments, sediment mining and land use changes, further aggravated by changing hydro-meteorological conditions. Despite the severe impacts, river morphology was so far not included into the current efforts to optimize basin wide water resource planning for a lack of suitable, not overly resource demanding modeling strategies. This paper assesses the suitability of data-driven models to provide insights into complex hydromorphologic processes and to complement and enrich physically-based modeling strategies. Hence, to identify key drivers of morphological change while evaluating impacts of future socio-economic, management and climate scenarios on river morphology and the resulting effects on key social needs (e.g. water supply, energy production and flood mitigation). Most relevant drivers and time-scales for the considered processes (e.g. incision) - from days to decades - were identified from hydrologic and sedimentologic time-series using a feature ranking algorithm based on random trees. The feature ranking pointed out bimodal response characteristics, with important contributions of long-to-medium (5 - 15 yrs.) and rather short (10d - 6 months) timescales. An artificial neural network (ANN), built from identified variables, subsequently quantified in detail how these temporal components control long term trends, inter-seasonal fluctuations and day to day variations in morphologic processes. Whereas the general trajectory of incision relates, for example, to the overall regional sediment balance over an extended time-horizon (>15 yrs.), upstream impoundments induce a much more rapid adaptation (1-5 yrs.). The applicability of the ANN as predictive model was evaluated by comparing its results with a traditional, 1D bed evolution model. The next decade's morphologic evolution under an ensemble of scenarios, considering uncertainties in climatic change, socio-economic development and upstream reservoir release policies was derived from both models. The ANN greatly outperforms the 1D model in computational requirements and presents a powerful tool for effective assessment of scenario ensembles and quantification of uncertainties in river hydro-morphology. In contrast, the processes-based model provides detailed, spatio-temporally distributed outputs and validation of the ANN's results for selected scenarios. We conclude that the application of both approaches constitutes a mutually enriching strategy for modern, quantitative catchment management. We argue that physically based modeling can have specific spatial and temporal constrains (e.g. in terms of identifying key drivers and associated temporal and spatial domains) and that linking physically-based with data-driven approaches largely increases the potential for including hydro-morphology into basin-scale water resource management.

  2. Temporal change and its spatial variety on land surface temperature and land use changes in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, using MODIS time-series imagery.

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen, On; Kawamura, Kensuke; Trong, Dung Phan; Gong, Zhe; Suwandana, Endan

    2015-07-01

    Temporal changes in the land surface temperature (LST) in urbanization areas are important for studying an urban heat island (UHI) and regional climate change. This study examined the LST trends under different land use categories in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product (MOD11A2) and land cover type product (MCD12Q1) for 11 years (2002-2012). Smoothened time-series MODIS LST data were reconstructed by the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm. The reconstructed LST (maximum and minimum temperatures) was assessed using the hourly air temperature dataset in two land-based meteorological stations provided by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Significant correlation was obtained between MODIS LST and the air temperature for the daytime (R (2)?=?0.73, root mean square error [RMSE]?=?1.66 °C) and night time (R (2)?=?0.84, RMSE?=?1.79 °C). Statistical analysis also showed that LST trends vary strongly depending on the land cover type. Forest, wetland, and cropland had a slight tendency to decline, whereas cropland and urban had sharper increases. In urbanized areas, these increasing trends are even more obvious. This is undeniable evidence of the negative impact of urbanization on a surface urban heat island (SUHI) and global warming. PMID:26113204

  3. Use of LANDSAT MSS imagery and soil type in a geographic information system to assess site-specific risk of fascioliasis on Red River Basin farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Fehler, D P; Loyacano, A F; Zukowski, S H

    1992-06-16

    A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed in an ERDAS environment using maps of soil types from the USDA Soil Conservation Service, LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner data (MSS), boundaries for 25 study farms, and slope and hydrologic features shown in a two-quadrangle (USGS, 7.5') area in the Red River Basin near Alexandria, Louisiana. Fecal sedimentation examinations were done in the fall of 1989, spring of 1990, and fall and winter of 1990-1991 on 10-16 random samples per herd. Fecal egg shedding rates for F. hepatica ranged from 10-100% prevalence and 0.3-21.7 eggs per two grams of feces (EP2G). For Paramphistomum spp., a rumen fluke also transmitted by F. bulimoides but not affected by flukicides, egg shedding rates ranged from 10-91% prevalence and 0.1-42.8 EP2G. Soil types present ranged from sandy loams to hydric, occasionally flooded clays. Herd Paramphistomum spp. egg shedding rates increased with the proportion of hydric clays present, adjusted for slope and major hydrologic features. F. hepatica infection intensity followed a similar trend, but were complicated by differing treatment practices. Results suggest that earth observation satellite data and soil maps can be used, with an existing climate forecast based on the Thornthwaite water budget, to develop a second generation model that accounts for both regional climate variation and site-specific differences in fascioliasis risk based on soils prone to snail habitat. PMID:1626889

  4. Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

    2005-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

  5. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; Runkel, Robert L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Reactive-transport processes in the Red River, downstream from the town of Red River in north-central New Mexico, were simulated using the OTEQ reactive-transport model. The simulations were calibrated using physical and chemical data from synoptic studies conducted during low-flow conditions in August 2001 and during March/April 2002. Discharge over the 20-km reach from the town of Red River to the USGS streamflow-gaging station near the town of Questa ranged from 395 to 1,180 L/s during the 2001 tracer and from 234 to 421 L/s during the 2002 tracer. The pH of the Red River ranged from 7.4 to 8.5 during the 2001 tracer and from 7.1 to 8.7 during the 2002 tracer, and seep and tributary samples had pH values of 2.8 to 9.0 during the 2001 tracer and 3.8 to 7.2 during the 2002 tracer. Mass-loading calculations allowed identification of several specific locations where elevated concentrations of potential contaminants entered the Red River . These locations, characterized by features on the north side of the Red River that are known to be sources of low-pH water containing elevated metal and sulfate concentrations, are: the initial 2.4 km of the study reach, including Bitter Creek, the stream section from 6.2 to 7.8 km, encompassing La Bobita well and the Hansen debris fan, Sulphur Gulch, at about 10.5 km, the area near Portal Springs, from 12.2 to 12.6 km, and the largest contributors of mass loading, the 13.7 to 13.9 km stream section near Cabin Springs and the 14.7 to 17.5 km stream section from Shaft Spring to Thunder Bridge, Goathill Gulch, and Capulin Canyon. Speciation and saturation index calculations indicated that although solubility limits the concentration of aluminum above pH 5.0, at pH values above 7 and aluminum concentrations below 0.3 mg/L inorganic speciation and mineral solubility controls no longer dominate and aluminum-organic complexing may occur. The August 2001 reactive-transport simulations included dissolved iron(II) oxidation, constrained using measured concentrations of dissolved iron(II) and dissolved iron(total). Both simulations included precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3 and hydrous ferric oxide as Fe(OH)3, and sorption of copper and zinc to the precipitated hydrous ferric oxide. Simulations revealed that hydrogen, iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were non-conservative and that mineral precipitation can account for iron and aluminum concentrations. Copper and zinc concentrations can be accounted for by simulating their sorption to hydrous ferric oxide forming in the water column of the Red River , although hydrous manganese oxides also may be important sorption substrates.

  6. Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

  7. Weather and Management Effects over Nine Years of Net Ecosystem Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cropping System in the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in weather and crop management practices strongly determines direct greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O) from agricultural crop land. Thus a long-term study was established to relate weather and management variations to direct emissions in the Northern Great Plains of Canada. Continuously emission determinations of CO2 and N2O were established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba, using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012, 2013 and 2014 all four plots were planted with corn, soybean and spring wheat, respectively. Management decisions increased emissions such as fertilizer N addition, and hay, straw and silage crop removal greatly increased emissions while choosing legume grain and perennial crops reduced emissions. Weather variation affecting seasonal and daily soil moisture, length of spring freeze-thaw period, and crop yield served to increase or decrease emissions. The variation in management and weather will be discussed in regards to impact on net emissions over the nine year study and answer if development of greenhouse gas neutral cropping systems is possible.

  8. The Historical Demography and Genetic Variation of the Endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the Red River Region, Examined by Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

  9. Lateral drilling and completion technologies for shallow-shelf carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin. Topical report, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, L.A.; George, R.D.; Gibbons, D.

    1998-07-01

    Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil-well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius lateral in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2,590 to 2,890 m in Richland County, MT; Bowman County, ND; and Harding County, SD. In theory, all of the horizontal drilling techniques explored in this project have merit for application fitting specific criteria. From a realistic point of view, the only relatively trouble-free, adequately-proven technology employed was the medium-radius steered motor/MWD technology. The slim-tool steered motor/MWD re-entry technology has been used extensively but appears to still be significantly in developmental stages. This technology will probably always be more troublesome than the technology used to drill new wells because the smaller diameter required for the tools contributes to both design and operational complexities. Although limited mechanical success has been achieved with some of the lateral jetting technologies and the Amoco tools, their predictability and reliability is unproven. Additionally, they appear to be limited to shallow depths and certain rock types. The Amoco technology probably has the most potential to be successfully developed for routinely reliable, field applications. A comparison of the various horizontal drilling technologies investigated is presented.

  10. New tectono-geochronological constraints on timing of shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: Implications for genesis of Ailao Shan gold mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Nguyen, Quang-Luat; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan

    2015-05-01

    Several world class gold deposits are located along the Ailao Shan (ALS) belt in eastern Tibet, China. The genesis of gold mineralization along the belt, however, has been the subject of debates in the last decades, which highlights the importance of dating shearing, magmatism and mineralization along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (ASRR). Through detailed field observations and microscopic analysis, a group of leucocratic intrusions from within and outside the shear zone along the ALS belt are investigated in the present paper. Pre-, syn- and post-shearing intrusions are grouped based on structural and microstructural analysis. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS dating of the intrusions revealed the existence of two age populations, a group of ages older than 30 Ma and the other younger than 28 Ma. The former are distributed both within and outside the shear zone, and the latter, in contrast, occur only within the shear zone. Our new results show that the ductile shearing along the ASRR shear zone initiated since ca. 30 Ma ago. The dating results place major constraints on timing of shearing along the ASRR shear zone and have profound implications on the genesis of gold mineralization along the ALS belt. The present study reveals that ductile shearing along the ASRR shear zone was resulted from extrusion of the Indochina block late during the Indian-Eurasian plate collision. Meanwhile, we conclude that the gold mineralization took place prior to the shearing, but in close relation to an early magmatism (>30 Ma) ascribed to post-collisional extension collapse involving mantle processes, early during the plate collision.

  11. The historical demography and genetic variation of the endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the red river region, examined by chloroplast DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

  12. Clustering spatio-seasonal hydrogeochemical data using self-organizing maps for groundwater quality assessment in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Kawamura, Akira; Tong, Thanh Ngoc; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo; Gilbuena, Romeo

    2015-03-01

    The Red River Delta (RRD) is the second largest delta in Vietnam, and its local communities depend on groundwater sources for water supply. A clear understanding of the groundwater hydrogeochemical properties, particularly their changes from the dry to rainy seasons and spatial characteristics, is invaluable and indispensable for the management and protection of this important water resource. In this study, self-organizing maps was systematically applied for the first time to investigate the seasonal and spatial hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Pleistocene confined aquifer of the RRD. The hydrogeochemical characteristics clustered by SOM were further examined using the Gibbs Diagrams. The groundwater chemistry dataset used in the analysis comprised eight major dissolved ions (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, and CO32-) and total dissolved solids that were collected from 52 groundwater monitoring wells within the study area during the dry and rainy seasons. Based on the results, the hydrogeochemical groundwater data of the confined aquifer monitoring wells for the delta were classified into 8 clusters, which revealed three basic representative water types: high salinity (2 clusters), low salinity (3 clusters), and freshwater (3 clusters). The high-salinity types were located in the middle-stream and coastal areas of the RRD, while the low-salinity types were observed near the western and northeastern boundaries of the delta. Cluster changes from the dry to rainy seasons were detected in approximately one-third of the observation wells. The increase in groundwater recharge during the rainy season is the main reason for these changes. Based on Gibbs diagrams, the source of soluble ions in the groundwater of the freshwater types was found to be the weathering of rock-forming minerals, while evaporation and marine activities (leaching from salty paleowater and salt water intrusion) were found to be the main factors affecting the chemistry of the groundwater characterized by the low- and high- salinity types, respectively.

  13. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  14. Fault segmentation and structural evolution of the frontal Longmen San fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Xu, X.; Yuan, R.; Li, K.; Sun, X.; Chen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Field investigations show that the Wenchuan earthquake on the 12th of May 2008 ruptured two NW-dipping imbricate reverse faults along the Longmen Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The length of the Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault reaches nearly 240 km. Southeast of this fault, a smaller displacement occurred along the Guanxian-Jiangyou Fault, which has a length of about 70 km. A 7 km long NW-striking left-lateral reverse fault, the Xiaoyudong Fault, was clearly observed between these two main surface ruptures. This co-seismic surface rupture pattern, involving multiple structures, is one of the most complicated patterns of recent great earthquakes. The surface rupture length is the longest among the co-seismic surface rupture zones for reverse faulting events ever reported. Our detail field investigations reveal that the surface rupture of the Wenchuan earthquake cascaded through several pre-existing fault segments. The displacement amount, the rupture pattern and the stress orientation calculated from the fault slickenside striations between the different segments are all different. Some secondary faults can also be observed between the segments. These faults are partially active and control the development of river terraces and the shape of streams. We suggest that the multi-segment rupturing model is a better approximation than a single-segment model for estimating the maximum magnitude of the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  15. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  16. Fault mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

  17. Red Clover

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plants called legumes. Red clover contains phytoestrogens—compounds similar to the female hormone estrogen. Historically, red ... been reported. Because red clover contains estrogen-like compounds, there is a possibility that its long-term ...

  18. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into “Yuanjiang-Nanhun” basin and “Ejia-Jiepai” basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation objectives. For operational guidelines, the downstream populations which occupy high and peculiar haplotypes should be given prior in-situ conservation. In addition, ex-situ conservation and reintroduction measures for decades of generations are supplemented for improving the population size and genetic diversity of the endemic and endangered species. PMID:26442013

  19. Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2003-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

  20. Seismic and gravity investigations of the shallow (upper 1 km) hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the vicinity of the Whataroa River, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lay, V.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    Paleoseismic evidence from the vicinity of the plate-bounding Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island suggests that earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occur every 200-400 years, with the last earthquake occurring in AD 1717. No human observations of this event are recorded. Therefore, the Deep Fault Drilling Project 2 (DFDP-2) drill hole, which is planned for 2014 on the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley, provides a critical opportunity to study the behavior of this transpressive plate boundary late in its seismogenic cycle. New seismic and gravity data collected since 2011 have been analyzed to assist with the positioning of the drill hole in this glacial valley that provides rare low-elevation access to the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The WhataDUSIE controlled-source seismic project, led by researchers from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada), provided relatively high-resolution coverage (4-8 m geophone spacing, 25-100 m shot spacing) along a 5-km-long profile across the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley. This work has been supplemented by focused hammer-seismic studies and gravity data collection in the valley. The former targets surface layer properties, whereas the latter targets the depth to the base of the glacially carved paleovalley. In positioning DFDP-2, an understanding of the nature of overburden and valley-fill sediments is critical for drilling design. A velocity model has been developed for the valley based on refraction analysis of the WhataDUSIE and hammer-seismic data combined with a ray-theoretical travel-time tomography (RAYINVR) image of the shallow (uppermost 1 km or so) part of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The model shows that the glacial valley, which presumably was last scoured by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum, has been filled with 200-350 m of post-glacial sediments and outwash gravels. The hanging-wall rocks into which the valley was cut are presumed to be mylonitized Alpine Schist. Considering uplift rates of 6-10 mm/a on the hanging wall of the fault and a glacial withdrawal date of 10,000 years before present (i.e., 60-100 m of uplift since the ice vacated the valley), the floor of the valley would have been as deep as about 350 m below sea level at the time that the ice withdrew (given the current elevation of ~100 m on the valley floor). Basal sediments in the valley could therefore be either marine (if the valley was open to the ocean) or lacustrine (if the valley was isolated from the open ocean by elevated footwall rocks along the west coast of the South Island). Once the original water body in the valley was filled, sediments would accumulate as outwash gravels above sea level.

  1. New thermochronological constraints on the timing of shear from the Khlong Marui and Ranong faults, Peninsular Thailand: implications for Himalayan lateral extrusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, I.; Elders, C.; Hall, R.

    2009-04-01

    New Ar-Ar data from the strike-slip faults of Peninsular Thailand indicate rapid uplift of mid-crustal ductile shear zones during the Eocene. The cooling ages are consistent with a northwards younging pattern of Ar-Ar cooling ages from the NW-trending Three Pagodas and Mae Ping faults in Northern Thailand, to the Ailao Shan-Red River fault in Vietnam and Yunnan, taken to reflect the northwards movement of India during the Cenozoic. The peninsular structures: the Khlong Marui fault (KMF) and Ranong fault (RF), are major NNE trending strike-slip faults of respectively 220 km and 420 km length. Exposed mylonitic rocks bear consistently dextral kinematic indicators, unlike the sinistral mylonites of the NW-trending structures to the north. Brittle strike-slip and dip-slip faults overprint all the shear zones. Rocks ranging from low grade mylonites to syn-kinematic amphibolite facies migmatites from the RF and KMF yield similar biotite Ar-Ar cooling ages, suggesting that uplift from all depths in the shear zone was rapid. Retrograde shear fabrics in places show that dextral shear may have continued during uplift. While the new thermochronological data show that the peninsular mylonites cooled during the Eocene, constraint from pre- and post-kinematic granitoids strongly suggests that ductile shear occurred during the Late-Cretaceous to Paleocene. Since this is well before the onset of India-Eurasia collision, much of the ductile shear must pre-date that orogeny, and therefore cannot be related to Himalayan lateral extrusion, as has been speculated. The regional cooling pattern, however, shows that Indian indentation may have triggered progressive northward exhumation of mylonitic rocks. If the model of the peninsular faults is applied to the NW-trending faults in northern Thailand, then a pre-Himalayan history may also be recorded by those mylonites, rather than a simple, lateral extrusion-related history.

  2. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  3. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  4. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  5. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  6. Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in farm families ascertained from parent-reported birth defects. In the present study, in the first year of life, the birth defect rate was 31.3 births per 1,000, with 83% of the total reported birth defects confirmed by medical records. Inclusion of children identified with birth or developmental disorders within the first 3 years of life and later led to a rate of 47.0 per 1,000 (72 children from 1,532 live births). Conceptions in spring resulted in significantly more children with birth defects than found in any other season (7.6 vs. 3.7%). Twelve families had more than one child with a birth defect (n = 28 children). Forty-two percent of the children from families with recurrent birth defects were conceived in spring, a significantly higher rate than that for any other season. Three families in the kinships defined contributed a first-degree relative other than a sibling with the same or similar birth defect, consistent with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The remaining nine families did not follow a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The sex ratio of children with birth defects born to applicator families shows a male predominance (1.75 to 1) across specific pesticide class use and exposure categories exclusive of fungicides. In the fungicide exposure category, normal female births significantly exceed male births (1.25 to 1). Similarly, the proportion of male to female children with birth defects is significantly lower (0.57 to 1; p = 0.02). Adverse neurologic and neurobehavioral developmental effects clustered among the children born to applicators of the fumigant phosphine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; confidence interval [CI], 1.2-5.1). Use of the herbicide glyphosate yielded an OR of 3.6 (CI, 1.3-9.6) in the neurobehavioral category. Finally, these studies point out that (a) herbicides applied in the spring may be a factor in the birth defects observed and (b) fungicides can be a significant factor in the determination of sex of the children of the families of the RRV. Thus, two distinct classes of pesticides seem to have adverse effects on different reproductive outcomes. Biologically based confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:12060842

  7. Distinct Variations in Seismic Velocity Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle across the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, S.; Pan, Y.; Huang, B.; Huang, W.; Le, T.; Dinh, V.

    2011-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Aliao Shan-Red River shear zone (RRSZ) that runs from southeast Tibet through North Vietnam to the South China Sea and marks the boundary between the Indochina and South China blocks has been considered closely linked with the northward indention of the strong Indian plate into the Eurasian continent and the consequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. A variety of models have been proposed to explain the postcollisional deformation and magmatism of SE Asia and movement along the RRSZ. Since December 2005, Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica of Taiwan has deployed a regional broadband array with station spacing of ~50 km in Northern Vietnam for earthquake and seismic structure studies. We collect data from earthquakes with magnitude?5.5 and epicentral distances of 30-90o between December, 2005 and June, 2008. Using this new dataset, we report 3-D variations of P- and S-wave speeds (?lnVP and ?lnVS) and Poisson's ratios via ?ln(VP/VS) in the crust and upper mantle across the shear zone, obtained with tomographic inversion of P and S relative travel time residuals measured by inter-station cross-correlation of waveforms at both high- and low-frequencies. We employ physically realistic 3-D sensitivity kernels for frequency-dependent traveltime data and data-adaptive, multi-scale parameterization in the inversion. The resulting models reveal noticeable differences across the RRSZ, where the anomalies of distinctly low VS and VP/VS are widely-dispersed in the lower crust and uppermost mantle down to the depth of 100 km to the southwest of the RRSZ. This may indicate that ductile crustal mass has flowed out of Tibet into Indochina accompanying extrusion of relatively hot lithospheric mantle along the RRSZ related to Late Cenozoic volcanism in the region. Though less distinct in the S velocity model, an elongated fast anomaly about 60 km wide that strikes parallel to the RRSZ and subvertically extends to the depth of 60 km clearly emerges in VP. Such narrow high-wavespeed feature indicates the RRSZ may be strong and probably did not cut through the entire lithosphere. Besides, a prominent, localized low velocity region with positive free-air gravity anomalies is present in the crust between the RRSZ and subparallel Song-Ma suture to the south. The characteristics of low seismic velocity and high density suggest that it may originate from the Emeshian flood volcanism being offset along the RRSZ of several hundred kilometers. Moreover, two pronounced, larger-scale low-velocity anomalies are distributed at depths greater than 100 km. One is located to the south of the Tonkin Gulf, and the other situated in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, Southeast China. The latter is correlated with the deep, low-velocity anomaly found in the proximity of Hainan, which has been previously reported in global tomographic models.

  8. Trends in Streamflow and Nutrient and Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes River Basins, 1975-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, David L.; Robertson, Dale M.; Hall, David W.; Saad, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Many actions have been taken to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and the amount of nutrients and sediment transported in streams as a result of the Clean Water Act and subsequent regulations. This report assesses how nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in selected streams have changed during recent years to determine if these actions have been successful. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in concentrations and trends in loads from 1993 to 2004 were computed for total nitrogen, dissolved ammonia, total organic nitrogen plus ammonia, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total suspended material (total suspended solids or suspended sediment), and total suspended sediment for 49 sites in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Great Lakes Basins. Changes in total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended-material loads were examined from 1975 to 2003 at six sites to provide a longer term context for the data examined from 1993 to 2004. Flow-adjusted trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 19 of 24 sites showed tendency toward increasing concentrations, and overall trends in total nitrogen concentrations at 16 of the 24 sites showed a general tendency toward increasing concentrations. The trends in these flow-adjusted total nitrogen concentrations are related to the changes in fertilizer nitrogen applications. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations from 1993 to 2004 showed a widespread tendency toward decreasing concentrations. The widespread, downward trends in dissolved ammonia concentrations indicate that some of the ammonia reduction goals of the Clean Water Act are being met. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in total organic plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations from 1993 to 2004 did not show a distinct spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations from 1993 to 2004 also did not show a distinct spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted trends in total phosphorus concentrations were upward at 24 of 40 sites. Overall trends in total phosphorus concentrations were mixed and showed no spatial pattern. Flow-adjusted and overall trends in dissolved phosphorus concentrations were consistently downward at all of the sites in the eastern part of the basins studied. The reduction in phosphorus fertilizer use and manure production east of the Mississippi River could explain most of the observed trends in dissolved phosphorus. Flow-adjusted trends in total suspended-material concentrations showed distinct spatial patterns of increasing tendencies throughout the western part of the basins studied and in Illinois and decreasing concentrations throughout most of Wisconsin, Iowa, and in the eastern part of the basins studied. Flow-adjusted trends in total phosphorus were strongly related to the flow-adjusted trends in suspended materials. The trends in the flow-adjusted suspended-sediment concentrations from 1993 to 2004 resembled those for suspended materials. The long-term, nonmonotonic trends in total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended-material loads for 1975 to 2003 were described by local regression, LOESS, smoothing for six sites. The statistical significance of those trends cannot be determined; however, the long-term changes found for annual streamflow and load data indicate that the monotonic trends from 1993 to 2004 should not be extrapolated backward in time.

  9. Seismicity of Southwestern Yukon, Canada, and its relation to slip transfer between the Fairweather and Denali fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, Diane I.

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have postulated the existence of a fault (termed the Connector fault) that transfers slip from the Fairweather to the Denali fault systems in order to match the observed regional variations in fault slip and GPS deformation. Earthquake locations, seismic moment tensor information, and gravity data presented in this study suggest that the Connector fault is an active seismogenic structure that extends from the Fairweather fault near Hubbard Glacier to the intersection of the Duke River and Totschunda fault systems. Seismicity and potential field data also suggest the existence of an east-west trending cross structure between the Totschunda and Denali faults just north of 62°N that appears to be taking up compressional deformation similar to the Duke River fault system to the south. The intersection of this cross structure with the Totschunda fault occurs near the termination of the 2002 Denali fault mainshock rupture zone.

  10. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  11. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause kidney damage. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Red yeast is LIKELY UNSAFE during pregnancy. It ... about the safety of using red yeast during breast-feeding. Don’t use during pregnancy or breast-feeding. ...

  12. Red clover

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), haloperidol (Haldol), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), theophylline (Theo-Dur, ... in the body, red clover might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take red clover ...

  13. Red clover

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to work, though, for lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for ... red clover for symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes; for breast pain or tenderness (mastalgia); and ...

  14. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  15. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  16. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  17. Timing and offset on strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Belt, B. C. and WA, and 40--80 MA fault reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Umhoefer, P.J. . Dept. of Geology); Schiarizza, P. )

    1993-04-01

    New evidence for displacement and timing on the Yalakom fault system (YFS) and from other dextral strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Mountains and North Cascades gives an improved fault reconstruction for Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time. About 125 km of dextral offset on the YFS occurred in three stages: a cryptic [approximately]80--[approximately]55 Ma dextral-transpressive stage; a dextral-slip and extensional stage from [approximately]55--44 Ma; and a 44-->34 Ma stage on the marshall Creek-Yalakom faults. The authors fault reconstruction includes speculative offset estimates on the Hozameen (80--90 km) and Ross Lake Faults (10 km), previous estimates on the Fraser River (90 km) and Straight Creek faults (160 km), and accounts for timing differences on the Fraser River and Straight Creek faults.

  18. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  19. Ductile and Brittle Neogene Deformation of Late Permian Orthogneiss in the Northern Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone: View from the Xuelong Shan Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Yi, D.; Yi, K.; Wang, Q. F.; Wang, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    The orthogneisses in the core of the Xuelong Shan block are surrounded by ductile and then brittle fault rocks. This lens-shape block is in fault contact with Triassic marbles on the eastern margin and Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstones on the western margin. The rocks in the core of the Xuelong Shan block contain multiply foliated feldspathic orthogneisses with local amphibolites, largely overprinted by protomylonitic deformation. Foliation strengthens to the east to become mylonites and ultramylonites, with a 30 m wide zone of loosely cemented fault breccia adjacent to brittlely faulted Triassic marbles. In contrast, the rocks to the west are dominated by brittle deformation, with mylonites becoming cataclasites and then breccias facing the mudstones to the east. Well-foliated phyllonites are locally present within the cataclasites. Early S1 gneissosity striking ENE are recognized only in the interior protomylonite. In the east, the dominate mylonitic S2 foliation strikes 340° with a moderate dip to the east, and an L2 mineral stretching lineation plunges gently north. However, in the west S2 cleavage is transposed into a NNW trending schistosity that dips steeply to the ENE, with down-dip mineral stretching lineations. Whole rock chemistry indicates a granitic to granodioritic protolith for all the rocks including the ultramylonites, but also suggests the progressive loss of alkalis with increasing deformation. Trace element compositions show these rocks lie in the volcanic arc/syn-collisional granite field. U-Pb SHRIMP ages show an Early Triassic age for these granite, with possible Middle Permian inheritance in some cores. These ages are consistent with the period of the closure of the northern Paleo-Tethys ocean. Metamorphic rim ages of ~ 30 Ma record a small amount of zircon dissolution/precipitation probably associated with the Oligocene ductile deformation that produced the upper greenschist facies mylonites. These results support the geologic history of the ASRRSZ based on data obtained in the southern Diancang Shan block. Permian granitoids were intruded and ductily deformed in the Early Triassic. The left lateral shearing that brought these blocks to the surface was delayed until the Neogene extrusion of the Indochina block.

  20. INTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and

    E-print Network

    Lacassin, Robin

    INTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and glacial valleys are geomorphological markers that can record offset along active strike-slip faults. Of these markers, rivers are the most- cult. This is because the magnitude of offset of any particular river course depends on the age

  1. Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

  2. Paleoseismology of the Mt. Narryer Fault Zone, West Central Western Australia: a Multi-Segment Intraplate Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, B. B.; Clark, D.; Hengesh, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Australia shear zone (WASZ) is a 2000 km long fault system within the intraplate region of Australia. A paleoseismological study of faults and fault-related folds comprising the Mount Narryer fault zone (MNfz) in the southern WASZ reveals a late Quaternary history of repeated morphogenic earthquake occurrence that has profoundly influenced the planform and course of the Murchison, Roderick, and Sanford Rivers. Folding in the near surface sediments is the predominant style of surface expression of reactivated basement faults which is consistent with other neotectonic structures throughout the Western Australia shear zone. CRN and OSL estimates of exposure and burial ages of fault-related folds and fold derived colluvium provide constraint on Late Quaternary slip rates on the underlying faults of ~0.05 - 0.1 mm/a. In the case of the Roderick River fault scarp, 2-3m high tectonic risers separating inset terraces where the Murchison River crosses the scarp are consistent with multiple late Quaternary seismic events on the order of magnitude Mw 7.1-7.3. Mid-Pleistocene ages of tectonically deformed strata in the MNfz are consistent with the timing of collision between the Australian extended margin and Savu-Rote ridge 0.2-1.8 Ma.

  3. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  4. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  5. Late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Xie, X.; Xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Luoyunshan piedmont fault is located west of Linfen basin, controlling the western border of the basin. Based on the fault 1:50000 geological mapping, river and gully terraces and piedmont faulted landforms survey, this paper mainly introduces late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault. Luoyunshan piedmont alluvial-pluvial fans are divided into three stages, named alluvial-pluvial fans D1, D2 and D3. The gullies on the upthrown plate of Luoyunshan piedmont fault has five terraces: T1~T5. Alluvial-pluvial fans D1 and terraces T1 and T2 formed in the early and middle Holocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D2 and terraces T3 formed in the middle-late stage of late Pleistocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D3 and terraces T4 and T5 formed in the middle-late stage of middle Pleistocene. Faulted landforms characteristics on different parts of the middle segment of the Luo Yunshan piedmont fault are different. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D1 is about 2.9m and 3m respectively in the Xifanggou area and the piedmont of southwest of Yukou village, Jindian town. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D2 is about 2.5m, 4m, 6m and 7.7m respectively in the southwest of Puzi village, Tumen town, piedmont of west of Yangjiazhuang village, west of Jingcun village and piedmont of southwest of Langquangou, Xiangling town. The faulted landforms on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault are obvious. The latest activity times of the fault is Holocene. The latest activity times of Tumen segment and Longci segment of the fault are early Holocene and middle-late Holocene respectively. Since the Middle-Late Pleistocene an activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault is 0.18~0.54mm/yr, and activity showed an increasing trend from north to south. Since Early-Middle Holocene it is 0.4~0.9mm/yr, and fault activities mainly concentrated on the segment from Xifanggou to Yukou village. An increasing trend of the activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene, it is in good agreement with an increasing trend of the uplift rate of the terraces on the upthrown plate of the fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene and the sedimentation rate of Linfen basin which also has an increasing trend from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene.

  6. Mid-Cretaceous strike-slip and contractional fault zones in the western intermontane terrane, Washington, and their relation to the North Cascades-Southeastern Coast Belt Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlow, Hugh A.

    1993-10-01

    Structural and geochronologic data from the 111-114 Ma Okanogan Range batholith in north central Washington are used to characterize the timing and style of deformation during the early stages of the mid-to Late Cretaceous North Cascades-southeastern Coast Belt (NC-SECB) orogen. The Pasayten fault zone bounds Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Methow basin to the west against predominantly Mesozoic igneous rocks of the Intermontane terrane to the east. The Pasayten fault zone accommodated intrusion of the western units of the Okanogan Range batholith during high-angle slip, then approximately 20 km of left-lateral strike-slip at 109-95 Ma. South of the Pasayten fault zone, the Red Shirt and Methow River thrust zones accommodated (1) west vergent contraction at amphibolite grade that began by 113 Ma and ended by 112 Ma, based on new U-Pb zircon dates for deformed and undeformed granitoids, and (2) northwest vergent contraction in the Methow River thrust zone followed by west vergent contraction in the Red Shirt thrust zone, both at greenschist grade prior to 104 Ma. These contractional displacements thrust the Methow basin 10-20 km southeastward beneath the western Okanogan Range batholith. Deformation in the NC-SECB thus began by earliest Albian time, earlier than previously thought, and was characterized by coeval sinistral transcurrent and west vergent contractional faulting. Sinistral strike-slip in the Pasayten fault zone may have reflected the pre-100 Ma sense of oblique plate convergence or relatively minor southward tectonic escape of the adjacent Methow basin during contractional deformation. The slip history of the Pasayten fault zone is undocumented between approximately 80 Ma and 60 Ma when, on the basis of paleomagnetic data, some workers have proposed that the Methow basin moved 1700 km northward to its present position relative to the Intermontane terrane. However, significant Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene dextral slip on the Pasayten fault zone is unlikely because the western intrusive units of the Okanogan Range batholith continue without disruption across its southeastward trend.

  7. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cholesterol levels and triglycerides. However, this specific product contains large amounts of a chemical similar to "statin" ... this product and other red yeast products that contain statins to be illegal unapproved drugs. However, outside ...

  8. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability.

  9. THE SEGREGATION OF RED SALMON IN THE ESCAPEMENTS TO THE

    E-print Network

    to have been of Kvichak River origin. At current prices the average Kvichak-Naknek catch of the past 50THE SEGREGATION OF RED SALMON IN THE ESCAPEMENTS TO THE KVICHAK RIVER SYSTEM, ALASKA by Howard SALMON IN THE ESCAPEMENTS TO THE KVICHAK RIVER SYSTEM, ALASKA by Howard Donald Smith [Contribution No

  10. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps, aerial photographs, and river systems together with other remotely-sensed data. Active fault-related features that were identified include fault scarps, pressure ridges, pull-apart basin, saddles, and linear valleys. Limited ocular investigation has also been undertaken to verify modifications that post-date the aerial photos, quantify both elevation differences across the fault, and possibly evaluate the cumulative lateral displacements. Thus, the newly-identified traces of an active fault in the LTV corresponds with a left-lateral fault along the Lower Tagus floodplains striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNE-SSW) in the region. This trace clearly indicates continued tectonic movement along the LTV fault during the Holocene. Taking into account the newly-mapped location and length of the active trace, trenching work is being planned to determine recurrence intervals along the LTV fault while further mapping of its possible extension and other related active structures are underway. Moreover, new estimates of slip rate along this structure will result from this study and can be used for an improved seismic hazard assessment for the region.

  11. Analysis of high-resolution lidar digital topographic data along the Marlborough Fault System: The Awatere and Clarence faults, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, R. W.; Dolan, J. F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Grenader, J.; McGuire, C. P.; Nicol, A.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze newly acquired lidar high-resolution digital topographic data to measure offset geomorphic markers along the Awatere and Clarence faults in the Marlborough Fault System, northern South Island, New Zealand. With an average shot density of ? 12 shots/m2, these lidar data, which were acquired for us by the US National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) and New Zealand Aerial Mapping, offer a uniquely detailed view of the topography along ~90 km of the Awatere fault and ~160 km of the Clarence fault, allowing us to measure geomorphic offsets ranging in size from ~1 m to 100s of meters. In this specific study, we examine offset river terraces at the well-known Saxton River site on the Awatere fault, and at Tophouse Road on the Clarence fault. By constraining the ages of those river terraces using post-IR IRSL (225 °C) single-grain K-feldspar dating protocols, we determine latest Pleistocene to late-Holocene slip histories of the Awatere and Clarence faults at those locations. This project is part of a broader effort to generate incremental slip rates and paleoearthquake ages from the four main faults that comprise the Marlborough Fault System with the goal of further understanding how mechanically complementary faults work together to accommodate relative plate motions.

  12. Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps of the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek Fault Between the Elwha River and Siebert Creek, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    Fault scarps recently discovered on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM; also known as LiDAR) imagery show Holocene movement on the Lake Creek-Boundary Creek fault on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington State. Such recent movement suggests the fault is a potential source of large earthquakes. As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map scarps on ALSM imagery and show primary field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the fault. Although some scarp segments 0.5-2 km long along the fault are remarkably straight and distinct on shaded ASLM imagery, most scarps displace the ground surface <1 m, and, therefore, are difficult to locate in dense brush and forest. We are confident of a surface-faulting or folding origin and a latest Pleistocene to Holocene age only for scarps between Lake Aldwell and the easternmost fork of Siebert Creek, a distance of 22 km. Stratigraphy in five trenches at four sites help determine the history of surface-deforming earthquakes since glacier recession and alluvial deposition 11-17 ka. Although the trend and plunge of indicators of fault slip were measured only in the weathered basalt exposed in one trench, upward-splaying fault patterns and inconsistent displacement of successive beds along faults in three of the five trenches suggest significant lateral as well as vertical slip during the surface-faulting or folding earthquakes that produced the scarps. Radiocarbon ages on fragments of wood charcoal from two wedges of scarp-derived colluvium in a graben-fault trench suggest two surface-faulting earthquakes between 2,000 and 700 years ago. The three youngest of nine radiocarbon ages on charcoal fragments from probable scarp-derived colluvum in a fold-scarp trench 1.2 km to the west suggest a possible earlier surface-faulting earthquake less than 5,000 years ago.

  13. A tectonic model for the Tertiary evolution of strike slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2002-04-01

    Models for the Tertiary evolution of SE Asia fall into two main types: a pure escape tectonics model with no proto-South China Sea, and subduction of proto-South China Sea oceanic crust beneath Borneo. A related problem is which, if any, of the main strike-slip faults (Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Aliao Shan-Red River (ASRR)) cross Sundaland to the NW Borneo margin to facilitate continental extrusion? Recent results investigating strike-slip faults, rift basins, and metamorphic core complexes are reviewed and a revised tectonic model for SE Asia proposed. Key points of the new model include: (1) The ASRR shear zone was mainly active in the Eocene-Oligocene in order to link with extension in the South China Sea. The ASRR was less active during the Miocene (tens of kilometres of sinistral displacement), with minor amounts of South China Sea spreading centre extension transferred to the ASRR shear zone. (2) At least three important regions of metamorphic core complex development affected Indochina from the Oligocene-Miocene (Mogok gneiss belt; Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep; around the ASRR shear zone). Hence, Paleogene crustal thickening, buoyancy-driven crustal collapse, and lower crustal flow are important elements of the Tertiary evolution of Indochina. (3) Subduction of a proto-South China Sea oceanic crust during the Eocene-Early Miocene is necessary to explain the geological evolution of NW Borneo and must be built into any model for the region. (4) The Eocene-Oligocene collision of NE India with Burma activated extrusion tectonics along the Three Pagodas, Mae Ping, Ranong and Klong Marui faults and right lateral motion along the Sumatran subduction zone. (5) The only strike-slip fault link to the NW Borneo margin occurred along the trend of the ASRR fault system, which passes along strike into a right lateral transform system including the Baram line.

  14. Fault Mapping in Haiti

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS geologist Carol Prentice surveying features that have been displaced by young movements on the Enriquillo fault in southwest Haiti.  The January 2010 Haiti earthquake was associated with the Enriquillo fault....

  15. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

  16. Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and climatic scenarios. To address these goals, we developed models and approaches to spatially represent storage volumes and interception areas of existing and potentially restorable wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin within Grant County, Minn. We then developed and applied a model to simulate wetland water storage increases that would result from restoring 25 and 50 percent of the farmed and drained wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin. The model simulations were performed during the growing season (May-October) for relatively wet (1993; 0.79 m of precipitation) and dry (1987; 0.40 m of precipitation) years. Results from the simulations indicated that the 25 percent restoration scenario would increase water storage by 21-24 percent and that a 50 percent scenario would increase storage by 34-38 percent. Additionally, we estimated that wetlands in the subbasin have potential to store 11.57-20.98 percent of the total precipitation that fell over the entire subbasin area (52,758 ha). Our simulation results indicated that there is considerable potential to enhance water storage in the subbasin; however, evaluation and calibration of the model is necessary before simulation results can be applied to management and planning decisions. In this report we present guidance for the development and application of models (e.g., surface area-volume predictive models, hydrology simulation model) to simulate wetland water storage to provide a basis from which to understand and predict the effects of natural or human-induced hydrologic alterations. In developing these approaches, we tried to use simple and widely available input data to simulate wetland hydrology and predict wetland water storage for a specific precipitation event or a series of events. Further, the hydrology simulation model accounted for land use and soil type, which influence surface water inputs to wetlands. Although information presented in this report is specific to the Mustinka subbasin, the approaches

  17. Fault model development for fault tolerant VLSI design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, C. R.; Lala, P. K.; Ali, A. M.; Visweswaran, G. S.; Ganguly, S.

    1988-05-01

    Fault models provide systematic and precise representations of physical defects in microcircuits in a form suitable for simulation and test generation. The current difficulty in testing VLSI circuits can be attributed to the tremendous increase in design complexity and the inappropriateness of traditional stuck-at fault models. This report develops fault models for three different types of common defects that are not accurately represented by the stuck-at fault model. The faults examined in this report are: bridging faults, transistor stuck-open faults, and transient faults caused by alpha particle radiation. A generalized fault model could not be developed for the three fault types. However, microcircuit behavior and fault detection strategies are described for the bridging, transistor stuck-open, and transient (alpha particle strike) faults. The results of this study can be applied to the simulation and analysis of faults in fault tolerant VLSI circuits.

  18. Fault tolerant data structures

    SciTech Connect

    Aumann, Y.; Bender, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the tolerance of data structures to memory faults. We observe that many pointer-based data structures (e.g. linked lists, trees, etc.) are highly nonresilient to faults. A single fault in a linked list or tree may result in the loss of the entire set of data. In this paper we present a formal framework for studying the fault tolerance properties of pointer-based data structures, and we provide fault tolerant versions of the stack, the linked list, and the dictionary tree.

  19. Late Quaternary faulting on the Manas and Hutubi reverse faults in the northern foreland basin of Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhijun; Li, Sheng-Hua; Li, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Tian Shan Range lies in the actively deforming part of the India-Asia collision zone. In the northern foreland basin of Tian Shan, the strata were intensively deformed by Cenozoic folding and faulting. Slip rate studies along these faults are important for understanding the dynamics of crustal deformation and evaluating the seismic hazards in the region. Two reverse faults (the Manas and Hutubi faults) in the northern foreland basin were investigated. Due to past faulting events along these faults, the terrace treads along the Manas River were ruptured, forming fault scarps several meters in height. Loess deposits were trapped and preserved at the surface ruptures along these scarps. The thickness of the trapped loess is dependent on the size of the ruptures. The minimum and maximum ages of these scarps are constrained by dating the loess preserved at the surface ruptures and the terrace treads, respectively, using the quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. Our dating results suggest that the loess trapped at the ruptures was deposited from the early to mid-Holocene at the Hutubi Fault, and from the mid- to late-Holocene at the Manas Fault. The vertical displacements of the faults were evaluated by measuring the topographic profiles across the investigated fault scarps using the differential global position system (DGPS). Our results suggest that, during the late Quaternary in the studied region, the vertical slip rates of the Manas Fault were between ˜ 0.74 mm /yr and ˜ 1.6 mm /yr, while the Hutubi Fault had a much lower vertical slip rate between ˜ 0.34 mm /yr and ˜ 0.40 mm /yr. The tectonic implications of our results are discussed.

  20. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  1. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  2. Trishear for curved faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

  3. Robust Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei (Technical Monitor); Collins, Emmanuel G.; Song, Tinglun; Curry, Tramone; Selekwa, Majura

    2003-01-01

    This research used mixed structured singular value theory to develop new estimator (or observer) based approaches to fault detection for dynamic systems. The initial developments were based on minimizing the H-infinity, I-1 and H2 system norms. The resultant fault detection algorithms were each shown to be successful, but the fault detection algorithm based on the I-1 norm was best able to detect abrupt faults. This latter technique was further improved by using fuzzy logic for the fault evaluation. Based on an anomaly observed in this research and apparently ignored in the literature, current research focuses on the determination of a fault using a norm of the change in the residual (the difference between the output of the system and observer) and not simply a norm of the residual itself. This research may lead to a fundamental contribution to research in fault detection and isolation.

  4. Active faulting and folding along the Jumilla Fault Zone, northeastern Betics, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Balen, R. T.; Forzoni, A.; Van Dam, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    The Jumilla Fault Zone (JFZ) is an ENE-WSW topographic lineament in the external part of the eastern Betic Cordillera. It represents an active fault. Three small basins are aligned along the JFZ, the La Celia-, Alqueria- and Jumilla basins. The tectonic geomorphology of the La Celia- and Alqueria basins consists of folds, a set of normal fault scarps, strike-slip lineaments, fault-springs, tectonically-modified drainage lines and elevated gypsum/anhydrite diapirs. Two of the scarps are normal faults generated by the extensional collapse of one of the folds. The other scarps are secondary normal faults generated by transtensional left-lateral motions along the JFZ. Normal fault scarps that developed on conglomerates are considerably steeper (~ 30°) than those affecting softer marly materials (< 10°) as a consequence of their different erodibilities. Two natural springs reveal the sealing nature of the normal faults, which has resulted in a segmented groundwater system. These springs are the sources of the two largest ramblas (gullies) in the area. The onset of fault activity is constrained by the late Tortonian-Messinian age of the sedimentary rocks in the basins. Interbedded lavaflows and lamproitic dykes in the lacustrine sediments have been dated at 7.6-7.2 Ma. However, the morphology of fault scarps and relief of the diapirs suggest a younger age of the deformation. Results from modelling of fault scarp evolution indicate Middle Pleistocene and younger ages of faulting and scarp formation. Furthermore, in at least one of the fault scarps, Quaternary alluvial-pediment deposits are involved in the deformation. The drainage pattern anomalies and moderate earthquake activity (Mb 4.2) in the JFZ also indicate slow ongoing tectonic activity. In addition, the ENE prolongation of the JFZ (outside the study area) shows geodetic displacement rates of approximately 2 mm/year. We thus conclude that the JFZ is still active, despite the general lack of post-Messinian deposits in the studied basins. The discrepancy between the age of the tectonic landforms and the late Neogene age of the basin infill can be explained by an endo- to exhorheic change in the drainage system, due to the capture of the ancient basin lake system by tributaries of the nearby Segura river. The cessation of sedimentation in the basins resulted in the preservation of tectonic landforms.

  5. Fault geometry and cumulative offsets in the central Coast Ranges, California: Evidence for northward increasing slip along the San Gregorio-San Simeon-Hosgri fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Graymer, R.W.; Colgan, J.P.; Wentworth, C.M.; Stanley, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the dip, depth extent, and amount of cumulative displacement along the major faults in the central California Coast Ranges are controversial. We use detailed aeromagnetic data to estimate these parameters for the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and other faults. The recently acquired aeromagnetic data provide an areally consistent data set that crosses the onshore-offshore transition without disruption, which is particularly important for the mostly offshore San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault. Our modeling, constrained by exposed geology and in some cases, drill-hole and seismic-reflection data, indicates that the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and Reliz-Rinconada faults dip steeply throughout the seismogenic crust. Deviations from steep dips may result from local fault interactions, transfer of slip between faults, or overprinting by transpression since the late Miocene. Given that such faults are consistent with predominantly strike-slip displacement, we correlate geophysical anomalies offset by these faults to estimate cumulative displacements. We find a northward increase in right-lateral displacement along the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault that is mimicked by Quaternary slip rates. Although overall slip rates have decreased over the lifetime of the fault, the pattern of slip has not changed. Northward increase in right-lateral displacement is balanced in part by slip added by faults, such as the Reliz-Rinconada, Oceanic–West Huasna, and (speculatively) Santa Ynez River faults to the east.

  6. 2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Thang, Ta Trong

    2003-05-01

    Orthogneissic rocks coexisting with migmatites and containing small amphibolite lenses are exposed in the center of the metamorphic belt which runs parallel to the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone in northern Viet Nam. The orthogneiss complex has given some radiogenic dates of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean, which are the oldest ages ever registered for the Southeast Asian continent. Zircon grains separated from three samples of the orthogneiss complex have been dated to establish the protolith age and the timing of high-grade tectonothermal events in the complex. Sixty-five SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of these zircons define three age groups of 2.84-2.91, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga. The age groups correspond to three periods of zircon generation. The oldest ˜2.9 Ga cores indicate a minimum age for the protolith of the orthogneiss complex. Two younger generations (including ˜2.36 Ga outer-cores and ˜1.96 Ga rims) probably grew during later high-grade tectono-metamorphic events, which were previously suggested by K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of ˜2.0 Ga for synkinematic hornblendes. An early thermal history of the orthogneiss complex has been constrained, including a primary magma-crystallization stage starting at ˜2.9 Ga, followed by two Early Proterozoic (˜2.36 and ˜1.96 Ga) high-grade tectonothermal events. The ca. 2.9 Ga protolith age of the orthogneiss complex documented in this study provides new convincing evidence for the presence of Archean rocks in Indochina, and clearly indicates that the crustal evolution of northern Viet Nam started as early as Late Archean time.

  7. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  8. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults 

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  9. Complex Rift-Parallel, Strike-Slip Faulting in Iceland: Kinematic Analysis of the Gljúfurá Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanfito, A.; Karson, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The N-S striking Gljúfurá Fault Zone is an anomalous, dextral, strike-slip fault cutting Tertiary basaltic lavas in west-central Iceland. The fault zone is nearly parallel to structures formed at extinct spreading centers that were active from ~15 to 7 Ma ago in this region, suggesting ridge-parallel strike-slip faulting. The fault zone is well exposed in a river gorge for ~2 km along a well-defined regional lineament. The combined damage zone and fault core are about 50 m wide revealing an especially intense and complex style of deformation compared to other Icelandic fault zones. Basaltic lava flows on either side of the fault zone are cut by numerous closely spaced (10s of cm to m) Riedel shear fractures that grade into a fault core of progressively more intensely fractured lava and strongly altered and mineralized fault breccias, cataclasite and fault gouge. Riedel shears are frequently rotated or bend into the main fault zone. Distinctive bands of fault breccia derived from lava flow interiors, flow tops and dike rock are mapped for tens of meters along strike and reach thicknesses of several meters wide. Breccias contain angular basaltic fragments that range from few meters to millimeters. Fault breccias are typically clast supported with a matix of finely comminuted basalt clasts to clay gouge. 'Jigsaw' breccias are supported by a calcite matrix. Discrete faults and shear fractures show dominantly gently plunging slickenlines and abundant kinematic indicators showing dextral>normal oblique slip. Zeolite and calcite veins show multiple episodes of extension. Local left steps in fault zone are marked by extensional duplex structures with vertical separations of tens of meters bounded by major strike-slip fault strands. The overall architecture of the fault zone in interpreted as an exhumed flower structure. Numerous deformed and undeformed basaltic dikes sub-parallel the deformation structures, suggesting synkinematic intrusion. Some dikes deviate from the strike of the fault zone and cut across the deformation fabrics. Although no features could be correlated across the fault zone to constrain the lateral displacement, empirical gouge thickness/displacement scaling relationships suggest at least several kilometers of slip. Previous studies interpreted the Gljúfurá Fault Zone was one of a family of parallel, strike-slip “bookshelf” faults associated with a transform fault zone linking two now-extinct rifts. Unlike the well-known rift-parallel, strike-slip faults of the South Iceland Seismic Zone and the Tjornes Fracture Zone, the Gljúfurá Fault Zone appears to be an isolated structure with substantially larger displacement that is discordant with surrounding basement lineaments. Major strike-slip faults of this kind can provide important clues in the reconstruction of ridge-hot spot interactions in Iceland.

  10. INVASION DYNAMICS OF RED SHINERS (CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS) IN SOUTHEASTERN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red shiners have invaded a range of North American ecosystems, including several southeastern U.S. river drainages. A principle consequence of these invasions is extirpation of native congeners, either through competition or hydridization. We are conducting research to identify...

  11. 6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

  12. Fault segment linkage and growth of the Polopos transpressive fault zone and its influence on Pleistocene drainage captures (southeastern Betics).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, F.; Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Azañón, J. M.; Villegas, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Polopos fault zoneis a dextral-reverse fault-system that developed under Neogene to Quaternary N/S to NNW/SSE convergence between Africa and Iberia. This fault zone is formed by three main fault segments, the North and South Gafarillos dextral strike-slip faults, and the North Alhamilla reverse fault. The whole fault zone with an approximate length of 30 km has an E/W to ESE/WNW orientation and helicoidal geometry that permits the transfer of oblique SE-directed shortening in Sierra Cabrera to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical dextral Gafarillos fault segments, in between. The north Alhamilla reverse fault to the west of the system produces a fault-propagation fold in the hangingwall and an overturned fold in the footwall cutting through early Tortonian turbidites and folded Quaternary alluvial fans at the north Alhamilla mountain front. The Quaternary paleo-topographic surface formed by the alluvial fan has been displaced approximately 100 m by reverse faulting after 400 - 70 ky with a slip rate ranging between 0.25 and 1.4 mm yr-1. The South Gafarillos fault includes several N90°-110°E-striking segments with dextral and reverse-dextral kinematics. This fault cuts through the southeastern limb of the Alhamilla anticline by a fault segment that separates the basement from Messinian sediments, meanwhile other segments in the Nijar basin further south cut through Pleistocene river strath-terraces.. During the late Miocene the locus of dextral displacement occurred along the North Gafarillos fault segment that linked to a reverse fault segment at the northeast of the Sierra Alhamilla . The North Gafarillos fault segment and its associated mountain front was sealed by Messinian reefs. Since the Messinian, recent fault activity migrated towards the south forming the South Gafarillos fault segments. Fault segment migration displaced the active oblique strike-slip-related mountain fronts from the north towards the southeast of the Sierra Alhamilla, parallel to the newly developed fault segments; whilst recent and active reverse activity associated with the NARF was displaced westwards along the north Alhamilla mountain front. Fault segment migration, thus, shifted uplift from the northeastern side of the Sierra Alhamilla during the latemost Tortonian to Messinian to the southern side of the ridge during the latemost Messinian to Quaternary. Growth of the South Gafarillos fault segment towards the W favored the development of the Rambla de Lucainena that captured the previous Sorbas centripetal drainage. Further late Pleistocene uplift associated to the North Alhamilla reverse fault and of the Sierra Cabrera one to the E, promoted headward incision of the Aguas and Andarax drainages that advanced as axial valleys capturing the Sorbas centripetal drainage and the Feos-Aguas transverse drainage.

  13. ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

  14. Denali Fault: Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View south along the Trans Alaska Pipeline in the zone where it was engineered for the Denali fault. The fault trace passes beneath the pipeline between the 2nd and 3rd slider supports at the far end of the zone. A large arc in the pipe can be seen in the pipe on the right, due to shortening of the ...

  15. Denali Fault: Susitna Glacier

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Helicopters and satellite phones were integral to the geologic field response. Here, Peter Haeussler is calling a seismologist to pass along the discovery of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault. View is to the north up the Susitna Glacier. The Denali fault trace lies in the background where the two lan...

  16. Denali Fault: Gillette Pass

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View northward of mountain near Gillette Pass showing sackung features. Here the mountaintop moved downward like a keystone, producing an uphill-facing scarp. The main Denali fault trace is on the far side of the mountain and a small splay fault is out of view below the photo....

  17. Denali Fault: Gillette Pass

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View north of Denali fault trace at Gillette Pass. this view shows that the surface rupture reoccupies the previous fault scarp. Also the right-lateral offset of these stream gullies has developed since deglaciation in the last 10,000 years or so....

  18. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of deformation on the LA and SFS segments: an early period characterized by fault-propagation or structural wedge kinematics that terminates in the early Pleistocene, followed by a period of quiescence. The faults were subsequently reactivated in the middle Pleistocene and propagated upward to detachments, with the deformation characterized by fold-bend folding kinematics. Slip on the LA segment decreases to the West, suggesting lateral growth in that direction. Our work highlights the need to assess along-strike variability in slip rate when assessing the seismic hazard of a compressional fault, as marginal sites may significantly underestimate fault activity. Ponti, D. J. et al. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 1013 (2007).

  19. Characterization of leaky faults

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Chao

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  1. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  2. Transient fault modeling and fault injection simulation 

    E-print Network

    Yuan, Xuejun

    1996-01-01

    An accurate transient fault model is presented in this thesis. A 7-term exponential current upset model is derived from the results of a device-level, 3-dimensional, single-event-upset simulation. A curve-fitting algorithm is used to extract...

  3. Differential Fault Analysis of AES: Toward Reducing Number of Faults

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Differential Fault Analysis of AES: Toward Reducing Number of Faults Chong Hee KIM Information-la-Neuve, Belgium. Abstract Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) finds the key of a block cipher using differ- ential information between correct and faulty ciphertexts obtained by induc- ing faults during the computation

  4. Seismic site characterization for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Vera; Buske, Stefan; Kovacs, Adrienn; Gorman, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shot points along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as preliminary imaging results will be presented. The high-quality data show various indicators of the Alpine Fault such as strong reflections and distorted first-arrival wavefields which are clearly visible already in single shot gathers. With the help of high resolution seismic images we can study the shallow structures of the subsurface thus gaining information about the location and dip of reflectors. Further detailed processing and intensive interpretative work will enable a seismic site characterization providing important information for the selection of the borehole location. Additionally the high resolution seismic images themselves allow a better understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic settings.

  5. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

    Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

  6. Fault-slip analyses of brittle structures in the Corruvagge valley along the Pärvie fault in North Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckström, A.; Rantakokko, N.; Ask, M. V. S.

    2012-04-01

    More than a dozen large faults have been subjected to glacially-induced faulting in northern Scandinavia. These faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and they could be of Precambrian age with a long deformation history including repeated periods of reactivations. Based on their size, it has been proposed that these faults have hosted unusually large intraplate earthquakes. These faults are the targets for a scientific drilling project under development for the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the "Drilling into Active Faults in Northern Europe" (Kukkonen et al. 2010). A major issue to be address before submitting the full IDCP proposal regards the question: Did the fault scarps host one large mega-earthquake or has it hosted several smaller events. To address this question, a field study was conducted in the summer of 2011, at three locations along the Pärvie fault in northern Sweden. The Pärvie fault scarp is ~160 km in length and 10-15 m in height, and it is the longest known postglacial fault in the world. It is suggested that the Pärvie fault hosted a mega-earthquake (M?8.2; Arvidsson, 1996) at the end or just after the last ice age, and seismic monitoring reveal that it remains seismically active today (e.g. Lindblom, 2011), with several hundreds of microearthquakes a year (M?3). Brittle structures were first collected in two locations by Riad (1990). Additional data have now been collected at three new locations. The Corruvagge valley is the most impressive site from the recent campaign, where data were collected along a profile that followed a dried-up river valley that cuts the Pärvie fault at approximately a perpendicular angle. This site offers a unique opportunity for a detailed investigation of brittle deformation from the hanging wall to the foot wall. About 1000 kinematic indicators were collected, in at least three different fracture filling minerals. We are currently in the process of evaluating structural fault-slip analyses of brittle structures; (2) chemical identification of minerals; and (3) assess the age of one sample. The anticipated results from the fault-slip analysis is the relative age between structures and together with the paleostress analysis and the absolute dating it will strengthen the chronological order of the different stress fields that has affected the fault through time.

  7. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  8. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  9. Pecos River Ecosystem Monitoring Project 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, A.; Hart, C.

    2004-01-01

    water samples taken along the river from Red Bluff Reservoir to Girvin, hourly electrical conductivity measurements at two sites, and comparison of this data to historical water quality data. Any change in water quantity is determined by comparing... historical release/delivery schedules to current schedules from the Red Bluff Water and Power Control District. Water salvage from control of saltcedar is being estimated using a series of shallow groundwater monitoring wells. OBJECTIVES Saltcedar...

  10. A “mesh” of crossing faults: Fault networks of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecke, S. U.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed geologic mapping of active fault systems in the western Salton Trough and northern Peninsular Ranges of southern California make it possible to expand the inventory of mapped and known faults by compiling and updating existing geologic maps, and analyzing high resolution imagery, LIDAR, InSAR, relocated hypocenters and other geophysical datasets. A fault map is being compiled on Google Earth and will ultimately discriminate between a range of different fault expressions: from well-mapped faults to subtle lineaments and geomorphic anomalies. The fault map shows deformation patterns in both crystalline and basinal deposits and reveals a complex fault mesh with many curious and unexpected relationships. Key findings are: 1) Many fault systems have mutually interpenetrating geometries, are grossly coeval, and allow faults to cross one another. A typical relationship reveals a dextral fault zone that appears to be continuous at the regional scale. In detail, however, there are no continuous NW-striking dextral fault traces and instead the master dextral fault is offset in a left-lateral sense by numerous crossing faults. Left-lateral faults also show small offsets where they interact with right lateral faults. Both fault sets show evidence of Quaternary activity. Examples occur along the Clark, Coyote Creek, Earthquake Valley and Torres Martinez fault zones. 2) Fault zones cross in other ways. There are locations where active faults continue across or beneath significant structural barriers. Major fault zones like the Clark fault of the San Jacinto fault system appears to end at NE-striking sinistral fault zones (like the Extra and Pumpkin faults) that clearly cross from the SW to the NE side of the projection of the dextral traces. Despite these blocking structures, there is good evidence for continuation of the dextral faults on the opposite sides of the crossing fault array. In some instances there is clear evidence (in deep microseismic alignments of hypocenters) that the master dextral faults zones pass beneath shallower crossing fault arrays above them and this mechanism may transfer strain through the blocking zones. 3) The curvature of strands of the Coyote Creek fault and the Elsinore fault are similar along their SE 60 km. The scale, locations and concavity of bends are so similar that their shape appears to be coordinated. The matching contractional and extensional bends suggests that originally straighter dextral fault zones may be deforming in response of coeval sinistral deformation between, beneath, and around them. 4) Deformation is strongly domainal with one style or geometry of structure dominating in one area then another in an adjacent area. Boundaries may be abrupt. 5) There are drastic lateral changes in the width of damage zones adjacent to master faults. Outlines of the deformation related to some dextral fault zones resemble a snake that has ingested a squirming cat or soccer ball. 6) A mesh of interconnected faults seems to transfer slip back and forth between structures. 7) Scarps are not necessarily more abundant on the long master faults than on connector or crossing faults. Much remains to be learned upon completion the fault map.

  11. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Merguerian, Charles; and Sanders, J. E., 1996a, Diversion of the Bronx River in New York City -evidence for postglacial surface faulting?, p. 131-145 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    -SSW-trending strike-valley lowland and occupies a narrow N- S-trending gorge, here named the Snuff Mill gorge, cut literature contains two concepts about the origin of the Snuff Mill gorge, which is a first-order drainage the Bronx River to cut the Snuff Mill gorge, Kemp admitted that the duration of the ice-blocking episode

  13. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the fundamental nature of the control means that 0.1 to 1% roughness should be ubiquitous on faults and can generally be used for simulating ground motion. An important caveat is that the scale-dependence of strength may result in a difference in the yield criterion at large-scales. The commonly observed values of the Hurst exponent below 1 may capture this scale-dependence.

  14. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  15. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2014-06-11

    Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

  16. Fault Detection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, John

    2004-09-01

    Plasma processes are used widely in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Recent trends in this industry have focussed on methods for automated process control. For limiting processes such as plasma etch, an emerging focus is on real time Fault Detection and Classification (FDC). Simply put, the aim is to provide a system that not only detects faults but also identifies the root cause. For example, semiconductor production fabs regularly encounter faults that result in unscheduled tool downtime and reduced yield. Among these are real-time process and tool faults, post maintenance recovery problems and tool mis-matching at start-up and process transfer. The objective of any FDC scheme should be to reduce this product loss and tool downtime by identifying the core problem as rapidly as possible, and replace the usual "trial-and-error" approach to fault identification. There are a couple of key requirements in any control system. Firstly, an estimation of the process state, and secondly, a scheme for providing real-time control. This paper focuses on methods for addressing both problems on plasma etch tools. A non-intrusive high-resolution RF sensor is used to provide in situ process-state and tool-state data. Examples will be presented on how such a sensor can give a repeatable fingerprint of any plasma process. The challenge then becomes the manipulation of this data into usable information. The process control scheme presented is knowledge-based, in that it is trained and does not rely on statistical methods with underlying assumptions of Gaussian data spread. A fingerprint of known fault states is the knowledge set and real-time control is provided by comparison of the sensor fingerprint to the fault fingerprints.

  17. Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of strike-slip faults in Jamaica: Implications for distribution of strain and seismic hazard along the southern edge of the Gonave microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The east-west, left lateral strike-slip fault system forming the southern edge of the Gonave microplate crosses the110-km-long and 70-km-wide island of Jamaica. GPS measurements in the northeastern Caribbean are supportive of the microplate interpretation and indicate that ~ half of the Caribbean-North America left-lateral plate motion (8-14 mm/yr) is carried by the Plantain Garden (PGFZ) and associated faults in Jamaica. We performed Neotectonic mapping of the Plantain Garden fault along the southern rangefront of the Blue Mountains and conducted a paleoseismic study of the fault at Morant River. Between Holland Bay and Morant River, the fault is characterized by a steep, faceted, linear mountain front, prominent linear valleys and depressions, shutter ridges, and springs. At the eastern end of the island, the PGFZ is characterized by a left-stepping fault geometry that includes a major, active hot spring. The river cut exposure at Morant River exposes a 1.5-m-wide, sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and faulted Cretaceous basement rocks. This section is overlain by an, unfaulted 3-m-thick fluvial terrace inset into a late Pleistocene terrace that is culturally modified. Upward fault terminations indicate the occurrence of three paleoearthquakes that occurred prior to deposition of the flat lying inset terrace around 341-628 cal yr BP. At this time, our radiocarbon results suggest that we can rule out the PGFZ as the source of the 1907 Kingston earthquake 102 years ago, as well as, the 1692 event that destroyed Port Royal 317 years ago and produced a major landslide at Yallahs. Pending OSL ages will constrain the age of the penultimate and most recent ruptures. Gently to steeply dipping rocks as young as Pliocene exposed in roadcuts within the low coastal hills south of and parallel to the Plantain Garden fault may indicate active folding and blind thrust faulting. These structures are poorly characterized and may accommodate an unknown amount of oblique strain. Reconnaissance mapping was also performed along the South Coast fault in south-central Jamaica north of Portland Ridge, and along the Crawle River-Rio Minho fault near Frankfield in the Central Inlier. The absence of fault scarps or other tectonic geomorphic features across fluvial terraces of the Milk and Minho Rivers indicate that the South Coast fault has not been active in Holocene time. Left laterally offset streams, linear valleys, and saddles support active faulting along the east-west Crawle River-Rio Minho fault that is roughly collinear with the western extension of the Plantain Garden fault.

  18. Late Quaternary faulting along the southern Lemhi fault, southeastern Idaho: A complex segmentation history

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L.; Wong, I.G. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. ); Forman, S.L. . Byrd Polar Research Center); Smith, R.P. . Idaho National Engineering Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    The Lemhi fault is a 140-km-long range-bounding normal fault in the northern Basin and Range province, north of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The authors investigation of the southern two (proposed) rupture segments, the Howe and the Fallert Springs, to the north, identified multiple large late Quaternary, surface-faulting events, some of which occurred in temporal clusters. Geologic evidence suggest that the history of the late Pleistocene activity along the northern part of the Fallert Springs segment differs from that along the southern part of the segment. The distribution and timing of surface ruptures, suggest that the Howe segment has ruptured together with at least the southern half of the Fallert Springs segment during the late Pleistocene faulting events. They propose that the Howe-Fallert Springs segment boundary has had little, if any, influence on the propagation of coseismic ruptures for some events, but appears to have effectively arrested others. Their data imply that the central portion of the Fallert-Springs segment has ruptured independent of the southern part of the segment, and that a non-persistent boundary exists within the segment. Paleoseismic activity of the southern Lemhi fault was evaluated in five trenches, two excavated on the Howe segment and three on the Fallert Springs segment; all trenches were excavated in mapped Pinedale-aged alluvial fan deposits (Pierce, 1982). At the southern site on the Howe segment, the most-recent-event colluvial wedge is interbedded with reworked loess, probably derived from the ESRP, that was deposited from about 25 to 15 ka. Thermoluminescence (TL) dates on loess bracket the event between 19 and 15 ka. TL dates indicate the penultimate event occurred before 27--25 ka. TL dates on a probable colluvial wedge, partly exposed in a trench on the southern Fallert Springs segment, suggests that the first of three faulting events occurred about 75 ka.

  19. Kinematics of long lived faults in intraplate settings: case study of the Río Grío Fault (Iberian Range).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcén, Marcos; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio; Calvín-Ballester, Pablo; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; García-Lasanta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the comparison of structural analysis and AMS data of Río Grío Fault, associated with the Datos Fault System, in the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate, Spain). The Río Grío Fault, with NW-SE strike, has a tectonic evolution of probably Mesozoic extension and Tertiary transpressive dextral movement, and it is characterized by the presence of a well-developed cataclastic zone 200m width. The structure of the core is characterized by elongated along strike and narrow lenses separated by subvertical fault planes with well-developed fault breccias and gouges. The lenses usually conserve intact stratification, and it may be recognized several lithologies, including Ordovician quartzites, slates and clay, and red-colored Permo-triassic clay and sandstones. The internal structure of these lenses shows folds, brechified zones, and localized foliation in clay lenses. Cinematic indicators (striations, S/C structures…) show strong reverse dip-slip and dextral strike-slip components, indicating strain partitioning between the different lenses, and it is interpreted as the result of the reactivation of previous normal faults, like a strike-slip shear, during the NNE-SSW to NE-SW Cenozoic compression of the NE Iberian Plate. Samples of AMS study were collected from two areas (SG and RG) of the fault zone, separated by 4.5km along strike. Samples provide a magnetic susceptibility highly dependent on lithology, between ±5*10-5 [SI] in the white fault gouge and ±20*10-5 [SI] in red-colored clay. The low susceptibility in several sites results in high imprecise AMS measurements. AMS results for the first area (SG), obtained in red and black colored clays, show the same magnetic fabric in all sites. K-min axis of the magnetic ellipsoid corresponds to the pole of the fault planes measured in the outcrop, and the magnetic lineation is nearly horizontal, probably related to strike-slip movements. In the second area (RG), the AMS shows a grater variability and dependence with lithology-magnetic mineralogy. In Permo-triassic red-colored lenses, the k-min corresponds to the pole of the fault plane too. Nevertheless, the magnetic lineation is scatered in a vertical plane. In gouges, exists two different groups: The first one shows a subvertical E-W magnetic foliation and a girdle distribution of K-max and k-int, and it may be interpreted as a P-foliation related to principal shear. The second one has a NNE-SSW striking magnetic foliation, with K-max nearly horizontal. This second group has a complex interpretation in the context of dextral transpressive movement of the fault. It could be associated with a reverse fabric or, considering the very low magnetic susceptibility, it could be not representative of the deformation in the fault zone. Temperature versus susceptibility curves (from 40 to 700°C) were carried out in order to determine the magnetic carriers of the bulk susceptibility and to ensure the reliability of the AMS results. The main magnetic carriers are phyllosilicates and hematite in red colored clay.

  20. The application of Skylab imagery to analysis of fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Frame 114 of the Salton Sea area was studied in all bands to analyze the appearance of important faults. These faults were also studied in the field as well as from aircraft and in aerial photography. The San Andreas/Banning and the Mission Creek faults can be traced across Coachella Valley even though they are buried by alluvium. The faults form ground water barriers and the near surface ground water on the northeast sides of the faults supports patches of vegetation (mesquite and palms) in an otherwise barren desert. These oases are best seen in band 3 (color IR). Otherwise, faults are best seen in band 4 (aerial color). Of the B and W bands, 5 (red) is best for delineating faults. Bands 1 and 2 are excessively grainy and the resolution is considerably inferior to the other bands.

  1. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  2. River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  3. For Immediate Release --Friday, September 27, 2013 World Rivers Day: University of Lethbridge experts

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    - Oil Spill Recovery ­ What's in the Red Deer River, one year later oil spills ­ and have updated information on a major oil spill from August their projects follow, below. +++ Pipeline oil spills and river systems ­ How

  4. Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. )

    1993-04-01

    A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

  5. Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting in the NE Mojave Block: Deformation at the southwest boundary of the Walker Lane belt

    SciTech Connect

    Schermer, E.R. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    New structural and stratigraphy data from the NE Mojave Block (NEMB) establish the timing and style of Cenozoic deformation south of the Garlock fault and west of the Avawatz Mts. Unlike adjacent areas, most of the NEMB did not undergo early-mid Miocene extension. Major fault zones strike EW; offset markers and small-scale shear criteria indicate left-lateral strike slip with a small reverse component. Lateral offsets average ca. 1--6 km and vertical offset is locally >200m. Pre-Tertiary markers indicate minimum cumulative sinistral shear of ca. 15 km in the area between the Garlock and Coyote Lake faults. Tertiary strata are deformed together with the older rocks. Along the Ft. Irwin fault, alluvial fan deposits interpreted to be <11Ma appear to be displaced as much as Mesozoic igneous rocks. EW sinistral faults S. of the Garlock fault cut unconsolidated Quaternary deposits; geomorphologic features and trench exposures along segments of the McLean Lake fault and the Tiefort Mt. fault suggest Late Quaternary activity. The EW faults do not cut modern drainages and are not seismically active. NW-striking faults are largely absent within the NEMB; the largest faults bound the domain of EW-striking faults. Offset of Cretaceous and Miocene rocks suggests the W boundary (Goldstone Lake fault) has <2km right separation. Along the E boundary (Soda-Avawatz fault zone), the presence of distinctive clasts in mid-late Miocene conglomerates west of the Avawatz Mts. supports the suggestion of Brady (1984) of ca. 20 km dextral displacement. Other NW-striking faults are cut by EW faults, have unknown or minor dextral displacement (Desert King Spring Fault, Garlic Spring fault) or are low- to moderate-angle left-oblique thrust faults (Red Pass Lake fault zone).

  6. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  7. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Megerian, Mark G. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  8. Cable fault locator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, C. A.; Honey, S. K.; Petro, J. P.; Phillips, A. C.

    1982-07-01

    Cable fault location and the construction of four field test units are discussed. Swept frequency sounding of mine cables with RF signals was the technique most thoroughly investigated. The swept frequency technique is supplemented with a form of moving target indication to provide a method for locating the position of a technician along a cable and relative to a suspected fault. Separate, more limited investigations involved high voltage time domain reflectometry and acoustical probing of mine cables. Particular areas of research included microprocessor-based control of the swept frequency system, a microprocessor based fast Fourier transform for spectral analysis, and RF synthesizers.

  9. Transition-fault test generation 

    E-print Network

    Cobb, Bradley Douglas

    2013-02-22

    . One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

  10. Fault compaction and overpressured faults: results from a 3-D model of a ductile fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    A model of a ductile fault zone is incorporated into a forward 3-D earthquake model to better constrain fault-zone hydraulics. The conceptual framework of the model fault zone was chosen such that two distinct parts are recognized. The fault core, characterized by a relatively low permeability, is composed of a coseismic fault surface embedded in a visco-elastic volume that can creep and compact. The fault core is surrounded by, and mostly sealed from, a high permeability damaged zone. The model fault properties correspond explicitly to those of the coseismic fault core. Porosity and pore pressure evolve to account for the viscous compaction of the fault core, while stresses evolve in response to the applied tectonic loading and to shear creep of the fault itself. A small diffusive leakage is allowed in and out of the fault zone. Coseismically, porosity is created to account for frictional dilatancy. We show in the case of a 3-D fault model with no in-plane flow and constant fluid compressibility, pore pressures do not drop to hydrostatic levels after a seismic rupture, leading to an overpressured weak fault. Since pore pressure plays a key role in the fault behaviour, we investigate coseismic hydraulic property changes. In the full 3-D model, pore pressures vary instantaneously by the poroelastic effect during the propagation of the rupture. Once the stress state stabilizes, pore pressures are incrementally redistributed in the failed patch. We show that the significant effect of pressure-dependent fluid compressibility in the no in-plane flow case becomes a secondary effect when the other spatial dimensions are considered because in-plane flow with a near-lithostatically pressured neighbourhood equilibrates at a pressure much higher than hydrostatic levels, forming persistent high-pressure fluid compartments. If the observed faults are not all overpressured and weak, other mechanisms, not included in this model, must be at work in nature, which need to be investigated. Significant leakage perpendicular to the fault strike (in the case of a young fault), or cracks hydraulically linking the fault core to the damaged zone (for a mature fault) are probable mechanisms for keeping the faults strong and might play a significant role in modulating fault pore pressures. Therefore, fault-normal hydraulic properties of fault zones should be a future focus of field and numerical experiments.

  11. Origin and Evolution of the Western Snake River Plain: Implications From Stratigraphy,

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    Origin and Evolution of the Western Snake River Plain: Implications From Stratigraphy, Faulting.J. McGee, 2002, Origin and evolution of the western Snake River Plain: Implications from stratigraphy, and Michael McCurry, eds., Tectonic and Magmatic Evolution of the Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Idaho

  12. Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of about 80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of 5-10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with about 20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure at shallow depth of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 2,391 wave traces from 121 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of about 15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). Fig.1 (a) Horizontal distribution of relative scattering coefficients, averaged for a depth range from 0 to 15 km. Open and solid symbols represent stronger and weaker scattering than the average, respectively. (b) Distribution of relative scattering coefficients, inside the rectangular area shown in (a), projected on a vertical cross section along the Yamasaki fault zone. Red crosses show distribution of microearthquakes in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009 (JMA data). The Yamasaki fault zone is composed of Ohara (OF), Hijima (HF), Yasutomi (YF), Kuresakatoge (KF), Biwako (BF), and Miki faults (MF), whose approximate location is shown at the top.

  13. Fault Location and Resolvable Set

    E-print Network

    Tonchev, Vladimir D.

    Fault Location and Resolvable Set Systems Charles J. Colbourn, colbourn@asu.ed with Bingli Fan (Beijing) and Daniel Horsley (Melbourne) Fault Location and Resolvable Set Systems Charles J. Colbourn, and Decision Systems Engineering Arizona State University ACA 2015 #12;Fault Location and Resolvable Set

  14. Micro-geomorphology Surveying and Analysis of Xiadian Fault Scarp, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.

    2014-12-01

    Historic records and field investigations reveal that the Mw 8.0 Sanhe-Pinggu (China) earthquake of 1679 produced a 10 to 18 km-long surface rupture zone, with dominantly dip-slip accompanied by a right-lateral component along the Xiadian fault, resulting in extensive damage throughout north China. The fault scarp that was coursed by the co-seismic ruptures from Dongliuhetun to Pangezhang is about 1 to 3 meters high, and the biggest vertical displacement locates in Pangezhuang, it is easily to be seen in the flat alluvial plain. But the 10 to 18 km-long surface rupture couldn't match the Mw 8.0 earthquake scale. After more than 300 years land leveling, the fault scarps in the meizoseismal zone which is farmland are retreat at different degree, some small scarps are becoming disappeared, so it is hard to identify by visual observation in the field investigations. The meizoseismal zone is located in the alluvial plain of the Chaobai river and Jiyun river, and the fault is perpendicular to the river. It is easy to distinguish fault scarps from erosion scarps. Land leveling just changes the slope of the fault scarp, but it can't eliminate the height difference between two side of the fault. So it is possible to recover the location and height of the fault scarp by using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis and landform surveying which is constrained by 3D centimeter-precision RTK GPS surveying method in large scale crossing the fault zone. On the base of the high-precision DEM landform analysis, we carried out 15 GPS surveying lines which extends at least 10km for each crossing the meizoseismal zone. Our findings demonstrate that 1) we recover the complete rupture zone of the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake in 1679, and survey the co-seismic displacement at 15 sites; 2) we conform that the Xiadian fault scarp is consist of three branches with left stepping. Height of the scarp is from 0.5 to 4.0 meters, and the total length of the scarp is at least 50km; 3) Combined with the analysis of offset strata of the trench, we conform that the middle segment of the fault scarp is made by 1679 earthquake; 4) The fault scarp strikes along with the Ju river at the northeast segment of the Xiadian fault which course the asymmetrical valley geomorphology.

  15. Paleoseismic results of the east strand of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone, Central Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Carolina; Vilanova, Susana; Besana-Ostman, Glenda; Heleno, Sandra; Fonseca, Joao; Domingues, Ana; Pinheiro, Patricia; Pinto, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ) is a northeast-southwest trending tectonic structure located within the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV), in central Portugal associated with at least two historical events: the 1909 Mw 6.0-6.2 Benavente earthquake and the 1531 Mw 6.9 earthquake. Recent investigations indicate that the relatively linear valley associated with the Lower Tagus River is controlled by active faults in varying geometry and slip rates. Based on mapped traces, LTVFZ is about 80 kilometers long and transects Miocene to Holocene deposit. The east and west strands of the fault zone may have different level of activity based on the variable clarity of mapped morphological expressions. In recent studies new fault strands were identified using aerial photos and field survey on eastern side of LTV. These eastern faults have a trend that almost parallel those active traces previously mapped by Besana-Ostman et al., 2012 on the western side of the valley. Quaternary activity of this fault deforms fluvial terraces and produces morphological features related to left-lateral strike-slip movement like river offsets. In this work we present the results of the first paleoseismic analysis carried out on this strand of the fault. Trenching studies shows that surface rupture events have occurred affecting Tagus fluvial terraces. The geometry of faulting exposed in the trench provides valuable insights into the kinematics of the fault, and provides a preliminary minimum net slip rate. New relative ages of the deformation are established on preliminary trenching results, and recurrence intervals will be determined upon receipt of results of sample processing for C14 dating. The aim of this work is to contribute with new data to parameterize the paleoseismic activity of this active fault in order to be included in the future seismic hazard assessments. Further studies are proposed and underway to characterize the LTVFZ, including high-resolution LIDAR images analysis, more active fault mapping and paleoseismic excavations.

  16. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  17. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  18. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  19. Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems

    E-print Network

    Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen

    2015-04-26

    This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to laser fields and subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze open quantum systems where the system dynamics involve both classical and quantum random variables, a quantum-classical probability space model is developed. Using a reference probability approach, a fault tolerant quantum filter and a fault detection equation are simultaneously derived for this class of open quantum systems. An example of two-level open quantum systems subject to Poisson-type faults is presented to illustrate the proposed method. These results have the potential to lead to a new fault tolerant control theory for quantum systems.

  20. Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems

    E-print Network

    Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen

    2015-12-21

    This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to a laser field that is subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze this class of open quantum systems, we propose a quantum-classical Bayesian inference method based on the definition of a so-called quantum-classical conditional expectation. It is shown that the proposed Bayesian inference approach provides a convenient tool to simultaneously derive the fault tolerant quantum filter and the fault detection equation for this class of open quantum systems. An example of two-level open quantum systems subject to Poisson-type faults is presented to illustrate the proposed method. These results have the potential to lead to a new fault tolerant control theory for quantum systems.

  1. Fault Scarp Offsets and Fault Population Analysis on Dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, S.; Collins, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini images of Dione show several fault zones cutting through the moon’s icy surface. We have measured the displacement and length of 271 faults, and estimated the strain occurring in 6 different fault zones. These measurements allow us to quantify the total amount of surface strain on Dione as well as constrain what processes might have caused these faults to form. Though we do not have detailed topography across fault scarps on Dione, we can use their projected size on the camera plane to estimate their heights, assuming a reasonable surface slope. Starting with high resolution images of Dione obtained by the Cassini ISS, we marked points at the top to the bottom of each fault scarp to measure the fault’s projected displacement and its orientation along strike. Line and sample information for the measurements were then processed through ISIS to derive latitude/longitude information and pixel dimensions. We then calculate the three dimensional orientation of a vector running from the bottom to the top of the fault scarp, assuming a 45 degree angle with respect to the surface, and project this vector onto the spacecraft camera plane. This projected vector gives us a correction factor to estimate the actual vertical displacement of the fault scarp. This process was repeated many times for each fault, to show variations of displacement along the length of the fault. To compare each fault to its neighbors and see how strain was accommodated across a population of faults, we divided the faults into fault zones, and created new coordinate systems oriented along the central axis of each fault zone. We could then quantify the amount of fault overlap and add the displacement of overlapping faults to estimate the amount of strain accommodated in each zone. Faults in the southern portion of Padua have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.0097, central Padua exhibits a strain of .032(+/-) 0.012, and faults in northern Padua have a strain of 0.025(+/-) 0.0080. The western faults of Eurotas have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.011, while the eastern faults have a strain of 0.037(+/-) 0.025. Lastly, Clusium has a strain of 0.10 (+/-) 0.029. We also calculated the ratio of maximum fault displacement vs. the length of the faults, and we found this ratio to be 0.019 when drawing a trend line through all the faults that were analyzed. D/L measurements performed on two faults on Europa using stereo topography showed a value of .021 (Nimmo and Schenk 2006), the only other icy satellite where this ratio has been measured. In contrast, faults on Earth has a D/L ratio of about .1 and Mars has a D/L Ratio of about .01 (Schultz et al. 2006).

  2. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy). European Union of Geophysics Congress, Strasbourg, March 1999. Piccardi L., 2000: Active faulting at Delphi (Greece): seismotectonic remarks and a hypothesis for the geological environment of a myth. Geology, 28, 651-654. Piccardi L., 2001: Seismotectonic Origin of the Monster of Loch Ness. Earth System Processes, Joint Meeting of G.S.A. and G.S.L., Edinburgh, June 2001.

  3. The tectonic evolution of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.B. ); Sikander, A.H. ); Abouzakhm, A.G.

    1991-08-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, formed by rifting of the Arabian plate away from Africa, have been the subjects of numerous studies since the 1960s. Geophysical and geological data gathered during hydrocarbon exploration by several companies are being synthesized as part of the World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project. This synthesis provides an opportunity to study the regional variation in tectonic history and structural style within the two basins, particularly toward the basin margins, where data coverage is most complete and a thinner sedimentary cover allows more reliable interpretation of deeper horizons. Based on this data, most of the Red Sea shows a similar tectonic history to that of the Gulf of Suez. Widespread normal faulting developed contemporaneous with deposition of a dominantly clastic sequence of Oligocene( ) to middle Miocene age. The faulting often dies out within or below thick middle to upper Miocene evaporite deposits with only few faults affecting the younger units. The Gulf of Aden, on the other hand, shows a strong contrast between largely west-northwest-east-southeast oriented extensional structures on land, and generally more east-west oriented extensional structures on the continental shelves and slopes. The onshore extensional structures oriented oblique to the coast, and approximately perpendicular to transform fault trends in the oceanic crust of the central Gulf of Aden. This contrast is extensional structure orientations has important implications for the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aden.

  4. From accommodation zones to metamorphic core complexes: Tracking the progressive development of major normal fault systems

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, J.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The along-strike dimension in rifted continental crust is critical to assessing models of continental extension because individual normal faults or fault systems can potentially be traced from their tips in accommodation zones to their culminations in metamorphic core complexes. Accommodation zones and the linkages between the zones and core complexes have not been thoroughly studied or incorporated extensively into models of continental extension. Regionally extensive, gently dipping normal faults (i.e., detachment faults) that surface in metamorphic core complexes terminate and flip polarity in accommodation zones. Diametrical lateral transport of upper-plate rocks in positively dipping detachment terranes should presumably induce strike-slip faulting on segments of accommodation zones paralleling the extension direction. Most accommodation zones correspond, however, to belts of intermeshing conjugate normal faults with little strike-slip faulting. Normal faults simply terminate along-strike in the zones with little, if any, transfer of slip to strike-slip faults. Decreases in cumulative strain within individual normal fault systems toward some accommodation zones cannot alone account for the lack of strike-slip faulting. These findings pose a serious challenge to generally accepted notions of large-magnitude, lateral motion of parts of detachment terranes. Large-scale lateral translations of rifted continental crust may be governed more by discrete axes of extension than by detachment geometries. The dovetail-like interfingering of conjugate normal fault systems and attendant tilt-block domains observed in some accommodation zones (e.g., Colorado River extensional corridor, US) does suggest, however, that at least some major normal faults projecting into the zones from metamorphic core complexes have listric geometries that flatten out at relatively shallow depths.

  5. The Cenozoic rotational extrusion of the Chuan Dian Fragment: New paleomagnetic results from Paleogene red-beds on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ya-Bo; Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chun-Zhi; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Ying-Chao

    2015-09-01

    Paleomagnetic studies were conducted on the Eocene and Oligocene strata at the western part of the Chuan Dian Fragment in order to describe the crustal deformation induced by continuous penetration of the Indian plate into Eurasia during the late Cenozoic. High-temperature magnetic components with unblocking temperatures of ~ 680 °C were isolated, and positive fold and/or reversal tests reveal the primary nature of the magnetization. The tilt-corrected site-mean directions obtained from the Oligocene and middle-early Eocene strata are, respectively, Ds = 200.9°, Is = - 31.3°, k = 52.8, ?95 = 7.7° and Ds = 29.7°, Is = 32.0°, k = 44.9, ?95 = 5.6°. Comparison of these results with previous paleomagnetic data from the Chuan Dian Fragment shows that the western and central parts of the Chuan Dian Fragment experienced ~ 20° integral clockwise rotation relative to East Asia since the middle Miocene. However, the eastern part of the Chuan Dian Fragment has experienced different rotational deformation relative to East Asia since the Pliocene, because of the intense regional crustal deformation and activity on fault systems. The eastern boundary of the Chuan Dian Fragment was bounded by the Yuanmou-Luezhijiang left lateral strike-slip fault prior to the Pliocene, and then substituted by the Xiaojiang left lateral strike-slip fault since the Pliocene, due to the eastwards spreading of the clockwise rotational movement of the Chuan Dian Fragment. The evolutionary characteristics of the Ailaoshan-Red River and Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang strike-slip faults were controlled by the difference between the clockwise rotational extrusion velocities of the Chuan Dian Fragment and the Indochina Block.

  6. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in Table 1 are shown in red on the trench logs. All radiocarbon ages are calibrated and given with 2 standard deviation age ranges. Our studies suggest that the Central Range Fault is a Holocene fault capable of producing damaging earthquakes in Trinidad

  7. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  8. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

  10. Methods for quantitatively determining fault slip using fault separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.-S.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Murillo-Muñetón, G.; Nieto-Samaniego, A. F.

    2007-10-01

    Fault slip and fault separation are generally not equal to each other, however, they are geometrically related. The fault slip ( S) is a vector with a magnitude, a direction, and a sense of the movement. In this paper, a series of approaches are introduced to estimate quantitatively the magnitude and direction of the fault slip using fault separations. For calculation, the known factors are the pitch of slip lineations ( ?), the pitch of a cutoff ( ?), the dip separation ( Smd) or the strike separation ( Smh) for one marker. The two main purposes of this work include: (1) to analyze the relationship between fault slip and fault separation when slickenside lineations of a fault are known; (2) to estimate the slip direction when the parameters Smd or Smh, and ? for two non-parallel markers at a place (e.g., a point) are known. We tested the approaches using an example from a mainly strike-slip fault in East Quantoxhead, United Kingdom, and another example from the Jordan Field, Ector County, Texas. Also, we estimated the relative errors of apparent heave of the normal faults from the Sierra de San Miguelito, central Mexico.

  11. The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

    The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left).

    A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements.

    Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled in mostly by sedimentary and erosional material deposited from above. Comparisons between faults on Europa and Earth may generate ideas useful in the study of terrestrial faulting.

    One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. The tidal tension opens the fault; subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then the tidal forces close the fault up again. This prevents the area from moving back to its original position. If it moves forward with the next daily tidal cycle, the result is a steady accumulation of these lengthwise offset motions.

    Unlike Europa, here on Earth, large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas are set in motion not by tidal pull, but by plate tectonic forces from the planet's mantle.

    North is to the top of the picture. The Earth picture (left) shows a LandSat Thematic Mapper image acquired in the infrared (1.55 to 1.75 micrometers) by LandSat5 on Friday, October 20th 1989 at 10:21 am. The original resolution was 28.5 meters per picture element.

    The Europa picture (right)is centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude. The highest resolution frames, obtained at 40 meters per picture element with a spacecraft range of less than 4200 kilometers (2600 miles), are set in the context of lower resolution regional frames obtained at 200 meters per picture element and a range of 22,000 kilometers (13,600 miles). The images were taken on September 26, 1998 by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL HTTP://www.j

  12. Red Hat Linux 9 Red Hat Linux x86 Installation

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    Red Hat Linux 9 Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide #12;Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux x86 Hat Network, the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo, RPM, Maximum RPM, the RPM logo, Linux Library, PowerTools, Linux Undercover, RHmember, RHmember More, Rough Cuts, Rawhide and all Red Hat-based trademarks

  13. Dynamic faulting on a conjugate fault system detected by near-fault tilt measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi

    2015-12-01

    There have been reports of conjugate faults that have ruptured during earthquakes. However, it is still unclear whether or not these conjugate faults ruptured coseismically during earthquakes. In this paper, we investigated near-fault ground tilt motions observed at the IWTH25 station during the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake ( M w 6.9). Since near-fault tilt motion is very sensitive to the fault geometry on which the slip occurs during an earthquake, these data make it possible to distinguish between the main fault rupture and a rupture on the conjugate fault. We examined several fault models that have already been proposed and confirmed that only the models with a conjugated fault could explain the tilt data observed at IWTH25. The results support the existence of simultaneous conjugate faulting during the main rupture. This will contribute to the understanding of earthquake rupture dynamics because the conjugate rupture releases the same shear strain as that released on the main fault, and thus it has been considered quite difficult for both ruptures to accelerate simultaneously.

  14. Tsunami Impacts in River Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolkova, E.; Tanaka, H.; Roh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami events demonstrated the tsunami's ability to penetrate much farther along rivers than the ground inundation. At the same time, while tsunami impacts to the coastal areas have been subject to countless studies, little is known about tsunami propagation in rivers. Here we examine the field data and conduct numerical simulations to gain better understanding of the tsunami impacts in rivers.The evidence which motivated our study is comprised of water level measurements of the aforementioned tsunamis in multiple rivers in Japan, and the 2011 Tohoku and some other tsunamis in the Columbia River in the US. When the available tsunami observations in these very different rivers are brought together, they display remarkably similar patterns not observed on the open coast. Two phenomena were discovered in the field data. First, the phase of the river tide determines the tsunami penetration distance in a very specific way common to all rivers. Tsunami wave progressively disappears on receding tide, whereas high tide greatly facilitates the tsunami intrusion, as seen in the Figure. Second, a strong near-field tsunami causes substantial and prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. As the 2011 tsunami intruded rivers in Japan, the water level along rivers rose 1-2 m and stayed high for many hours, with the maximum rise occurring several km from the river mouth. The rise in the water level at some upstream gaging stations even exceeded the tsunami amplitude there.Using the numerical experiments, we attempt to identify the physics behind these effects. We will demonstrate that the nonlinear interactions among the flow components (tsunami, tide, and riverine flow) are an essential condition governing wave dynamics in tidal rivers. Understanding these interactions might explain some previous surprising observations of waves in river environments. Figure: Measurements of the 2010/02/27 tsunami along Naruse and Yoshida rivers, Japan, showing progressive development of the tsunami wave modulation by tide. The two rivers flow together the first 0.9 km from Sendai Bay. The distance from the river mouth (rkm) is shown in the plots. Blue dots - original data sampled at 10 min; cyan - deduced tide; red - de-tided surface elevation.

  15. Lidar reveals paleoseismic sites and recent strike-slip and thrust faulting along the central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.; Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    In the South Island of New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates and is thought to fail in large to great earthquakes approximately every 100 to 400 years, with the most recent major surface rupture event occurring in 1717 AD. We used a recently collected lidar dataset to evaluate the central section of the fault to both measure recent slip along the fault, recent co-seismic uplift, and to find new paleoseismic sites. The new high-resolution topography in the dense temperate rainforest allowed insight into the fault that was previously unavailable. Lidar mapping, combined with field mapping facilitated the discovery of a multi-event thrust fault scarp of the Alpine Fault that was later trenched at Gaunt Creek. C-14 dating of units in the trench and mapping there, show that the last earthquake was probably the 1717 event. Along the length of the lidar survey, small (< 25 m) dextral offsets were also mapped along the fault, which were rated for quality, and then visited in the field. The lidar itself was a guide to locate these offsets, and the offset measurements in the field have lower uncertainties than the lidar resolution; dextral slip in the 1717 earthquake here was c. 7 m × 1 m. Additional sites with evidence for cumulative slip were also mapped in the field which showing repetitive slip of ~ 7 to 8 m per event for the past three surface ruptures on the fault. Sag ponds discovered during field mapping are important new targets for investigation and will likely yield slip-rate information here for the correlation of slip with events. Additional field mapping near the Whataroa River and Mint Creek demonstrates that between debris flow fans that cross the Alpine Fault at the rangefront of the Southern Alps, preservation of strike-slip scarps is rare due to post-earthquake deposition and erosion. However, one likely scarp was found in a post-earthquake aggradation surface, along strike from a clear-strike slip trace, between two post-1717 fans. Based on field and lidar mapping, this scarp likely formed during the 1717 earthquake in pre-1717 Whataroa River outwash deposits.

  16. Displacement rates on the Toroweap and Hurricane faults: implications for Quaternary downcutting in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Cassandra R.; Webb, Robert H.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Toroweap and Hurricane faults, considered to be the most active in Arizona, cross the Uinkaret volcanic field in the western Grand Canyon. These normal faults are downthrown to the west, and the Colorado River crosses these faults as it flows west in the Grand Canyon. Cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) dates on basalt flows and related landforms are used to calculate vertical displacement rates for these faults. The two faults cross unruptured alluvial fans dated as 3 ka (Toroweap) and 8 ka (Hurricane), and 10 other landforms that range in age from 30 to 400 ka are displaced. Middle and late Quaternary displacement rates of the Toroweap and Hurricane faults are 70–180 and 70–170 m/m.y., respectively. On the basis of these rates, the combined displacement of 580 m on these faults could have occurred in the past 3 to 5 m.y. All 3Hec dates are younger than existing K- Ar dates and are consistent with new 40Ar/39Ar dates and existing thermoluminescence (TL) dates on basalt flows. These different dating techniques may be combined in an analysis of displacement rates. Downcutting rates for the Colorado River in the eastern Grand Canyon (400 m/m.y.) are at least double the downcutting rates west of the faults (70–160 m/m.y.). Faulting probably increased downcutting in the eastern Grand Canyon relative to downcutting in the western Grand Canyon during the late Quaternary.

  17. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed the angular unconformity and resulted in deposition of the lower clast-rich colluvium. A thin layer of pre-Mazama (>7600 years B.P.) loess caps the colluvium and post-dates the earthquake. The second earthquake is marked by shearing of the lower colluvium by small faults emanating from the carbonate-cemented breccia layer, and probable folding of the lower colluvium. A thin layer of clast-rich colluvium marks this youngest earthquake, the distal parts of which bury loess containing Mazama tephra. The preserved basalt scarp in the outcrop suggests between 1.8 and 2.8 m of post-flood vertical displacement. Faint straie on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest a reverse oblique mechanism for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ~8.5 Ma basalt dikes (Blakely and others, this meeting).

  18. Managing Fault Management Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, John M.

    2010-01-01

    As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

  19. Randomness fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

  20. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A previously unmapped seismically active fault has been identified in south-central Alaska on the basis of ERTS-1 imagery. It can be traced for at least 120 km. An unmapped fault was found on the northwest flank of Mt. Sanford that is apparently a reverse fault. A large scale, seismically active fracture system has been identified in central Alaska on the basis of MSS imagery. The system consists of two sets of fractures which intersect at an angle of about 55 degrees. The dominant feature of the system is the Minook Creek fault, on which an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 occurred on October 29, 1968. A possible related feature is a 60 km long lineament near the Toklat River north of Mt. McKinley. These areas are all moderately seismically active. Focal mechanism studies of the 1968 earthquake revealed that left-lateral displacement had occurred on the Minook Creek fault due to compressive stress. A similarly oriented direction of compressive stress could be responsible for the entire fracture system.

  1. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  2. This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault

    E-print Network

    Karlsson, Johan

    Abstract This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault injection in a physical system using built in test logic, and fault injection in a VHDL software simulation model of a system. The fault injections were used to evaluate the error

  3. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

  4. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that ...

  5. Tectonic Geomorphology of the Hanging Wall Blocks of the Cimandiri Fault Zone, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    In areas where regional strain is accommodated by broad zones of short and low slip-rate faults, geomorphic and paleoseismic characterization of faults is difficult because of poor surface expression and long earthquake recurrence intervals. In humid areas, faults can be buried by thick sediments and undetectable until the next earthquake. In Java, despite the frequency of damaging shallow earthquakes, active faults are diffuse and their characterization is challenging. Among them is the ENE-trending Cimandiri fault. Cumulative displacement along the fault produces prominent ENE-oriented ranges with the east side moving relatively upward and to the north. Along its length, the few hundred meter wide fault zone is expressed in the bedrock by numerous NE, E and NW-trending thrust- and strike slip faults and folds. However, it is unclear which of these structures are active, as the diffuse nature of the fault zone has so far stymied conventional paleoseismic study. To address this, we performed a tectonic geomorphology analysis of the fault zone. We used the 30-m resolution SRTM-DEM to construct longitudinal profiles of 601 bedrock rivers along the ranges and calculated the normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Our preliminary results rely on the assumption that ksn is a reasonable proxy for relative rock uplift rate in a region, assuming variations in rock type and climate are insignificant. While the active traces of the Cimandiri fault are obscured, the spatial variation in ksn allows us to delineate 4 discontinuous hanging wall blocks that vary between E and NE striking along the zone. The largest ksn values are along the central-western block (Cibeber area). The longest block is in the central eastern portion of the fault zone and comprises 45 km of the 100 km long fault zone. The fault bifurcates at its eastern termination and steps into the Lembang fault. The distribution of ksn suggests that reverse motion is more dominant than lateral because of a lack of kinematically consistent deformation associated with the steps along the fault zone. This geometric characterization of the active Cimandiri fault implies a maximum magnitude along its 100 km length of M7.5 but its geometric complexity suggests greater segmentation and smaller events—consistent with the limited historical record of upper plate earthquakes in Java.

  6. 33 CFR 207.249 - Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red River, La.... and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red River,...

  7. Fault management for data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1993-01-01

    Issues related to automating the process of fault management (fault diagnosis and response) for data management systems are considered. Substantial benefits are to be gained by successful automation of this process, particularly for large, complex systems. The use of graph-based models to develop a computer assisted fault management system is advocated. The general problem is described and the motivation behind choosing graph-based models over other approaches for developing fault diagnosis computer programs is outlined. Some existing work in the area of graph-based fault diagnosis is reviewed, and a new fault management method which was developed from existing methods is offered. Our method is applied to an automatic telescope system intended as a prototype for future lunar telescope programs. Finally, an application of our method to general data management systems is described.

  8. Fault evolution in volcanic tuffs and quartz-rich eolian sandstone as mechanical analogs for faulting in Martian pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish a foundation for studies of faulting in Martian rocks and soils in volcanic terrain, the distribution of brittle strain around faults within the North Menan Butte Tuff in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho and the Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Utah, has been recently described. These studies employed a combination of macroscopic and microscopic observations, including measurements of in situ permeability as a proxy for non-localized brittle deformation of the host rock. In areas where the tuff retained its primary granular nature at the time of deformation, initial plastic yielding in both tuffs occurred along deformation bands. Both compactional and dilational types of deformation bands were observed, and faulting occurred along clusters of deformation bands. Where secondary alteration processes imparted a massive texture to the tuff, brittle deformation was accommodated along fractures. Host-rock permeability exhibits little variation from non-deformed values in the North Menan Butte Tuff, whereas host rock permeability is reduced by roughly an order of magnitude through compaction alone (no alteration) in the Joe Lott Tuff. To create a bridge between these observations in tuff and the more substantial body of work centered on deformation band formation and faulting in quartz-rich sandstones, the same techniques employed in the North Menan Butte Tuff and the Joe Lott Tuff have also been applied to a kilometer-scale fault in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone in the Waterpocket Fold, Utah. These observations demonstrate that the manifestation of strain and evolution of faulting in the Mars-analog tuffs are comparable to that in quartz-rich sandstones. Therefore, current understanding of brittle deformation in quartz-rich sandstones can be used to inform investigations into fault growth within porous tuffs on Mars. A discussion of these observations, practical limitations, and directions for future work are presented here.

  9. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410.561a) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making...

  10. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment, that... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507...

  11. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment, that... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507...

  12. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410.561a) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making...

  13. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment, that... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507...

  14. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment, that... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507...

  15. 20 CFR 404.507 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Officer § 404.507 Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 404.506 and 42 CFR 405.355) applies only to the individual. Although the Administration may have been at fault in making the overpayment, that... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fault. 404.507 Section 404.507...

  16. Imaging Faults and Shear Zones Using Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Mahan, Kevin H.

    2014-11-01

    The geometry of faults at seismogenic depths and their continuation into the ductile zone is of interest for a number of applications ranging from earthquake hazard to modes of lithospheric deformation. Teleseismic passive source imaging of faults and shear zones can be useful particularly where faults are not outlined by local seismicity. Passive seismic signatures of faults may arise from abrupt changes in lithology or foliation orientation in the upper crust, and from mylonitic shear zones at greater depths. Faults and shear zones with less than near-vertical dip lend themselves to detection with teleseismic mode-converted waves (receiver functions) provided that they have either a contrast in isotropic shear velocity ( V s), or a contrast in orientation or strength of anisotropic compressional velocity ( V p). We introduce a detection method for faults and shear zones based on receiver functions. We use synthetic seismograms to demonstrate common features of dipping isotropic interfaces and contrasts in dipping foliation that allows determination of their strike and depth without making further assumptions about the model. We proceed with two applications. We first image a Laramide thrust fault in the western U.S. (the Wind River thrust fault) as a steeply dipping isotropic velocity contrast in the middle crust near the surface trace of the fault; further downdip and across the range, where basin geometry suggests the fault may sole into a subhorizontal shear zone, we identify a candidate shear zone signal from midcrustal depths. The second application is the use of microstructural data from exhumed ductile shear zones in Scotland and in the western Canadian Shield to predict the character of seismic signatures of present-day deep crustal shear zones. Realistic anisotropy in observed shear fabrics generates a signal in receiver functions that is comparable in amplitude to first-order features like the Moho. Observables that can be robustly constrained without significant tradeoffs are foliation strike and the depth of the foliation contrast. We find that an anisotropy of only a few percent in the shear zone is sufficient to generate a strong signal, but that the shear zone width is required to be >2 km for typical frequencies used in receiver function analysis to avoid destructive interference due to the signals from the boundaries of the shear zone.

  17. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001     ... South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico is ... 2348 miles long. Over the course of it's history, the mighty river has flooded many times. The largest flood recorded in the lower valley ...

  18. Merced River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, the Merced River can be seen just upstream of Happy Isles and the USGS Benchmark Streamgage in Yosemite National Park. The Merced River is a 145 mile (233 km) long tributary of the San Joaquin River. It drains a large section of the Sierra Nevadas, including Yosemite Valley....

  19. Heart River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  20. Interplay between river discharge and topography of the basin floor in a hyperpycnal lacustrine delta

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    delta CORNEL OLARIU*, , JANOK P. BHATTACHARYAà, MATTHEW I. LEYBOURNE§, STEPHEN K. BOSS­ and ROBERT J influences the flow path of hyperpycnal plumes and delta morphology during progradation of the Red River delta in Lake Texoma, USA. The Red River discharge is typically a hyperpycnal plume due to elevated

  1. What lies below the Columbia River Basalt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidel, S.; Kauffman, J.; Garwood, D.; Bush, J.

    2006-12-01

    More than 200,000 sq km of the Pacific Northwest are covered by the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRB). The lavas were erupted onto a complex structural setting dominated by cratonic rocks, and accreted terranes at a convergent plate margin. Few boreholes penetrate the basalt so the sub-basalt structure must be deduced from geophysical data, the surrounding area and structures within the basalt. In Oregon (OR) and Idaho (ID) the eastern edge of the basalt follows the boundary between the craton and accreted terranes but the suture zone becomes lost beneath the basalt in eastern WA. In northern OR and Washington (WA), a thick basalt sequence in the western part of the province overlies an early Tertiary basin with kms of sediment fill which, in turn, overlies accreted terranes. In eastern WA and western ID, a much thinner basalt sequence overlies cratonic and accreted terrane rocks without thick intervening Tertiary sediments. This basin began in the Eocene and continued into the present; the sediment now controls the location of the Yakima fold belt (YFB). Prior to basalt eruptions, a rugged mountainous terrane existed in eastern WA and ID that probably extended to the west. NW faults and folds (e.g. the Orofino fault zone ID, and Chiwaukum graben and White River-Naches River fault zone, Cascade Range) dominate the prebasalt rocks and must extend under the basalt. Remanents of this NW trend are present in YFB (e.g. Rattlesnake-Wallula fault zone) but these are less prominent than the large basalt anticlinal folds that are decoupled from the basement. CRB dikes have a NW to N trend and are thought to reflect a basement structural weakness. In the basalt province many folds and faults follow this dike trend. Major NE trending faults in the basalts do not have major counterparts beyond the basalt. One fault, the Hite Fault, must form a significant sub-basalt boundary. Dikes to the east of the Hite fault trend N-N20W whereas dikes to the west trend N40-50W, suggesting a major fault separating two fundamental basement structural zones. Overall, basement structures have had a significant influence on the tectonic development of the flood-basalt province and may help explain why 75 percent of the basalt occurs in the northern part of the province.

  2. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

    In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart.

    Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above.

    One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then tidal forces close the fault again, preventing the area from moving back to its original position. Daily tidal cycles produce a steady accumulation of lengthwise offset motions. Here on Earth, unlike Europa, large strike-slip faults like the San Andreas are set in motion by plate tectonic forces.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the top. The image, centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 300 by 203 kilometers(185 by 125 miles). The pictures were taken on September 26, 1998by Galileo's solid-state imaging system.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. Fault interaction near Hollister, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavko, Gerald M.

    1982-09-01

    A numerical model is used to study fault stress and slip near Hollister, California. The geometrically complex system of interacting faults, including the San Andreas, Calaveras, Sargent, and Busch faults, is approximated with a two-dimensional distribution of short planar fault segments in an elastic medium. The steady stress and slip rate are simulated by specifying frictional strength and stepping the remote stress ahead in time. The resulting computed fault stress is roughly proportional to the observed spatial density of small earthquakes, suggesting that the distinction between segments characterized by earthquakes and those with aseismic creep results, in part, from geometry. A nosteady simulation is made by introducing, in addition, stress drops for individual moderate earthquakes. A close fit of observed creep with calculated slip on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults suggests that many changes in creep rate (averaged over several months) are caused by local moderate earthquakes. In particular, a 3-year creep lag preceding the August 6, 1979, Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault seems to have been a direct result of the November 28, 1974, Thanksgiving Day earthquake on the Busch fault. Computed lags in slip rate preceding some other moderate earthquakes in the area are also due to earlier earthquakes. Although the response of the upper 1 km of the fault zone may cause some individual creep events and introduce delays in others, the long-term rate appears to reflect deep slip.

  4. Anisotropic origin of transform faults.

    PubMed

    Freund, R; Merzer, A M

    1976-04-01

    Transform faults appear in the process of stretching during freezing of the surface films on liquid wax. These films are composed of a warp yarn of wax fibers with optical anisotropy. This fabric is absent in materials that fail to produce transform faults. The mechanical anisotropy of these wax films (with high tensile strength and low shear strength in the direction of spreading) is responsible for the initiation of the transform faults. It is suggested that the anisotropy of the ocean upper mantle recorded seismically may likewise be responsible for the creation of the ridge-ridge transform faults in the oceans. PMID:17792444

  5. 77 FR 31340 - Proposed Reductions in Levels of Service at Locks and Dams on the Ouachita and Black Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red... Ouachita and Black Rivers AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice... and Black Rivers will be reduced from the current schedule of 24 hours per day, 7 days per week,...

  6. How fast do landscapes respond to active faulting? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, A. C.; Boulton, S. J.; Attal, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the rate at which landscapes respond to tectonic perturbation remains a key challenge in the Earth Sciences. Central to solving this problem is the behaviour of transient knickpoints in bedrock rivers draining areas of high relief, because they transmit the signal of boundary condition change to the landscape. Consequently, the rate at which knickpoints propagate upstream fundamentally controls geomorphic response time to tectonics. Here, we present knickpoint retreat rates upstream of active normal faults for bedrock catchments in Turkey and Italy where we have excellent constraints on both the magnitude and history of fault throw rates, and where climate histories are well documented. We show that the knickpoints have average retreat rates of between 0.2 and 2 mm/yr for catchments with drainage areas between 6 and 65 sqkm and we test whether differences in rock mass strength and catchment size are sufficient to explain this range in retreat rates. Our analysis suggests that even accounting for these two variables, knickpoint propagation velocities markedly differ, and we show that channels crossing faults with higher throw rates have knickpoints that are retreating faster. Importantly, the dependence of knickpoint retreat velocity and throw rate is at least as important as catchment drainage area. The link between the knickpoint propagation velocity and throw rate is best explained by dynamic channel adjustment, because rivers crossing high throw rate faults are both narrower and steeper for the same drainage area than those crossing slower moving faults. These results indicate, counter-intuitively, that landscapes forced by large amplitude tectonic perturbations will have shorter response times than those perturbed by smaller amplitude changes. Our results also highlight that dynamic adjustment of channel widths and slopes, in response to a tectonic perturbation, makes a significant difference to fluvial response times, and we argue that this effect must be incorporated routinely within landscape evolution models.

  7. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.

    2008-12-01

    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to the east. Channel profiles constructed for 11 rivers and streams crossing the fault show concave-up profiles indicating a dominance of erosion over active tectonic uplift. We conclude that motion on the EPGFZ is highly episodic and therefore may not be the source of large, destructive earthquakes that caused widespread destruction and landslides in eastern Jamaica in 1692 and 1907.

  8. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  9. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

  10. DRAM Fault Analysis and Test DRAM Fault Analysis and Test

    E-print Network

    of the personal computer (PC). These memories are elaborately tested by their manufacturers to ensure a high-up stage where products are shipped to the customer, and ending with the test adaptation stage, basedDRAM Fault Analysis and Test Generation #12;#12;DRAM Fault Analysis and Test Generation

  11. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  12. James River VA, Potomac

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Deborah

    VA, James River VA, York River VA, Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers NY, North Branch Susquehanna and Chemung Rivers VA, Rappahannock River PA, Susq, Juniata River MD, Potomac River, Upper MD, Eastern Shore, Lower PA, Potomac River, Upper PA, Susq, Susquhannock and Pine Creeks PA, Susquehanna River, Lower West

  13. 5 CFR 831.1402 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Fault. 831.1402 Section... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL...Overpayments § 831.1402 Fault. A recipient of...Office of Personnel Management may have been at fault in initiating an...

  14. 5 CFR 831.1402 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fault. 831.1402 Section... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL...Overpayments § 831.1402 Fault. A recipient of...Office of Personnel Management may have been at fault in initiating an...

  15. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 35.25 deg. North lat., 118.05 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking southwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  16. Fault current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  17. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

  18. Faults paragenesis and paleostress state in the zone of actively propagating continental strike-slip on the example of North Khangai fault (Northern Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Sublatitudinal North Khangai fault extends from Ubsunuur basin to the eastern part of the Selenga corridor trough 800 km. It is the northern boundary of the massive Mongolian block and limits of the Baikal rift system structures propagation in the south (Logatchev, 2003). Late Cenozoic and present-day fault activity are expressed in the left-lateral displacements of a different order of river valleys and high seismicity. We have carried out studies of the kinematics of active faults and palaeostresses reconstruction in the zone of the dynamic influence of North Khangai fault, the width of which varies along the strike and can exceeds 100 km. The result shows that the fault zone has a longitudinal and a transverse zoning. Longitudinal zonation presented gradual change from west to east regions of compression and transpression regimes (Khan-Khukhey ridge) to strike-slip regime (Bolnay ridge) and strike-slip and transtensive regimes (west of Selenga corridor). Strike-slip zones are represented by linearly concentrated rupture deformations. In contrast, near the termination of the fault the cluster fault deformation formed. Here, from north to south, there are radical changes in the palaeostress state. In the north-western sector (east of Selenga corridor) strike-slip faults, strike-slip faults with normal components and normal faults are dominated. For this sector the stress tensors of extensive, transtension and strike-slip regimes are typical. South-western sector is separated from the north-eastern one by massive Buren Nuruu ridge within which the active faults are not identified. In the south-western sector between the Orkhon and Tola rivers the cluster of NW thrusts and N-S strike-slip faults with reverse component are discovered. The faults are perfectly expressed by NW and N-S scarps in the relief. The most structures dip to the east and north-east. Holocene fault activity is demonstrated by the hanging river valleys and horizontal displacements with amplitudes up to 15-25 m along the scarps. The type of displacements and the ratio of vertical and horizontal components in the NW and N-S zones of studied faults are similar to those established for Mogod earthquake seismodislocations (1967, M=7.0). According to paleostress states reconstructions the stress tensors of compression and strike-slip regimes are dominated in this area. The resulting pattern of faults distribution and palaeostresses reflects one of the stages of the North Khangai strike-slip zone development during Late Cenozoic under the conditions of its gradual propagation to the east. At the eastern fault termination the complex picture of the stress state corresponds to the situation typical for the termination of the left-lateral strike-slip, developing in an elastic half-space modeled by D.Osokina (Osokina, 1977, 2008). RFBR project No. 13-05-01097

  19. The character and reactivation history of the southern extension of the seismically active Clarendon Linden Fault System, western New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Robert D.; Fountain, John

    2002-08-01

    Integration of 11 types of data sets enabled us to determine the location, character and fault history of the southern extension of the Clarendon-Linden Fault System (CLF) in southwestern New York State. The data sets utilized include detailed stratigraphic and fracture measurements at more than 1000 sites, soil gas anomalies, seismic reflection profiles, well logs and lineaments on air photos, topographic maps, Landsat and SLAR images. The seismically active CLF consists of as many as 10 parallel, segmented faults across the fault system. The fault segments are truncated by NW-striking cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs). The faults of the CLF and intersecting CSDs form fault blocks that have semi-independent subsidence and uplift histories. East-dipping reflectors in the Precambrian basement indicate the southward continuation of thrusts of the intra-Grenvillian Elzevir-Frontenac Boundary Zone. These thrusts were reactivated during Iapetan rifting as normal (listric) growth faults. In Ordovician Black River to Trenton time, the southern CLF segments experienced a second phase of growth fault activity, with faults displaying a cumulative stratigraphic throw of as much as ˜170 m. Thrusting on the same east-dipping Precambrian reflectors typified the CLF in Taconic (post-Trenton) times. Detailed comparisons among the fault segments show that the fault activity in Silurian and Devonian times generally alternated between the western and central main faults. In Late Devonian time, the fault motion reversed from down-on-the-east to down-on-the-west about the time the Appalachian Basin axis passed across the CLF in its westward migration. The deep Precambrian faults of the CLF were thus reactivated as the Appalachian Basin developed in Acadian times. Finally, the CLF thrust fault imaged on seismic line CLF-1 offsets all bedrock (Devonian) units; thus, significant motion occurred along this fault during Late Acadian, or more likely, Alleghanian time.

  20. Anisotropy of fractal dimension of normal faults in northern Rocky Mountains: Implications for the kinematics of Cenozoic extension and Yellowstone hotspot's thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan A.

    2013-11-01

    The Basin and Range fault blocks, which were formed by an extensional event around 17 Ma, have continuously been deforming by younger, diachronous system of cross normal faults in southwest Montana and southeastern Idaho since 16.6 Ma. Reactivation of these two mid-Tertiary-Quaternary systems of normal faults, and two older, approximately N-S and E-W sets of regional normal faults, has evolved into a seismically active block faulted terrain. For both fault systems, high fractal dimensions occur in areas characterized by a large number of fault traces, high fault trace linear density, and maximum fault trace azimuthal variation. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipse of the fractal dimensions for each set of the two normal fault systems is sub-perpendicular to the linear directional mean of the faults, and gives an estimate for the direction of extension. Indentations on the point distribution on the anisotropy ellipse of fractal dimensions indicate heterogeneities due to the presence of several fault sets and/or variation in their trend. Domains in which there is only one set of faults produce smooth, well-defined fractal anisotropy ellipses with no indentations. The axial ratio of the anisotropy ellipse provides a measure for the range of variation in the trend of the faults. The trace length, linear density, and fractal dimension of the cross normal faults, decrease, in a direction across and away from the Snake River Plain (SRP), suggesting a diminishing effect of faulting probably due to the attenuation of the Yellowstone hotspot-related thermal doming with distance from centers of eruption. The spatio-temporal distribution of the trajectories of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses of fractal dimensions and the linear directional mean of the cross faults define a set of asymmetric, sub-parabolic spatio-temporal pattern about the axis of the SRP, with their apices located on diachronous centers of eruption.

  1. The Bi-CGSTAB Method with Red-Black Gauss-Seidel Preconditioner Applied to the

    E-print Network

    Brill, Stephen H.

    The Bi-CGSTAB Method with Red-Black Gauss-Seidel Preconditioner Applied to the Hermite Collocation Specialty Chemicals, Toms River, New Jersey. Email: joseph.guarnaccia@cibasc.com G. F. Pinder, Department. To minimizethis bur- den, we solve these equations using the Bi-CGSTAB method with a red- black Gauss

  2. Numerical modelling of wind gap formation in fault-bounded mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Andrea; Hetzel, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Among the most impressive geomorphological features that document the competition between rock uplift and surface processes are wind gaps, which form in active mountain ranges when rivers are defeated by tectonic faulting. Here we use a three-dimensional numerical model with full coupling between tectonic deformation and surface processes (Kurfess and Heidbach, Comp. Geosci., 2009; Maniatis et al., EPSL, 2009) to investigate the formation and temporal evolution of wind gaps in mountain ranges bounded by an active thrust fault. Range growth in our model occurs by accumulation of slip on a fault plane embedded in a rheologically stratified crust. Our model results reveal that wind gaps do not necessarily form progressively from the center toward the tips of the mountain range. Rather, rivers abandon their valleys asynchronously depending on the evolution of their catchment area upstream of the range and the relative magnitude of diffusive and fluvial erosion. Our study further reveals that the presence of wind gaps are not an unequivocal indicator for lateral fault growth, because they may also form in mountains bounded by non-propagating faults with stationary tips. The elevation of wind gaps above the local base level is a good approximation for the amount of tectonic rock uplift since river defeat and valley abandonment. Overall, our models agree well with the geomorphology and growth history of active mountain ranges in northeastern Tibet (Hetzel etal., Terra Nova, 2004; Palumbo et al., Tectonics, 2009) and New Zealand (Amos et al., Tectonics, 2010).

  3. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5?s; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

  5. Optimized Fault Location Final Project Report

    E-print Network

    Optimized Fault Location Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Engineering Research Center Optimized Fault Location Concurrent Technologies Corporation Final Project Report

  6. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  7. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  8. BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

  9. Geophysical investigation of the Hockai Fault Zone, Eastern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Nguyen, Frédéric; Halleux, Lucien; Hölz, Sebastian; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of a regional project evaluating the geothermal potential of the Wallonian Region of Belgium, the Hockai Fault Zone has been identified as one of the most interesting targets. It is a seismically active fault zone that hosted the largest historical earthquake in Northwestern Europe, the M6-6.5 Verviers event in 1692 as well as a swarm of small earthquakes that was recorded in 1989-90. On the surface, the presence of the fault zones is marked by a series of geomorphic features, such as several landslides near the borders in the northern part, repeated NW-SE oriented scarps all along the Eastern border (over a distance of 40 km), river diversions and captures with formation of paleo-valleys. Along the most prominent paleo-valley, the Paleo-Warche Valley crossing the fault zone over a distance of 5 km, a geophysical survey has been organized by several teams to better characterize the shallow (<150 m) subsurface of the fault zone. It included electro-magnetic sounding (frequency-based and TEM), shallow seismics (refraction, walk-away, surface waves analysis), electrical resistivity tomography as well as ambient noise recordings. To support an integrated interpretation of all geophysical results in combination with geomorphic and seismo-tectonic aspects, surface morphology, soundings and profiles were represented in a 3D model. This model clearly reveals low-resistivity and low-velocity zones near the Eastern border of the fault zone, vertically above the hypocenters of the 1989-90 earthquake swarm. Across the structure, low-resistivity zones have a limited extent while they are repeatedly identified all along Eastern border.

  10. Observer-based fault detection for nuclear reactors

    E-print Network

    Li, Qing, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    This is a study of fault detection for nuclear reactor systems. Basic concepts are derived from fundamental theories on system observers. Different types of fault- actuator fault, sensor fault, and system dynamics fault ...

  11. Dextral Strike-Slip Faulting Along the Early Permian Margin of Pangaea (Eastern Australia) and Implications for Oroclinal Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Uysal, I. T.; Babaahmadi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of the Pangaean supercontinent was one of the most significant events that affected Phanerozoic global tectonics. Heralding this process, and following the Carboniferous maximum stage of continental assembly, was a period in which the southern part of Pangaea (Gondwana) was subjected to a counterclockwise rotation relative to Laurasia. According to tectonic reconstructions, dextral wrench faulting and oroclinal bending in Varsican Europe and eastern Gondwana accompanied this rotation, but direct evidence for dextral strike-slip faulting in the eastern Gondwanan margin has hitherto not been reported. Here we show evidence from a well-preserved fault zone in eastern Australia (Red Rock fault zone), which occurs along the eastern limb of the Z-shaped Texas/Coffs Harbour orocline. Structural observations show evidence for dextral strike-slip faulting, with a reverse kinematic component, along a sub-vertical fault plane oriented NNE-SSW. Direct geochronological data (Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar) from fault gouge samples associated with this fault zone indicate that brittle faulting occurred in the early-mid Permian (288-264 Ma). In addition, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope geochemistry indicates that the origin of fluids that circulated in the fault zone was associated with a deep crustal source. These results are consistent with independent constraints on the timing of oroclinal bending, supporting the idea that dextral wrench faulting has directly contributed to the formation of the oroclines. We propose a kinematic model for the formation of the oroclines, attributing the early stage of oroclinal bending to subduction rollback and slab segmentation (at ~300-288 Ma) followed by a period of dextral wrench faulting at 288-264 Ma. In the context of Pangaea, our model suggests that the origin of oroclines along the rim of Gondwana was likely associated with bending in response to migrating plate boundaries, and a subsequent tightening of pre-existing curvatures by dextral wrench faulting.

  12. Magnitudes of slip along the Greenville fault in the Diablo Range and Corral Hollow areas

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1982-03-01

    Field investigations in recent years by Herd, Dibblee, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel have established that the Greenville fault forms the eastern boundary to Livermore Valley and extends into the Diablo Range south of San Antonio Valley, a probable pull-apart structure. Gravity, magnetic, structural, and petrologic data indicate that the serpentinized ophiolite units at Cedar Mountain and Red Mountain were once continuous and are displaced dextrally along the Greenville fault by 9 km. The Livermore Oil Field marks the location of the buried western end of the Corral Hollow anticline which has been displaced about 2 km northward along the Greenville fault following deposition and folding of Plio-Pleistocene rocks. Further east, the Corral Hollow syncline has been displaced northward about 600 m along the Corral Hollow fault in a similar manner.

  13. Flooding of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images shows flooding along the Ob' (large east-west running river) and Irtysh (southern tributary of the Ob') on July 7, 2002. In the false-color image, land surfaces are orange-gold and flood waters are black or dark blue. Fires are marked with red dots in both images. Rivers

  14. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  15. Slip on faults in the Imperial Valley Triggered by the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Major earthquake as revealed by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Fialko, Y.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Radar interferometry (InSAR) reveals surface slip on multiple faults in the Imperial Valley triggered by the 2010 Baja M7.2 earthquake. Co-seismic offsets occurred on the San Andreas, Superstition Hills, Imperial, Elmore Ranch, Wienert, Coyote Creek, Elsinore, Yuha Wells, and several minor faults near the town of Ocotillo at the northern end of the mainshock rupture. We documented right-lateral slip (< 40 mm) on northwest trending faults and left-lateral slip (< 40 mm) on southwest trending faults. Slip occurred on 15-km- and 20-km-long segments of the San Andreas Fault in the Mecca Hills (? 50 mm) and Durmid Hill (? 10 mm) respectively, and 23 km of the Superstition Hills Fault (? 37 mm). Field measurements of slip on the Superstition Hills Fault agree with InSAR and creepmeter measurements to within a few millimeters. Dislocation models of the InSAR data on the Superstition Hills Fault confirm that creep in this sequence, as in previous slip events, is confined to shallow depths (< 3 km). Map of Southern California and Northern Baja California. Black solid lines are major faults. Yellow solid lines are faults with observed offsets. Dashed black lines are National and State borders. White star is the epicenter of the 2010 April 4th El Major earthquake. Red dots are aftershocks within one month after the main rupture with magnitude greater than 5, blue 4-5, and green 3-4. Earthquake data are from the Southern California Earthquake Center. Fault names are abbreviated as follows: ERF, Elmore Ranch fault; SHF, Superstition Hills fault; SMF, Superstition Mountains fault; WF, Wienert fault; YWF, Yuha Wells Fault.

  16. Contribution of high resolution PLEIADES imagery to active faults analysis. Case study of the Longriba Fault System, eastern Tibet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansberque, Claire; Bellier, Olivier; Godard, Vincent; Lasserre, Cécile; Wang, Mingming; Xu, Xiwei; Tan, Xibin

    2015-04-01

    High resolution imagery has largely developed during those two last decades allowing the possibility to observe and quantify geological and geomorphological features ranging from meter to few centimeters. Active tectonic and geomorphological studies have greatly benefited from the systematic use of such data. For that reason, we tested the contribution of PLEAIDES images to the analysis of an active strike-slip fault system in eastern Tibet. We used 50 cm resolution panchromatic PLEIADES images in order to map active fault segmentation, localize offsets of geomorphic markers and quantify vertical and horizontal displacements. We propose a preliminary study using PLEIADES images along the Longriba Fault System (LFS). The LFS, located at the eastern Tibetan Plateau margin, is constituted of two NW-SE dextral strike-slip and parallel fault zones: Longriqu and Maoergai, 80 and 120 km-long, respectively. It accommodates ~4 mm/yr dextral slip and very few vertical motion. We used stereo-pairs to build relative Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) (without ground control points) with a horizontal resolution ranging from 2 to 5 m, in order to understand the geometry of the system. We measured fault segments with lengths ranging from a hundred meters to several kilometers which are relatively close from each others, and several offsets of geomorphic markers (alluvial fans, ridges, rivers) ranging from a few meters to ~40 m. According to the segmentation deduced from those results we suggest that the fault has a high seismic potential (>Mw7.0) and that probably many surface rupturing earthquakes occurred along the LFS over the Holocene.

  17. Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation for Local Leakage Faults

    E-print Network

    Panos Aliferis; Barbara M. Terhal

    2006-05-26

    We provide a rigorous analysis of fault-tolerant quantum computation in the presence of local leakage faults. We show that one can systematically deal with leakage by using appropriate leakage-reduction units such as quantum teleportation. The leakage noise is described by a Hamiltonian and the noise is treated coherently, similar to general non-Markovian noise analyzed in Refs. quant-ph/0402104 and quant-ph/0504218. We describe ways to limit the use of leakage-reduction units while keeping the quantum circuits fault-tolerant and we also discuss how leakage reduction by teleportation is naturally achieved in measurement-based computation.

  18. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery is proving to be exceptionally useful in delineating structural features in Alaska which have never been recognized on the ground. Previously unmapped features such as seismically active faults and major structural lineaments are especially evident. Among the more significant results of this investigation is the discovery of an active strand of the Denali fault. The new fault has a history of scattered activity and was the scene of a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on October 1, 1972. Of greater significance is the disclosure of a large scale conjugate fracture system north of the Alaska Range. This fracture system appears to result from compressive stress radiating outward from around Mt. McKinley. One member of the system was the scene of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in 1968. The potential value of ERTS-1 imagery to land use planning is reflected in the fact that this earthquake occurred within 10 km of the site which was proposed for the Rampart Dam, and the fault on which it occurred passes very near the proposed site for the bridge and oil pipeline crossing of the Yukon River.

  19. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...LIGHT 193 LLNR 38875), all waters of Upper New York Bay north...41, Red Hook Brooklyn, all waters of the East River from The Battery to the Hell Gate Railroad Bridge at river mile 8.2, and all waters of the Harlem River from...

  20. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  1. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  2. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  4. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  5. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J.; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E. S.; Mücher, Herman J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record). PMID:22308348

  6. Slip sense inversion on active strike-slip faults in southwest Japan and its implications for Cenozoic tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Lin, Aiming

    2004-05-01

    Analyses of deflected river channels, offset of basement rocks, and fault rock structures reveal that slip sense inversion occurred on major active strike-slip faults in southwest Japan such as the Yamasaki and Mitoke fault zones and the Median Tectonic Line (MTL). Along the Yamasaki and Mitoke fault zones, small-size rivers cutting shallowly mountain slopes and Quaternary terraces have been deflected sinistrally, whereas large-size rivers which deeply incised into the Mio-Pliocene elevated peneplains show no systematically sinistral offset or complicated hairpin-shaped deflection. When the sinistral offsets accumulated on the small-size rivers are restored, the large-size rivers show residual dextral deflections. This dextral offset sense is consistent with that recorded in the pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. S-C fabrics of fault gouge and breccia zone developed in the active fault zones show sinistral shear sense compatible with earthquake focal mechanisms, whereas those of the foliated cataclasite indicate a dextral shear sense. These observations show that the sinistral strike-slip shear fabrics were overprinted on dextral ones which formed during a previous deformation phase. Similar topographic and geologic features are observed along the MTL in the central-eastern part of the Kii Peninsula. Based on these geomorphological and geological data, we infer that the slip sense inversion occurred in the period between the late Tertiary and mid-Quaternary period. This strike-slip inversion might result from the plate rearrangement consequent to the mid-Miocene Japan Sea opening event. This multidisciplinary study gives insight into how active strike-slip fault might evolves with time.

  7. Constraining Fault-Zone Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Ball, L. B.; Caine, J. S.; Revil, A.

    2011-12-01

    Faults are known to behave as hydrologic barriers, conduits, or combined barrier-conduits to fluid flow. On the basis of hydrological and geophysical data, this study presents a possible fault-zone permeability model for a buried reverse fault that juxtaposes Precambrian crystalline rocks against Tertiary sedimentary strata, the Elkhorn fault zone in South Park, Colorado. Permeameter tests and thin section analyses were performed on several samples taken from a 300-foot interval of core from the sedimentary footwall and yielded permeability values on the order of 10E-16 m^2. In-situ slug tests and single-well pumping tests conducted in both the footwall and hanging wall yielded larger permeability values, varying between 10E-14 to 10E-11 m^2, indicating a substantial change in permeability in the vicinity of the fault. Geophysical interpretations from electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential measurements suggest that these permeability estimates may be representative of a lithologically and hydrologically distinct fault zone. Permeability estimates, resistivity structure, and interpreted changes in groundwater flow direction near the fault are consistent with combined conduit-barrier behavior at the meter to tens-of-meters scale.

  8. Post-Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; de Wit, W.-J.; Patel, M.

    2009-09-01

    The yellow hypergiants are found in a stage between the massive Red Supergiants and the Wolf-Rayet stars. This paper addresses current issues concerning the evolution of massive stars, concentrating on the transitional post-Red Supergiant phase. Few yellow hypergiants are known and even fewer show direct evidence for having evolved off the Red Supergiant branch. Indeed, only two such rare objects with clear evidence for having evolved off of a previous mass losing phase are known, IRC +10420 and HD 179821. We will review their properties, discuss recent results employing near-infrared interferometry, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry. Finally, their real-time evolution is discussed.

  9. Post-Red Supergiants

    E-print Network

    Rene Oudmaijer; Ben Davies; Willem-Jan de Wit; Mitesh Patel

    2008-01-15

    The yellow hypergiants are found in a stage between the massive Red Supergiants and the Wolf-Rayet stars. This review addresses current issues concerning the evolution of massive stars, concentrating on the transitional post-Red Supergiant phase. Few yellow hypergiants are known and even fewer show direct evidence for having evolved off the Red Supergiant branch. Indeed, only two such rare objects with clear evidence for having gone through of a previous mass losing phase are known, IRC +10420 and HD 179821. We will review their properties and present recent results employing near-infrared interferometry, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry. Finally, their real-time evolution is discussed.

  10. Post-Red Supergiants

    E-print Network

    Oudmaijer, Rene; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Patel, Mitesh

    2008-01-01

    The yellow hypergiants are found in a stage between the massive Red Supergiants and the Wolf-Rayet stars. This review addresses current issues concerning the evolution of massive stars, concentrating on the transitional post-Red Supergiant phase. Few yellow hypergiants are known and even fewer show direct evidence for having evolved off the Red Supergiant branch. Indeed, only two such rare objects with clear evidence for having gone through of a previous mass losing phase are known, IRC +10420 and HD 179821. We will review their properties and present recent results employing near-infrared interferometry, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry. Finally, their real-time evolution is discussed.

  11. Signatures for Structural Asymmetry in Fault Zone Rocks from the San Andreas and the North Anatolian Fault Systems: Implications for Preferred Direction of Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dor, O.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2007-12-01

    Theoretical considerations indicate that earthquake ruptures on faults separating different solids have a preferred propagation direction (e.g., Weertman, 1980; Ampuero and Ben-Zion, 2007). Repeated occurrence of such ruptures is expected to lead to more shallow damage on the side of the fault with faster seismic velocities at depth (e.g. Ben-Zion and Shi, 2005). To test this hypothesis, expressions for structural asymmetry with respect to the slip zone of major faults in the southern San Andreas and the North Anatolian fault systems were observed and mapped at various scales in several sites along each fault. Geological mapping of shear fabric on a cm to meter fault core scale, subsidiary faults and fault rocks on a 10's of meters fault zone scale and pulverized rocks on a 100's of meters damage zone scale show systematically damage asymmetry. For the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Punchbowl faults the northeast side is more damaged. For of the 1943 and 1944 rupture zones on the North Anatolian fault, the south and north sides are more damaged, respectively. Similar sense of asymmetry for the San Jacinto fault was observed seismically for a ~100 m wide low velocity layer south of the our mapping sites (Lewis et al., 2005) and in a morphometric analysis of erosion patterns in the vicinity of our mapping sites (Wechsler et al., 2007). Asymmetric erosion patterns along the North Anatolian fault including the presence of almost all the river valleys length south of the fault along the 1943 rupture and vice-versa along 1944 rupture, strong asymmetry in drainage density and other related morphometric parameters between two correlative rock bodies on the two sides of the 1944 rupture, and significant difference in the density of gully networks in bad-land terrains across the 1943 rupture. All these signals are consistent with higher rock damage south and north of the 1943 and 1944 ruptures, respectively. The asymmetric damage patterns are compatible with preferred rupture directions northwestward on the examined fault sections of the southern San Andreas system, and eastward and westward on the 1943-1944 rupture sections of the North Anatolian fault, respectively (as occurred in these two recent North Anatolian fault earthquakes). Regional and local tomographic studies (e.g. Fuis et al., 2003; Scott et al., 1994) show that the more damaged northeast sides of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults are on the blocks with faster seismic velocities at depth. Significant damage content in sedimentary rocks of the Juniper Hills formation on the southwest side of the San Andreas Fault in the central Mojave section indicates that dynamic generation of damage can occur very close to the surface of the Earth, in agreement with other indications for minimal exhumation of pulverized and other damaged fault zone rocks. These asymmetric damage patterns correlated to the velocity structure (where known) with shallow inferred generation depth are compatible with predicted outcomes for rupture along a bimaterial interface (Ben-Zion and Shi, 2005).

  12. Signatures for Structural Asymmetry in Fault Zone Rocks from the San Andreas and the North Anatolian Fault Systems: Implications for Preferred Direction of Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dor, O.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2004-12-01

    Theoretical considerations indicate that earthquake ruptures on faults separating different solids have a preferred propagation direction (e.g., Weertman, 1980; Ampuero and Ben-Zion, 2007). Repeated occurrence of such ruptures is expected to lead to more shallow damage on the side of the fault with faster seismic velocities at depth (e.g. Ben-Zion and Shi, 2005). To test this hypothesis, expressions for structural asymmetry with respect to the slip zone of major faults in the southern San Andreas and the North Anatolian fault systems were observed and mapped at various scales in several sites along each fault. Geological mapping of shear fabric on a cm to meter fault core scale, subsidiary faults and fault rocks on a 10's of meters fault zone scale and pulverized rocks on a 100's of meters damage zone scale show systematically damage asymmetry. For the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Punchbowl faults the northeast side is more damaged. For of the 1943 and 1944 rupture zones on the North Anatolian fault, the south and north sides are more damaged, respectively. Similar sense of asymmetry for the San Jacinto fault was observed seismically for a ~100 m wide low velocity layer south of the our mapping sites (Lewis et al., 2005) and in a morphometric analysis of erosion patterns in the vicinity of our mapping sites (Wechsler et al., 2007). Asymmetric erosion patterns along the North Anatolian fault including the presence of almost all the river valleys length south of the fault along the 1943 rupture and vice-versa along 1944 rupture, strong asymmetry in drainage density and other related morphometric parameters between two correlative rock bodies on the two sides of the 1944 rupture, and significant difference in the density of gully networks in bad-land terrains across the 1943 rupture. All these signals are consistent with higher rock damage south and north of the 1943 and 1944 ruptures, respectively. The asymmetric damage patterns are compatible with preferred rupture directions northwestward on the examined fault sections of the southern San Andreas system, and eastward and westward on the 1943-1944 rupture sections of the North Anatolian fault, respectively (as occurred in these two recent North Anatolian fault earthquakes). Regional and local tomographic studies (e.g. Fuis et al., 2003; Scott et al., 1994) show that the more damaged northeast sides of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults are on the blocks with faster seismic velocities at depth. Significant damage content in sedimentary rocks of the Juniper Hills formation on the southwest side of the San Andreas Fault in the central Mojave section indicates that dynamic generation of damage can occur very close to the surface of the Earth, in agreement with other indications for minimal exhumation of pulverized and other damaged fault zone rocks. These asymmetric damage patterns correlated to the velocity structure (where known) with shallow inferred generation depth are compatible with predicted outcomes for rupture along a bimaterial interface (Ben-Zion and Shi, 2005).

  13. Differential Fault Analysis on Block Cipher Piccolo

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Differential Fault Analysis on Block Cipher Piccolo Kitae Jeong Center for Information Security propose differential fault analysis on Piccolo. Based on a random byte fault model, our attack can recover the secret key of Piccolo-80 by using an exhaustive search of 224 and six random byte fault injections

  14. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the...

  15. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the...

  16. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the...

  17. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the...

  18. Seismic Fault Rheology and Earthquake Dynamics

    E-print Network

    5 Seismic Fault Rheology and Earthquake Dynamics JAMES R. RICE1 and MASSIMO COCCO2 1Department Workshop on The Dynamics of Fault Zones, spe- cifically on the subtopic "Rheology of Fault Rocks and Their Surroundings," we addressed critical research issues for understanding the seismic response of fault zones

  19. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the...

  20. Nature of the Red Sea crust: A controversy revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Shore, P.; Stern, R. J.; El Alfy, Z.; Guinness, E. A.

    1992-07-01

    Whether the Red Sea floor is underlain mostly by oceanic or extended continental crustal material is a controversial topic. To test between the two hypotheses, we used a digital color mosaic of 23 Landsat thematic mapper (TM) scenes with field, geochemical, and geochronological data to identify and correlate crosscutting geologic features on the African and Arabian sides. Faults, shear zones, sutures, granitic complexes, volcano-sedimentary units, and dike swarms align if Arabia is rotated relative to Africa by 6.7° around a pole at lat 34.6°N, long 18.1°E. This solution implies that the amount of continental crust underlying the Red Sea is small because the restored Red Sea coasts are typically juxtaposed.

  1. Improved Differential Fault Analysis on ARIA using Small Number of Faults

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Improved Differential Fault Analysis on ARIA using Small Number of Faults Yuseop Lee a , Kitae In [15], Li et al. firstly proposed a differential fault analysis on ARIA-128. This attack requires, only 7 faults are required. In this paper, we propose improved differential fault analysis on ARIA

  2. Differential Fault Analysis on SMS4 Using a Single Fault , Bing Sun1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Differential Fault Analysis on SMS4 Using a Single Fault Ruilin Li1 , Bing Sun1 , Chao Li1 Fault Analysis (DFA) attack is a powerful cryptanalytic technique that could be used to retrieve paper, we propose a new DFA attack on SMS4 using a single fault. We show that if a random byte fault

  3. Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using a Single Fault

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using a Single Fault Michael we present a differential fault attack that can be applied to the AES using a single fault. We demonstrate that when a single random byte fault is induced at the input of the eighth round, the AES key can

  4. Acceleration of Di#erential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using Single Fault

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Acceleration of Di#erential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using Single Fault of the existing fault attack [2] on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using single faulty cipher. The paper: Di#erential Fault Analysis, Fault Attack, Advanced Encryption Stan­ dard. 1 Introduction In [1

  5. Acceleration of Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using Single Fault

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Acceleration of Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard using Single Fault of the existing fault attack [2] on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using single faulty cipher. The paper: Differential Fault Analysis, Fault Attack, Advanced Encryption Stan- dard. 1 Introduction In [1] the author

  6. ECE 586 Fault Detection in Digital Circuits Lecture 13 Fault Simulation II

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jia

    ECE 586 ­ Fault Detection in Digital Circuits Lecture 13 Fault Simulation II Professor Jia Wang ­ Fault Detection in Digital Circuits Spring 2015 1/17 #12;Reading Assignment This lecture: 5.2 Next lecture: 5.3 ECE 586 ­ Fault Detection in Digital Circuits Spring 2015 2/17 #12;Outline Deductive Fault

  7. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  8. Geometric test for Late Cretaceous-Paleogene intracontinental transform faulting in the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Raymond A.; Carmichael, Dugald M.

    1986-06-01

    The Tintina trench-northern Rocky Mountain trench (TT-NRMT) fault zone and the Fraser River-Straight Creek (FR-SC) fault zone are separate, en echelon, concentric, small-circle fault segments of a composite intracontinental transform fault zone more than 2500 km long that cuts diagonally across the Canadian Cordillera, from the outboard part of a tectonic collage of accreted foreign terranes in the south into the North American preaccretionary continental margin in the north. Most of the 450 km of right-hand slip on the TT-NRMT fault zone was transformed southward during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene into oblique convergence in the southern Canadian Rockies; the remainder, probably comprising less than 100 km, was transformed southwestward during early and middle Eocene time via a zone of distributed shear and east-west crustal stretching into right-hand slip on the en echelon FR-SC fault zone. These interpretations, based on regional systematic mapping of geologic structures, are in conflict with interpretations of paleomagnetic measurements that call for more than 1000 km of post-mid-Cretaceous, right-hand displacement along the general locus of the TT-NRMT fault zone, involving foreign terranes and the parts of North America to which they had been accreted. This paradox must be resolved.

  9. Red Harvester Ants 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-04-24

    Red harvester ants are one of the more noticeable and larger ants in open areas in Texas. However, their populations are declining and this has affected an animal that preys upon the ants--the threatened Texas horned lizard....

  10. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  11. Fault-free performance validation of fault-tolerant multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeck, Edward W.; Feather, Frank E.; Grizzaffi, Ann Marie; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

    1987-01-01

    A validation methodology for testing the performance of fault-tolerant computer systems was developed and applied to the Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) at NASA-Langley's AIRLAB facility. This methodology was claimed to be general enough to apply to any ultrareliable computer system. The goal of this research was to extend the validation methodology and to demonstrate the robustness of the validation methodology by its more extensive application to NASA's Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor System (FTMP) and to the Software Implemented Fault-Tolerance (SIFT) Computer System. Furthermore, the performance of these two multiprocessors was compared by conducting similar experiments. An analysis of the results shows high level language instruction execution times for both SIFT and FTMP were consistent and predictable, with SIFT having greater throughput. At the operating system level, FTMP consumes 60% of the throughput for its real-time dispatcher and 5% on fault-handling tasks. In contrast, SIFT consumes 16% of its throughput for the dispatcher, but consumes 66% in fault-handling software overhead.

  12. Large tectonic and lithospheric structures of the Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, H.-J.; El-Isa, Z.; Hotzl, H.; Mechie, J.; Prodehl, C.; Saffarini, G.

    Using new tectonic data regarding the timing and mechanical development of large fracture structures and a review of deep seismic data especially in relation to crustal thickness, a geodynamic evolutionary model for the Nubo-Arabian region is described. Combination of the data sets results in a 3-D picture of the crustal structure of the region and definition of problems regarding the geodynamic evolution of the Red Sea structure. Evidence from northwest Saudi Arabia, bordering the northern end of the Red Sea, suggests that rifting began around 32-30 Ma. During the Miocene, rifting intensified probably including significant lithospheric thinning. This first stage of development ended in the Middle Miocene, about 14 Ma, when the complete rift structure was about as wide as the present day Gulf of Suez. Between the Middle Miocene and the Upper Miocene/Pliocene boundary, about 10 ± 2 Ma, the Aqaba-Levant structure became active and thus the Gulf of Suez became essentially stagnant. Since this time about 70% of the total opening of the Red Sea has occurred, again probably including significant lithospheric thinning. This opening has been taken up totally by the movement along the Aqaba-Levant fault. Finally, about 5 Ma seafloor spreading began in the central axial trough of the Red Sea south of 21°N. A better knowledge of the thickness and nature of the present day Red Sea crust is still required so that the amount of opening of the Red Sea can be more accurately estimated.

  13. Tremor, the curious third wheel of fault motion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The known universe of tectonic fault behavior has gained a new neighborhood in the last few years. Before, faults were considered to either conform to the reasonably well-understood earthquake cycle or else slide steadily. In the earthquake cycle, a fault stays locked for the years while stress is accumulating, then cracks and slides, releasing about 0.1-10 MPa of the stress on the fault. The crack spreads across the fault at roughly the shear wave velocity, kilometers per second. Sliding across the crack occurs at rates on the order of a meter per second. Deeper than the locked portion, faults were assumed to move stealthily and steadily. Disrupting this orderly bipartite universe has been tremor - a prolonged, noise-like, 1-10 Hz rumbling that has been spotted below the locked portion of a variety of faults. In subduction zones, often tremor is coincident with slow and low-stress-drop slip that takes many orders of magnitude longer to complete than garden-variety earthquakes, with the rupture progression estimated in km per day rather than per second. The so-called episodic tremor and slip (ETS) is seen to strike at much more regular intervals than old-fashioned quakes. Speculation and disjoint observations abound. Probably the observations represent just the most easily observed portions of a process that moves with power at all frequencies. The spectrum of tremor radiation is less “red” than that of earthquakes for periods shorter than their duration. Near-lithostatic pore pressure may play an important role in lubricating ETS activity. ETS activity appears generally restricted to only some major faults. Strong passing surface waves from distant great earthquakes trigger pulsations of tremor. Strong nearby earthquakes can cause weeks of stronger than normal tremor. The ebb and flow of diurnal tides cause a rise and fall in tremor amplitude. Tremor can contain earthquake-like short bursts of energy, even dozens of discrete pops, all with the less red spectra that marks tremor. The tremor moments in the Cascadia population follow the frequency scaling laid down by this lecture's namesake, the Gutenberg-Richter distribution, just like normal earthquakes. More practically, tremor is loading dangerous faults, such as near Seattle and Los Angeles, at unsteady rates, perhaps allowing estimations of variable levels of danger. Tremor probably silhouettes where the fault is locked, with alarming implications in some places. We can hope that tremor evolves through the earthquake cycle of the locked zone above in a way revealing the approach of feared events. It is a rare phenomenon that attracts so much inquiry, yet remains so obscure. No doubt, by AGU time, our seismic flashlights will have illuminated a few more juicy tidbits, and with luck bring us closer to the secret of tremor, which still lingers in an unlit corner.

  14. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício

    2001-09-01

    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the transpressive and transtensive structures, such as the blockage of major rivers, which evolved to river-lakes, transgression of the sea over a large area in the Marajó region, and uplift of long and narrow blocks that are oblique to the trend of the main channel. The younger set (Pliocene-Holocene) refers to two triple-arm systems of rift/rift/strike-slip and strike-slip/strike-slip/rift types, and two large transtensive segments, which have controlled the orientation of the modern drainage patterns.

  15. Gravity anomalies in the offshore Safaga area and Red Sea rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattab, M. M.

    The Bouguer gravity coverage in the offshore Safaga area of the Egyptian Red Sea shelf, between 26°09'-27°00'N and 34°00'-34°33E', was investigated by vertical second derivative, analytic upward continuation and subsurface modeling methods to study the basement setup and to investigate probable relationships to the Red Sea rifting. The second derivative approach delineated narrow Tertiary sedimentary tracts bound by normal Red Sea faulting and showed three traces of probable transverse faulting. The upward continuation indicated broad deep-seated gravity effect which may be related to the upper mantle. Both the derivative and continuation methods showed that the observed transverse gravity gradients may be transverse faults which constitute continuation to mapped shear faults (of repeated movement since the Precambrian) in the continental Safaga. The deep-seated gravity anomaly was found to pass to the well-known positive gravity belt centered over the axial Red Sea zone. The model incident to arching, thinning of crust and subsequent collapse of marginal zones may fit the offshore Safaga area.

  16. Geophysical methods applied to fault characterization and earthquake potential assessment in the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, João; Cabral, João; Gonçalves, Rui; Torres, Luís; Mendes-Victor, Luís

    2006-06-01

    The study region is located in the Lower Tagus Valley, central Portugal, and includes a large portion of the densely populated area of Lisbon. It is characterized by a moderate seismicity with a diffuse pattern, with historical earthquakes causing many casualties, serious damage and economic losses. Occurrence of earthquakes in the area indicates the presence of seismogenic structures at depth that are deficiently known due to a thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The hidden character of many of the faults in the Lower Tagus Valley requires the use of indirect methodologies for their study. This paper focuses on the application of high-resolution seismic reflection method for the detection of near-surface faulting on two major tectonic structures that are hidden under the recent alluvial cover of the Tagus Valley, and that have been recognized on deep oil-industry seismic reflection profiles and/or inferred from the surface geology. These are a WNW-ESE-trending fault zone located within the Lower Tagus Cenozoic basin, across the Tagus River estuary (Porto Alto fault), and a NNE-SSW-trending reverse fault zone that borders the Cenozoic Basin at the W (Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault). Vertical electrical soundings were also acquired over the seismic profiles and the refraction interpretation of the reflection data was carried out. According to the interpretation of the collected data, a complex fault pattern disrupts the near surface (first 400 m) at Porto Alto, affecting the Upper Neogene and (at least for one fault) the Quaternary, with a normal offset component. The consistency with the previous oil-industry profiles interpretation supports the location and geometry of this fault zone. Concerning the second structure, two major faults were detected north of Vila Franca de Xira, supporting the extension of the Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault zone northwards. One of these faults presents a reverse geometry apparently displacing Holocene alluvium. Vertical offsets of the Holocene sediments detected in the studied geophysical data of Porto Alto and Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon faults imply minimum slip rates of 0.15-0.30 mm/year, three times larger than previously inferred for active faults in the Lower Tagus Valley and maximum estimates of average return periods of 2000-5000 years for M 6.5-7 co-seismic ruptures.

  17. Holocene tectonics and fault reactivation in the foothills of the north Cascade Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Schermer, Elizabeth; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Hughes, Jonathan; Foit, Franklin F., Jr.; Weaver, Craig S.; Haugerud, Ralph; Hyatt, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We use LiDAR imagery to identify two fault scarps on latest Pleistocene glacial outwash deposits along the North Fork Nooksack River in Whatcom County, Washington (United States). Mapping and paleoseismic investigation of these previously unknown scarps provide constraints on the earthquake history and seismic hazard in the northern Puget Lowland. The Kendall scarp lies along the mapped trace of the Boulder Creek fault, a south-dipping Tertiary normal fault, and the Canyon Creek scarp lies in close proximity to the south-dipping Canyon Creek fault and the south-dipping Glacier Extensional fault. Both scarps are south-side-up, opposite the sense of displacement observed on the nearby bedrock faults. Trenches excavated across these scarps exposed folded and faulted late Quaternary glacial outwash, locally dated between ca. 12 and 13 ka, and Holocene buried soils and scarp colluvium. Reverse and oblique faulting of the soils and colluvial deposits indicates at least two late Holocene earthquakes, while folding of the glacial outwash prior to formation of the post-glacial soil suggests an earlier Holocene earthquake. Abrupt changes in bed thickness across faults in the Canyon Creek excavation suggest a lateral component of slip. Sediments in a wetland adjacent to the Kendall scarp record three pond-forming episodes during the Holocene—we infer that surface ruptures on the Boulder Creek fault during past earthquakes temporarily blocked the stream channel and created an ephemeral lake. The Boulder Creek and Canyon Creek faults formed in the early to mid-Tertiary as normal faults and likely lay dormant until reactivated as reverse faults in a new stress regime. The most recent earthquakes—each likely Mw > 6.3 and dating to ca. 8050–7250 calendar years B.P. (cal yr B.P.), 3190–2980 cal. yr B.P., and 910–740 cal. yr B.P.—demonstrate that reverse faulting in the northern Puget Lowland poses a hazard to urban areas between Seattle (Washington) and Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada).

  18. Evolution of the paleolandscape(s) of Yunnan, China: implications from Be-10 erosion rates and river channel morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, D.; Hoke, G. D.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the identification of an ancient, low-relief landscape has provided an important datum for measuring surface uplift and inferring geodynamic process. It has been argued that a regionally significant landscape surface was formed by river planation and deposition at low elevation. Thereafter, this surface was progressively uplifted and incised as the Tibetan Plateau grew during Neogene time. However, recent geomorphic analysis and stable isotope paleoaltimetry have indicated a more complex history of surface uplift. We present new Be-10 drainage-average erosion rates and normalized river steepness (Ks) calculations from both on and off the mapped remnants of the paleolandscape in order to understand its evolution. We sampled river sands for Be-10 from 16 tributaries of the Red, Mekong and Yantze Rivers in clusters that span Yunnan and western-most Sichuan between 22.5° N and 28.5° N. Each cluster typically includes samples from 2 small (~25 km2) tributaries and 1 larger (~1000 km2) tributary that encompass both smaller ones. We also calculated Ks values for these tributaries and others in the region, covering ~140,000 km2 in total. At the provincial scale, Be-10 erosion rates appear uniform, with an average value of 104 mm/kyr and a standard deviation of 36 mm/yr. There is no trend with latitude. At a finer scale, within each sample cluster, erosion rates are typically lower on the paleolandscape than off (mean rate on: 83 ± 12 mm/kyr (1 s.d.); mean rate off: 138 ± 19 mm/kyr (1 s.d.)). Ks values are also consistently lower on the mapped paleolandscape than off (mean on: 81 ± 26 (1 s.d.); mean off: 174 ± 98 (1 s.d.)). Unlike erosion rates, Ks values increase northward, with a pronounced jump near the Yalong-Yulong fault. Our results support the mapped paleolandscape as locally important. However, the erosion rates on the paleolandscape are likely too fast to preserve such a landscape over tens of millions of years. (Low-temperature thermochronology could confirm this.) We tentatively suggest that the fragments of "paleolandscape", south of the Yalong-Yulong Fault, are independent features, constantly being created by river capture and destroyed by erosion.

  19. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  20. Spontaneous rupture on irregular faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is now know (e.g. Robinson et al., 2006) that when ruptures propagate around bends, the rupture velocity decrease. In the extreme case, a large bend in the fault can stop the rupture. We develop a 2-D finite difference method to simulate spontaneous dynamic rupture on irregular faults. This method is based on a second order leap-frog finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh of triangles. A relaxation method is used to generate an irregular fault geometry-conforming mesh from the uniform mesh. Through this numerical coordinate mapping, the elastic wave equations are transformed and solved in a curvilinear coordinate system. Extensive numerical experiments using the linear slip-weakening law will be shown to demonstrate the effect of fault geometry on rupture properties. A long term goal is to simulate the strong ground motion near the vicinity of bends, jogs, etc.

  1. Physical Fault Tolerance of Nanoelectronics

    E-print Network

    Szkopek, Thomas

    The error rate in complementary transistor circuits is suppressed exponentially in electron number, arising from an intrinsic physical implementation of fault-tolerant error correction. Contrariwise, explicit assembly of ...

  2. Cation stacking faults in magnesium germanate spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, P. J.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    1981-12-01

    Widely extended, cation stacking faults in experimentally deformed Mg2GeO4 spinel have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The faults lie on {110} planes. The displacement vector is of the form 1/4left< {1bar 10} rightrangle and is normal to the fault plane. The partial dislocations which bound the stacking fault have colinear Burgers vectors of the form 1/4left< {1bar 10} rightrangle which are normal to the fault plane.

  3. Seismic fault zone trapped noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.

    2014-07-01

    Systematic velocity contrasts across and within fault zones can lead to head and trapped waves that provide direct information on structural units that are important for many aspects of earthquake and fault mechanics. Here we construct trapped waves from the scattered seismic wavefield recorded by a fault zone array. The frequency-dependent interaction between the ambient wavefield and the fault zone environment is studied using properties of the noise correlation field. A critical frequency fc ? 0.5 Hz defines a threshold above which the in-fault scattered wavefield has increased isotropy and coherency compared to the ambient noise. The increased randomization of in-fault propagation directions produces a wavefield that is trapped in a waveguide/cavity-like structure associated with the low-velocity damage zone. Dense spatial sampling allows the resolution of a near-field focal spot, which emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. The shape of the focal spot depends on local medium properties, and a focal spot-based fault normal distribution of wave speeds indicates a ˜50% velocity reduction consistent with estimates from a far-field travel time inversion. The arrival time pattern of a synthetic correlation field can be tuned to match properties of an observed pattern, providing a noise-based imaging tool that can complement analyses of trapped ballistic waves. The results can have wide applicability for investigating the internal properties of fault damage zones, because mechanisms controlling the emergence of trapped noise have less limitations compared to trapped ballistic waves.

  4. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  5. Fault Tree Analysis: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is a top-down approach to the identification of process hazards. It is as one of the best methods for systematically identifying an graphically displaying the many ways some things can go wrong. This bibliography references 266 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts. fault tree analysis, risk an probability theory, in the basic index or major subject terms. An abstract is included with most citations, followed by the applicable subject terms.

  6. Heavy metals in red crabs, Chaceon quinquedens, from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perry, Harriet; Isphording, Wayne; Trigg, Christine; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-12-30

    The red crab, Chaceon quinquedens, is distributed in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and is most abundant in an area associated with sediment deposition from the Mississippi River. Sediment geochemistry and biological and ecological traits of red crabs favor accumulation of contaminants. Red crabs, sediment, and bottom water samples were taken from three distinct geographic locations representing areas with differing exposure to contaminant laden effluents from the Mississippi River. Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed to determine levels of heavy metals in red crab muscle tissue. Ion site partitioning was used to determine metal speciation in sediments. Red crabs showed evidence of heavy metal bioaccumulation in all sample areas with high variability in contaminant levels in individual crabs for some metals. Bioavailability of metals in sediment did not always result in accumulation in muscle tissue. PMID:26589640

  7. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  8. Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce error-free software, software fault tolerance is and will continue to be an important consideration in software systems. The root cause of software design errors is the complexity of the systems. Compounding the problems in building correct software is the difficulty in assessing the correctness of software for highly complex systems. After a brief overview of the software development processes, we note how hard-to-detect design faults are likely to be introduced during development and how software faults tend to be state-dependent and activated by particular input sequences. Although component reliability is an important quality measure for system level analysis, software reliability is hard to characterize and the use of post-verification reliability estimates remains a controversial issue. For some applications software safety is more important than reliability, and fault tolerance techniques used in those applications are aimed at preventing catastrophes. Single version software fault tolerance techniques discussed include system structuring and closure, atomic actions, inline fault detection, exception handling, and others. Multiversion techniques are based on the assumption that software built differently should fail differently and thus, if one of the redundant versions fails, it is expected that at least one of the other versions will provide an acceptable output. Recovery blocks, N-version programming, and other multiversion techniques are reviewed.

  9. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  10. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Daniel J. (Wheeling, IL); Cha, Yung S. (Darien, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  11. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  12. Quaternary deformation and fault structure in the Northern Mississippi Embayment as imaged by near-surface seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Magnani, Maria Beatrice; McIntosh, Kirk; Waldron, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) in the central United States constrains the location of present deformation at depth along four main distinct arms, while the surface expression of the ongoing deformation is still unclear. To better constrain the surface deformation in the NMSZ, we integrate existing seismic reflection data with a new ~300 km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profile acquired along the Mississippi River from Cape Girardeau, MO, to Caruthersville, MO. Based on the data, we interpret the Reelfoot Thrust and the New Markham Fault as upward splays of a blind master fault defined by the seismicity and extending at depth farther north. To the south, two faults, the Axial Fault and the Cottonwood Grove Fault, are imaged above the southern arm of the NMSZ. Both fault display deformation of the Paleozoic through the Tertiary sediments, and a relief of ~20-25 m at the base of the Quaternary alluvium, which we interpret as the result of strike-slip motion along a complex fault plane geometry. We propose two alternative interpretations for the relationship between the shallow faults and the seismicity in this area: (1) the faults merge at depth and are presently both active and (2) the faults are distinct at depth and were active during the Quaternary and only the Axial Fault is presently deforming. Geological structures mapped at the surface as part of this study show that Quaternary deformation is accommodated along a fault network that is more complex than the simple four-arm system illuminated by the seismicity, a behavior predicted by analog and computer models.

  13. Internal structure of the Kern Canyon Fault, California: a deeply exhumed strike-slip fault 

    E-print Network

    Neal, Leslie Ann

    2002-01-01

    Deformation and mineral alteration adjacent to a 2 km long segment of the Kern Canyon fault near Lake Isabella, California are studied to characterize the internal structure of the fault zone and to understand the development of fault structure...

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    E-print Network

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  15. New insights into the rupture history of the Hope fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajavi, N.; Langridge, R. M.; Quigley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The ENE-striking Hope fault traverses the northern part of the South Island, New Zealand and is the fastest-slipping and southernmost fault of the strike-slip Marlborough Fault System (MFS). The Hope fault is a well-segmented, short recurrence interval fault that has only recorded one large rupture event in the last 170 yr. This event occurred in 1888 on the Hope River segment of the fault. In this study we have focused on the eastern end of the Hurunui segment of the fault (close to the western end of the Hope River segment) in an area where it is uncertain whether the 1888 rupture extended to. We used a 1-m lidar DEM that covered 29 km of the 42 km long Hurunui segment to map the fault in detail. Where the two segments overlap we have extended the mapping to the east by developing a 5-m DEM using SOCET GXP software and the newest aerial images. Many geomorphic surfaces and fault traces have been mapped along the combined swath of 34 km. In the east a c. 850 m wide right stepover in the fault associated with a 30 degree fault bend was discovered. We surmise that this bend and stepover could be important in terms of rupture termination, e.g. in 1888. To investigate this hypothesis, we excavated a trench on an abandoned channel crossing the fault scarp at c.3 km west of the fault bend, where a swamp was formed behind the scarp. At this site, the fault has cut a Holocene alluvial fan and a late Holocene rockfall on the fan surface and displaced the edge of that rockfall by 2.6±0.3 m. Stratigraphic and structural evidence in the trench reveal that four to five events occurred in last 1600 yr, making potentially the longest record of paleoearthquakes along any part of the Hope fault. An unconformity that separates two differently deformed sequences near the base of the trench displays evidence for the oldest event. Radiocarbon dates that bracket this unconformity suggest that this event occurred around 390-536 AD. The most recent and penultimate events were structurally identified in the trench. Further dating will allow us to constrain these younger events and determine the most appropriate recurrence interval times for the Hurunui segment earthquakes. However, we argue that the last event should be younger than approximately two hundred years ago based on the age of mature trees growing on a faulted rockfall deposit. Given that the preliminary estimates for the timing of the most recent event on the Hurunui segment at a site to the west are between 1655- 1840 AD, the results of this study can improve our understanding regarding the fault segmentation and 1888 rupture length. This will lead to improved seismic hazard assessment for the Hope Fault, particularly in light of its proximity to the city of Christchurch.

  16. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  17. Seismic Imaging at Whataroa Valley (New Zealand) for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, V.; Buske, S.; Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on Earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shots along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as imaging results will be presented. The obtained data quality was in general very good. Nevertheless, extensive preprocessing of the data had to be performed to obtain shot gathers usable for imaging. Due to the field conditions the profile was divided into 5 parts with different features concerning geophone spacing and eigenfrequency of the geophones.