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1

DEM Simulated Results And Seismic Interpretation of the Red River Fault Displacements in Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Song Hong basin is the largest Tertiary sedimentary basin in Viet Nam. Its onset is approximately 32 Ma ago since the left-lateral displacement of the Red River Fault commenced. Many researches on structures, formation and tectonic evolution of the Song Hong basin have been carried out for a long time but there are still remained some problems that needed to put into continuous discussion such as: magnitude of the displacements, magnitude of movement along the faults, the time of tectonic inversion and right lateral displacement. Especially the mechanism of the Song Hong basin formation is still in controversy with many different hypotheses due to the activation of the Red River fault. In this paper PFC2D based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM) was used to simulate the development of the Red River fault system that controlled the development of the Song Hong basin from the onshore to the elongated portion offshore area. The numerical results show the different parts of the stress field such as compress field, non-stress field, pull-apart field of the dynamic mechanism along the Red River fault in the onshore area. This propagation to the offshore area is partitioned into two main branch faults that are corresponding to the Song Chay and Song Lo fault systems and said to restrain the east and west flanks of the Song Hong basin. The simulation of the Red River motion also showed well the left lateral displacement since its onset. Though it is the first time the DEM method was applied to study the deformation and geodynamic evolution of the Song Hong basin, the results showed reliably applied into the structural configuration evaluation of the Song Hong basin.

Bui, H. T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.

2005-12-01

2

Red River and associated faults, Yunnan Province, China: Quaternary geology, slip rates, and seismic hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 9OO-km-long right-slip Red River fault of southernmost China and northern Vietnam is a profound structural discontinuity that is me­ chanically associated with the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Although history records no large earthquakes resulting from slippage along at least the principal segment of the fault in China, youthful landforms and disruptions of young sedimentary rocks indicate

C. R. ALLEN; A. R. GILLESPIE; HAN YUAN; K. E. SIEH; ZHANG BUCHUN; ZHU CHENGNAN

1984-01-01

3

Structure and tectonic geomorphology of the Qujiang fault at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwest-striking Qujiang fault is located at the southeastern tip of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system. The Qujiang fault is one of the most seismically active faults in western Yunnan, China and is considered to be the seismogenic fault of the 1970 Ms 7.7 Tonghai earthquake. In this study, we examine the geometry, kinematics, and geomorphology of this fault through field observations, satellite images, and DEMs. It is a Holocene active fault characterized by dextral strike-slip movements with dip-slip components. It can be divided into northwest and southeast segments depending on different kinematics. The northwest segment from Baiyizhai to Wujie shows right-lateral strike slip with normal components, whereas it is characterized by dextral movements with the northeast wall thrusting over the opposite in the southeast segment from Wujie to Miaobeishan. The geophysical data combined with our investigations indicate that the fault dips steeply to the NE at depth, while secondary faults with different dip directions developed at shallow surface owing to fault bifurcation. During the Tonghai earthquake, a blind fault may have developed on the southwest wall, resulting in aftershocks concentrated to the southwest of the surface raptures. Multiple tectonic landforms are developed along the fault. The right-lateral Holocene slip rate was determined to be 2.84-3.27 mm/year based on radiometrically dated offset gullies. Our analyses show that the present deformation at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system is partitioned into a shortening distributed over a region ~ 150 km wide and a right-lateral strike slip localized on the Qujiang and Jianshui faults. Since the late Pleistocene, the Qujiang fault has been playing an important role in accommodating the ongoing SE-directed movements of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, creating strong earthquakes to release strain energy.

Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiwei

2014-11-01

4

Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Red River Fault Zone, Vietnam, in the light of geomorphic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main episode of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic activity in the Red River Fault Zone in Vietnam was related to dextral strike-slip motions while uplift of the SW and NE sides of the fault zone was limited. In the Vietnamese segment of this zone, traces of pre-Pliocene mature relief were preserved to a much smaller extent compared to those in Yunnan Province, China. The main factors controlling headward erosion of tributary streams were lithologic contrasts within the solid bedrock. Tectonic-geomorphic studies indicate that the amount of Quaternary dextral offset of the Red River Fault Zone in Vietnam, calculated from offset and deflection of tributary valleys of the Red River, ranges between some 400 m and 5.3 km, averaging 1.1-2 km. The corresponding rates of slip are 0.43-1.1 mm/yr for individual displaced segments and 5.5-7.8 mm/yr for the inferred cumulative displacement. Fluvial terraces in the medial segment were mainly shaped in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, except the highest one (40-50 m) which was probably formed in Mid-Pleistocene time. Taking into account the amount of dextral displacement of terrace steps and related alluvial fans, the most realistic estimation of Mid-Pleistocene through Holocene slip rate is 0.9-3.9 mm/yr. The axis of maximum horizontal compression associated with dextral slip of the fault zone was aligned NNW-SSE to N-S, and the fault motion in the Quaternary resulted mainly from aseismic creep.

Zuchiewicz, Witold; Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Zasadni, Jerzy; Yêm, Nguy?n Tr?ng

2013-09-01

5

Southeastern extension of the Red River fault zone (RRFZ) and its tectonic evolution significance in western South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent geophysical surveys and basin modeling suggest that the No. 1 fault in the Ying-gehai basin (YGHB) is the seaward elongation\\u000a of the Red River fault zone (RRFZ) in the South China Sea (SCS). The RRFZ, which separates the South China and Indochina block,\\u000a extends first along the Yuedong fault, offshore of Vietnam, and then continues southward and breaks off

Baoming Liu; Bin Xia; Xuxuan Li; Minqiang Zhang; Binhua Niu; Lifeng Zhong; Qinghuan Jin; Shaocheng Ji

2006-01-01

6

Potassic magma genesis and the Ailao Shan-Red River fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of K-rich magma of Eocene to Early Oligocene (ca. 40-30) and Plio-Pleistocene (ca. 5-0.1 Ma) age were emplaced prior to and following left-lateral slip on the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, a regional shear zone extending between southwest China and the Tonkin Gulf (South China Sea) that accommodated 'escape' of the Indochina block. The first type is exposed in the Dali-Lijiang and adjacent regions of western Yunnan and Sichuan and comprises ultramafic potassic to ultrapotassic 'absarokites' and their shoshonite, banakite, and SiO2-rich derivatives which were emplaced immediately prior to activation of the ASRR fault. They are characterized by high Mg.-nos, and low contents of fusible oxides (FeO*, CaO, Al2O3), for equivalent MgO content, and pronounced primitive mantle-normalized high-field strength element (HFSE) depletions. In contrast, 'post-escape' K-rich magmas were erupted in the Puer, Maguan-Pingbian regions of south and southeast Yunnan. Apart from their relative enrichments in potassium they show typical HFSE-rich intra-plate compositional affinity. Geological and geomorphic evidence, and thermochronologic age dating of metamorphisc events, suggest that left-lateral shearing occurred between ca. 30 and 17 Ma; thereby accommodating the southeastward 'escape' of Indochina and (possibly) two episodes of spreading in the South China Sea. The southwestern part of Dali-Lijiang magmatic products was detached and offset by ca. 600 km and are now located in Phan Xi Pang in northern Viet Nam. The same is true for the Permo-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts, whose western exposures were likewise displaced by the same amount and are now represented by the Song Da complex, also in northern Viet Nam. Here, we report geochemical, isotopic, and 40Ar/39Ar age data for samples from both the 'pre-escape' Dali-Lijiang magmas and the 'post-escape' K-rich Puer, Maguan-Pingbian basalts and basanites, with a view to comparing and contrasting their interpolated source compositions, estimated conditions of upper mantle melt segregation and, by inference, their mantle dynamic and contamination histories insofar as these were conditioned by the India-Asia collision. Our interpretations yielded two complementary conclusions. The first contends that the pre-escape magmas result from adiabatic melting of crust-contaminated asthenosphere comprising a 'mélange' of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) (hydrated by sab-derived hysdrous fluids released at 0.2-0.5 GPa) and lower crust, delaminated from the overriding plate during mantle wedge corner flow and further enriched by metasomatic melts of subducted continental crust. We postulate that incipient H2O-saturated melting of the 'mélange' occurs at depths of between ca. 100 and 200 km after being 'dragged' down by relict oceanic slab fragments, in response to the dehydration of supra-subduction amphibole- and phlogopite. The ensuing viscosity 'crisis' and buoyancy relative to ambient 'fertile' convecting mantle of such asthenospheric 'pockets', and the collision-related change from lithospheric compression to extension, almost certainly predisposes such a refractory yet crust-contaminated 'pockets' to rapid adiabatic melting. The second conclusion concerns the post-escape K-rich basalts and basanites and is based on the contention that decompression melting of thermally anomalous K-rich asthenospheric occurred in response to regional post-escape transtension, concomitant with the cessation Indochina escape and contiguous seafloor spreading. However, although these magmas share the HFSE-rich fertile source character of other, widely dispersed, post-escape Cenozoic basalts they more specifically resemble relatively rare examples of intra-plate, K-rich activity observed in northeast China, central Spain, and elsewhere in Asia and Europe, arguably (indirectly) reflecting mantle perturbations caused by major continental collisions.

Flower, Martin F. J.; Hoàng, Nguy?n; Lo, Chinh-hua; Chí, Cung Thu'?'ng; Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Liu, Fu-tian; Deng, Jin-fu; Mo, Xuan-xue

2013-09-01

7

Late Neogene structural inversion around the northern Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam: Effects from right-lateral displacement across the Red River fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental extrusion may take up much of the deformation involved in continental collisions. Major strike-slip zones accommodate the relative extrusion displacement and transfer deformation away from the collision front. The Red River fault zone (RRFZ) accommodated left- and right-lateral displacements when Indochina and South China were extruded during the Indian-Eurasian collision. The northern Song Hong basin onshore and offshore in the Gulf of Tonkin delineates the direct extension of the RRFZ and thus records detailed information on the collision-induced continental extrusion. We assess the rapidly evolving kinematics of the fault zone buried within the basin based on seismic analysis. Contrary to previous studies, we do not identify indications for latest Miocene left-lateral motion across the RRFZ. We tentatively consider the shift from left- to right-lateral motion to have occurred already during the middle Late Miocene as indicated by inversion of NE-SW-striking faults in the Bach Long Vi area. Right-lateral displacement terminated around the end of the Miocene in the Song Hong basin. However, continued inversion in the Bach Long Vi area and NNW-SSE-striking normal faulting suggests a stress regime compatible with right-lateral motion across the onshore part of the RRFZ continuing to the present. Inversion around the Bach Long Vi Island may have accommodated up to a few kilometers of right-lateral displacement between the Indochina and South China blocks. Comparable NE-SW-striking fault zones onshore may have accommodated a larger fraction of the right-lateral slip across the RRFZ, thus accounting for the restricted transfer of lateral displacement to the offshore basins.

Fyhn, Michael B. W.; Phach, Phung V.

2015-02-01

8

How crustal-scale strike-slip faults initiate and further develop: The Red River fault and the East Himalaya Syntaxis as a result of the two-stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major question of tectonics is how and where major intracontinental transcurrent strike-slip faults initiate. Models assume an important rheological contrast between rheologically weak and strong lithologies, e.g. at margins of a stiff craton and juxtaposed mobile belts (Molnar & Dayem, 2010 and references therein). Several models assume weakening of the lithosphere by uprise of magma, e.g., formed by subduction or break off of the previously subducted lithosphere or as K-granites at the bases of a metasomatized lithosphere. In the case of slab break-off following oblique convergence, orogen-parallel strike-slip accommodation has been documented. Especially, the spatiotemporal relationships between synkinematic plutons and crustal-scale strike-slip faults have been documented worldwide. It is a matter of continuous debate whether strike-slip faults nucleate where melts have previously weakened the crust/lithosphere or whether pre-existing faults represent the preferred pathways for the ascending melt. A few further models document the role of lateral boundaries of metamorphic core complexes. The significance of some of these processes could be studied along the Red River (RR) fault, SE, Asia. Here we propose a model, how the development of RR fault evolved in response to the two-stage India-Asia collision that recently was proposed by van Hinsbergen et al., (2012 and references therein) and the interaction of the northeastern corner of the East Himalayan Syntaxis with Himalayan-Burman/Indochina collision belt. We propose a four-phase tectonic evolution for the RR fault. During the Eocene accretion of the Tethyan block to Asia, the Sichuan foreland subducted and Eocene K-granites evolved, which started to vertically extrude and introduced, causing a zone of weakness within the crust (Phase 1) along the future RR fault. Another consequence of continuing shortening after the Tethyan block-Asia collision (Stage 1 collision) is lateral extrusion of blocks, and the Lhasa-Indochina block extruded towards east and southeast (Phase 2) initiating and continuously evolving to the Oligocene sinistral RR fault. Synkinematic granites and evolving migmatites within obliquely uprising metamorphic core complexes localized and enhanced the rheologically weak boundary. Possibly, southward subduction of oceanic crust underneath the Indonesian island arc created suction and a pulling force for the southeastward extruding Lhasa-Indochina block up to ca. 20 Ma, later interrupted by the westward progression of the opening South China Sea across the southern termination of the RR fault. The second, main stage of India-Asia collision (Stage 2 collision), after consumption of the Greater India oceanic basin, led to disruption of the coherent Lhasa-Indochina block by inception of the East Himalayan syntaxis (Phase 3) at the interface between Himalayan and Burman A-subduction zones. A consequence of the disruption is the first dextral (Phase 3) and subsequent ENE-WSW extensional (Phase 4) reactivation of the RR fault. References Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467. van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Lippert, Peter C., Dupont-Nivet, G., McQuarrie, N., Doubrovine, P. V., Spakman, W., Torsvik, T. H., 2012. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 , 7659-7664.

Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

2014-05-01

9

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

2011-04-20

10

33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263...Guard District § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a)...

2011-07-01

11

76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland, Cass,...

2011-04-27

12

USGS Research on the Flooded Red River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The 2011 Red River flood was the third largest in Fargo, ND since 1900. In the background of this photo, USGS authorized personnel take a boat out on the river to record streamflow and water level measurements....

13

The Xuelongshan high strain zone: Cenozoic structural evolution and implications for fault linkages and deformation along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New structural, geometric, petrographic, and U-Pb zircon data constrain the kinematics of the Xuelongshan high strain zone, northermost parts of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. In the Xuelongshan range, mylonitic foliation mainly trends NW-SE. On steep foliation and flatted foliation, mineral stretching lineation is various, from gentle to steep, and ductile shear senses indicate a left-lateral, top-to-the-northwest shear movement on the eastern limb, and a left-lateral, top-to-the-southeast shear on the western limb of the range. These dome-related ductile geometries and kinematics, namely D1 deformation, represent regional high-temperature metamorphism due to crustal thickening. The superimposed sinistral strike-slip shearing of D2 deformation occurred locally along the earlier domal fabrics. Metamorphism, migmatization, and the emplacement of leucogranitic veins associated with partial melting were syntectonic with the regional-scale upright antiform. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons reveals the late Permian-Triassic and Oligocene thermal events. The latter event (ca. 33-26 Ma or possibly earlier) from the leucogranitic veins corresponds to the regional metamorphism during crustal thickening along the Xuelongshan. These data indicate that the Jiali-Xuelongshan-Diancangshan-Ailao Shan high strain zones can belong to a system around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS), and that the Xuelongshan zone played a role in linking other segments between the Tibet to Indochina in Cenozoic.

Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jinjiang; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yang; Yin, Cunyuan; Guo, Lei; Zhong, Dalai; Lai, Qinzhou; Yue, Yahui

2014-12-01

14

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

15

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2010-07-01

16

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2010-07-01

17

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2013-07-01

18

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2014-07-01

19

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2012-07-01

20

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2014-07-01

21

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2011-07-01

22

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2012-07-01

23

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2013-07-01

24

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

25

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad bridge, mile 90.1, at Alexandria,...

2011-07-01

26

USGS Research on the Red River in Fargo  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Joel Galloway and Dan Thomas prepare to take streamflow and water level measurements of the flooded Red River in downtown Fargo, ND. The USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage can be seen in the background....

27

Cubic Foot - Red River at Fargo  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A white box in the foreground of this photograph demonstrates one cubic foot. The peak streamflow at the USGS Red River of the North at Fargo, ND streamgage was around 26,000 cubic feet per second on April 9, 2011....

28

The Story of Red River Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book provides the teacher with a summary narrative of the history and the development of the Red River Basin, a lakebed plain that extends from the Canadian border into Minnesota and North Dakota. There are many historical topics covered: the geology, cultures of the Sioux and Chippewa, fur trading, exploration, settlement of the…

Rolfsrud, Erling Nicolai

29

Paleofloods in the Red River Basin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

30

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA's search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

2003-04-10

31

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA?s search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

Astrobiology Magazine

32

75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0198] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a...

2010-03-31

33

Structure of the eastern Red Rocks and Wind Ridge thrust faults, Wyoming: how a thrust fault gains displacement along strike  

E-print Network

STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN RED ROCKS AND WIND RIDGE THRUST FAULTS, WYOMING: HOW A THRUST FAULT GAINS DISPLACEMENT ALONG STRIKE A Thesis by BRENT STANLEY HUNTSMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geology STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN RED ROCKS AND WIND RIDGE THRUST FAULTS, WYOMING: HOW A THRUST FAULT GAINS DISPLACEMENT ALONG STRIKE A Thesis by BRENT STANLEY HUNTSMAN...

Huntsman, Brent Stanley

1983-01-01

34

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

35

The Red River Valley archeological project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

1986-01-01

36

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2013-07-01

37

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2011-07-01

38

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2012-07-01

39

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2014-07-01

40

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2010-07-01

41

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2010-07-01

42

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2010-07-01

43

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2011-07-01

44

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2014-07-01

45

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2012-07-01

46

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2013-07-01

47

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2012-07-01

48

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2013-07-01

49

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2014-07-01

50

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2011-07-01

51

Seismo-tectonics of the Red Sea region in Eritrea: the case of the "transform faults"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eritrea is located in the vicinity of the three well recognized seismically active Cenozoic tectonic features in the Horn of Africa, namely, the Red Sea, the East African rift system, and the Gulf of Aden. Within Eritrea, the major seismic source zones identified include: (1) the western margin of the Afar rift, (2) the escarpment, (3) the Massawa channel, (4) the axial trough of the southern Red Sea, (5) the NNW-SSE lineament that connects northern Afar to the axial trough of the Red Sea, and (6) two E-W lineaments that extend onshore from the Red Sea into the Eritrean escarpment. In previous studies the above lineaments have been considered to represent transform faults. However, the absence of well-developed oceanic ridge in the Eritrean segment of the Red Sea and the very low angle (<45) between the orientations of the NNW-SSE lineament and the incipient spreading axis of the Red Sea defy present-day transform fault examples. Fault plane solutions and field observations corresponding to this lineament suggest an E-dipping oblique fault with movement of the hanging wall to the south-east. Similarly, the E-W lineaments, despite being perpendicular to the spreading axis of the Red Sea are characterized by fault plane solutions indicative of normal faults. Fault orientation data (fault plane-striation pair) from these faults also confirm this conclusion and suggest a dip-slip normal fault with hanging wall movement to the south. The lineaments are therefore sites of active normal fault deformation, but not transform faults.

Woldehaimanot, B.; Haileab, B.

2005-12-01

52

Controls on Patterns of Repeated Fault Rupture: Examples From the Denali and Bear River Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A requirement for estimating seismic hazards is assigning magnitudes to earthquake sources. This relies on anticipating rupture length and slip along faults. Fundamental questions include whether lengths of past surface ruptures can be reasonably determined from fault zone characteristics and whether the variability in length and slip during repeated faulting can be constrained. To address these issues, we look at rupture characteristics and their possible controls from examples in very different tectonic settings: the high slip rate (?15 mm/yr) Denali fault system, Alaska, and the recently activated Bear River normal fault, Wyoming-Utah. The 2002 rupture of the central Denali fault (CDF) is associated with two noteworthy geometric features. First, rupture initiated where the Susitna Glacier thrust fault (SG) intersects the CDF at depth, near the apex of a structurally complex restraining bend along the Denali. Paleoseismic data show that for the past 700 years the timing of large surface ruptures on the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture has been distinct from those along the CDF. For the past ~6ka the frequency of SG to Denali ruptures has been ~1:12, indicating that this complexity of the 2002 rupture has not been common. Second, rupture propagated off of one strike-slip fault (CDF) onto another (the Totschunda fault, TF), an occurrence that seldom has been observed. LiDAR mapping of the intersection shows direct connectivity of the two faults--the CDF simply branches into both the TF and the eastern Denali fault (EDF). Differences in the timing of earthquakes during the past 700-800 years at sites surrounding this intersection, and estimates of accumulated slip from slip rates, indicate that for the 2002 rupture sufficient strain had accumulated on the TF to favor its failure. In contrast, the penultimate CDF rupture, with the same slip distribution as in 2002, appears to have stopped at or near the branch point, implying that neither the TF nor the EDF was stressed sufficiently to fail at that time. The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ) is a young normal fault along the eastern margin of basin-range extension that appears to have reactivated a ramp in the Laramide-age Darby-Hogsback thrust. The entire Cenozoic history of the BRFZ may consist of only two surface-rupturing events in the late Holocene (one at ~5 ka and the most recent at ~2.5 ka). The 40-km-long fault comprises synthetic and antithetic scarps extending across a zone up to 5 km wide. Remote sensing, including airborne LiDAR, and field studies show that, despite the complexity, the pattern of faulting was similar (in location and amount) for each of the two events and, at the south end, was strongly influenced by the east-west-trending Uinta Arch. Pre-existing structure clearly has exerted a first-order control on moment release on this immature fault. As shown by these examples, data on timing of surface ruptures, coseismic slip, slip rate, and fault geometry can provide a basis to constrain lengths of past and future earthquake ruptures, including possible alternative rupture scenarios. The difficult question for hazard analysis is whether the available data capture the full range of behavior and with what relative frequency do the alternatives occur?

Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.

2013-12-01

53

Fault Tree Analysis of System Anomaly Leading to Red Oil Explosion in Plutonium Evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of scenario identification, preparation of reliability data, fault tree construction and its analysis, are rendered for a system anomaly considered liable to lead to a red oil explosion in a Pu evaporator of a typical model of reprocessing facility.Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has introduced the model plant data, the basic failure frequency data together with the fault tree

Yasushi NOMURA; Rolf LEICHT; Philip ASHTON

1994-01-01

54

The Bear River Fault Zone, Wyoming and Utah: Complex Ruptures on a Young Normal Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ), a set of normal fault scarps located in the Rocky Mountains at the eastern margin of Basin and Range extension, is a rare example of a nascent surface-rupturing fault. Paleoseismic investigations (West, 1994; this study) indicate that the entire neotectonic history of the BRFZ may consist of two large surface-faulting events in the late Holocene. We have estimated a maximum per-event vertical displacement of 6-6.5 m at the south end of the fault where it abuts the north flank of the east-west-trending Uinta Mountains. However, large hanging-wall depressions resulting from back rotation, which front scarps that locally exceed 15 m in height, are prevalent along the main trace, obscuring the net displacement and its along-strike distribution. The modest length (~35 km) of the BRFZ indicates ruptures with a large displacement-to-length ratio, which implies earthquakes with a high static stress drop. The BRFZ is one of several immature (low cumulative displacement) normal faults in the Rocky Mountain region that appear to produce high-stress drop earthquakes. West (1992) interpreted the BRFZ as an extensionally reactivated ramp of the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Hogsback thrust. LiDAR data on the southern section of the fault and Google Earth imagery show that these young ruptures are more extensive than currently mapped, with newly identified large (>10m) antithetic scarps and footwall graben. The scarps of the BRFZ extend across a 2.5-5.0 km-wide zone, making this the widest and most complex Holocene surface rupture in the Intermountain West. The broad distribution of Late Holocene scarps is consistent with reactivation of shallow bedrock structures but the overall geometry of the BRFZ at depth and its extent into the seismogenic zone are uncertain.

Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.; Haproff, P.; Beukelman, G.; Erickson, B.

2012-12-01

55

Fault patterns in Benin River and Makaraba Fields: A regional play type for the Niger Delta  

SciTech Connect

Using 830 km{sup 2} of excellent 3-D seismic data, we determined the fault patterns that are responsible for hydrocarbon entrapment in the Benin River and Makaraba fields, onshore northwestern Niger Delta. Both fields are trapped downthrown to the major listric GbokoMaka growth fault system, which trends E18{degrees}S for over 40 km, and has at least 2000 m of displacement to the southwest. Several major splay faults break off the main trend in a southeasterly direction, creating a series of fault-bounded structural compartments. Each of these compartments opens to the southeast and has a structural attic at the junction of the splay fault with the main fault trend. These compartments create large-scale traps for hydrocarbons migrating from east to west up the gentle regional dip within the Miocene Ughelli depobelt. The Benin River field is trapped in the major compartment between the GbokoMaka fault and the Benin River splay fault. The large Makaraba field is similarly trapped between the GbokoMaka and MakaWest faults. Such traps require an upthrown fault seal at the master fault and a downthrown fault seal at the splay fault. In the Makamba field, the trap potential is enhanced by rollover into the GbokoMaka fault. The same structural style is also evident along several other major fault trends to the north and the south, and probably represents an important play type in the onshore western Niger delta.

Adeyekun, A.B.; Faparusi, B.D.; Nunns, A.G. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)] [and others

1995-08-01

56

For Immediate Release --Thursday, June 14, 2012 Red Deer River Oil Spill Provides Unique Research  

E-print Network

' of oil deposits on the floodplain plants (photographs attached). Despite decadesFor Immediate Release -- Thursday, June 14, 2012 Red Deer River Oil already started on a study of the Red Deer River oil spill, looking at more

Morris, Joy

57

USGS Red River of the North at Fargo Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Water level measurement from the USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage in downtown Fargo, ND. The water level peaked at around 39 feet at this streamgage on April 9. Real-time water level and streamflow data from this gage can be accessed online....

58

95. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon line cross Cross Bayou, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon line cross Cross Bayou, March 1913. The new low service pump pit and the receiving well for the syphon are in the background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

59

94. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon line crossing Cross Bayou, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon line crossing Cross Bayou, March 1913. The new low service pump pit and the receiving well for the syphon are in the background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

60

Red oil explosions at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two red-oil explosions occurred at the Savannah River Plant. The first of these was in an evaporator at the semiworks prior to plant operation. The second occurred 22 years later in an A-Line facility calciner (called a denitrator).

Durant, W.S.

1984-01-01

61

Decoding temporal and spatial patterns of fault uplift using transient river long profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present detailed observations of rivers crossing active normal faults in the Central Apennines, Italy, where excellent constraints exist on the temporal and spatial history of fault movement. We demonstrate that rivers with drainage areas >10 km2 and crossing faults that have undergone an increase in throw rate within the last 1 My, have significant long-profile convexities. In contrast, channels that cross

Alexander C. Whittaker; Mikaël Attal; Patience A. Cowie; Gregory E. Tucker; Gerald Roberts

2008-01-01

62

Pleistocene Shorelines and Coastal Rivers: Sensitive Indicators of Quaternary Faults, Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight possible active faults beneath Quaternary Coastal Plain sediments are indicated by models showing expected patterns of shoreline regression and river deflections along tectonically inactive and active (where subsurface faults may affect surface processes) parts of the passive margin. Non-tectonic processes produce consistently spaced parallel shorelines and an absence of river deflections or seaward deflections of shorelines by major deltas with spacing dependent upon sediment influx rates. Differential regional uplift will cause divergence of shorelines toward, and deflection of rivers away from the end with greater uplift. Tectonic models show shoreline regression with a shoreline-parallel fault that is either seaward-side-up (SSU) or seaward-side-down (SSD) or with a shoreline-perpendicular fault (SPF). SSU interrupts non-tectonic patterns with convex-seaward deflections and wider spacing of older shorelines across uplifts and river deflections toward uplift-margins. SSD produces a convex-landward deflection and wider spacing of younger shorelines on the down-dropped side of faults and river deflections toward uplift-margins. SPF produces: convex-seaward deflections with wider spacing of older shorelines across uplifts and river deflections toward uplift-margins; convex-landward deflection and wider spacing of younger shorelines on down-dropped sides of faults where river deflections merge toward the lowest area; shorelines are discontinuous and may be difficult to correlate across faults. SPF patterns in the vicinity of the 1886 Charleston, SC earthquake indicate a NW-trending, 50-km long, NE-side-up fault active since Early Pleistocene near the Ashley River and suggest a similar 30-km long fault near the North Edisto River and a NW-trending, 50-km long, SW-side-up fault near the Broad River. Variations of SPF patterns in NC suggest E-W-trending, 150-km long, N-side-up faults extending westward from both Cape Fear and Cape Lookout and possibly a shorter one near Cape Hatteras. Previous workers invoked SSU to explain zones of river anomalies in the Carolinas, but those anomalies do not exhibit SSU patterns. SSD patterns both east and southwest of the Okefenokee Swamp suggest a N-trending, 100-km long, W-side-up fault near the St Marys and Satilla rivers in GA and a NW-trending, 75-km long, NE-side-up fault near the Suwannee River in FL. Possible Quaternary faults at these locations may indicate significantly greater risk from seismic hazards for east-coast communities.

Bartholomew, M. J.; Rich, F. J.

2002-05-01

63

33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River. 165.T09-0260 Section 165.T09-0260... § 165.T09-0260 Safety zone; Red River. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: Waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota,...

2011-07-01

64

75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit...portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River,...

2010-06-02

65

78 FR 36767 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Project No. 13160-004] Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability...Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and five...

2013-06-19

66

78 FR 62359 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Project No. 13160-004] Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability...Energy Projects has reviewed Red River Hydro LLC's application...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and five...

2013-10-21

67

EFFECTS OF RED SHINER (CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS) ON RED RIVER PUPFISH (CYPRINODON RUBROFLUVIATILIS )  

E-print Network

experi- mental studies. Human activities can inadver- tently affect fish distributions by changing en environmental con- ditions (e.g., Connell, 1961). Abundance pat- terns of stream fishes are known to vary along that would affect the entire upper Red River basin, Oklahoma-Texas, would, if completed, raise

Gido, Keith B.

68

The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 375 JANUARY, 1928 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties 1 AGRICULTURAL... and Clothinv I J. L. LUSH, Ph. D.,. Animal Husbandman; Speclalrst Rreedlng Invest zgatrons W. H. DAMERON, B. S., Wool Grader SOIL SURVEY: ***W. T. CARTER, B. S.. Chief ENTOMOLOGY: F. L. THOMAS. Ph. D.. Chief; State H. W. HAWKER, Soil Surveyor...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1928-01-01

69

Red Cedar River Basin, Wisconsin; low-flow characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low-flow characteristics in the Red Cedar River basin, Wis., where surplus water may be diverted, and methods to determine low-flow characteristics at additional sites are presented. The low-flow characteristics were determined by various methods at 71 sites. For the three gaging stations in the basin, frequency analysis was used to determine the low-flow characteristics. At 17 partial-record sites correlation analyses were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics. Where only a single base-flow measurement was available (41 sites), equations were developed to estimate low-flow characteristics. The relationships were determined from multiple-regression analyses that related low-flow characteristics at gaging stations, low-flow partial-record stations, and sewage-treatment-plant sites to the drainage area and base-flow index values. The standard errors of estimate were determined to be 25 percent for the Q7,2 equation and 34 percent for the Q7,10 equation. For the main stem of the Red Cedar River where only one discharge measurement was available the low-flow characteristics were determined from a drainage area-discharge relationship. Low-flow characteristics were determined at an additional 30 sites in the Red Cedar River basin by various methods. The method used for these sites depended upon the type and amount of data available at each site. (Woodard-USGS)

Gebert, W.A.

1979-01-01

70

Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.  

PubMed

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management. PMID:17912585

Hearne, Robert R

2007-12-01

71

75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0728] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden...portion of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is...result from the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull has contracted to conduct a...

2010-09-03

72

75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit...portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...trials and race in conjunction with the Red Bull Air Race. The safety zone will...

2010-04-05

73

Strain partitioning and deformation mode analysis of the normal faults at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a low-temperature environment, the thin-section scale rock-deformation mode is primarily a function of confining pressure and total strain at geological strain rates. A deformation mode diagram is constructed from published experimental data by plotting the deformation mode on a graph of total strain versus the confining pressure. Four deformation modes are shown on the diagram: extensional fracturing, mesoscopic faulting, incipient faulting, and uniform flow. By determining the total strain and the deformation mode of a naturally deformed sample, the confining pressure and hence the depth at which the rock was deformed can be evaluated. The method is applied to normal faults exposed on the gently dipping southeast limb of the Birmingham anticlinorium in the Red Mountain expressway cut in Birmingham, Alabama. Samples of the Ordovician Chickamauga Limestone within and adjacent to the faults contain brittle structures, including mesoscopic faults and veins, and ductile deformation features including calcite twins, intergranular and transgranular pressure solution, and deformed burrows. During compaction, a vertical shortening of about 45 to 80% in shale is indicated by deformed burrows and relative compaction of shale to burrows, about 6% in limestone by stylolites. The normal faults formed after the Ordovician rocks were consolidated because the faults and associated veins truncate the deformed burrows and stylolites, which truncate the calcite cement. A total strain of 2.0% was caused by mesoscopic faults during normal faulting. A later homogenous deformation, indicated by the calcite twins in veins, cement and fossil fragments, has its major principal shortening strain in the dip direction at a low angle (about 22°) to bedding. The strain magnitude is about 2.6%. By locating the observed data on the deformation mode diagram, it is found that the normal faulting characterized by brittle deformation occurred under low confining pressure (< 18 MPa) at shallow depth (< 800 m), and the homogenous horizontal compression characterized by uniform flow occurred under higher confining pressure (at least 60 MPa) at greater depth (> 2.5 km).

Wu, Schuman

1989-12-01

74

Quality of water in the Red River alluvial aquifer; Pool 1, Red River waterway area, Vick, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality changes in the Red River alluvial aquifer within the area affected by pool 1 near Vick, Louisiana, were monitored during pre-construction (1974-78) and post-construction (1984-92) of Lock and Dam 1. Changes greater or less than background values have occurred in an area within 2 miles of Lock and Dam 1, and in one well located about 10 miles west of Lock and Dam 1. Comparison between the pre-construction and post-construction water-quality analyses indicated the total hardness as calcium carbonate and concentrations of dissolved chloride, iron, and manganese generally have decreased in the Red River alluvial aquifer south of the Red River and near Lock and Dam l. The maximum decrease of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 730 to 330 mg/L (milligrams per liter), dissolved chloride from 77 to 46 mg/L, dissolved iron from 18 to 6.9 mg/L, and dissolved manganese from 1.4 to 0.56 mg/L. Analyses of water from wells west of Lock and Dam 1 indicated an increase of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 200 to 260 mg/L, and dissolved iron concentration was from 0.33 to 1.4 mg/L. North of the river and 1 mile west of Lock and Dam l, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 45 to 130 mg/L in water from one well, and median total hardness as calcium cabonate and concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese also increased. Because well Ct-74 is completed in a sand that is in contact with a saltwater sand of Tertiary age, this increase is probably a temporal increase due to upconing after lowering the water level in the alluvial aquifer by pumping of dewatering wells during construction of Lock and Dam 1.

Smoot, C.W.; Seanor, R.C.; Huff, G.F.

1994-01-01

75

The paragenesis of alteration associated with the P2 fault in the basement rocks of the Athabasca Basin E. E. Adlakha , K. Hattori , University of Ottawa: adla028@uottawa.ca, khattori@uOttawa.ca  

E-print Network

Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite ArkoseArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose Graphitic Pelitic

76

Contrasting transient and steady-state rivers crossing active normal faults: new field observations  

E-print Network

to transient settings and show that assumptions of power-law width scaling are inappropriate for riversContrasting transient and steady-state rivers crossing active normal faults: new field observations for Researchin Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA zJoint Research School

Cowie, Patience

77

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

2007-01-01

78

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

79

Overview of the Proposed Mississippi Headwaters - Red River Hydrologic Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A consortium of universities, led by The Ohio State University and the University of North Dakota, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota and the Dakotas Chapter, are proposing to develop the Mississippi Headwaters - Red River (MHRR) Hydrologic Observatory (HO). The region encompassed by the observatory includes the Red River watershed, the Upper Crow Wing River, the headwaters of the Mississippi River above Leech Lake, the closed Devils Lake basin and the central portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). The MHRR HO covers about 101,000 km2 and straddles the continental divide. The large size will permit the study of unique science problems and will provide a large contiguous region suitable for coupled large-scale climatic/hydrologic/ecological investigations. Although not part of this proposal, we are also organizing a consortium of primarily Canadian universities interested in carrying out complementary studies on the large Assiniboine basin in Manitoba and Saskatchewan with funding from Canadian sources. The combined study areas will facilitate climate/hydrologic/ecological studies on a broad scale, together with much more focused local scale studies. The research plan focuses on (i) climate variability and future climate change, (ii) wetland dynamics, restoration, and policy considerations associated with global climate change, (iii) carbon, nutrient, and contaminant cycling in complex systems, (iv) assessment and modeling of large, coupled climate/water systems, and (v) new and emerging technologies for near real-time monitoring and assessment. The science themes focus explicitly on exploring the interfaces among traditional science disciplines (hydrology, ecology, climatology) and implicitly on the atmosphere/land surface/subsurface interfaces that are part of the hydrologic cycle. The location of the MHRR HO was purposely selected as one of the most promising areas to pursue these science and technology themes. The region is distinguished by broad climate variability, which has been manifested by extreme swings from drought to deluge. Lake and river systems are considered to be extremely vulnerable to effects related to global climate change. This HO is a place where wetlands and small lakes still remain as an important component of hydrologic/ecological settings and have important implications for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas production, and recycling of water between terrestrial and atmospheric systems.

Schwartz, F. W.; Gerla, P. J.; Kucera, P. A.

2004-12-01

80

Water-level measurements 1981-85 and chemical analyses 1978-85, Red River alluvial aquifer, Red River Valley, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locks and dams under construction on the Red River in Louisiana will probably affect water levels and water quality in the Red River alluvial aquifer. Water levels measured in the Red River alluvial aquifer from January 1981 to December 1985 document preconstruction water level fluctuations in wells in the aquifer. Chemical analyses of samples collected from January 1978 to December 1985 from wells in the Red River alluvial aquifer document the quality of water in the aquifer. In the vicinity of Lock and Dam 1, the water level measurements and water quality samples after December 1983 document postconstruction. Water levels were measured for 404 wells, and water quality samples were collected from 178 wells in the aquifer. (USGS)

Smoot, C.W.; Guillot, J.R.

1988-01-01

81

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2010-07-01

82

Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam  

E-print Network

Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam Lisa D-lateral shearing. Data from the southern RRSZ within Vietnam are complicated by Tertiary overprinting of rocks dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam, J. Geophys. Res

Harrison, Mark

83

77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2012-0694] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden...proposes to establish a safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden'', a marine event...Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Red Bull is sponsoring a Flugtag event...

2012-08-08

84

77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale...Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola rowing event. The event is...receive necessary information about the Red Bull Candola until February 3, 2012....

2012-03-14

85

Evolution of regional stresses based on faulting and folding near the Pit River, Shasta County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolution of the regional stress state near the Pit River, northeastern California, by analyzing faults and folds preserved in and adjacent to a diatomite mine north of the Pit River near Burney. By measuring the orientation of 250 faults and 140 kinematic indicators on fault planes, we have determined principal stress directions preserved during the past million years. We observe the best exposures of faults in the diatomite mine, a paleolake deposit with an age tightly constrained by 1045 ka volcanic rocks below and the 973 ka Pole Creek basalt above (Muffler et al, 2012). To ensure a regionally representative analysis, we also include faults from the surrounding area, which are sparse but show consistent results. If we analyze all of the high angle faults as a single heterogeneous set, we find a stress state that would produce right-lateral strike-slip faulting on a moderately dipping southeast-striking fault plane. When we break the faults into groups based on orientation and include very low angle faults, we see an evolution of the stress state through time. The maximum principal stress directions (sigma 1) for the groups cluster along a north-south axis, and the lesser principal stresses (sigma 2 and sigma 3) are distributed along an east-west axis. Because moderately-dipping faults have strikes subparallel to regional normal faults and have kinematic indicators that are both down dip and parallel to strike, we infer that normal faulting occurred first and that some normal faults have been reactivated as strike slip faults. Because low angle faults form a distinct conjugate set and cut or deform high angle faults, we infer that they are the youngest. Low angle faults cluster into two groups that dip shallowly to the northwest and southwest. Analysis of the two groups as a conjugate set is consistent with individual analysis of each, and the slip vectors for the two groups cluster around the intersection with the sigma 1-3 plane. This would be very unlikely if low angle faults were simply accommodation structures or due to landsliding or compaction. High precision survey data along marker beds in the diatomite mine show at least two generations of subtle folding, which is distinct from the pre-paleolake basement topography. On a stereonet, poles to bedding planes in the diatomite cluster neatly along two great circles that define two fold axes. Folds are roughly orthogonal and trend southeast and southwest, plunging gently 2-4 degrees. We infer that the southeast generation of folds formed with other fault-parallel folds associated with normal faults in the region, such as the nearby Five Corners monocline. Evolution at this site through time is consistent with the spatial distribution of stress states at the northwest end of Walker Lane. We observe domains of normal faulting generally to the west, strike-slip faulting to the southeast, and reverse faulting to the northwest.

Austin, L. J.; Weldon, R. J.

2013-12-01

86

77 FR 56826 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned subsidiary...project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana...also be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and seven...

2012-09-14

87

More Evidence for Young Tectonism Along the Saline River Fault Zone, Southern Mississippi Embayment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the southern Mississippi embayment the 315-striking Saline River fault zone (SRFZ) was recently recognized from linear river segments, aligned epicenters, fault and fold exposures, sand blows, seismic reflection profiles, and trench investigations. In our latest work, shallow S-wave reflection profiles were acquired across the SRFZ within a sand blow field in Holocene alluvium at the southeastern limit of the mapped SRFZ. Along the central part of the SRFZ our field surveys of linear river segments subparallel to the SRFZ reveal that these segments are associated with faulting, fracturing, and folding of Eocene, late Pleistocene, and Holocene strata. In addition, we used logs of coal exploration holes to map shallow Eocene structure across the central SRFZ. In the SE of our study region, two S-wave reflection profiles (parallel and overlapping) were acquired along a 0.6 km N-S transect of the fault zone in NE Ashley County, AR. They reveal the SRFZ has a flower structure geometry with both positive and negative elements. The Eocene/Quaternary contact is clearly seen at 0.3 s (30 to 40 m depth). Several faults cut through the Quaternary section, and Quaternary and Eocene strata are folded harmonically. A fault in the overlap zone can be shown to strike 289 deg. New luminescence (IRSL) dates constrain a significant sand blow episode near this locality to between 7690 and 5725 yrs BP and a later significant episode to younger than 6845 yrs BP, consistent with previous results of middle to late Holocene sand venting here. In the central portion of the SRFZ, previous investigations of a linear river segment revealed a faulted anticline deforming alluvium younger than 720 years old. Our latest river surveys reveal that other linear river segments are associated with fractures and folds in Eocene substrate and young alluvium. Some oblique structures suggest a subsidiary strike-slip array. Shallow subsurface structure in Eocene strata mapped from coal exploration logs across the central portion of the SRFZ in Cleveland County, AR suggest a restraining-bend anticline/horst near the site of a moderate 1911 earthquake and the young river-bank anticline. This positive structure strikes NE, at a high angle to the SRFZ strike. Growing geologic, geomorphic, and geophysical evidence documents young tectonism in the southern Mississippi embayment, specifically in association with the SRFZ. Characterization of the SRFZ and any similar fault zones is crucial to understanding the seismotectonics and seismic hazard of the southern midcontinent.

Cox, R. T.; Harris, J. B.; Hill, A. A.; Forman, S. L.; Gardner, C.; Csontos, R.

2004-12-01

88

Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to compile and synthesize this body of knowledge into a comprehensive report for the geologic community. This report follows the format of Dibblee (1976) and includes discussions of the sections of the Rinconada Fault and of the Reliz Fault, as well as their Neogene history and key localities. Accompanying this report is a geologic map database of the faults, key localities, and earthquake epicenters, in ESRI shapefile format.

Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

89

Red River Stream Improvement Final Design Nez Perce National Forest.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the final stream improvement design along the reach of Red River between the bridge below Dawson Creek, upstream for approximately 2 miles, Idaho County, Idaho. Geomorphic mapping, hydrologic profiles and cross-sections were presented along with existing fish habitat maps in the conceptual design report. This information is used to develop a stream improvement design intended to improve aquatic habitat and restore riparian health in the reach. The area was placer mined using large bucket dredges between 1938 and 1957. This activity removed most of the riparian vegetation in the stream corridor and obliterated the channel bed and banks. The reach was also cut-off from most valley margin tributaries. In the 50 years since large-scale dredging ceased, the channel has been re-established and parts of the riparian zone have grown in. However, the recruitment of large woody debris to the stream has been extremely low and overhead cover is poor. Pool habitat makes up more than 37% of the reach, and habitat diversity is much better than the project reach on Crooked River. There is little large woody debris in the stream to provide cover for spawning and juvenile rearing, because the majority of the woody debris does not span a significant part of the channel, but is mainly on the side slopes of the stream. Most of the riparian zone has very little soil or subsoil left after the mining and so now consists primarily of unconsolidated cobble tailings or heavily compacted gravel tailings. Knapweed and lodgepole pine are the most successful colonizers of these post mining landforms. Tributary fans which add complexity to many other streams in the region, have been isolated from the main reach due to placer mining and road building.

Watershed Consulting, LLC

2007-03-15

90

Streamflow losses along the Balcones Fault Zone, Nueces River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation was conducted to quantify and to determine distribution of streamflow losses and gains that occur during base flow conditions in the Balcones Fault Zone of the Neuces River basin. The streams studied include the West Nueces, Nueces , Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers, and Seco, Hondo, and Verde Creeks. Discharge measurements made during storm recession flows of these streams identified direct recharge to outcrops of the Edwards aquifer and related limestones that ranged from as high as 393 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to as low as 42 cubic feet per second for the Sabinal River. Recharge to outcrops of the Buda Limestone, Eagle Ford Shale, and Austin Group also eventually reaches the Edwards aquifer, and measurements identified losses to these formations ranging from as high as 174 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to near zero for Verde Creek. (USGS)

Land, L.F.; Boning, C.W.; Harmsen, Lynn; Reeves, R.D.

1983-01-01

91

The Agricultural Benefits of Salinity Control on the Red River of Texas and Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Salinity of the waters from the Red River and its major tributaries has virtually eliminated its use for irrigation of agricultural crops in Texas and Oklahoma. A chloride control project has been proposed whereby the source salt waters...

Laughlin, D. H.; Lacewell, R. D.; Moore, D. S.

92

Distribution of Fishes in the Red River of the North Basin on Multivariate Environmental Gradients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has placed online this 1997 report on fish distribution in the Red River. Author Todd Koel, of North Dakota State University, has based his results on surveys of fishes "conducted at 1026 sites from 1892-1994," in which "77 native and seven introduced species" were identified in the Red River of the US North Basin. In addition to the main text, the report offers a substantial bibliography and a dozen detailed tables.

Koel, Todd Marvin.

1997-01-01

93

The changing flow regime and sediment load of the Red River, Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySouth-East Asian Rivers contribute very significantly to the global sediment load to the ocean, hence to global biogeochemical cycles, and are subject to rapid changes owing to recent population and economic growth. The Red River system (Viet Nam and China) offers a good example of these changes. Previous estimates (before the year 1980) of the suspended matter loading of the Red River ranged from 100 to 170 × 10 6 t yr -1, i.e. from 640 to 1060 t km -2 yr -1. The strong dependence of suspended solid transport on hydrology results in a large year-to-year variability. Based on the available hydrological data from the period 1997-2004, and on a one-year survey of daily suspended matter of the three main tributaries of the Red River system in 2003, a simplified modeling approach, distinguishing between surface runoff and base flow, is established to estimate the mean suspended loading of the Red River under present conditions. The obtained value is 40 × 10 6 t yr -1, corresponding to a specific load of 280 t km -2 yr -1. It reflects a 70% decrease of the total suspended load since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh and Thac Ba reservoirs in the 1980s. Following the planned construction of two additional reservoirs, the model predicts a further reduction by 20% of the suspended load of the Red River, which might be compensated by an expected increase in suspended loading due to enhanced rainfall induced by climate change. Using measurements of the total phosphorus content of the suspended material in the different Red River tributaries, the present phosphorus delivery by the Red River can be estimated as 36 × 10 6 kgP yr -1.

Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Garnier, Josette; Gilles, Billen; Sylvain, Théry; Van Minh, Chau

2007-02-01

94

Earthquake fault superhighways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.

2010-10-01

95

Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

2004-12-31

96

Mechanical stratigraphy and fault fold interaction, Absaroka thrust sheet, Salt River Range, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinct contrast in deformation style from tightly folded and faulted Cambrian through Ordovician strata to broadly folded and faulted Mississippian and younger strata is displayed in the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust, Salt River Range, Wyoming. Based on style, the Paleozoic section can be divided into two main structural lithic units. Each unit is characterized by a relatively weak, ductile, anisotropic lower section and a relatively strong, brittle, more isotropic upper section. Where the two units were stacked within the thrust sheet, inverted fault-propagation folds formed in the center of each unit, and the overall transition upward from close- to wide-spaced folds and imbricate faults developed in the multilayer. Where the upper unit was isolated, deformation was dominated by imbricate faulting with little associated folding, and inverted fault-propagation folds did not form. Observations illustrate that the mechanical interaction between the two units and boundary conditions imposed on them were significant to defining the deformation response. It is note-worthy that the boundary between the two structural lithic unts, in part defined by the roof thrust of the Stewart passive roof duplex, occurs within a dolostone rather than in overlying shale of the Darby Formation. I propose that the roof thrust and other detachments in dolostone reflect the relatively low frictional strength of dolostone under shallow crustal conditions. Cross-cutting relations suggest that the Absaroka sheet was cut by large imbricate faults during late-stage movement over a major dip ramp. A high deviatoric and low mean compressive stress state just beyond the upper ramp-flat corner promoted break-back imbrication and allowed tectonic thickening of the thrust wedge necessary to reestablish critical taper and for forward translation.

Chester, Judith S.

2003-07-01

97

Interactions of Growth-faulting with Incised Valleys and Channels on the Late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta, LA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between incised valleys and growth-fault related subsidence is poorly understood in the Late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta. Previous work has found little evidence that growth-faults are able to affect the course or geometry of small (< 200m in width and 20m in depth) channels. However, the relationship between growth-faults and larger scale valleys (> 1km in width and 25m in depth) has not been previously evaluated in this area. We use a 1400 km2 3D seismic volume located under Breton Sound, LA, integrated with a selection of well logs to document the effect of growth-faults on 12 valleys and 14 channels present within the upper 1.5 kilometers of the seismic volume. In contrast to the majority of smaller distributary channels found within the survey, valleys appear to be steered along or away from growth-faults. This observation suggests that faults are able to affect the course of valleys to a greater extent than small channels. We suggest that this is because valleys are long lived features which do not avulse before being influenced by shorter time scale faulting events. This study contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of growth-faults and valleys in the subsurface and has important long term societal implications for populations living near large rivers in areas with active growth-faulting.

Armstrong, C. P.; Mohrig, D.; Steel, R. J.

2011-12-01

98

[Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters].  

PubMed

The events of red tide were collected in Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters from 1972 to 2009. Based on geographic information system (GIS) analysis on the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide, the distribution map was generated accordingly. The results show: (1) There are three red tide-prone areas, which are outside the Yangtze River estuary and the eastern of Sheshan, Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi, Zhoushan and the eastern of Zhujiajian. The red tide occurred 174 times in total, in which there were 25 times covered the area was larger than 1 000 km2. After 2000, the frequency of red tide were significantly increasing; (2) The frequent occurrence of red tide was in May (51% of total occurrence) and June (20% of total occurrence); (3) In all of the red tide plankton, the dominant species were Prorocentrum danghaiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, Nactiluca scientillans. The red tides caused by these species were 38, 35, 15, 10 times separately. PMID:22165212

Liu, Lu-San; Li, Zi-Cheng; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Tang, Jing-Liang

2011-09-01

99

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and\\u000a native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the\\u000a UCRS

David M. Walters; Mike J. Blum; Brenda Rashleigh; Byron J. Freeman; Brady A. Porter; Noel M. Burkhead

2008-01-01

100

Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

2009-05-04

101

Surface Energy and Water Balance for the Arkansas-Red River Basin from the ECMWF Reanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average surface energy and water budgets, subsurface variables, and atmospheric profiles were computed online with an hourly timescale from the ECMWF reanalysis for five subbasins of the Mississippi River from 1985-93. The results for the Arkansas-Red River basin are discussed on diurnal, 5-day, monthly, seasonal, and interannual timescales, and compared with the observed basin-scale precipitation and streamflow. The model shows

Alan K. Betts; Pedro Viterbo; Eric Wood

1998-01-01

102

Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas — Cambodia and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong,River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paperpresentsanoverviewofgroundwaterarsenicpollutionintheMekongdelta:arsenicconcentrationsrangedfrom1–1610 ?g\\/Lin Cambodia (average 217 ?g\\/L) and 1–845 ?g\\/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 ?g\\/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation

Michael Berg; Caroline Stengel; P TRANG; P HUNGVIET; M SAMPSON; M LENG; S SAMRETH; D FREDERICKS

2007-01-01

103

Stream Fish Communities and Environmental Correlates in the Red River of the North, Minnesota and North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Red River of the North (Red River) drainage in Minnesota and North Dakota, there are strong east–west hydrological and chemical environmental gradients. Historical fish surveys indicated the presence of species with both widespread and restricted distributions, leading to unique fish communities in several streams. To determine the important physiochemical correlates of stream fish community structure, we partitioned 25

Todd M. Koel; John J. Peterka

2003-01-01

104

RED SHINER INVASION OF THE UPPER COOSA RIVER SYSTEM: DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) has been widely introduced across 11 states outside its native range, presumably through bait-bucket and aquarium releases. Its native range includes Great Plain and Central Lowland tributaries of the Mississippi River and western Coastal Pla...

105

Weed flora of water rice in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of weeds in water rice was surveyed in the Red River Delta, Vietnam during spring and summer rice-growing seasons in 1995 and 1996. Sixty different weeds from 19 plant families were recorded. The most important plant families as weeds of rice were Poaceae and Cyperaceae. The most important weed however was Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne (Lythraceae) followed by

Nguyen Hong Son; Ha Minh Trung; Bruce A. Auld; Shane D. Hetherington

2000-01-01

106

Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Controlling geochemical processes and reactive transport modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The groundwater chemistry was investigated in a transect of 100 piezometers. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis. Enhanced PCO2 pressure causes carbonate

Dieke Postma; Flemming Larsen; Nguyen Thi Minh Hue; Mai Thanh Duc; Pham Hung Viet; Pham Quy Nhan; Søren Jessen

2007-01-01

107

The increasing scarcity of red oaks in Mississippi River floodplain forests: Influence of the residual overstory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red oaks – cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.), willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), and Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley; aka: Quercus nuttallii Palmer) – are not regrowing in Mississippi Delta river floodplain forests in the southeastern United States in sufficient numbers to sustain the former species composition and timber and wildlife values. Even if vigorous

Chadwick Dearing Oliver; E. C. Burkhardt; Daniel A. Skojac

2005-01-01

108

Forest fragmentation and the distribution, abundance and conservation of the Tana river red colobus ( Procolobus rufomitratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that habitat heterogeneity, disturbance, disease, predation and food resources influence primate population abundance. However, few studies have focused on what habitat factors determine the probability that a primate species will occur in a habitat fragment. We analysed forest habitat and colobus population attributes to determine factors that influenced occurrence and abundance of the critically endangered Tana River red

David N. M. Mbora; Douglas B. Meikle

2004-01-01

109

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

110

Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river

Anna E. Tryfonas; John K. Tucker; Paul E. Brunkow; Kevin A. Johnson; Hussein S. Hussein; Zhi-Qing Lin

2006-01-01

111

Preconstruction and simulated postconstruction ground-water levels at urban centers in the Red River Navigation Project area, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Valley in Louisiana is 3 to 10 miles wide and is underlain by the Red River alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is in hydraulic connection with the Red River. Precipitation infiltrates the aquifer and water discharges from the aquifer at the Red River and major tributaries. Construction of locks and dams along the Red River will cause new, higher minimum stages for the river for each of the pools. Water levels will rise and outflow from the alluvial aquifer to the river after construction of the locks and dams will be at higher elevations because of the new river stages. Mathematical models of the stream-aquifer system simulate the effects of the lock and dam system for plan B-3, modified. Water-level changes in the aquifer in response to the changes imposed by the system are greatest near the river and are progressively smaller away from the river. The saturated zone in the fine-grained material overlying the aquifer provides the principal potential impact on structures and vegetation in urban areas. As water levels in the aquifer rise, the saturated zone above the aquifer will decrease the thickness. The soil zone in low areas in some communities will be waterlogged. (USGS)

Rogers, J.E.

1984-01-01

112

Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values < 0.05). No significant differences exist between organic matter content of soil beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless, soils underlying red cedar and cottonwood trees are functionally similar with regard to soil organic matter content.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2012-12-01

113

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the UCRS via large, mainstem rivers since the mid to late 1990s. We measured the occurrence and abundance of parental species and hybrids near tributary-mainstem confluences and characterized populations at these incipient contact zones by examining variation across morphological traits and molecular markers. Red shiners represented only 1.2% of total catch in tributaries yet introgression was widespread with hybrids accounting for 34% of total catch. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids was highly correlated with occurrence of blacktail shiners, indicating that streams with native populations are preferentially colonized early in the invasion and that hybridization is a key process in the establishment of red shiners and their genome in new habitats. Tributary invasion was driven by post-F1 hybrids with proportionately greater genomic contributions from blacktail shiner. Occurrence of red shiners and hybrids and the relative abundance of hybrids significantly increased with measures of human disturbance including turbidity, catchment agricultural land use, and low dissolved oxygen concentration. Red shiners are a significant threat to Southeast Cyprinella diversity, given that 41% of these species hybridize with red shiner, that five southeastern drainages are invaded, and that these drainages are increasingly disturbed by urbanization. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Walters, D.M.; Blum, M.J.; Rashleigh, B.; Freeman, B.J.; Porter, B.A.; Burkhead, N.M.

2008-01-01

114

Extracting tectonic information using the integral method of river profile analysis: applications along the Wasatch fault, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic deformation at the Earth's surface is reflected in the morphology of river profiles, hill slopes, and drainage networks. Various topographic metrics derived from river profiles have been proposed to identify tectonic hotspots in neotectonic regions. Using a high resolution digital elevation model to extract topographic data from channel networks, the advantages of the 'integral method' are exploited to analyse river profiles and catchments across two segments of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah. The results demonstrate much lower data noise when compared to standard practices of taking derivatives of topographic data. Combined with statistical analysis, it is possible to identify segments of river profiles that have responded to spatially variable rates of rock-deformation along the fault zone. Using a channel steepness index derived from the integral method, we find that previously published 10Be catchment-wide erosion rates exhibit conflicting scaling relationships with basin-averaged steepness indices. This is possibly explained due to occurrence of glacial erosion in certain basins during the last glacial maximum. A simple method for calibrating stream power model parameters using the integral method is used to estimate areas of fault displacement acceleration along the Wasatch Fault.

Valters, Declan

2014-05-01

115

Contrasting transient and steady-state rivers crossing active normal faults: new field observations from the Central Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present detailed data on channel morphology, valley width and grain size for three bedrock rivers crossing active normal faults which di¡er in their rate, history and spatial distribution of uplift.We evaluate the extent to which downstream changes in unit stream power correlate with footwall uplift, and use this information to identify which of the channels are likely to be

Alexander C. Whittaker; Patience A. Cowie; Mikaël Attal; Gregory E. Tucker; Gerald P. Roberts

2007-01-01

116

Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

117

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

2003-11-12

118

Integration of RADARSAT and GIS modelling for estimating future Red River flood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new geomatics-based approach for flood prediction was developed and used to model the magnitude and spatial extent of a\\u000a future Red River flood in southern Manitoba. This approach combines the statistical modelling capabilities of Markov (non-spatial)\\u000a analysis and logistic regression (spatial) within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, utilizing modelling inputs\\u000a derived from remotely sensed RADARSAT imagery and other

Michael Stephen Chubey; Salah Hathout

2004-01-01

119

Changes in Population, Growth, and Physiological Indices of Longnose Dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer’s municipal\\u000a wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end\\u000a points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the

Ken M. Jeffries; Leland J. Jackson; Lisa E. Peters; Kelly R. Munkittrick

2008-01-01

120

33 CFR 165.T08-0080 - Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470...T08-0080 Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470...September 5 & 26. Should the Cincinnati Reds make the playoffs and have...

2014-07-01

121

Changes in population, growth, and physiological indices of Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer's municipal wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the Red Deer River. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer had elevated catch per unit effort with larger body and liver sizes compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, likely due to elevated riverine productivity from Red Deer's wastewater effluent. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer showed depressed testosterone production capacity and elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which is consistent with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Longnose dace 150-180 km downstream of Red Deer had reduced liver and gonad sizes, elevated EROD, and increased 11-ketotestosterone production capacity compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, possibly related to a non-point-source agricultural influence on water quality. Longnose dace populations at the most downstream sites were missing the oldest age classes and might reach sexual maturity faster than at upstream sites, which is consistent with a younger age structure. Our results highlight the importance of assessing multiple performance end points to reveal physiological or reproductive effects in natural fish populations. We have demonstrated how longnose dace populations change over a river impacted by municipal wastewater and agricultural runoff; further studies are required to determine if these changes will influence the long-term viability of longnose dace in the Red Deer River. PMID:18322724

Jeffries, Ken M; Jackson, Leland J; Peters, Lisa E; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2008-11-01

122

Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas--Cambodia and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 microg/L in Cambodia (average 217 microg/L) and 1-845 microg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 microg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 microg/L (average 159 microg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 microg/g (average 7 microg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels >50 microg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (<50 microg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority. PMID:17081593

Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Pham, Thi Kim Trang; Pham, Hung Viet; Sampson, Mickey L; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

2007-01-01

123

Nutrient (N, P) budgets for the Red River basin (Vietnam and China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the degree of human-induced alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles at the scale of a tropical watershed of regional dimension, the budgets of these two elements were estimated in the four main sub-basins (Da, Lo, Thao, and Delta) of the Red River system (156 448 km2, Vietnam and China). The four sub-basins differ widely in population density (from 101 inhabitants km-2 in the upstream basins to more than 1000 inhabitants km-2 in the delta), land use, and agricultural practices. In terms of agricultural production, on the one hand, and consumption of food and feed on the other, the upstream sub-basins are autotrophic systems, exporting agricultural goods, while the delta is a heterotrophic system, depending on agricultural goods imports. The budget of the agricultural soils reveals great losses of nitrogen, mostly attributable to denitrification in rice paddy fields and of phosphorus, mostly caused by erosion. The budget of the drainage network shows high retention/elimination of nitrogen (from 62 to 77% in the upstream basins and 59% in the delta), and of phosphorus, with retention rates as high as 80% in the Da and Lo sub-basins which have large reservoirs in their downstream course (Hoa Binh on the Da and Thac Ba on the Lo). The total specific delivery estimated at the outlet of the whole Red River System is 855 kg km-2 yr-1 total N and 325 kg km-2 yr-1 total P. Nitrogen rather than phosphorus seems to be the potential limiting factor of algal growth in the plume of the Red River in Tonkin Bay.

Quynh, Le Thi Phuong; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; ThéRy, Sylvain; FéZard, CéDric; Minh, Chau Van

2005-06-01

124

Hydrological regime and water budget of the Red River Delta (Northern Vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River Delta (RRD) in Northern Vietnam represents a complex hydrological network of tributaries and distributaries that receive a large and seasonally fluctuating flow of water from the upper Red River basin and is also subjected to tidal influence. In this study, we attempted to assemble a database of discharge estimates within the RRD for 1996-2006 to elucidate the water circulation patterns in the system, enable quantification of major water fluxes and assess the water resources availability. Regular discharge measurements in the RRD are available for three upstream stations, while the other hydrological stations provide only water level records; however , the MIKE 11 model allowed overall calibration curves to be established, which enabled the conversion of available daily mean water level data into discharge values. Four gauging surveys were conducted under flood and dry season in 2007 and 2008 to experimentally validate these calibration curves. After the database was generated, a water balance was established for two years with contrasting climatic and hydrological characteristics. During the wet year (1996), the main branch of the Red River represented the largest input of freshwater to the sea (approximately 60%). Conversely, during the dry year (2006), the inputs were more evenly distributed among the three main fluvial branches. The total volume annually delivered to the sea from the RRD was approximately 140 and 100 km 3 for 1996 and 2006, respectively. When the five sub-basins within the RRD were evaluated, it was shown that the water resources were far from evenly distributed within the area. In particular, the Bui sub-basin, which has the highest population density and the lowest water resources per unit area, is experiencing a critical situation in terms of pressure on water resources.

Luu, Thi Nguyet Minh; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Orange, Didier; Némery, Julien; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Tran, Hong Thai; Le, Lan Anh

2010-02-01

125

Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.  

SciTech Connect

The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

2003-07-01

126

The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.  

SciTech Connect

Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

2004-12-31

127

Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.  

PubMed

The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. PMID:22192584

He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

2012-02-15

128

Modeling regional variation in riverine fish biodiversity in the Arkansas-White-Red River basin  

SciTech Connect

The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas White Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models and identified well-supported models. Subbasin attributes that were retained as predictors included discharge, elevation, number of downstream dams, percent forest, percent shrubland, nitrate, total phosphorus, and sediment. The random component of our models, which assumed a negative binomial distribution, included spatial correlation within larger river basins and overdispersed residual variance. This study differs from previous biodiversity modeling efforts in several ways. First, obtaining likelihoods for negative binomial mixed models, and thereby avoiding reliance on quasi-likelihoods, has only recently become practical. We found the ranking of models based on these likelihood estimates to be more believable than that produced using quasi-likelihoods. Second, because we had access to a regional-scale watershed model for this river basin, we were able to include model-estimated water quality attributes as predictors. Thus, the resulting models have potential value as tools with which to evaluate the benefits of water quality improvements to fish.

Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-01-01

129

Postseismic Deformation of Large Normal Faulting Earthquakes in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain with Implications for Lithospheric Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent deformation of the Hebgen Lake fault, MT, was measured by trilateration and campaign GPS from 1973 to 2000 following the 18 August 1959 Mw=7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake that occurred at the northwest edge of the Yellowstone volcanic system in an extensional tectonic regime. Integrated analysis of the geodetic measurements shows time-dependent extension of baseline-length across the area with average rates of 4 to 6 mm/yr. Rheological models derived by these data using VISCO1D suggest that the lithosphere is stronger near the fault zone, and weaker in the vicinity of the Yellowstone caldera where higher heat flow and a thinner brittle crust were suggested by surface temperature measurements, gravity data, and earthquake focal depths. Our models also imply a more viscous lower crust than the upper mantle, in agreement with a corollary that the continental mantle has relatively low long-term stress. Since 2005, the EarthScope-PBO project has deployed an array of 12 continuously operated GPS stations across the Hebgen Lake fault and aftershock zone to assess intraplate postseismic deformation and to model lithospheric rheology. The comparison between the observed and modeled horizontal velocities of the continuous GPS stations suggested that the magnitude of postseismic relaxation from the Hebgen Lake earthquake is less than 20% of the contemporary ground motion. In addition, we evaluated continuous GPS data from 14 stations that span the Lost River fault, ID, to measure the postseismic deformation associated with the1983 Mw=6.9 Borah Peak earthquake. The data reveal extensional rates of 1-2 mm/yr across the Lost River fault zone. Preliminary results of viscoelastic modeling using the results from our Hebgen Lake rheologic model suggest that the combined postseismic relaxation of the above two earthquakes produced horizontal ground motions up to ~1-2 mm/yr across the Lost River fault, thus notably affecting the contemporary deformation field of the eastern Basin-Range. This study provides new insights into the widespread effects on regional deformation from postseismic relaxation of large earthquakes that need to be considered in kinematic models and earthquake hazards of intraplate tectonic regions.

Chang, W.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C. M.

2012-12-01

130

Comparison of Pixel Based and Object Oriented Classifications in Land Cover Mapping in the Red River Delta - Example of Duy Tien District, Ha Nam Province, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The land use practice in the Red River Delta is characterized by its mosaic spatial repartition and rapid land cover change. Red River Delta is an important rice producer of Vietnam where is living more than 20% of Vietnamese population. In this context the land use mapping conducted periodically by the Land Administration Agencies can not satisfy land management

NGUYEN Thi; Thuy Hang; NGUYEN Phan Dong

131

Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.  

PubMed

Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. PMID:23628547

Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

2013-07-15

132

Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

1983-01-01

133

Development of a Tree-Ring Chronology from Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginia, L.) for the Upper Mississippi River Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrochronology is the science that uses tree-rings dated to their exact year of formation to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of processes in the physical and cultural sciences. There currently is no published record for tree-ring studies using Eastern Red Cedar in the Upper Mississippi River Valley in Wisconsin. Therefore, this study develops a chronology from tree- rings using Eastern

Miranda Froehlich

2008-01-01

134

77 FR 67568 - Regulated Navigation Area; East River, Flushing and Gowanus Bays, and Red Hook and Buttermilk...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operations above and in the navigable waters of the Port of New York and...above and upon the navigable waters between Gowanus Bay, Red Hook...East River, and Flushing Bay. Heavy-lift operations are sensitive to water movement, and wake from...

2012-11-13

135

Role of Growth Faulting in the Quaternary Development of Mississippi-River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an industry grade seismic volume and observations of present-day surface topography to resolve the influence of growth faulting on evolution of Mississippi delta in southeastern Louisiana from the Pleistocene to Recent. The volume of seismic data covers an area roughly 1400 square kilometers in size and it resolves many normal faults with displacements that can be tied to movement of Jurassic Louann Salt in the subsurface. We have defined the Quaternary activity associated with 6 of these normal faults by measuring the progressive offset of strata deposited on the delta surface over time. These measurements of fault displacement were restricted to the sedimentary section positioned 150 to 1500 m beneath the delta surface. Total vertical offsets measured within this Quaternary section range from 60 to 150 m. These fault displacements represent abrupt spatial variations in subsidence rate that are between 4 and 8 percent of the regional, long-term deposition rate. Our best estimates for the Quaternary rates of fault displacement vary between 0.1 and 1 mm/yr. Five faults can be connected to deformation of the modern delta surface. Wetland on the footwall is replaced by open water on the hanging wall of these structures. In spite of this evidence for modern surface deformation, the orientations of buried, seismically resolved channel bodies do not appear to be affected by the positions of active growth faults. We will evaluate the competition between subsidence and sedimentation patterns that leads to this style of channelized stratigraphy.

Mohrig, D.; George, T. J.; Straub, K. M.

2008-12-01

136

Reconnaissance of mercury in lakes, wetlands, and rivers in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, March through August 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Devils Lake rose dramatically during the 1990's, causing extensive flood damages. Because of the potential for continued flooding, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been conducting studies to evaluate the feasibility of constructing and operating an outlet from Devils Lake. The occurrence of mercury in lakes, wetlands, and rivers and the potential for increased loading of mercury into the Sheyenne River as a result of a Devils Lake outlet needed to be evaluated as part of the studies. Sixteen lake, wetland, and river sites in the Devils Lake, Sheyenne River, Red River of the North, and Red Lake River Basins were sampled and analyzed for mercury constituents and other selected properties and constituents relevant to mercury aquatic chemistry. For the lake and wetland sites, whole-water methylmercury concentrations ranged from less than 0.04 to 3.53 nanograms per liter and whole-water total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 7.02 nanograms per liter. Conditions favorable for methylation of mercury generally exist at the lake and wetland sites, as indicated by larger dissolved methylmercury concentrations in near-bottom samples than in near-surface samples and by relatively large ratios of methylmercury to total mercury (generally greater than 10 percent for the summer sampling period). Total mercury concentrations were larger for the summer sampling period than for the winter sampling period for all lake and wetland sites. A wetland site in the upper Devils Lake Basin had the largest mercury concentrations for the lake and wetland sites. For the river sites, whole-water methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.13 nanograms per liter and whole-water total mercury concentrations ranged from 2.00 to 26.90 nanograms per liter. Most of the mercury for the river sites occurred in particulate inorganic phase. Summer ratios of whole-water methylmercury to whole-water total mercury were 35 percent for Starkweather Coulee (a wetland-dominated site), near or less than 10 percent for the Sheyenne River sites, and less than 8 percent for the Red River of the North and Red Lake River sites. Although the number of samples collected during this investigation is small, results indicated an outlet from Devils Lake probably would not have adverse effects on mercury concentrations in the Sheyenne River upstream from Lake Ashtabula. However, because discharges in the Sheyenne River would increase during some periods, loads of mercury entering Lake Ashtabula also would increase. Lake Ashtabula probably serves as a sink for suspended sediment and mercury. Thus, a Devils Lake outlet probably would not have substantial effects on mercury concentrations and loads in the downstream part of the Sheyenne River or in the Red River of the North. More substantial effects could occur for Lake Ashtabula.

Sando, Steven K.; Wiche, G.J.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, Bradley A.

2003-01-01

137

Late-summer food of red-winged blackbirds in a fresh tidal-river marsh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During late summer in the Delaware Valley and Chesapeake Bay region, hundreds of thousands of Red-winged Blackbirds feed in wild rice beds of fresh tidal-river marshes. The period during which wild rice seed is available coincides with the ripening period of a part of the corn crop, and there is evidence to indicate that the availability of the wild rice reduces bird feeding pressure on corn in the area. The importance of wild rice and other marsh plants to the redwing during the period when wild rice seed is available was studied further by field observations and by analysis of stomach contents of 130 birds collected in wild rice beds of the Patuxent River in southern Maryland. Seeds of marsh plants formed the bulk of the food of redwings collected. Dotted smartweed, wild rice, and Walter?s millet were the most important food plants. Corn was the fourth most important item. It occurred in 35, approximately one-fourth, of the stomachs

Meanley, B.

1961-01-01

138

For its 53rd season; Summer Circle Theatre is devoted to exploring family in its many permutations. A collection of plays of varying styles all exploring "Family Dynamics" on the banks of the Red Cedar River.  

E-print Network

. A collection of plays of varying styles all exploring "Family Dynamics" on the banks of the Red Cedar River of shows outdoors on the banks of the beautiful Red Cedar River on the MSU campus. Presenting a blend" on the Banks of the Red Cedar River. Come early for the best seating. Be the first person to arrive on any show

Liu, Taosheng

139

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

2005-01-01

140

Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (1oS drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p--0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the duster groups. There were significant differences (p=O.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different C0=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

Goldstein, R.M.

1995-01-01

141

Millennial Slip Rate of the Longitudinal Valley Fault From River Terraces: Implications for Convergence Across the Active Suture of Eastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpreting a geomorphic analysis of fluvial terraces in the hanging-wall block of a major active fault in Taiwan by means of a structural model, we have created a model for the creation of a lithospheric suture that may have broader application. The Longitudinal Valley fault is a key element in the active tectonics of Taiwan. It is the principal structure accommodating convergence across the eastern of the two active sutures of the Taiwan orogeny. To understand more precisely its role in the suturing process, we analyzed fluvial terraces along the Hsiukuluan River, which is the only river that cuts across the Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan, in the hanging-wall block of the Longitudinal Valley fault. This allowed us to determine both the subsurface geometry and the millennial slip rate of the fault. The uplift pattern of the Hsiukuluan River terraces is consistent with a fault-bend fold model. Our analysis yields a listric geometry for the Longitudinal Valley fault in its uppermost 2.5 km, with dips decreasing downdip from about 50° to about 30°. The maximum dip-slip component of the Holocene slip rate of the fault is about 23 mm/yr, which yields a maximum horizontal shortening rate of about 25.6 mm/yr in the direction of plate convergence. This rate is far less than the 40 mm/yr rate of shortening across the Longitudinal Valley derived from GPS measurements. The discrepancy may reflect an actual difference in millennial and decadal rates of convergence. An alternative explanation, however, is that the discrepancy is accommodated by a combination of subsidence of the Longitudinal Valley and slip on the Central Range fault, the other active fault of the suture. The shallow listric geometry of the Longitudinal Valley fault at the Hsiukuluan River valley differs markedly from the deep listric geometry illuminated by earthquake hypocenters near Chihshang, about 45 km to the south. We propose a model whereby this fundamental along-strike difference in geometry of the fault is a manifestation of the northward maturation of the suturing of the Luzon volcanic arc to the Central Range continental sliver. We believe that this model, in which the development of a complex, "Christmas tree" pattern of progressively active faults between the two crustal blocks may be a characteristic way that suture zones form. The actively suturing Taiwan orogen may thus provide an insight for interpreting old sutures.

Shyu, J. H.; Sieh, K.; Avouac, J.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.

2005-12-01

142

78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a...

2013-03-26

143

78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...entitled ``Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event,...

2013-06-27

144

Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model that is capable of learning from complex, multidimensional data without specification of what the outputs should be, and of generating a nonlinear classification of visually decipherable clusters. The use of the above framework allowed to analyze the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, reviling patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers and then likely (but still to be validated) fluvial processes. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale opening the way towards regional or national scale hydromorphological assessments through automatic GIS and statistical procedures with moderate effort, an urgent requirement of modern catchment management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

2012-12-01

145

Comparison between direct and indirect estimates of ductile strain rates in a major lithospheric continental shear zone : the Ailao Shan Red River.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ailao Shan Red River shear zone (ASRRsz) stretches for 1000km from SE Tibet to the South China Sea (SCS). The ASRRsz is the major left-lateral fault along which the Indochina block extruded to the SE in the Oligo-Miocene. Several structural, petrographical and geochronological studies constrain the ASRR kinematics. This gives the opportunity to study in details the deformation process acting in such large shear zone and especially the relationship of internal temperatures, stresses and strain rates with the fault rate. Three different data sets constrain the ASRR fault rate. 1) In situ dating of monazites armoured within synkinematic garnets, implies shearing between 34and 21 Ma (Gilley et al., JGR, 2003). 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry indicates that left-lateral slip lasted until 17Ma. The total offset is estimated at 700±200 km, leading to an averaged fault rate of 4.3±1.7 cm/yr. 2) The ASRR ends in the marginal oceanic basin of the South China sea (SCS) that is a pull-apart basin at the termination of the fault. If the poles of opening of the SCS calculated from its magnetic anomalies are attributed to Indochina they imply a 560 km of sinistral motion at an average rate of 3.5 cm/yr between 32 and 16 Ma (Briais et al., JGR, 1993). 3) A systematic study of the cooling histories along strike of the ASRR led to a zipper kinematics model for the ASRR that implies a fault rate on the order of 4.5 cm/yr between 25 and 17 Ma (Harrison et al., 1996). If deformation is homogeneous within a 10 kilometres wide shear zone such fault rates would respectively correspond to shear strains of between 1.1 and 1.4 10-13s-1. Stresses within the shear zone have been inferred from the size of re-crystallized quartz grains of 8 mylonitic samples applying piezometer of Stipp and Tullis (GRL, 2003). The grain sizes vary between 70 to 120 ?m. The corresponding mean stresses vary from 15.62 MPa to 23.43 MPa. Deformation temperature for each sample was determined from quartz LPO and the corresponding strain rate calculated using a power flow-law. This yields strain rates between 2.1*10^{-14}s-1 and 8.1*10^{-13s-1. The highest strain rate corresponds to the sample that deformed at the highest temperature (~873 K). We developed new methods that combine strain measurement and dating of several generations of syntectonic dykes to calculate local strain rate as directly as possible (Sassier et al., EUG, 2006). Results from one outcrop of the ASRR suggest minimum strain rates on the order of 1*10^{-14}s-1 between 30 and 22 Ma. Such strain rates could appear either underestimated or anomalously low with respect to those calculated with indirect methods. However, comparison with a numerical model of a strike-slip shear zone (Leloup et al., GRL, 1999) shows that such relatively low strain rates are compatible with the measured low shear stresses within a 4 cm/yr shear zone.

Leloup, P. H.; Sassier, C.; Rubatto, D.; Lefbvre, C.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

2006-12-01

146

A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

1981-01-01

147

Influence of pore geometry on future enhanced recovery in Ordovician (Red River) carbonate reservoirs at Cabin Creek field, Montana  

SciTech Connect

This study related the distribution of pore geometry to enhanced recovery within the Upper Ordovician Red River formation, Cabin Creek field, Montana. The field is located on the Cedar Creek anticline in SE Montana. The Red River formation is a sequence of alternating limestones and dolostones. Lateral and vertical variations of dolomitization are mostly responsible for reservoir heterogeneity. Production is from the U2, U4, and U6 dolostones, whereas the interstratified U1, U3, and U5 limestone units are nonproductive. Cumulative Ordovician and Silurian production was 61,574,000 bbl of oil as of September 1979, with reserves of 13,426,000 bbl. Waterflood began in 1964, and the field is a good candidate for tertiary recovery by the carbon dioxide miscible process. Studies of thin sections, mercury capillary pressure curves, and resin pore casts have shown that several different types of pore systems occur, each associated with a particular depositional environment and diagenetic regime.

Ruzyla, K.; Friedman, G.M.

1981-05-01

148

Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Jimm Myers

149

Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 microg/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 microg/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 microg/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. PMID:19004533

Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kim Trang, Pham Thi; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2009-02-01

150

Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater from the two main aquifers in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Red River Delta, situated in the northern part of Vietnam, nearly its entire population depends solely on groundwater for daily water consumptions. For this reason, groundwater quality assessments must be carefully carried out using hydrogeochemical properties, to ensure effective groundwater resource planning for the Delta’s present and future groundwater use. In this study, the spatial and seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the two main aquifers of the RRD were investigated by analyzing the physicochemical data obtained in 2011 from 31 conjunctive wells in the Delta’s Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) using the Piper diagram and the Gibbs diagram. Results of the data analysis show that the groundwater in both aquifers in the upstream area of the delta is dominated by the [Ca2+-HCO3-] water-type, while the [Na+-Cl-] dominates along the middle-stream and downstream areas. Seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical facies in both aquifers, comparing the results for the dry and the rainy seasons, were detected in about one third of the sampling wells, which were mainly located at the upstream portion of the Delta. The hydrogeochemical facies of HUA were different from that of PCA by about 45% of the sampling wells in both the dry and the rainy seasons, which were found mostly in the upstream and middle-stream areas.

Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Kawamura, Akira; Tong, Thanh Ngoc; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo; Gilbuena, Romeo

2014-10-01

151

Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.  

SciTech Connect

A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

Ashley, Paul

2004-11-01

152

The Ailao Shan\\/Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of thickening and strike-slip extrusion in continental collision is debated. Ductile shear in the Ailao Shan\\/Diancang Shan metamorphic belt, along the Red River in Yunnan, China, yields outstanding evidence of the latter process. For > 500 km, mylonites in this narrow northwest-southeast belt show horizontal lineations on steep, northwest-striking foliation planes, and left-lateral kinematic indicators. U-Pb radiometric

P. Tapponnier; R. Lacassin; P. H. Leloup; U. Schärer; Zhong Dalai; Wu Haiwei; Liu Xiaohan; Ji Shaocheng; Zhang Lianshang; Zhong Jiayou

1990-01-01

153

Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE for organic fields was less spatially and temporally variable than conventional, with average daily flux between 0.48 and 1.44 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1. Average daily flux in conventional fields ranged between 0.48 and 3.12 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1, with highest values in April and May. While soil moisture in organic fields was significantly greater than conventional, it did not interact with treatment to affect trace gas flux. Instead, the effect of organic on N2O, CO2 and the net GHE was strongly influenced by crop stage, an agronomically meaningful proxy integrating time and plant growth conditions. Most CH4 flux observations were 0. Integrated fluxes for each of the 40 sites over the growing season was averaged by field pair and treatment. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect for average seasonal integrated flux varied between field pairs for CO2 and N2O fluxes, the overall influence of treatment on the net GHE was similar. Overall, soils under organically produced wheat emitted 200 kg CO2 equiv. ha-1 per season less than conventionally produced wheat. We observed 1) the net GHE for similar field sites in the Red River Valley was reduced under organic versus conventional agriculture, 2) N2O flux in organic fields was significantly lower than conventional fields for both field pair sites, and 3) the effect of treatment on CO2 flux was site specific.

Phillips, R. L.

2004-12-01

154

Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface created before or at the beginning of flow regulation. Red cedar establishment and soil property differences are correlated to percent sand in the soil. According to our interpretation of geomorphic surfaces, the sandier soils represent higher energy depositional surfaces, such as islands and pointbars. Thus, these legacy geomorphic surfaces are a determinant of red cedar establishment patterns and soil property patterns. Land managers and other researchers needing to make predictions for other areas can use our model-building process to quickly map and assess impacts of invasion. In addition, our results show how a Bayesian model provides information about feedbacks between environmental parameters that can help determine and target restoration goals.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2013-12-01

155

Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain activity on the west-vergent Sweitzer fault and the east-vergent blind reverse fault. All of the sampled catchments are underlain exclusively by Tehama Sandstone. Moreover, there are no mapped surface traces of faults in the sampled catchments. This minimizes the possibility of changes in lithogic resistance to impact the erosion rates and channel analyses. These analyses, combined with fault geometries derived from published seismic reflection data and structural cross sections, allows us to constrain the throw rates on these faults and thus better evaluate the associated seismic hazard.

Cyr, A. J.

2013-12-01

156

77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park...Richmond, VA in support of the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks event. This action is necessary...on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is...

2012-05-09

157

77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park...on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is intended...165.T05-0114 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing...

2012-03-07

158

Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Focal Species Information, Red-winged Blackbird  

E-print Network

-winged Blackbird Introduction The red-winged black bird is one of the most abundant birds in North America (Marshall et al. 2003). Red-winged Blackbirds are extremely adaptable; successfully colonizing many small% of the annual Red-winged Blackbird diet is seeds. During the breeding season, they also eat insects, especially

159

Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages, management boundaries, compliance points, and impaired water body endpoints. Incorporation of the LiDAR datasets has been critical to representing the topographic characteristics that impact hydrologic and water quality processes in the extremely flat, heavily drained sub-basins of the RRB. Beyond providing more detailed elevation and slope measurements, the high resolution LiDAR datasets have helped to identify drainage alterations due to agricultural practices, as well as improve representation of channel geometry. Additionally, when available, LiDAR based hydraulic models completed as part of the RRB flood mitigation efforts, are incorporated to further improve flow routing. The MPCA will ultimately use these HSPF models to aid in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, permit development/compliance, analysis of Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation scenarios, and other watershed planning and management objectives. LiDAR datasets are an essential component of the water quality models build for the watersheds within the RRB and would greatly benefit water quality modeling efforts in similarly characterized areas.

Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

2013-12-01

160

Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D.C.G.

2003-01-01

161

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

162

Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Red River Region, Yunnan Province, China  

E-print Network

(cont.) Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system during growth of the southeast plateau margin. Cosmogenic ²?A1 and ¹?Be basin-wide erosion rate and burial ages indicate a background incision rate of [approximately] 0.05 to 0.10 ...

Schoenbohm, Lindsay M. (Lindsay Marie), 1976-

2004-01-01

163

Evidence of Late Quaternary Faulting along the Northeastern Segment of the Stagner Creek Fault in the Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stagner Creek fault, located along the southern margin of the Owl Creek Mountains in central Wyoming, is one of several east-west striking Quaternary faults that may correspond with scattered, present-day, intraplate seismicity in the region. These Quaternary faults are peculiar in that they strike nearly orthogonal to the Basin and Range faults observed in western Wyoming, and their orientation may reflect the influence of inherited, Laramide structures. These east-west striking faults are inferred to be predominantly normal faults. Previous studies have documented the Quaternary activity of the Stagner Creek fault affecting 6 distinct alluvial fan southeast of the Boysen Reservoir. This study aims to expand on these prior efforts using geomorphic and geophysical analyses. In this area, the Stagner Creek fault is expressed as a prominent scarp, visible in air photos and satellite imagery. Microtopographic mapping was accomplished using a real-time kinematic GPS surveying. The resulting DEM provides detailed scarp morphology, as well as documenting possible knick points within the alluvial surfaces upstream from the scarp. The alluvial surface has a regional slope of 2-3 degrees, and the scarp face has a relatively shallow slope of 6-12 degrees. Scarp heights range from 0.4 to 2 meters. The minimum scarp may reflect a single faulting event, corresponding with a magnitude 6.5 - 6.7. These surfaces are believed to be Late Pleistocene and younger, and geochronological constraints are pending. A shallow seismic reflection profile acquired across the scarp imaged structure to depths of about 500 meters. The profile suggests a steep fault coincident with the surface scarp that offsets Tertiary reflectors several 10s of meters in the subsurface. The steep dip is similar to Laradmide structures. These results suggest that the Stagner Creek fault is capable of generating moderate magnitude earthquakes in this low-strain tectonic environment.

Abousaif, A.; Wang, H.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Gomez, F.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

164

General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

2013-01-01

165

Influence of growth faults on coastal fluvial systems: Examples from the late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The details of how fluvial systems respond to spatial changes in land-surface subsidence produced by active faulting remain incompletely understood. Here, we examine the degree to which the positioning of individual channels and channel-belts is affected by local maxima in subsidence associated with the hanging walls of growth faults. The channel forms and faults are imaged using a seismic volume covering 1400 km2 of Breton Sound and Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana, USA. We look at the consequences of interactions between channels, channel-belts, and faults in late Miocene to Recent strata. More than fifty individual channels that crossed the traces of active growth faults were examined. Of these channels, only three appear to have been redirected by the faults. There also appeared to be no systematic change in the cross-sectional geometries of channels or channel-belts associated with crossing a fault, though the orientation of the channel-belts appears to be more influenced by faulting than the orientation of individual channels. Seven out of ten mapped channel-belts appear to have been steered by growth faults. We propose that channel belts are more likely to be influenced by faults than individual channels because channel-belts are longer lived features, unlikely to shift their overall position before experiencing a discrete faulting event. In addition, the style of influence in the few cases where an individual channel is affected by a fault is different from that of larger systems. While downstream of a fault channel-belts generally become oriented perpendicular to fault strike, the individual channels are directed along the hanging wall of the fault, running parallel to the fault trace. We relate this to the ratio of the length-scale of fault rollover relative to the channel or channel-belt width. Fluvial-fault interactions with higher values for this ratio are more likely to be carried parallel to the fault trace than systems with lower ratio values.

Armstrong, Christopher; Mohrig, David; Hess, Thomas; George, Terra; Straub, Kyle M.

2014-03-01

166

Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh dam (HBD), located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although it is important for flood prevention, electricity production and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from a 50-year data set of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010), and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was simulated using the MIKE11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 9%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average, by 61% at Son Tay near Hanoi (from 119 to 46 × 106 t yr-1). Along the coast, reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh dam. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season (-14% in the Red River at Son Tay) and increased water discharge in the dry season (+12% at the same station). The ratios of water and suspended sediment flows, as compared to the total flows in the nine mouths, increased in the northern and southern estuaries and decreased in the central, main Ba Lat mouth. The increasing volume of dredged sediments in the Haiphong harbour is evidence of the silting up of the northern estuary of Cam-Bach Dang. The effect of tidal pumping on enhanced flow occurring in the dry season and resulting from changed water regulation is discussed as a possible cause of the enhanced siltation of the estuary after Hoa Binh dam impoundment.

Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

2014-10-01

167

Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin  

SciTech Connect

Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.

David Gibbons; Larry A. Carrell; Richard D. George

1997-07-31

168

Kinematics and tectonic implications of the Mae Kuang Fault, northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the hypothesis that northeast-trending strike-slip faults partially accommodated mid-Tertiary east-west extension in northern Thailand, we investigated a prominent lineament that marks the trace of the Mae Kuang fault. The trace of the this fault follows the linear Mae Kuang Valley for approximately 30 km through the Mae Tho Range northeast of Chiang Mai, where it cuts granitic rocks of the Fang - Mae Suai batholith and roof pendants of Paleozoic terranes. Along the trace of the fault we identified offset contacts, and slickenlines on fault surfaces that suggest a total sinistral slip of 3.5 km and a dip-slip of 600 m. The fault also offsets three north-flowing tributaries to the Mae Kuang River by 400-700 m. At its southwestern end, the Mae Kuang fault is apparently truncated by the right-lateral Mae Tha fault and does not extend to the west side of the Chiang Mai Basin. Therefore, it cannot be accommodating the transfer of extension from basin to basin, however, it may accommodate small amounts of differential rotation between adjacent crustal blocks. The fault probably initiated between 20 and 5 Ma, simultaneous with the slip inversion on the Mae Ping and Red River Faults.

Rhodes, Brady P.; Perez, Robert; Lamjuan, Apichard; Kosuwan, Suwith

2004-10-01

169

Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch: Formation of a pull-apart basin, Depocenter for Atokan to Lower Des Moines (bend) clastics, Cottle County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch (Tectonic Zone) created a braided series of en echelon faults and folds with associated pop-up structures and pull-apart basins. Local extension, or overstepping, in Southeast Cottle County, Texas, has produced the deepest pull-apart basin along the arch with over 10,000` of structural relief. The emerging Wichita-Amarillo Uplift, to the north, provided an abundant sediment source, which prograded rapidly southward as an alluvial fan-braided river complex. Exposure of basement rocks and lower Paleozoic sediments along the Red River-Matador Arch, also contributed to the basin fill. Syntectonic sedimentation led to the accumulation of over 6000` of Bend (Atoka-lower Des Moines) sediments within the basin. Deposition was dominated initially by alluvial fan to fluvial siliciclastics. As basin subsidence was further amplified by sediment loading, accommodation exceeded sedimentation capturing a large segment of the southward prograding Wichita-Amarillo derived clastic wedge. Encroachment of the late Atoka to lower Des Moines epeiric sea promoted further evolution of depositional environments to fan deltas, marine dominated clastics and, later, localized carbonate development. Type III kerogen rich organic shales produced abundant gas prone source rocks. The extreme depth of the basin combined with the local geothermal gradient provided for significant hydrocarbon generation. By early 1988 new well control helped revise previous stratigraphic correlation demonstrating a rapidly expanding lower Des Moines to Atokan section. The drilling of the Gunn Oil Company-Brothers No. 1 to a total depth of 10,301` in the Mississippian Chappel Limestone, encountered 2025` of Bend sediments, with 279` of gross Bend Conglomerate (162` of net pay). The Brothers No. 1 was potentialled on 11/19/89 with a CAOF of 6.0 MMCFD and filed as the field discovery for the Broken Bone (Bend Conglomerate) field.

Stephens, W.C. Jr.; Gunn, R.D. [Gunn Oil Co., Wichita Falls, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

170

Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River.  

PubMed

The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river near Grafton, IL. This study was conducted to determine current levels of metal contamination in water, sediment, soil, and plants in the habitat, as well as to reveal temporal and spatial variations of metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider. Aluminum, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Sn, and Zn were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. High concentrations of metals were observed in lake sediment, compared with the concentrations in water, soil, and plant tissues. Sediment Ni concentrations (mg kg(-1)) varied from 66 to 95 and Sn from 1100 to 1600. Five detectable metals in egg content were Zn (24.2 +/- 13), Al (2.2 +/- 1.2), Sn (1.8 +/- 1.1), Mn (1.1 +/- 0.6), and Cu (0.9 +/- 0.5); nine detectable metals in egg shell were Zn (6.8 +/- 3.9), Sn (3.7 +/- 3.1), Cu (1.9 +/- 1.3), Cr (1.6 +/- 1.5), V (1.6 +/- 1.4), Pb (1.3 +/- 0.7), Ni (1.3 +/- 0.9), Mn (1.0 +/- 0.8), and Cd (0.16 +/- 0.11). Zinc accumulation in egg content was significantly correlated with Zn in egg shell (r = 0.445, P < 0.002, n = 42). While significant spatial variation was observed in egg shell, metal accumulation in eggs (content and shell) collected from the same ground of turtles consecutively for 4 years did not show a significant temporal change. PMID:16216308

Tryfonas, Anna E; Tucker, John K; Brunkow, Paul E; Johnson, Kevin A; Hussein, Hussein S; Lin, Zhi-Qing

2006-03-01

171

Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010) and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr-1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr-1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide). The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

Vu, D. V.; Ouillon, S.; Tran, D. T.; La, V. C.

2014-01-01

172

Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

2012-12-01

173

Faults of Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map displays faults for five regions in Southern California. Clicking on a region links to an enlarged relief map of the area, with local faults highlighted in colors. Users can click on individual faults to access pages with more detailed information, such as type, length, nearest communities, and a written description. In all of the maps, the segment of the San Andreas fault that is visible is highlighted in red, and scales for distances and elevations are provided. There is also a link to an alphabetical listing of faults by name.

174

Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that permitted red cedar invasion of the riparian habitat and that the type of depositional environment partially determines where along the riparian landscape red cedar invades.

Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

2014-01-01

175

Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary\\/secondary productions and nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy

Lydie Herfort; Tawnya D. Peterson; Fredrick G. Prahl; Lee Ann McCue; Joe A. Needoba; Byron C. Crump; G. Curtis Roegner; Victoria Campbell; Peter A. Zuber

2012-01-01

176

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in

Christine A. Bishop; Margie D. Koster; Andrew A. Chek; David J. T. Hussell; Ken Jock

1995-01-01

177

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY SURVEYS WITHIN THE RED RIVER-DEVILS LAKE BASIN-GRIGGS AND NELSON COUNTIES. EPA-REGIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilize funding from the Regional Geographic Initiative Program to conduct a survey of ecological communities within the Red River-Devils Lake Basins. The study will be targeting Griggs and Nelson Counties to identify significant natural communities and to collect and interpret n...

178

Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD  

SciTech Connect

This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

1998-07-01

179

Pervasive post-Eocene faulting and folding in unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi River, Central U.S. as imaged by high-resolution CHIRP seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite being located in the stable continental interior of the North American plate, in 1811-1812 the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) experienced among the largest magnitude historical earthquakes that ever occurred in the U.S. Paleoseismological evidence shows that large earthquakes have been occurring every 500 yr in the region for the past few thousand years, and historical and instrumental seismicity demonstrate that the NMSZ fault system is actively deforming today. By contrast, motion rates emerging from almost twenty years of geodetic observations substantiate a very slow rate of deformation across the NMSZ faults, suggesting that present velocities are not representative of the long-term deformation rate of the NMSZ fault system, and that deformation has likely been accommodated along structures additional to the NMSZ. In the summer of 2010, a high-resolution marine seismic reflection survey was carried out along the Mississippi River as part of a multi-year cooperative effort to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation in the Mississippi Embayment. Coincident to the seismic reflection profile, the survey also acquired ~300 km of CHIRP (Edgetech SB-512i) data from Cape Girardeau, MO to Caruthersville, MO. The CHIRP used a 0.7-1.2 kHz source pulse and recorded to a depth of 5-50 m sub-bottom. Here we present the preliminary interpretation of part of the CHIRP profile along the Mississippi River north of Hickman, KY, where the survey imaged a highly reflective sedimentary package down to a depth of ~50 m. The sedimentary sequence is about 20 m thick and appears to be bounded at the top and at the bottom by angular unconformities. The package is mildly folded and pervasively faulted, in some cases by extensional faults that exhibit up to 2 m of displacement and that reach the riverbed. Based on exposure of Eocene deposits 7 km to the east of the study area, and on the correlation of electric and gamma logs of nearby oil, gas and water wells, projected from 12 km to the west and which penetrated the Eocene units at a depth of 67 m, we determined that the reflective package corresponds to one of the elements of the Jackson Fm, (i.e. the top of the Eocene and of the Tertiary sequences), sealed at the top by the basal unconformity of the Mississippi River Quaternary alluvium and at the bottom by the Claiborne Group deposits. ¬

Fave, X. J.; Magnani, M.; Waldron, B. A.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S.; Guo, L.

2010-12-01

180

Adsorption and desorption of arsenic to aquifer sediment on the Red River floodplain at Nam Du, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of arsenic onto aquifer sediment from the Red River floodplain, Vietnam, was determined in a series of batch experiments. Due to water supply pumping, river water infiltrates into the aquifer at the field site and has leached the uppermost aquifer sediments. The leached sediments remain anoxic but contain little reactive arsenic and iron, and are used in our experiments. The adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out by addition or removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase in sediment suspensions under strictly anoxic conditions. Also the effects of HCO3, Fe(II), PO4 and Si on arsenic adsorption were explored. The results show much stronger adsorption of As(V) as compared to As(III), full reversibility for As(III) adsorption and less so for As(V). The presence or absence of HCO3 did not influence arsenic adsorption. Fe(II) enhanced As(V) sorption but did not influence the adsorption of As(III) in any way. During simultaneous adsorption of As(III) and Fe(II), As(III) was found to be fully desorbable while Fe(II) was completely irreversibly adsorbed and clearly the two sorption processes are uncoupled. Phosphate was the only solute that significantly could displace As(III) from the sediment surface. Compiling literature data on arsenic adsorption to aquifer sediment in Vietnam and Bangladesh revealed As(III) isotherms to be almost identical regardless of the nature of the sediment or the site of sampling. In contrast, there was a large variation in As(V) adsorption isotherms between studies. A tentative conclusion is that As(III) and As(V) are not adsorbing onto the same sediment surface sites. The adsorption behavior of arsenic onto aquifer sediments and synthetic Fe-oxides is compared. Particularly, the much stronger adsorption of As(V) than of As(III) onto Red River as well as on most Bangladesh aquifer sediments, indicates that the perception that arsenic, phosphate and other species compete for the same surface sites of iron oxides in sediments with properties similar to those of, for example a synthetic goethite, probably is not correct. A simple two-component Langmuir adsorption model was constructed to quantitatively describe the reactive transport of As(III) and PO4 in the aquifer.

Thi Hoa Mai, Nguyen; Postma, Dieke; Thi Kim Trang, Pham; Jessen, Søren; Hung Viet, Pham; Larsen, Flemming

2014-10-01

181

Discussion of tectonic models for Cenozoic strike-slip fault-affected continental margins of mainland SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the roles of Cenozoic strike-slip faults in SE Asia observed in outcrop onshore, with their offshore continuation has produced a variety of structural models (particularly pull-apart vs. oblique extension, escape tectonics vs. slab-pull-driven extension) to explain their relationships to sedimentary basins. Key problems with interpreting the offshore significance of major strike-slip faults are: (1) reconciling conflicting palaeomagnetic data, (2) discriminating extensional, and oblique-extensional fault geometries from strike-slip geometries on 2D seismic reflection data, and (3) estimating strike-slip displacements from seismic reflection data. Focus on basic strike-slip fault geometries such as restraining vs. releasing bends, and strongly splaying geometries approach the gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin, suggest major strike-slip faults probably do not extend far offshore Splays covering areas 10,000's km2 in extent are characteristic of the southern portions of the Sagaing, Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Ailao Shan-Red River faults, and are indicative of major faults dying out. The areas of the fault tips associated with faults of potentially 100 km+ displacement, scale appropriately with global examples of strike-slip faults on log-log displacement vs. tip area plots. The fault geometries in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin are inappropriate for a sinistral pull-apart geometry, and instead the southern fault strands of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault are interpreted to die out within the NW part of the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin. Hence the fault zone does not transfer displacement onto the South China Seas spreading centre. The strike-slip faults are replaced by more extensional, oblique-extensional fault systems offshore to the south. The Sagaing Fault is also superimposed on an older Paleogene-Early Miocene oblique-extensional rift system. The Sagaing Fault geometry is complex, and one branch of the offshore fault zone transfers displacement onto the Pliocene-Recent Andaman spreading centre, and links with the West Andaman and related faults to form a very large pull-apart basin.

Morley, C. K.

2013-10-01

182

Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

Galloway, Joel M.

2014-01-01

183

Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

184

An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) conducted by personnel from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) and the Duke Marine Laboratory at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, from September 29, 2000 through September 28, 2002. This period represents the first two years of a five-year Cooperative Agreement between Virginia Tech and the USDA Forest Service, Savannah River. This report serves as an Interim Project Report with respect to the Cooperative Agreement (No. OO-CA-ll 083600-010), and a Final Project Report for the initial award to Virginia Tech (FRS No.428911).

Walters, J., R.; Taylor, T., B.; Daniels, S., J.

2003-05-29

185

The climate and tectonic implications of Late quaternary fluvial fans and river terraces along northern piedmont fault of Wutai Mountain, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern piedmont fault of Wutai Mountain consists of the northern margin of Fandai basin, the northeasternmost basin of Shan Xi graben system. Three rapid sedimentation periods were discovered along it, which composed of river terraces and fluvial fans (T2, F2; T1, F1, and F0). The radiocarbon dating results (n=17) show that the oldest one occurred 30 ka BP, the second one finished 6 ka ago, and the youngest one lasted from 1.5 ka BP to 0.2kaBP. By comparing with the climate records in loess in northern China, ice-cores along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, etc, we found all three sedimentation processes happened when the climate changed from a relatively wet and warm climate to a cold and dry one, notably, the temperature fluctuated drastically at 30ka. The tectonic activities were thriving simultaneously, The trench excavation revealed the paleo-eathquakes clustered in the past 6ka, denser than that of 20ka.The average slip-rate in the past 6 ka was twice (2.3 mm/yr, 13 m in 6 ka) as large as that at 30 ka (0.9-1.2 mm/yr, 27-36m in 30 ka), satellite image deciphering and field investigation show that there were handful moderate knickpoints (0.7-1.0m) along the river profiles at the end of lower terraces (T1, T2). The intensive tectonic movement would have triggered river incision, rather than aggradations visible as river terraces in the mountain range and fluvial fans at the outlets; however, tectonic movement affected the fan's emplacement, surface gradient and sediments source upstream locally. We conclude that the climate cycles controlled the aggradational periods in the past 30 ka, the intense climate change created surplus sediments for the river, most of them deposited as fans near the outlets because of less precipitation; the tectonic activities affected the fan emplacement and geology structure, making it a premise for fan deposition, the climate controlled sedimentation process could have triggered isostasy effects: the fault activities arose as a response of rapid sedimentation periods in a typical graben system.

Gong, Z.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Ding, R.

2012-12-01

186

Photovoice in the Red River Basin of the north: a systematic evaluation of a community-academic partnership.  

PubMed

A community-academic partnership was formed in Minnesota's Red River Basin for a 1-year planning grant preceding a larger intervention to reduce pesticide exposure among children. Photovoice, developed by Dr. Caroline Wang, was used by mothers to document pathways to pesticide exposure for their children along with other health and safety concerns. An evaluation of the partnership was conducted for mothers, and for the research team of local stakeholders and academics. Surveys consisting of structured and open-ended questions elicited information on the perception of the process and short-term outcomes. Questions were created based on objectives of the Photovoice project, satisfaction, and principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). A high percentage of study participants and researchers indicated that the objectives of the effort had been met, the principles of CBPR had been realized and they were satisfied with the benefits of participation. A need for more thorough planning was identified related to long-term dissemination of knowledge generated. The evaluation provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of the project, demonstrates to team members and funders that formative and summative outcomes were met, and serves as a model for community-academic partnerships utilizing Photovoice as one CBPR method. PMID:22102604

Stedman-Smith, Maggie; McGovern, Patricia M; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J; Kingery, Linda R; Draeger, Kathryn J

2012-09-01

187

Generation of calcrete with chalky porosity in upper Ordovician Red River Grainstone Reservoirs, Cedar Creek anticline, Southwestern Williston basin  

SciTech Connect

Red River dolomites produce from subtidal burrowed grainstones and algal-laminated shallow subtidal to intertidal grainstones. As the result of a detailed reservoir study on the Cedar Creek anticline, chalky porosity was recognized to originate from weathering of grainstones. Three shoaling-upward sedimentary cycles each ended with subaerial exposure. Weathering features are concentrated immediately below disconformity surfaces and decrease downward. These features include: manganese dioxide dendrites, degrading neomorphism of carbonate crystals, extensive micrite cement precipitation, chalky weathered nodules, recrystallization and leaching along vertical microfractures, organic-rich calcrete soil horizons with calcrete floatstone breccias, and secondary chalky porosity that cuts across depositional features. Weathering features were superimposed on grainstones after incomplete vadose cementation and leaching but prior to dolomite replacement. Locally, at least one post-dolomite weathering episode also occurred. Extensive weathering of grainstones resulted in development of white chalky beds of calcrete 1-3 ft thick, which are highly porous but impermeable; these are interbedded within the saccharoidal reservoir and are recognizable on wireline logs.

Dobrowski, A.

1988-01-01

188

Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

2001-01-01

189

Synsedimentary Deformation in Laminated Dolostones and Evaporites of the Herald Formation (Red River): Signature of Late Ordovician Tectonic Activity in Southern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red River strata in the Williston Basin consist of a succession of large-scale carbonate-evaporite cycles whereby open-marine carbonates pass in turn into laminated dolomudstone and thence into subaqueous anhydrite. In southeastern Saskatchewan, the Yeoman Formation and the Lake Alma and Coronach members of the Herald Formation comprise two such cycles. Although possessing an overall 'layer-cake' stratigraphy, Lake Alma and Coronach

Hussam El Taki

190

Yield gaps and nutrient balances in intensive, rice-based cropping systems on degraded soils in the Red River Delta of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alerted by reports about stagnating or even declining yields in intensive, irrigated rice-based systems, we analyzed productivity trends and P and K balances in a continuous cropping experiment on a degraded Acrisol of the Red River Delta in Vietnam. The trial, established in early 1998 and continued to 2003, included three cropping systems (rice–soybean–rice, soybean–rice–maize, and rice–rice–maize) and seven combinations

F. Mussgnug; M. Becker; T. T. Son; R. J. Buresh; P. L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

191

FINAL REPORT FOR FULBRIGHT COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES RESEARCH INNOVATION GRANT: FLOOD DYNAMICS ON THE RED RIVER OF THE NORTH, USA-CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this trip, Boss and Gosnold deployed the Knudsen Engineering, Ltd. KEL 320 B\\/P Dual Frequency Echo Sounding System from an experimental hovercraft and R\\/V Ozark Traveler in an attempt to determine the utility of this system for sub-bottom imaging of oxbow lakes and wetland areas marginal to the Red River of the North. Results of these experiments were favorable,

Stephen K. Boss

192

Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles  

SciTech Connect

The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

2012-02-29

193

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

Bishop, C.A. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Koster, M.D. [Springborn Labs. (Europe) AG, Seestrasse (Switzerland); Chek, A.A. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Hussell, D.J.T. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, Ontario (Canada); Jock, K. [St. Regis Mohawk Health Service, Hogansburg, NY (United States)

1995-03-01

194

Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas. PMID:12462491

Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

2002-09-01

195

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

196

Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 {mu}g/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2009-04-15

197

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle ({lt}1{degree}) northeast regional dip allows oil entrapment in both areas of updip porosity pinch-out and small ({lt}2 km diameter), low-relief ({lt}30 m) structural closures. Reservoir rocks in both types of traps are burrowed dolomitized carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in open to restricted shelf environments. The best reservoir rocks occur where up to 25% porosity is present between completely dolomitized burrow fills. Reservoir-quality porosity is mainly intercrystalline and vuggy in finely crystalline dolomites, but even in the most porous intervals, permeability only locally exceeds 30 md. Amounts of porosity in wells producing from the 'D' zone can be used to estimate a well's ultimate oil recovery when integrated with data on structural position, thickness of porous dolomite, and the nature of the fluid saturation (best indicated by bulk volume water values). Production in the structurally trapped 'D' zone oil pools in each field, where initial water saturation was 22%, will average about 625 thousand bbl of oil/well with initially negligible water, but with increasing watercut through time. The stratigraphically trapped oil pools in the fields, where initial water saturations ranged from 32 to 66%, will average 237 thousand bbl of oil/well with higher initial watercuts, but little increase in watercut through time.

Longman, M.W. (Consulting Geologist, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Fertal, T.G. (Samuel Gary, Jr. and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stell, J.R. (Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1992-04-01

198

Impact of the Red River catastrophic flood on women giving birth in North Dakota, 1994-2000.  

PubMed

To document changes in birth rates, birth outcomes, and pregnancy risk factors among women giving birth after the 1997 Red River flood in North Dakota. We analyzed detailed county-level birth files pre-disaster (1994-1996) and post-disaster (1997-2000) in North Dakota. Crude birth rates and adjusted fertility rates were calculated. The demographic and pregnancy risk factors were described among women delivering singleton births. Logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between the disaster and low birth weight (<2,500 g), preterm birth (<37 weeks), and small for gestational age infants adjusting for confounders. The crude birth rate and direct-adjusted fertility rate decreased significantly after the disaster in North Dakota. The proportion of women giving birth who were older, non-white, unmarried, and had a higher education increased. Compared to pre-disaster, there were significant increases in the following maternal measures after the disaster: any medical risks (5.1-7.1%), anemia (0.7-1.1%), acute or chronic lung disease (0.4-0.5%), eclampsia (0.3-2.1%), and uterine bleeding (0.3-0.4%). In addition, there was a significant increase in births that were low birth weight (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.21) and preterm (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) after adjusting for maternal characteristics and smoking. Following the flood, there was an increase in medical risks, low birth weight, and preterm delivery among women giving birth in North Dakota. Further research that examines birth outcomes of women following a catastrophic disaster is warranted. PMID:20204482

Tong, Van T; Zotti, Marianne E; Hsia, Jason

2011-04-01

199

Study on finite strain and its relationship with magnetic fabric along Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite strain along Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone has been studied. The axial ratios of strain markers and shear strains vary greatly, arising principally from deformation intensity and from contrasting competencies. Ellipticity of chloritic amygdales in basalt ranges from 6.79 to 10.47 (corresponding shear strain ?xz = 2.22-2.93), and ellipticity of garnets from 1.56 to 2.95 (?xz = 0.45-1.14) in core gneiss. The S-C angle of the sheared rocks varies from 2° to 28° (?sc = 1.35-28.60), mostly in a range 2° to 7°. Optical observation, thermal demagnetization, and hysteresis curves were conducted to determine the nature of minerals and the contribution of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals to magnetic susceptibility. The result shows that ferromagnetic minerals and hornblende dominate the magnetic fabric of samples with high to very high susceptibility, and play an important role in the magnetic fabric of samples with low to intermediate susceptibility. The ferromagnetic minerals are mainly pseudo-single-domain and multidomain Ti-poor magnetite. Most samples have their magnetic lineation lying between the C and S surfaces. In the remaining samples, deviations from this common alignment principally resulted from the magnetic minerals being deflected by porphyroclasts, mineral cleavage, and cracks. The axial ratio correlation is very poor between the magnetic and actual or imaginary strain ellipsoid calculated from the S-C fabric. This poor correlation suggests that the shape of the finite strain ellipsoid cannot be evaluated using the magnetic fabric when the latter is a combined result from multiple minerals, and especially when the shape effect of multidomain titanomagnetite is important.

Zhou, Yong; Wu, Shimin; Qiu, Xuelin; Zhou, Ping

2003-10-01

200

Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.j [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2010-02-01

201

A Statistical Analysis of Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective System Mountain Initiation Location Clusters in the Arkansas-Red River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) are the focus of this analysis since it is the convective weather category which is smallest in number but produces the highest amount of precipitation. Being able to forecast these MCSs will make it easier to anticipate flooding events that can occur with these systems. The multi-sensor precipitation data, a combination of satellite, radar, and rain gage data, was used in Tucker and Li (2009). The MCSs initiating west of 104° W in the warm season (April-September) in the years 1996 to 2006 in the Arkansas-Red River Basin were used in this analysis. A cluster analysis was run on this data to group the MCSs to preferred locations. It has been shown that convective weather has preferred locations within the Rocky Mountain chain (Tucker and Crook 2005). The clusters containing 20 or more members are used in this analysis. Data for the surface and upper air variables was gathered from Iowa State's online database (Iowa State 2011) and data for the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data was gathered NOMADS (National Climatic Data Center 2011). Once observations for all the variables were gathered for each MCS cluster, Multiple Linear Regressions (MLRs) and Principal Component Analyses (PCAs) were determined for the six hours prior through the three hours after initiation. The analysis of these model runs could help determine the characteristics needed for MCS mountain initiation within the cluster domain. The results from these analyses can be used to anticipate MCS mountain initiation if the conditions are known.

Callen, Elisabeth F.

202

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Idaho PTV

2011-09-04

203

Water Well Record Studies of Geologic History in Indiana Including Examples of Geomorphology of Buried River Valleys, Geomorphic Expression of Earthquake Faults, and Deep Groundwater Flow Paths.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources water well record data base is used to produce maps exploring aspects of the geologic history of the state with a emphasis on East Central Indiana. This study includes the geomorphology of buried preglacial valleys, the geomorphic expression of possible fairly recent fault lines in East Central Indiana, and suggestion for the deep groundwater circulation paths. An excellent region to study geology and groundwater configuration the Midwest is East Central Indiana as there is are almost equal numbers of glacial and bedrock wells ranging over 300 feet depth. There is over 600 feet of relief on the bedrock surface with deep glacial drift in two distinctly different buried valleys, and two distinctly different till plains. The focus of this work uses over 33000 UTM located water well records from a 17250 km2, 13 county area. Over several years we have studied details of bedrock topography, bedrock and glacial geology and groundwater productivity, horizontal and vertical flow using static water level information, buried preglacial cavern systems, and applications to groundwater modeling. In the southern more maturely developed Anderson River valley there are larger numbers of deep glacial wells in many tributaries while in the north deep wells are restricted to just the deep course of the Teays River valley with less glacial productivity in the shorter less mature tributaries. To the north there many indications of a paleokarst history with sinkhole entrances on the plateaus above the Teays and outlet into the Teays tributaries. Details of the buried bedrock surface show a linear N28E trend parallel to several bedrock faults and also to recent stream valleys. Other studies by the author have shown the dominant Paleozoic bedrock fracture directions in this area to be N78E and N12W. Therefore the N28E trend is distinctly different and can be related to trends seen in active earthquake areas in northwest Ohio and southwest Indiana. The possibility of late Cenozoic seismicity related to other activity in the Midwest will be summarized. Maps comparing static water levels in shallow versus deep wells show areas of vertical downward or upward gradient which indicate three dimensional flow directions. The major deep groundwater recharge from the till plains moves to areas of upward gradient in the Wabash and Whitewater River valleys rather than other vallies on the till plains. The interpreted paths allow for discussion of ground water travel times.

Samuelson, A. C.

2007-12-01

204

Data mining of external and internal forcing of fluvial systems for catchment management: A case study on the Red River (Song Hong), Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since interactions of natural and anthropogenic forces within the catchment drives fluvial geomorphic processes, which shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. The characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location and time specific and highly resource demanding. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales and the assessment of spatio-temporal changes as reaction to internal and external disturbances is rarely feasible at present. Information ranging from recently available high-resolution remote-sensing data (such as DEM), historic data such as land use maps or aerial photographs and monitoring networks of flow and rainfall, open up novel and promising capacity for basin-wide understanding of dominant hydromorphological drivers. Analysing the resulting multiparametric data sets in their temporal and spatial dimensions requires sophisticated data mining tools to exploit the potential of this information. We propose a novel framework that allows for the quantitative assessment of multiparametric data sets to identify classes of channel reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers using remote-sensing data and monitoring networks available in the catchment. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Song Hong) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 sq.km) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to recent construction of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high development rate, current efforts to increase water productivity and minimize impacts on the fluvial systems by means of focused infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of the fluvial system and, in particular, basin-wide assessment of resilience to human-induced change. . The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale while integrating recent and historic point records for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model in combination with fuzzy clustering. The above framework is able to identify non-trivial correlations in driving forces and to derive a fuzzy classification at reach scale which represents continuities and discontinuities in the river systems. The use of the above framework allowed analyzing the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, revealing patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing a classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers, fluvial processes and response to external forcing. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale integrating historical and recent available high resolution data. The framework aims at opening the way to a more structured organization and analyses of recently available information on river geomorphic features, so far often missing or rarely exploited. This approach poses the basis to produce efficient databases of river geomorphic features and processes related to natural and anthropogenic drivers. That is a necessity in order to enhance our understanding of the internal and external forces which drive fluvial systems, to assess the resilience and dynamic of river landscapes and to develop the more efficient river management strategies of the future.

Schmitt, Rafael; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

2013-04-01

205

Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both the seasonal and annual variability removed are called standardized concentrations. Numerous changes that could not be attributed to natural streamflow-related variability occurred in the standardized concentrations during the trend-analysis period. During various times from the late 1970's to the mid-1990's, significant increases occurred in standardized dissolved sulfate, dissolved chloride, and dissolved- solids concentrations for eight of the nine stations for which water-quality trends were analyzed. Significant increases also occurred from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's for standardized dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations for the main-stem stations. The increasing concentrations for the main-stem stations indicate the upward trends may have been caused by human activities along the main stem of the Red River. Significant trends for standardized total ammonia plus organic nitrogen concentrations occurred for most stations. The fitted trends for standardized total phosphorus concentrations for one tributary station increased from the late 1970's to the early 1980's and decreased from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's. Small but insignificant increases occurred for two main-stem stations. No trends were detected for standardized dissolved iron or dissolved manganese concentrations. However, the combination of extreme high-frequency variability, few data, and the number of censored values may have disguised the streamflow-related variability for iron. The time-series model used to detect historical concentration trends also was used to evaluate sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. Various sampling designs were evaluated with regard to their sensitivity to detect both annual and seasonal trends during three 4-month seasons. A reasonable overall design for detecting trends for all stations and constituents consisted of eight samples per year, with monthly sampling from April to August and bimonthly sampling from Oct

Vecchia, Aldo V.

2005-01-01

206

Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured and wild-caught freshwater fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Phan, Van Thi; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

2010-11-01

207

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

208

Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

209

Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and smectite increasing toward to the fault, whereas illite decreases. These trends are likely the result of CO2-related diagenesis, and similar trends are also observed in sandstone units at the site. Fracture mechanics testing of unaltered and CO2-altered sandstone and siltstone samples shows that CO2-related diagenesis, which is indicated by bleaching of the Entrada Fm, has significantly decreased the fracture resistance. The subcritical fracture index is similarly affected by alteration. These compositional and mechanical changes are expected to affect the extent, geometry, and flow properties of fracture networks in CO2 sequestration systems, and thus may significantly affect reservoir and seal performance in CO2 reservoirs. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

2012-12-01

210

Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

Wesolowski, E.A.

1994-01-01

211

Faulted Barn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This barn is faulted through the middle; the moletrack is seen in the foreground with the viewer standing on the fault. From the air one can see metal roof panels of the barn that rotated as the barn was faulted....

212

Fault Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gestures to explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed.

Carol Ormand

213

Can we follow the neotectonic activity of the Hluboká-fault by reconstructing the evolution of the Vltava river course? - Mapping of fluvial terraces around the Budejovice-basin using historic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bud?jovice Basin in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) is a fault-bounded sedimentary basin with a multiple subsidence history overlying Variscan crystalline basement. Permian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments record repeated reactivations of faults at or close to the basin margin, which may have continued into the Quaternary. The latter is indicated by geomorphological features such as linear topographic scarps, which characterize part of the faults within and at the border of the Bud?jovice Basin. In a current study we assess possible Quaternary displacements along the faults delimiting the basin using geomorphological data, analyses of river planform patterns and correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River, which crosses the basin and its boundary faults. The regionally most important tectonic feature - the Hluboká fault -forms the northeastern margin of the Bud?jovice basin. The fault crosses the course of the river Vltava, a fact that guided our research to take a more precise look at the character and distribution of fluvial sediments in this area. Our main focus is on dating of terrace bodies around the Hluboká fault. According to the scheme used in most European regions, influences by the Pleistocene glacial cycles, the Vltava river terraces were assigned by most scientists to the 4(5) main alpine glacial periods. This dating is not straightforward as terraces are not connected to moraine bodies like in the Alps. The terraces were basically correlated by their altitude above the river and by their lithology (clastic content and grain size composition), but mostly without any numerical age determination. Our studies include several field and laboratory methods, supported by computer analyses of various types of spatial data. Data sources include: (i) modern topographic maps, (ii) geological maps, (iii) georeferenced historic map sheets of the Austrian Second Military Survey (provided by the Geoinformatics Laboratory of the University J. E. Purkyn?, 2005). The georeferenced map sheets of the Second Military Survey provide a very exact base map (Timár et al., 2006) for investigating the location of possible terrace bases. Since the georeferencing accuracy is < 10 m, data from these map sheets can be integrated into the geomorphologic studies providing information about the geomorphologic situation in the study area of the years 1836-1842, i.e., with less anthropogenic impact on geomorphological features than today. These data sources are combined with data from boreholes and thus help us identifying potential terrace bodies and choosing appropriate investigation sites. In the field, morphological, sedimentological and pedological methods are used to obtain relevant data about the sediment stratigraphy. Several laboratory analyses were carried out to gain information on the age of the terraces. We use OSL-dating in combination with the analysis of heavy minerals and clay minerals, as well as grain size analysis. After gathering information about the absolute ages of the terrace bodies upstream and downstream the Hluboká fault, we may be able to declare if the building of terrace staircases was influenced by tectonic activity of the fault or not. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

Homolova, Dana; Lomax, Johanna; Prachar, Ivan; Spacek, Petr; Zamolyi, Andras; Decker, Kurt

2010-05-01

214

Water-Quality Data for Water- and Wastewater-Treatment Plants Along the Red River of the North, North Dakota and Minnesota, January through October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From January through October 2006, six sets of water-quality samples were collected at 28 sites, which included inflow and outflow from seven major municipal water-treatment plants (14 sites) and influent and effluent samples from seven major municipal wastewater treatment plants (14 sites) along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota. Samples were collected in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the development of return-flow boundary conditions in a 2006 water-quality model for the Red River of the North. All samples were analyzed for nutrients and major ions. For one set of effluent samples from each of the wastewater-treatment plants, water was analyzed for Eschirichia coli, fecal coliform, 20-day biochemical oxygen demand, 20-day nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. In general, results from the field equipment blank and replicate samples indicate that the overall process of sample collection, processing, and analysis did not introduce substantial contamination and that consistent results were obtained.

Damschen, William C.; Hansel, John A.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

215

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2007-01-01

216

Extent and effect of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on reservoir and seal rocks and implications for geomechanical failure at Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural diagenesis approach involving the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks is necessary for assessing the short and long term security of sequestered CO2. Current numerical models used to model subsurface CO2 reservoirs do not account for such processes, and typically these use only linear-elastic geomechanical properties, ignoring failure parameters such as fracture toughness. In addition, numerical models normally lack constraints on long-term, geologic time scales. Study of fossil and active CO2 seeps found at Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah are invaluable to assess long-term storage and leakage behavior in natural systems. Observations from the site and geomechanical testing also indicate that fracture systems play a crucial role in leakage, and the extent of fracturing and CO2-related alteration extends from tens to over one-hundred meters. Failure parameters of reservoir and seal rocks under variable environmental conditions, such as fracture toughness should also be quantified as they likely play a role in fracturing and leakage. Subcritical fracture growth may also be involved. Transects across the Little Grand Wash fault show distinct mineralogical and isotopic trends related to alteration by CO2-rich fluids. Calcite is the dominant precipitated mineral, both in reservoir (sandstone) and seal (siltstone & mudrock) lithologies. Precipitated calcite is isotopically distinct and observed in bulk rock isotopic trends. Fracture toughness testing using the short rod method indicates that CO2-related alteration of rocks exposed at the field site has weakened one reservoir lithology by half (0.57 versus 0.27 MPa?m). A full suite of lithologies are being tested and compared with the double torsion test method under ambient air conditions. These same samples are also being tested in environmental conditions more like those encountered in a CO2 sequestration scenario. These data can and should be integrated into more sophisticated numerical models in order to assess their impact on the overall risk analysis of CO2 injection sites and provide more geologically realistic and accurate results.

Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Dewers, T. A.

2013-12-01

217

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Rich Pavlovsky

218

Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

Emerson, Douglas G.

2005-01-01

219

Climatic versus tectonic control on river incision at the margin of NE Tibet: 10Be exposure dating of river terraces at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document late Pleistocene–Holocene aggradation and incision processes at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan, an active intracontinental fold-and-thrust belt accommodating a significant portion of the India-Asia convergence. The Shiyou River cuts through a NNE vergent fault propagation fold with Miocene red beds in the core and Pliocene–Quaternary growth strata on the northern forelimb. South of the anticline, Miocene

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Manfred R. Strecker

2006-01-01

220

Climatic versus tectonic control on river incision at the margin of NE Tibet: 10Be exposure dating of river terraces at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document late Pleistocene-Holocene aggradation and incision processes at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan, an active intracontinental fold-and-thrust belt accommodating a significant portion of the India-Asia convergence. The Shiyou River cuts through a NNE vergent fault propagation fold with Miocene red beds in the core and Pliocene-Quaternary growth strata on the northern forelimb. South of the anticline, Miocene

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Manfred R. Strecker

2006-01-01

221

Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium with bromopyrogallol red and a quaternary ammonium salt: Determination of aluminium in river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the presence ofn-tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide aluminium reacts with Bromopyrogallol Red (BPR) to form a ternary complex, in which the molar ratio of aluminium ot BPR is 1:2. The method is suitable for the determination of traces of aluminium in natural waters. The ternary complex has an absorbance maximum at 623 mm with molar absorptivity 5.05×104 l · mole-1 ·

Czes?aw Wyganowski; Shoji Motomizu; Kyoji Tôei

1983-01-01

222

Improvement of high floods predictability in the Red River of the North basin using combined remote-sensed, gauge-based and assimilated precipitation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River of the North basin (USA) is considered to be under high risk of flood danger, having experienced serious flooding during the last few years. The region climate can be characterized as cold and, during winter, it exhibits continuous snowcover modified by wind redistribution. High-hazard runoff regularly occurs as a major spring snowmelt event resulting from the relatively rapid release of water from the snowpack on frozen soils. Although in summer/autumn most rainfall occurs from convective storms over small areas and does not generate dangerous floods, the pre-winter state of the soils may radically influence spring maximum flows. Large amount of artificial agricultural tiles and numerous small post-glacial depressions influencing the redistribution of runoff complicates the predictions of high floods. In such conditions any hydrological model would not be successful without proper precipitation input. In this study the simulation of runoff processes for two watersheds in the basin of the Red River of the North, USA, was undertaken using the Hydrograph model developed at the State Hydrological Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). The Hydrograph is a robust process-based model, where the processes have a physical basis combined with some strategic conceptual simplifications that give it the ability to be applied in the conditions of low information availability. It accounts for the processes of frost and thaw of soils, snow redistribution and depression storage impacts. The assessment of the model parameters was conducted based on the characteristics of soil and vegetation cover. While performing the model runs, the parameters of depression storage and the parameters of different types of flow were manually calibrated to reproduce the observed flow. The model provided satisfactory simulation results in terms not only of river runoff but also variable sates of soil like moisture and temperature over a simulation period 2005 - 2010. For experimental runs precipitation from different sources was used as forcing data to the hydrological model: 1) data of ground meteorological stations; 2) the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products containing several variables: snow water equivalent, snow depth, solid and liquid precipitation; 3) MAPX precipitation data which is mean areal precipitation for a watershed calculated using the radar- and gauge-based information. The results demonstrated that in the conditions of high uncertainty of model parameters combining precipitation information from different sources (the SNODAS precipitation in winter with the MAPX precipitation in summer) significantly improves the model performance and predictability of high floods.

Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

2011-12-01

223

Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2009-04-01

224

Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary  

SciTech Connect

For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

2011-01-04

225

Fault finder  

DOEpatents

A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

Bunch, Richard H. (1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665)

1986-01-01

226

Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer along the Red River, Vietnam. The SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite yielded very different results. The ferrihydrite SCM favors As(III) over As(V) and has carbonate and silica species as the main competitors for surface sites. In contrast, the goethite SCM has a greater affinity for As(V) over As(III) while PO43- and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment, suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed. The concentrations of As (<0.013 ?M) and major ions in the channel water are low compared to those in the pristine groundwater in the adjacent bank aquifer, which had an As concentration of ˜3 ?M. Calculations for conservative mixing of channel and groundwater could explain the observed variation in concentration for most elements. However, the mixed waters did contain an excess of As(III), PO43- and Si which is attributed to desorption from the aquifer sediment. The three SCMs were tested on their ability to model the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si. Qualitatively, the ferrihydrite SCM correctly predicts desorption for As(III) but for Si and PO43- it predicts an increased adsorption instead of desorption. The goethite SCM correctly predicts desorption of both As(III) and PO43- but failed in the prediction of Si desorption. These results indicate that the prediction of As mobility, by using SCMs for synthetic Fe-oxides, will be strongly dependent on the model chosen. The SCM based on the Pleistocene aquifer sediment predicts the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si quite superiorly, as compared to the SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite, even though Si desorption is still somewhat under-predicted. The observation that a SCM calibrated on a different sediment can predict our field results so well suggests that sediment based SCMs may be a feasible way to model multi-component adsorption in aquifers.

Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Nhan, Pham Quy; Hoa, Le Quynh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

2012-12-01

227

Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

2014-07-01

228

Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: implications for the management of environmental flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

2015-01-01

229

Tectonics and Landforms: Types of Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers animations depicting the defining motions of five different types of faults. Also included is a data visualization showing the geographic patterns of faults and earthquakes, and a documentary video which discusses a series of great earthquakes that occurred between 1811 - 1812 and includes an animation of how the Mississippi River Valley was created.

Michael Ritter

230

Complementing data-driven and physically-based approaches for predictive morphologic modeling: Results and implication from the Red River Basin, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 30 years, the delta of the Red River (Song Hong) in northern Vietnam experienced grave morphologic degradation processes which severely impact economic activities and endanger region-wide livelihoods. Rapidly progressing river bed incision, for example, threatens the irrigation of the delta's paddy rice crops which constitute 20% of Vietnam's annual rice production. Morphologic alteration is related to a drastically changed sediment balance due to major upstream impoundments, sediment mining and land use changes, further aggravated by changing hydro-meteorological conditions. Despite the severe impacts, river morphology was so far not included into the current efforts to optimize basin wide water resource planning for a lack of suitable, not overly resource demanding modeling strategies. This paper assesses the suitability of data-driven models to provide insights into complex hydromorphologic processes and to complement and enrich physically-based modeling strategies. Hence, to identify key drivers of morphological change while evaluating impacts of future socio-economic, management and climate scenarios on river morphology and the resulting effects on key social needs (e.g. water supply, energy production and flood mitigation). Most relevant drivers and time-scales for the considered processes (e.g. incision) - from days to decades - were identified from hydrologic and sedimentologic time-series using a feature ranking algorithm based on random trees. The feature ranking pointed out bimodal response characteristics, with important contributions of long-to-medium (5 - 15 yrs.) and rather short (10d - 6 months) timescales. An artificial neural network (ANN), built from identified variables, subsequently quantified in detail how these temporal components control long term trends, inter-seasonal fluctuations and day to day variations in morphologic processes. Whereas the general trajectory of incision relates, for example, to the overall regional sediment balance over an extended time-horizon (>15 yrs.), upstream impoundments induce a much more rapid adaptation (1-5 yrs.). The applicability of the ANN as predictive model was evaluated by comparing its results with a traditional, 1D bed evolution model. The next decade's morphologic evolution under an ensemble of scenarios, considering uncertainties in climatic change, socio-economic development and upstream reservoir release policies was derived from both models. The ANN greatly outperforms the 1D model in computational requirements and presents a powerful tool for effective assessment of scenario ensembles and quantification of uncertainties in river hydro-morphology. In contrast, the processes-based model provides detailed, spatio-temporally distributed outputs and validation of the ANN's results for selected scenarios. We conclude that the application of both approaches constitutes a mutually enriching strategy for modern, quantitative catchment management. We argue that physically based modeling can have specific spatial and temporal constrains (e.g. in terms of identifying key drivers and associated temporal and spatial domains) and that linking physically-based with data-driven approaches largely increases the potential for including hydro-morphology into basin-scale water resource management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bernardi, D.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2013-12-01

231

Use of LANDSAT MSS imagery and soil type in a geographic information system to assess site-specific risk of fascioliasis on Red River Basin farms in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed in an ERDAS environment using maps of soil types from the USDA Soil Conservation Service, LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner data (MSS), boundaries for 25 study farms, and slope and hydrologic features shown in a two-quadrangle (USGS, 7.5') area in the Red River Basin near Alexandria, Louisiana. Fecal sedimentation examinations were done in the fall of 1989, spring of 1990, and fall and winter of 1990-1991 on 10-16 random samples per herd. Fecal egg shedding rates for F. hepatica ranged from 10-100% prevalence and 0.3-21.7 eggs per two grams of feces (EP2G). For Paramphistomum spp., a rumen fluke also transmitted by F. bulimoides but not affected by flukicides, egg shedding rates ranged from 10-91% prevalence and 0.1-42.8 EP2G. Soil types present ranged from sandy loams to hydric, occasionally flooded clays. Herd Paramphistomum spp. egg shedding rates increased with the proportion of hydric clays present, adjusted for slope and major hydrologic features. F. hepatica infection intensity followed a similar trend, but were complicated by differing treatment practices. Results suggest that earth observation satellite data and soil maps can be used, with an existing climate forecast based on the Thornthwaite water budget, to develop a second generation model that accounts for both regional climate variation and site-specific differences in fascioliasis risk based on soils prone to snail habitat. PMID:1626889

Malone, J B; Fehler, D P; Loyacano, A F; Zukowski, S H

1992-06-16

232

Regression Equations for Estimating Concentrations of Selected Water-Quality Constituents for Selected Gaging Stations in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota Water Resources Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on December 15, 2000, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and quality needs of the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and possible options to meet those water needs. Previous Red River of the North Basin studies conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation used streamflow and water-quality data bases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that included data for 1931-84. As a result of the recent congressional authorization and results of previous studies by the Bureau of Reclamation, redevelopment of the streamflow and water-quality data bases with current data through 1999 are needed in order to evaluate and predict the water-quantity and quality effects within the Red River of the North Basin. This report provides updated statistical summaries of selected water-quality constituents and streamflow and the regression relations between them. Available data for 1931-99 were used to develop regression equations between 5 selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for 38 gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin. The water-quality constituents that were regressed against streamflow were hardness (as CaCO3), sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids. Statistical summaries of the selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for the gaging stations used in the regression equations development and the applications and limitations of the regression equations are presented in this report.

Williams-Sether, Tara

2004-01-01

233

Technical and economic feasibility of salt-gradient solar ponds at the Truscott Brine Lake of the Red River Chloride Control Project. A report to the House-Senate Committee on Appropriations of the Ninety-Seventh Congress  

SciTech Connect

The Truscott Brine Lake is being constructed to impound highly brackish water from a number of sources which would normally flow into the Wichita River, a tributary of the Red River in Knox County, Texas. A 35.4-km (22-mile) pipeline is being constructed to carry the brines from their primary source to the Truscott Brine Lake site. The reservoir is designed to contain 100 years of brine emissions from three chloride emission areas in the Wichita River Basin. The solar ponds and power generating facilities would be located in the Bluff Creek Arm of Truscott Brine Lake. The Truscott Brine Lake study includes: survey of suitability of Truscott Lake site, review of solar pond technology, preconceptual design of solar salt pond power plant, and economic evaluation.

Not Available

1982-09-01

234

SOUTH FORK CLEARWATER RIVER HABITAT ENHANCEMENT  

E-print Network

SOUTH FORK CLEARWATER RIVER HABITAT ENHANCEMENT ANNUAL REPORT - 1985 BY Don Hair, Project Biologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Monitoring, (Results and Needs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Design River 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Table Two - of Accomplishments, Red River, 1.985 . . l . l 273

235

Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01

236

The Historical Demography and Genetic Variation of the Endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the Red River Region, Examined by Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun

2015-01-01

237

Lateral drilling and completion technologies for shallow-shelf carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin. Topical report, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil-well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius lateral in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2,590 to 2,890 m in Richland County, MT; Bowman County, ND; and Harding County, SD. In theory, all of the horizontal drilling techniques explored in this project have merit for application fitting specific criteria. From a realistic point of view, the only relatively trouble-free, adequately-proven technology employed was the medium-radius steered motor/MWD technology. The slim-tool steered motor/MWD re-entry technology has been used extensively but appears to still be significantly in developmental stages. This technology will probably always be more troublesome than the technology used to drill new wells because the smaller diameter required for the tools contributes to both design and operational complexities. Although limited mechanical success has been achieved with some of the lateral jetting technologies and the Amoco tools, their predictability and reliability is unproven. Additionally, they appear to be limited to shallow depths and certain rock types. The Amoco technology probably has the most potential to be successfully developed for routinely reliable, field applications. A comparison of the various horizontal drilling technologies investigated is presented.

Carrell, L.A.; George, R.D.; Gibbons, D.

1998-07-01

238

Fault diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

Abbott, Kathy

1990-01-01

239

Modeling River Incision Across Active Normal Faults Using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development Model (CHILD): the case of the Central Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

River systems constitute some of the most efficient agents that shape terrestrial landscapes. Fluvial incision rates govern landscape evolution but, due to the variety of processed involved and the difficulty of quantifying them in the field, there is no \\

M. Attal; G. Tucker; A. Whittaker; P. Cowie; G. Roberts

2005-01-01

240

Background and triggered microseismicity in the Alpine Fault zone, central Southern Alps, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpine Fault is a 460 km-long continental transform fault that bounds the western edge of the Southern Alps and constitutes the primary structure accommodating Pacific-Australia relative plate motion in the central South Island. Paleoseismic evidence suggests that large earthquakes (MW~7.9) occur every 200-400 years and that the central Alpine Fault last ruptured in 1717 AD. In historic times, however, there have been no large earthquakes and the central section of the Alpine Fault exhibits particularly low levels of seismicity above magnitude ML=2. This central portion of the fault is associated with the highest rates of dip-slip faulting (~10 mm/yr) and hanging-wall uplift (6-9 mm/yr). Previous geological and geophysical studies have suggested that large volumes of fluid are present in the rapidly exhumed crustal section immediately to the east of the central Alpine Fault. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) of 11 short-period seismometers installed in 1-100 m-deep boreholes was established in early 2009. SAMBA extends for 50 km along the Alpine Fault between the Whataroa and Karangarua Rivers and recorded ~1300 earthquakes of magnitude -0.5 < ML < 3. This is the longest microseismicity study in this region to date and has yielded a cut-off magnitude of approximately ML=1. This presentation addresses absolute and relative locations, magnitudes and focal mechanisms for microearthquakes recorded by SAMBA in the central Southern Alps. Most microearthquakes occur at depths shallower than 10 km and exhibit predominantly strike-slip focal mechanisms. The observations reinforce previous results indicating very low levels of seismicity northeast of the Whataroa River, a possible site of future deep drilling. The highest daily number of events recorded so far occurred after the MW=7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake of 15 July 2009, which ruptured the subduction interface beneath Fiordland and offshore, approximately 360 km southwest of the center of the SAMBA array. The triggered microearthquakes occurred in the middle of a pre-existing cluster. After five days, the rate of seismicity returned to the previous level. Map of the central Southern Alps showing the national station network (GeoNet, black triangles) and the SAMBA station network (red triangles) and place names mentioned in the text. Inset: Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault in the central South Island, New Zealand

Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Smith, E. G.; Townend, J.; Henderson, M.

2010-12-01

241

Seismic and gravity investigations of the shallow (upper 1 km) hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the vicinity of the Whataroa River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic evidence from the vicinity of the plate-bounding Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island suggests that earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occur every 200-400 years, with the last earthquake occurring in AD 1717. No human observations of this event are recorded. Therefore, the Deep Fault Drilling Project 2 (DFDP-2) drill hole, which is planned for 2014 on the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley, provides a critical opportunity to study the behavior of this transpressive plate boundary late in its seismogenic cycle. New seismic and gravity data collected since 2011 have been analyzed to assist with the positioning of the drill hole in this glacial valley that provides rare low-elevation access to the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The WhataDUSIE controlled-source seismic project, led by researchers from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada), provided relatively high-resolution coverage (4-8 m geophone spacing, 25-100 m shot spacing) along a 5-km-long profile across the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley. This work has been supplemented by focused hammer-seismic studies and gravity data collection in the valley. The former targets surface layer properties, whereas the latter targets the depth to the base of the glacially carved paleovalley. In positioning DFDP-2, an understanding of the nature of overburden and valley-fill sediments is critical for drilling design. A velocity model has been developed for the valley based on refraction analysis of the WhataDUSIE and hammer-seismic data combined with a ray-theoretical travel-time tomography (RAYINVR) image of the shallow (uppermost 1 km or so) part of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The model shows that the glacial valley, which presumably was last scoured by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum, has been filled with 200-350 m of post-glacial sediments and outwash gravels. The hanging-wall rocks into which the valley was cut are presumed to be mylonitized Alpine Schist. Considering uplift rates of 6-10 mm/a on the hanging wall of the fault and a glacial withdrawal date of 10,000 years before present (i.e., 60-100 m of uplift since the ice vacated the valley), the floor of the valley would have been as deep as about 350 m below sea level at the time that the ice withdrew (given the current elevation of ~100 m on the valley floor). Basal sediments in the valley could therefore be either marine (if the valley was open to the ocean) or lacustrine (if the valley was isolated from the open ocean by elevated footwall rocks along the west coast of the South Island). Once the original water body in the valley was filled, sediments would accumulate as outwash gravels above sea level.

Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lay, V.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

242

INTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and  

E-print Network

of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In the Golden Triangle region, these rivers (Mekong and Salween RiversINTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and glacial valleys are geomorphological markers that can record offset along active strike-slip faults. Of these markers, rivers are the most

Lacassin, Robin

243

78 FR 1832 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Id; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Id; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project...comments-northernnezperce-red-river@fsled.us'' should read...comments-northern-nezperce-red-river@fs.fed.us''. 2....

2013-01-09

244

Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control

245

Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring and Regression Analysis to Estimate Constituent Concentrations and Loads in the Red River of the North, Fargo, North Dakota, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to estimate water-quality constituent concentrations in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota. Regression analysis of water-quality data collected in 2003-05 was used to estimate concentrations and loads for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables examined for regression relation were continuously monitored physical properties of water-streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. For the conditions observed in 2003-05, streamflow was a significant explanatory variable for all estimated constituents except dissolved solids. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were not statistically significant explanatory variables for any of the constituents in this study. Specific conductance was a significant explanatory variable for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride. Turbidity was a significant explanatory variable for total phosphorus and suspended sediment. For the nutrients, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, cosine and sine functions of time also were used to explain the seasonality in constituent concentrations. The regression equations were evaluated using common measures of variability, including R2, or the proportion of variability in the estimated constituent explained by the regression equation. R2 values ranged from 0.703 for total nitrogen concentration to 0.990 for dissolved-solids concentration. The regression equations also were evaluated by calculating the median relative percentage difference (RPD) between measured constituent concentration and the constituent concentration estimated by the regression equations. Median RPDs ranged from 1.1 for dissolved solids to 35.2 for total nitrite plus nitrate. Regression equations also were used to estimate daily constituent loads. Load estimates can be used by water-quality managers for comparison of current water-quality conditions to water-quality standards expressed as total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). TMDLs are a measure of the maximum amount of chemical constituents that a water body can receive and still meet established water-quality standards. The peak loads generally occurred in June and July when streamflow also peaked.

Ryberg, Karen R.

2006-01-01

246

Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent for both data sets. Overall, application of the Fargo WASP water-quality model to the 1989 and 1990 data sets resulted in poor agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. This likely is a result of changes in the waste-load composition for the Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment plants as a result of improvements to the wastewater-treatment plants since 1990. The change in waste-load composition probably resulted in a change in decay rates and in dissolved oxygen no longer being substantially depressed downstream from the Moorhead and Fargo wastewater-treatment plants. The Fargo WASP water-quality model is valid for the current (2008) treatment processes at the wastewater-treatment plants.

Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

247

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

248

Red clover  

MedlinePLUS

Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

249

Red Clover  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Clover Common Names: red clover, cow clover, meadow clover, wild clover Latin ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, what the science says, potential ...

250

Fault terminations and barriers to fault growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations of strike slip faults in jointed granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada, California, combined with a mechanical analysis of fault interaction, provide insight into how fault terminations vary with scale. We document here a strike-slip fault system 2-3 km long. Clustered about the west end of the fault system are several dozen faults that parallel the three main fault zones in the system. We interpret this cluster of small faults as a barrier that inhibited growth of fault zones in the fault system. A two-dimensional mechanical analysis shows that a cluster of small faults flanking the tip of a large fault zone will tend to diffuse the stress concentration near the fault zone tip—an analogous effect in engineering is known as crack-tip shielding. Near-tip stress concentrations promote fault growth, and processes that decrease these stress concentrations inhibit fault growth. As faults lengthen and grow, they interact with features at greater distances and over a broader area, so the potential for tip shielding effects will increase as fault length increases. This effect can account for why the mechanisms and character of fault terminations would tend to vary as a function of scale.

d'Alessio, Matthew A.; Martel, Stephen J.

2004-10-01

251

Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in farm families ascertained from parent-reported birth defects. In the present study, in the first year of life, the birth defect rate was 31.3 births per 1,000, with 83% of the total reported birth defects confirmed by medical records. Inclusion of children identified with birth or developmental disorders within the first 3 years of life and later led to a rate of 47.0 per 1,000 (72 children from 1,532 live births). Conceptions in spring resulted in significantly more children with birth defects than found in any other season (7.6 vs. 3.7%). Twelve families had more than one child with a birth defect (n = 28 children). Forty-two percent of the children from families with recurrent birth defects were conceived in spring, a significantly higher rate than that for any other season. Three families in the kinships defined contributed a first-degree relative other than a sibling with the same or similar birth defect, consistent with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The remaining nine families did not follow a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The sex ratio of children with birth defects born to applicator families shows a male predominance (1.75 to 1) across specific pesticide class use and exposure categories exclusive of fungicides. In the fungicide exposure category, normal female births significantly exceed male births (1.25 to 1). Similarly, the proportion of male to female children with birth defects is significantly lower (0.57 to 1; p = 0.02). Adverse neurologic and neurobehavioral developmental effects clustered among the children born to applicators of the fumigant phosphine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; confidence interval [CI], 1.2-5.1). Use of the herbicide glyphosate yielded an OR of 3.6 (CI, 1.3-9.6) in the neurobehavioral category. Finally, these studies point out that (a) herbicides applied in the spring may be a factor in the birth defects observed and (b) fungicides can be a significant factor in the determination of sex of the children of the families of the RRV. Thus, two distinct classes of pesticides seem to have adverse effects on different reproductive outcomes. Biologically based confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:12060842

Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

2002-01-01

252

Amu Darya River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... red. The Amu Darya river forms a wide delta in the western deserts of Uzbekistan and northeastern Turkmenistan, and the river ... specialized in cotton growing. Independence from the Soviet Union occurred in 1991 and is celebrated by Uzbekistan on September 1st and by ...

2013-04-16

253

Timing and offset on strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Belt, B. C. and WA, and 40--80 MA fault reconstructions  

SciTech Connect

New evidence for displacement and timing on the Yalakom fault system (YFS) and from other dextral strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Mountains and North Cascades gives an improved fault reconstruction for Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time. About 125 km of dextral offset on the YFS occurred in three stages: a cryptic [approximately]80--[approximately]55 Ma dextral-transpressive stage; a dextral-slip and extensional stage from [approximately]55--44 Ma; and a 44-->34 Ma stage on the marshall Creek-Yalakom faults. The authors fault reconstruction includes speculative offset estimates on the Hozameen (80--90 km) and Ross Lake Faults (10 km), previous estimates on the Fraser River (90 km) and Straight Creek faults (160 km), and accounts for timing differences on the Fraser River and Straight Creek faults.

Umhoefer, P.J. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology); Schiarizza, P. (British Columbia Geological Survey, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-04-01

254

CMOS Bridging Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the performance of two test generation techniques, stuck fault testing and current testing, when applied to CMOS bridging faults. Accurate simulation of such faults mandated the development of several new design automation tools, including an analog-digital fault simulator. The results of this simulation are analyzed. It is shown that stuck fault test generation, while inherently incapable of

Thomas M. Storey; Wojciech Maly

1990-01-01

255

Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

2007-01-01

256

Structural collapse of a transpressive hanging?wall fault wedge, Charwell region of the Hope Fault, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northeast?trending dextral?reverse oblique slip Hope Fault is one of the major structures of the Marlborough Fault System and the Australia?Pacific plate boundary zone in the South Island of New Zealand. This study presents an analysis of the structural and tectonic geomorphic development of the Hope Fault Zone in the vicinity of the Charwell River to understand the near?surface temporal

J. Dykstra Eusden JR; Jarg R. Pettinga; Jocelyn K. Campbell

2005-01-01

257

Current and Future Dynamics of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Population Inhabiting the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park: Managing For Population Growth  

SciTech Connect

Research aimed to study the dynamics of the SRS population of Red-Cockaded woodpecker and compare to those of other populations to identify factors limiting population growth; recruitment clusters were evaluated to determine what properties of individual cavity trees, surrounding habitat and the surrounding landscape might limit occupancy through natural dispersal. A spatial simulation model was used to project expected dispersal rates and population growth under current conditions and compare those estimates to observed dispersal and population growth. Red cockaded woodpecker populations at SRS are stable considering size. Research reveals that closer placement of recruitment clusters to active territories would produce higher growth rates while decreasing management intensity.

Walters, J.R.; Taylor, T.B.; Daniels, S.J.; Crowder, L.B.; Pridd, J.A.

2001-01-01

258

Late Quaternary faulting and historic seismicity in the western Lake Mead area, Nevada, Arizona and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a regional seismic hazard study for Reclamation dams on the northern lower Colorado River, the age and distribution of known and suspected late Quaternary faults were investigated and historic seismicity was analyzed for the western Lake Mead area. Late Quaternary faults in the area consist of the Mead Slope, Black Hills, Frenchman Mountain, and California Wash faults.

L. W. Anderson; D. R. OConnel

1993-01-01

259

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

260

Birthmarks - red  

MedlinePLUS

Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. They ... There are two main categories of birthmarks. Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

261

Minerals Anomalies and Their Significances in Fault Rocks along the Front Longmenshan Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anxian-Guanxian fault is the front fault of the Longmenshan fault system. In the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) of 12 May 2008, the surface rupture zone developed along the Anxian-Guanxian fault was also named as Hanwang rupture zone, which was approximately pure thrust, about 80km long accompanied with the vertical displacement of 0.5~4m averaged about 2m, and the maximum 4.2m occurred in the fifth villager group of Shaba village belonging to the Jiulong Town of Mianzhu City. We made several trenches cutting through the Anxian-Guanxian rupture zone. In the trenches near the Qingquan village of Jiulong town, three different colored strata including black, gray green and red layers developed from west to east. The black segment is carbonaceous mudstone and fault gouge, the gray green part is fault gouge, cataclasite and siltstone, and the purple red section is mainly mudstone with a few thin gouge layers at the top. Two continuous U-channel samples collected from the trench have been prepared for the synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. Viewing from the data, clay minerals including illite, mica, kaolinite and chlorite are more abundant in fine and black gouge than the coarse rocks and purple red mudstone. Moreover, there are significant graphite occur at and near the slip plane. Considering the low friction coefficient and the distinct different features different from the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, the carbon matter might have acted as lubrication and played certain significant role in the faulting process of the slow angle Anxian-Guanxian fault.

Si, J.; Li, H.; Song, S.; Kuo, L.; Pei, J.; Chen, P.; Hsiao, H.; Wang, H.

2012-12-01

262

Optimal fault location  

E-print Network

after the accurate fault condition and location are detected. This thesis has been focusing on automated fault location procedure. Different fault location algorithms, classified according to the spatial placement of physical measurements on single ended...

Knezev, Maja

2008-10-10

263

Optimal fault location  

E-print Network

after the accurate fault condition and location are detected. This thesis has been focusing on automated fault location procedure. Different fault location algorithms, classified according to the spatial placement of physical measurements on single ended...

Knezev, Maja

2009-05-15

264

Fault Separation Gestures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed. They work in teams to explore these complex geometric relationships via gestures.

Carol Ormand

265

33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P. Long Bridge, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction...

2013-07-01

266

33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P. Long Bridge, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction...

2014-07-01

267

Red clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

268

Red Sea  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast ... the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium erythraeum , found in the sea turn reddish-brown when ...

2013-04-16

269

Optimal stochastic fault detection filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of the optimal stochastic fault detection filter for fault detection and identification are determined. The objective of the filter is to monitor certain faults called target faults and block other faults which are called nuisance faults. This filter is derived by keeping the ratio of the transmission from nuisance fault to the transmission from target fault small. It is

Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer

1999-01-01

270

Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

Ward, P.E.

1963-01-01

271

Finding Fault with Faults: A Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe our effort in extending this work beyond the initial software contruction. Our area of focus is determining the rate of fault injection over a sequence of successive builds, first observing that software faults may be seen to fall into two distinct classes some faults are incorporated during the initial coding effort, while others are added in successive software builds.

Munson, John C.; Nikora, Allen P.

1997-01-01

272

Quantitative fault seal prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault seal can arise from reservoir\\/nonreservoir juxtaposition or by development of fault rock having high entry pressure. The methodology for evaluating these possibilities uses detailed seismic mapping and well analysis. A first-order seal analysis involves identifying reservoir juxtaposition areas over the fault surface by using the mapped horizons and a refined reservoir stratigraphy defined by isochores at the fault surface.

G. Yielding; B. Freeman; D. T. Needham

1997-01-01

273

Transition Fault Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay fault testing is becoming more important as VLSI chips become more complex. Components that are fragments of functions, such as those in gate-array designs, need a general model of a delay fault and a feasible method of generating test patterns and simulating the fault. The authors present such a model, called a transition fault, which when used with parallel-pattern,

John Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom; Barry Rosen; Vijay Iyengar

1987-01-01

274

Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

1990-01-01

275

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Sue Swanson

276

Fault zone fabric and fault weakness.  

PubMed

Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals, high fluid pressures within the fault core and dynamic processes such as normal stress reduction, acoustic fluidization or extreme weakening at high slip velocity. Dynamic weakening mechanisms can explain some observations; however, creep and aseismic slip are thought to occur on weak faults, and quasi-static weakening mechanisms are required to initiate frictional slip on mis-oriented faults, at high angles to the tectonic stress field. Moreover, the maintenance of high fluid pressures requires specialized conditions and weak mineral phases are not present in sufficient abundance to satisfy weak fault models, so weak faults remain largely unexplained. Here we provide laboratory evidence for a brittle, frictional weakening mechanism based on common fault zone fabrics. We report on the frictional strength of intact fault rocks sheared in their in situ geometry. Samples with well-developed foliation are extremely weak compared to their powdered equivalents. Micro- and nano-structural studies show that frictional sliding occurs along very fine-grained foliations composed of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). When the same rocks are powdered, frictional strength is high, consistent with cataclastic processes. Our data show that fault weakness can occur in cases where weak mineral phases constitute only a small percentage of the total fault rock and that low friction results from slip on a network of weak phyllosilicate-rich surfaces that define the rock fabric. The widespread documentation of foliated fault rocks along mature faults in different tectonic settings and from many different protoliths suggests that this mechanism could be a viable explanation for fault weakening in the brittle crust. PMID:20016599

Collettini, Cristiano; Niemeijer, André; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

2009-12-17

277

Optimal stochastic fault detection filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault detection and identification algorithm, called optimal stochastic fault detection filter, is determined. The objective of the filter is to detect a single fault, called the target fault, and block other faults, called the nuisance faults, in the presence of the process and sensor noises. The filter is derived by maximizing the transmission from the target fault to the

Robert H. Chen; D. Lewis Mingori; Jason L. Speyer

2003-01-01

278

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-08-01

279

Late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luoyunshan piedmont fault is located west of Linfen basin, controlling the western border of the basin. Based on the fault 1:50000 geological mapping, river and gully terraces and piedmont faulted landforms survey, this paper mainly introduces late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault. Luoyunshan piedmont alluvial-pluvial fans are divided into three stages, named alluvial-pluvial fans D1, D2 and D3. The gullies on the upthrown plate of Luoyunshan piedmont fault has five terraces: T1~T5. Alluvial-pluvial fans D1 and terraces T1 and T2 formed in the early and middle Holocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D2 and terraces T3 formed in the middle-late stage of late Pleistocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D3 and terraces T4 and T5 formed in the middle-late stage of middle Pleistocene. Faulted landforms characteristics on different parts of the middle segment of the Luo Yunshan piedmont fault are different. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D1 is about 2.9m and 3m respectively in the Xifanggou area and the piedmont of southwest of Yukou village, Jindian town. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D2 is about 2.5m, 4m, 6m and 7.7m respectively in the southwest of Puzi village, Tumen town, piedmont of west of Yangjiazhuang village, west of Jingcun village and piedmont of southwest of Langquangou, Xiangling town. The faulted landforms on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault are obvious. The latest activity times of the fault is Holocene. The latest activity times of Tumen segment and Longci segment of the fault are early Holocene and middle-late Holocene respectively. Since the Middle-Late Pleistocene an activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault is 0.18~0.54mm/yr, and activity showed an increasing trend from north to south. Since Early-Middle Holocene it is 0.4~0.9mm/yr, and fault activities mainly concentrated on the segment from Xifanggou to Yukou village. An increasing trend of the activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene, it is in good agreement with an increasing trend of the uplift rate of the terraces on the upthrown plate of the fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene and the sedimentation rate of Linfen basin which also has an increasing trend from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene.

Sun, C.; Xie, X.; Xu, J.

2013-12-01

280

Slab break-off influence on the formation of the major intra-continental faulting systems during India-Asia convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing global tomographic images and Asian tectonics reconstruction, allows formulating hypotheses on how deep subduction and indentation tectonics are coupled that we tested by doing numerical models which show the link between slab breakoff event and initiation of strike-slip faults in the upper plate. The long term evolution of Indian lithosphere during the indentation process has been deduced from remnants of slabs in the mantle shown by P-waves global tomography. A complete breakoff occurs at the transition between the Tethys oceanic subduction and the Indian continental one (OCB), then the Indian lithosphere resumes subducting, but with drastic variation of timing from west to east, late subduction far north of the trench to the west, early subduction following by a second breakoff more to the east. The long term evolution of the Asian continental deformation constrains the age and style of the upper plate deformation during the collision. Drastic changes occur in the fault pattern, with successive strike-slip faults crossing the entire Asian continent. The Bangong-Red River initiated early in the collision time, to the south of the collision zone, while the Altyn Tagh fault initiates later in the collision time, to the north of the collision zone. We perform self-consistent three-dimensional numerical models of coupled subducting/upper plates in an ambient mantle. We find that when slab detaches at the OCB, the subduction of the buoyant continent progressively decreases the driving force available, yet transient stresses propagate far into the upper plate interiors, localising along a belt at a high angle with the trench. The large stresses in the upper plate interiors propagate at large distance from the margin with a trend similar to the major lithospheric faults of Asia. The successive breakoff episodes evidenced using global tomography likely provided the conditions for large stress surge in the Asian lithosphere that resulted in the formation of the long-lived major intra-continental faulting systems, first of the Red River and second of the Altyn Tagh. The transient coupling gradients at the trench caused by the breakoff events have generated successive localised stress pulses which provide the conditions for episodic nucleation of lithospheric faults within the Asian continent and their link to deep processes.

Clark, M. K.; Avdeev, B.; Duvall, A. R.; Staisch, L. M.; Niemi, N. A.; Farley, K. A.

2011-12-01

281

Slab break-off influence on the formation of the major intra-continental faulting systems during India-Asia convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing global tomographic images and Asian tectonics reconstruction, allows formulating hypotheses on how deep subduction and indentation tectonics are coupled that we tested by doing numerical models which show the link between slab breakoff event and initiation of strike-slip faults in the upper plate. The long term evolution of Indian lithosphere during the indentation process has been deduced from remnants of slabs in the mantle shown by P-waves global tomography. A complete breakoff occurs at the transition between the Tethys oceanic subduction and the Indian continental one (OCB), then the Indian lithosphere resumes subducting, but with drastic variation of timing from west to east, late subduction far north of the trench to the west, early subduction following by a second breakoff more to the east. The long term evolution of the Asian continental deformation constrains the age and style of the upper plate deformation during the collision. Drastic changes occur in the fault pattern, with successive strike-slip faults crossing the entire Asian continent. The Bangong-Red River initiated early in the collision time, to the south of the collision zone, while the Altyn Tagh fault initiates later in the collision time, to the north of the collision zone. We perform self-consistent three-dimensional numerical models of coupled subducting/upper plates in an ambient mantle. We find that when slab detaches at the OCB, the subduction of the buoyant continent progressively decreases the driving force available, yet transient stresses propagate far into the upper plate interiors, localising along a belt at a high angle with the trench. The large stresses in the upper plate interiors propagate at large distance from the margin with a trend similar to the major lithospheric faults of Asia. The successive breakoff episodes evidenced using global tomography likely provided the conditions for large stress surge in the Asian lithosphere that resulted in the formation of the long-lived major intra-continental faulting systems, first of the Red River and second of the Altyn Tagh. The transient coupling gradients at the trench caused by the breakoff events have generated successive localised stress pulses which provide the conditions for episodic nucleation of lithospheric faults within the Asian continent and their link to deep processes.

capitanio, F. A.; Replumaz, A.

2013-12-01

282

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department of Fisheries and Oceans

283

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

284

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

285

The paragenesis chemistry of alteration associated with the P2and fault in metamorphic rocks underlying the Athabasca Basin  

E-print Network

Arkose Graphitic Pelitic Gneiss P2 Fault zone 0.911% U O / 22.8 m3 8 L 260+00 E NW SE NW SE 0 25 meters Zone 2 McArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose

286

Generation of Fault Trees from Simulated Incipient Fault Case Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tree analysis is widely used in industry in fault diagnosis. The diagnosis of incipient or 'soft' faults is considerably more dif ficult than of 'hard' faults, which is the situation considered normally. A detailed fault tree model reflecting signal variations over wide range is required for diagnosing such soft faults. This paper describes the investigation of a machine learning

Michael G. Madden; Paul J. Nolan

1994-01-01

287

Fault Tolerant Strategies for BLDC Motor Drives under Switch Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the fault tolerant system for BLDC motors has been proposed to maintain the control performance under switching device faults of inverter. The proposed fault tolerant system provides compensation for open-circuit faults and short-circuit faults in power converter. The fault identification is quickly achieved by simple algorithm using the characteristic of BLDC motor drives. The drive system after

Byoung-Gun Park; Tae-Sung Kim; Ji-Su Ryu; Dong-Seok Hyun

2006-01-01

288

Every Place Has Its Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site covers the four main types of faults (not including growth faults): the normal fault, reverse fault, transcurrent (strike-slip) fault, and thrust fault. Animations show the type of movement for each different type of fault. There is a section on the initial stage of a landform, containing a diagram of a graben and horst system. Also included are photographs of fault scarps along Hebgen Lake, Montana.

289

Fault Mapping in Haiti  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS geologist Carol Prentice surveying features that have been displaced by young movements on the Enriquillo fault in southwest Haiti.  The January 2010 Haiti earthquake was associated with the Enriquillo fault....

290

Reservoir-Seal-Fault Systems Leakage Evolution Though Time and Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to the study of natural CO2 reservoirs, tools are developed in order to understand the CO2 storage efficiency and long-term evolution. The Colorado Plateau red sandstones, in southern Utah, are marked by fluid driven mineralization and alteration along joints, fractures and faults. These traces are considered as evidences for paleo and present-day migration pathways of the exotic fluids coming from reservoirs (located at different depths) to the surface across or along the transfer faulted zones. Understanding these mechanisms through time is crucial not only in the determination of the fault activity, for identifying the transient and permanent processes along this fault system, but also in the long-term paleo-sequestration calibration, and finally in the evaluation of hydrocarbon, gas, water and CO2 migration. In order to investigate the nature and the origin of the different leaking fluids or gas, we conducted a study along Moab and Green River Fault systems, from Moab to the western side of the San Raphael Swell, in Utah. A geological fieldwork highlights several former and current transfer and leakage processes, evidenced by (1) chemical bleaching, (2) gypsum, (3) different kinds of oxides, (4) carbonate precipitations, and (5) present day CO2 expulsion located all along the faults traces from Jurassic units to the present-day surface. Due to the different erosion pattern in the area, access to several reservoir and seals was possible for observation and sampling. This first step allowed to characterize the orientation and position of each leaky fluid family, and to analyze the fluids and carbonate precipitation with respect to the structural context. For instance, the strong impact of salt tectonics implies that some of the faults are probably rooted within this decollement, and that a system of small wavelength syncline/anticline is added a significant variability to the drainage pattern of these faults. In order to define the nature and the origin of the fluids responsible for the traces and seepages observed, we used a multi-disciplinary approach using the different following methods coming from: geology, geochemistry, petrography, XRD, trace elements analyses and U/Th datings. Finally, so as to understand the link between flow and tectonic histories of the reservoir-seal-fault systems, we integrate the analytical and the structural data set. This last step allows to propose a precise chronology and history of the fluid leakage in this western part of the Colorado Plateau, from Jurassic to present day. These combined technical methodologies represents a great tool to understand the leaking, and remediation processes, to characterize the variation through time and space of the fault activity and finally to evaluate the lost volume from reservoirs along a major fault system.

Frery, E.; Ellouz, N.; Gratier, J.; Deschamps, P.

2011-12-01

291

For Immediate Release --Friday, September 27, 2013 World Rivers Day: University of Lethbridge experts  

E-print Network

For Immediate Release -- Friday, September 27, 2013 World Rivers Day: University of Lethbridge experts available to talk about protecting our river systems - Oil Spill Recovery ­ What's in the Red Deer River, one year later

Seldin, Jonathan P.

292

Active Faulting in Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to faulting from the Quaternary Period and the Holocene Epoch in the State of Idaho. They will examine a map showing the distribution of these faults and answer questions concerning groundwater circulation and earthquake potential, and determine which geologic province has the most neotectonically active faults (15,000 years or younger).

293

Fault-tolerant estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault-tolerant estimator is obtained from fusing the concept of fault detection with estimation. Two possible architectures are evaluated. At the center of the fault-tolerant estimation procedure is a bank of filters computing local state estimates, a residual screening scheme to isolate corrupted estimates and a method of blending untainted ones into a global minimum variance estimate, free of the

Laurence H. Mutuel; Jason L. Speyer

2000-01-01

294

Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, a state-of-the-art review of fault tree analysis is presented. Different forms of fault trees, including\\u000a static, dynamic, and non-coherent fault trees, their applications and analyses will be discussed. Some advanced topics such\\u000a as importance analysis, dependent failures, disjoint events, and multistate systems will also be presented.

Liudong Xing; Suprasad V. Amari

295

Mechanics of discontinuous faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault traces consist of numerous discrete segments, commonly arranged as echelon arrays. In some cases, discontinuities influence the distribution of slip and seismicity along faults. To analyze fault segments, we derive a two-dimensional solution for any number of nonintersecting cracks arbitrarily located in a homogeneous elastic material. The solution includes the elastic interaction between cracks. Crack surfaces are assumed to

P. Segall; D. D. Pollard

1980-01-01

296

Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and climatic scenarios. To address these goals, we developed models and approaches to spatially represent storage volumes and interception areas of existing and potentially restorable wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin within Grant County, Minn. We then developed and applied a model to simulate wetland water storage increases that would result from restoring 25 and 50 percent of the farmed and drained wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin. The model simulations were performed during the growing season (May-October) for relatively wet (1993; 0.79 m of precipitation) and dry (1987; 0.40 m of precipitation) years. Results from the simulations indicated that the 25 percent restoration scenario would increase water storage by 21-24 percent and that a 50 percent scenario would increase storage by 34-38 percent. Additionally, we estimated that wetlands in the subbasin have potential to store 11.57-20.98 percent of the total precipitation that fell over the entire subbasin area (52,758 ha). Our simulation results indicated that there is considerable potential to enhance water storage in the subbasin; however, evaluation and calibration of the model is necessary before simulation results can be applied to management and planning decisions. In this report we present guidance for the development and application of models (e.g., surface area-volume predictive models, hydrology simulation model) to simulate wetland water storage to provide a basis from which to understand and predict the effects of natural or human-induced hydrologic alterations. In developing these approaches, we tried to use simple and widely available input data to simulate wetland hydrology and predict wetland water storage for a specific precipitation event or a series of events. Further, the hydrology simulation model accounted for land use and soil type, which influence surface water inputs to wetlands. Although information presented in this report is specific to the Mustinka subbasin, the approaches

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H.

2007-01-01

297

Diagnosing CMOS bridging faults with stuck-at fault dictionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the traditional approach to diagnosing stuck-at faults with fault dictionaries generated for stuck-at faults is not appropriate for diagnosing CMOS bridging faults. A novel technique for using stuck-at-fault dictionaries to diagnose bridging faults is described. Teradyne's LASAR was used to simulate bridging and stuck-at faults in a number of combinational circuits, including parity trees, multiplexers, and

Steven D. Millman; Edward J. McCluskey; John M. Acken

1990-01-01

298

Late Quaternary activity of the Feldbiss Fault Zone, Roer Valley Rift System, the Netherlands, based on displaced fluvial terrace fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Meuse River crosses the Feldbiss Fault Zone, one of the main border fault zones of the Roer Valley Graben in the southern part of the Netherlands. Uplift of the area south of the Feldbiss Fault Zone forced the Meuse River to incise and, as a result, a flight of terraces was formed. Faults of the Feldbiss Fault Zone have displaced the Middle and Late Pleistocene terrace deposits. In this study, an extensive geomorphological survey was carried out to locate the faults of the Feldbiss Fault Zone and to determine the displacement history of terrace deposits. The Feldbiss Fault Zone is characterized by an average displacement rate of 0.041-0.047 mm a -1 during the Late Pleistocene. Individual faults show an average displacement rate ranging between 0.010 and 0.034 mm a -1. The spatial variation in displacement rates along the individual faults reveals a system of overstepping faults. These normal faults developed by reactivation of Paleozoic strike-slip faults. As fault displacements at the bases of the younger terrace deposits are apparently similar to the tops of the adjacent older terrace, the age of these horizons is the same within thousands of years. This implies that the model of terrace development by rapid fluvial incision followed by slow aggradation does apply for this area.

Houtgast, R. F.; Van Balen, R. T.; Bouwer, L. M.; Brand, G. B. M.; Brijker, J. M.

2002-08-01

299

Seismic imaging of the Alpine Fault near Inchbonnie, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transpressive Alpine Fault is the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates across the South Island of New Zealand. Earthquakes on the Alpine Fault and related structures pose a serious risk to many urban centers, including the city of Christchurch. Although it is a major feature on satellite images, the Alpine Fault is a difficult target for surface studies along much of its length; it mostly traverses densely forested and mountainous terrain and where it occurs in the lowlands it is usually covered by recent sediments. To investigate the Alpine Fault at a rare accessible location (Inchbonnie), we have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data along five 380-1200 m long lines. Images produced from these data reveal a glacially overdeepened valley containing a thick sequence of diverse glacigenic sediments that have been disrupted by three en echelon strands of the principal Alpine Fault and several secondary fault strands. Based on their seismic facies, the sedimentary sequence is interpreted to comprise basal lacustrine beds overlain successively by alluvial-colluvial deposits that possibly include the remnants of large landslides, deltaic-fan units, and braided river gravels. Whereas the principal Alpine Fault strands disrupt the entire post-glacial sedimentary section and likely offset basement at depths up to 400 m, most of the secondary faults either merge with the principal fault strands at shallow depths or are surficial features limited to the sedimentary section.

Carpentier, S. F. A.; Green, A. G.; Langridge, R.; Hurter, F.; Kaiser, A.; Horstmeyer, H.; Finnemore, M.

2013-01-01

300

Creeping Faults and Seismicity: Lessons From The Hayward Fault, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

While faults remain mostly locked between large strain releasing events, they can dissipate some of the accumulating elastic strain through creep. One such fault that releases a significant fraction of accumulating strain by creep is the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The seismic risk associated with creeping faults such as the Hayward fault will depend

R. Malservisi; K. P. Furlong; C. Gans

2002-01-01

301

Association of the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summervile with a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system and triple-fault junctions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-reflection data were integrated with other geophysical, geologic, and seismicity data to better determine the location and nature of buried faults in the Charleston, South Carolina, region. Our results indicate that the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summerville are related to local stresses caused by a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system (ECFS) and two triple-fault junctions. One triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northwest-trending Ashley River fault with the two segments of the ECFS north and south of the bend. The other triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northeast-trending Summerville fault and a newly discovered northwest-trending Berkeley fault with the ECFS about 10 km north of the bend. The Summerville fault is a northwest-dipping border fault of the Triassic-age Jedburg basin that is undergoing reverse-style reactivation. This reverse-style reactivation is unusual because the Summerville fault parallels the regional stress field axis, suggesting that the reactivation is from stresses applied by dextral motion on the ECFS. The southwest-dip and reverse-type motion of the Berkeley fault are interpreted from seismicity data and a seismic-reflection profile in the western part of the study area. Our results also indicate that the East Coast fault system is a Paleozoic basement fault and that its reactivation since early Mesozoic time has fractured through the overlying allochthonous terranes.

Marple, R.; Miller, R.

2006-01-01

302

Fault geometry and cumulative offsets in the central Coast Ranges, California: Evidence for northward increasing slip along the San Gregorio-San Simeon-Hosgri fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of the dip, depth extent, and amount of cumulative displacement along the major faults in the central California Coast Ranges are controversial. We use detailed aeromagnetic data to estimate these parameters for the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and other faults. The recently acquired aeromagnetic data provide an areally consistent data set that crosses the onshore-offshore transition without disruption, which is particularly important for the mostly offshore San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault. Our modeling, constrained by exposed geology and in some cases, drill-hole and seismic-reflection data, indicates that the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and Reliz-Rinconada faults dip steeply throughout the seismogenic crust. Deviations from steep dips may result from local fault interactions, transfer of slip between faults, or overprinting by transpression since the late Miocene. Given that such faults are consistent with predominantly strike-slip displacement, we correlate geophysical anomalies offset by these faults to estimate cumulative displacements. We find a northward increase in right-lateral displacement along the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault that is mimicked by Quaternary slip rates. Although overall slip rates have decreased over the lifetime of the fault, the pattern of slip has not changed. Northward increase in right-lateral displacement is balanced in part by slip added by faults, such as the Reliz-Rinconada, Oceanic–West Huasna, and (speculatively) Santa Ynez River faults to the east.

Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Graymer, R.W.; Colgan, J.P.; Wentworth, C.M.; Stanley, R.G.

2012-01-01

303

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

304

Red Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

305

2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthogneissic rocks coexisting with migmatites and containing small amphibolite lenses are exposed in the center of the metamorphic belt which runs parallel to the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone in northern Viet Nam. The orthogneiss complex has given some radiogenic dates of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean, which are the oldest ages ever registered for the Southeast Asian continent. Zircon grains separated from three samples of the orthogneiss complex have been dated to establish the protolith age and the timing of high-grade tectonothermal events in the complex. Sixty-five SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of these zircons define three age groups of 2.84-2.91, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga. The age groups correspond to three periods of zircon generation. The oldest ˜2.9 Ga cores indicate a minimum age for the protolith of the orthogneiss complex. Two younger generations (including ˜2.36 Ga outer-cores and ˜1.96 Ga rims) probably grew during later high-grade tectono-metamorphic events, which were previously suggested by K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of ˜2.0 Ga for synkinematic hornblendes. An early thermal history of the orthogneiss complex has been constrained, including a primary magma-crystallization stage starting at ˜2.9 Ga, followed by two Early Proterozoic (˜2.36 and ˜1.96 Ga) high-grade tectonothermal events. The ca. 2.9 Ga protolith age of the orthogneiss complex documented in this study provides new convincing evidence for the presence of Archean rocks in Indochina, and clearly indicates that the crustal evolution of northern Viet Nam started as early as Late Archean time.

Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Thang, Ta Trong

2003-05-01

306

Insights into Wasatch fault vertical slip rates using the age of sediments in Timpanogos Cave, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timpanogos Cave, located near the Wasatch fault, is about 357 m above the American Fork River. Fluvial cave sediments and an interbedded carbonate flowstone yield a paleomagnetic and U–Th depositional age of 350 to 780 ka. Fault vertical slip rates, inferred from calculated river downcutting rates, range between 1.02 and 0.46 mm yr?1. These slip rates are in the range of the 0–12 Ma

Alan L. Mayo; Jiri Bruthans; David Tingey; Jaroslav Kadlec; Steve Nelson

2009-01-01

307

Morphology and slip rate of the Hurunui section of the Hope Fault, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hurunui section of the Hope Fault is a newly defined, 42 km long geomorphic fault section which extends from Harper Pass to the Hope?Boyle River confluence. Reconnaissance mapping along the Hurunui section from Hope Shelter to Harper Pass provided new data on its location, geomorphology, displacement, and slip rate. More than 200 previously published field observations of dextrally and

R. M. Langridge; K. R. Berryman

2005-01-01

308

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

309

How Faults Shape the Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1992-01-01

310

Complex Rift-Parallel, Strike-Slip Faulting in Iceland: Kinematic Analysis of the Gljúfurá Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-S striking Gljúfurá Fault Zone is an anomalous, dextral, strike-slip fault cutting Tertiary basaltic lavas in west-central Iceland. The fault zone is nearly parallel to structures formed at extinct spreading centers that were active from ~15 to 7 Ma ago in this region, suggesting ridge-parallel strike-slip faulting. The fault zone is well exposed in a river gorge for ~2 km along a well-defined regional lineament. The combined damage zone and fault core are about 50 m wide revealing an especially intense and complex style of deformation compared to other Icelandic fault zones. Basaltic lava flows on either side of the fault zone are cut by numerous closely spaced (10s of cm to m) Riedel shear fractures that grade into a fault core of progressively more intensely fractured lava and strongly altered and mineralized fault breccias, cataclasite and fault gouge. Riedel shears are frequently rotated or bend into the main fault zone. Distinctive bands of fault breccia derived from lava flow interiors, flow tops and dike rock are mapped for tens of meters along strike and reach thicknesses of several meters wide. Breccias contain angular basaltic fragments that range from few meters to millimeters. Fault breccias are typically clast supported with a matix of finely comminuted basalt clasts to clay gouge. 'Jigsaw' breccias are supported by a calcite matrix. Discrete faults and shear fractures show dominantly gently plunging slickenlines and abundant kinematic indicators showing dextral>normal oblique slip. Zeolite and calcite veins show multiple episodes of extension. Local left steps in fault zone are marked by extensional duplex structures with vertical separations of tens of meters bounded by major strike-slip fault strands. The overall architecture of the fault zone in interpreted as an exhumed flower structure. Numerous deformed and undeformed basaltic dikes sub-parallel the deformation structures, suggesting synkinematic intrusion. Some dikes deviate from the strike of the fault zone and cut across the deformation fabrics. Although no features could be correlated across the fault zone to constrain the lateral displacement, empirical gouge thickness/displacement scaling relationships suggest at least several kilometers of slip. Previous studies interpreted the Gljúfurá Fault Zone was one of a family of parallel, strike-slip “bookshelf” faults associated with a transform fault zone linking two now-extinct rifts. Unlike the well-known rift-parallel, strike-slip faults of the South Iceland Seismic Zone and the Tjornes Fracture Zone, the Gljúfurá Fault Zone appears to be an isolated structure with substantially larger displacement that is discordant with surrounding basement lineaments. Major strike-slip faults of this kind can provide important clues in the reconstruction of ridge-hot spot interactions in Iceland.

Nanfito, A.; Karson, J. A.

2009-12-01

311

It's Not Your Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn about tectonic plate movement. They will discover that we can measure the relative motions of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault. Students will be able to compare and contrast movements on either side of the San Andreas Fault, calculate the amount of movement of a tectonic plate over a period of time, and describe the processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes along the fault.

312

The San Andreas Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the San Andreas Fault in California; specifically what has caused the fault, where it is located, surface features that characterize it, and movement that has occurred. General earthquake information includes an explanation of what earthquakes are, and earthquake magnitude versus intensity. Earthquakes that have occurred along the fault are covered, as well as where the next large one may occur and what can be done about large earthquakes in general.

Sandra Schulz

313

Its Not My Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students become familiar with strike-slip faults, normal faults, reverse faults and visualize these geological structures using cardboard or a plank of wood, a stack of books, protractor, and a spring scale. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

314

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

315

Fault Creep on the Hayward Fault, CA: Implications for Fault Properties and Patterns of Moment Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic risk associated with creeping faults such as the Hayward fault (San Francisco Bay Area, CA) will depend on the rate of moment accumulation (slip deficit) on the fault plane, on the specific geometry of locked and free portions of the fault, and on the interactions between the fault zone and the surrounding lithosphere. Using a visco-elastic finite-element model,

R. Malservisi; K. P. Furlong; C. Gans

2001-01-01

316

ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

317

Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

Schoess, Jeffrey N.

1999-05-01

318

Bedrock channel adjustment to tectonic forcing: Implications for predicting river incision rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present detailed data of channel morphology for a river undergoing a transient response to active normal faulting where excellent constraints exist on spatial and temporal variations in fault slip rates. We show that traditional hydraulic scaling laws break down in this situation, and that channel widths become decoupled from drainage area upstream of the fault. Unit stream powers are

Alexander C. Whittaker; Patience A. Cowie; Mikaël Attal; Gregory E. Tucker; Gerald P. Roberts

2007-01-01

319

Fault detection and fault tolerance in robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots are used in inaccessible or hazardous environments in order to alleviate some of the time, cost and risk involved in preparing men to endure these conditions. In order to perform their expected tasks, the robots are often quite complex, thus increasing their potential for failures. If men must be sent into these environments to repair each component failure in the robot, the advantages of using the robot are quickly lost. Fault tolerant robots are needed which can effectively cope with failures and continue their tasks until repairs can be realistically scheduled. Before fault tolerant capabilities can be created, methods of detecting and pinpointing failures must be perfected. This paper develops a basic fault tree analysis of a robot in order to obtain a better understanding of where failures can occur and how they contribute to other failures in the robot. The resulting failure flow chart can also be used to analyze the resiliency of the robot in the presence of specific faults. By simulating robot failures and fault detection schemes, the problems involved in detecting failures for robots are explored in more depth.

Visinsky, Monica; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

1992-01-01

320

Seismic expression of Buffalo deep fault, Buffalo, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A concealed, west-dipping, high-angle reverse fault, one of a pair first reported by N.H. Foster, P.E. Goodwin, and R.E. Fisher in 1969, has been interpreted from seismic profiles in the area south and west of Buffalo, Wyoming. The fault, named the Buffalo deep fault (BDF) by D.L. Blackstone, Jr., in 1981, trends generally north-northwest and dips westward along the deepest part of the Powder River basin near the western margin. The projected surface trace lies as much as 14 mi east of the nearest outcrop of Precambrian rocks on the eastern flank of the Bighorn Mountains. Offset on the BDF decreases upward through the Paleozoic section into younger rocks that have been folded into the synclinal bend of an east-facing monocline. The monocline, the BDF, and another reverse fault appear clearly on a high-quality seismic profile that trends east-west about 8 mi southwest of Buffalo, Wyoming. This profile is one of many that have been surveyed across the mountain front. Maximum throw across the BDF is about 4500 ft from the base of the Phanerozoic section. This throw, plus the steepened dips on the upthrown western block, account for only part of the large uplift on the Bighorn Mountains. The remainder of the uplift probably is the consequence of movement on younger thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and normal faults, many of which are exposed. The BDF, monocline, thrust faults, and strike-slip faults were formed by horizontal compression, a dominantly eastward component of movement for the Bighorn Mountain block with respect to the Powder River basin.

Hinrichs, E.N.; Grow, J.A.; Miller, J.J.; Lee, M.W.

1986-08-01

321

Palaeoseismology of the L'Aquila faults (central Italy, 2009, Mw 6.3 earthquake): implications for active fault linkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urgent urban-planning problems related to the 2009 April, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake prompted immediate excavation of palaeoseismological trenches across the active faults bordering the Aterno river valley; namely, the Mt. Marine, Mt. Pettino and Paganica faults. Cross-cutting correlations amongst existing and new trenches that were strengthened by radiocarbon ages and archaeological constraints show unambiguously that these three investigated structures have been active since the Last Glacial Maximum period, as seen by the metric offset that affected the whole slope/alluvial sedimentary succession up to the historical deposits. Moreover, in agreement with both 18th century accounts and previous palaeoseismological data, we can affirm now that these faults were responsible for the catastrophic 1703 February 2, earthquake (Mw 6.7). The data indicate that the Paganica-San Demetrio fault system has ruptured in the past both together with the conterminous Mt. Pettino-Mt. Marine fault system, along more than 30 km and causing an Mw 6.7 earthquake, and on its own, along ca. 19 km, as in the recent 2009 event and in the similar 1461 AD event. This behaviour of the L'Aquila faults has important implications in terms of seismic hazard assessment, while it also casts new light on the ongoing fault linkage processes amongst these L'Aquila faults.

Galli, Paolo A. C.; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Peronace, Edoardo; Zuppi, Giovanni Maria

2011-12-01

322

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

323

Fault table generation using Graphics Processing Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the implementation of fault table generation on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). A fault table is essential for fault diagnosis and fault detection in VLSI testing and debug. Generating a fault table requires extensive fault simulation, with no fault dropping, and is extremely expensive from a computational standpoint. Fault simulation is inherently parallelizable, and the

Kanupriya Gulati; Sunil P Khatri

2009-01-01

324

Testing for Design Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing theories of testing focus on verification. Their strategy is to cover a specification or a program text to a certain degree in order to raise the confidence in the correctness of a system under test. We take a dierent approach in the sense that we present a theory of fault-based testing. Fault-based testing uses test data designed to demonstrate

Bernhard K. Aichernig; Jifeng He

2005-01-01

325

SFT: scalable fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency---requiring

Fabrizio Petrini; Jarek Nieplocha; Vinod Tipparaju

2006-01-01

326

Denali Fault: Susitna Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Helicopters and satellite phones were integral to the geologic field response. Here, Peter Haeussler is calling a seismologist to pass along the discovery of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault. View is to the north up the Susitna Glacier. The Denali fault trace lies in the background where the two lan...

327

Denali Fault: Gillette Pass  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View northward of mountain near Gillette Pass showing sackung features. Here the mountaintop moved downward like a keystone, producing an uphill-facing scarp. The main Denali fault trace is on the far side of the mountain and a small splay fault is out of view below the photo....

328

Denali Fault: Gillette Pass  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View north of Denali fault trace at Gillette Pass. this view shows that the surface rupture reoccupies the previous fault scarp. Also the right-lateral offset of these stream gullies has developed since deglaciation in the last 10,000 years or so....

329

Denali Fault: Alaska Pipeline  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View south along the Trans Alaska Pipeline in the zone where it was engineered for the Denali fault. The fault trace passes beneath the pipeline between the 2nd and 3rd slider supports at the far end of the zone. A large arc in the pipe can be seen in the pipe on the right, due to shortening of the ...

330

Puente Hills Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puente Hills Fault posses a disaster threat for Los Angeles region. Earthquake simulations on this fault estimate damages over $250 billion. Visualizations created by SDSC using the data computed from earthquake simulations helps one to fathom the propagation of siesmic waves and the areas affected.

331

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new replication algorithm that is able to tolerate Byzantine faults. We believe that Byzantine- fault-tolerant algorithms will be increasingly important in the future because malicious attacks and software errors are increasingly common and can cause faulty nodes to exhibit arbitrary behavior. Whereas previous algorithms assumed a synchronous system or were too slow to be used in

Miguel Castro; Barbara Liskov

1999-01-01

332

Fault rocks lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is intended to give students some hands on experience looking at fault rocks with a suite of cataclasites and mylonites I have collected. The focus is on identifying key textural features in both hand sample and thin section and understanding how deformation within a fault zone varies with depth.

John Singleton

333

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat flow paradox provides evidence that a dynamic weakening mechanism may be important in understanding fault friction and rupture. We present here a specific model for dynamic velocity weakening that uses the mechanics of well-studied industrial bearings to explain fault zone processes. An elevated fluid pressure is generated in a thin film of viscous fluid that is sheared between

Emily E. Brodsky; Hiroo Kanamori

2001-01-01

334

Folds and Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how rock layers are folded and faulted and how to represent these structures in maps and cross sections. They will use playdough to represent layers of rock and make cuts in varying orientations to represent faults and other structures.

335

Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of deformation on the LA and SFS segments: an early period characterized by fault-propagation or structural wedge kinematics that terminates in the early Pleistocene, followed by a period of quiescence. The faults were subsequently reactivated in the middle Pleistocene and propagated upward to detachments, with the deformation characterized by fold-bend folding kinematics. Slip on the LA segment decreases to the West, suggesting lateral growth in that direction. Our work highlights the need to assess along-strike variability in slip rate when assessing the seismic hazard of a compressional fault, as marginal sites may significantly underestimate fault activity. Ponti, D. J. et al. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 1013 (2007).

Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

2013-12-01

336

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

337

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

338

Characterization of leaky faults  

SciTech Connect

Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs.

Shan, Chao

1990-05-01

339

Red River chloride remote sensing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Side looking radar, infrared thermal imagery and color photography, together with a few examples of black and white panoramic photos, are used to supplement information on the natural saline pollution problem that is hydrologically and geologically oriented. The study area was explored concurrently by ground methods and a reasonably good understanding of hydrogeological conditions has been achieved. Examples of the products acquired, their interpretation, and use techniques are included.

1975-01-01

340

Lower Chippewa River Baseline Monitoring Fisheries Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) water program staff surveyed the lower Red Cedar River during the 1999 and 2000 field seasons as part of the nonwadeable,baseline monitoring strategy for Wisconsin’s large rivers. A total of seventy species of fish were collected from the lower Red Cedar using a variety of techniques. This is twenty-three more species then

Heath M. Benike; Dean A. Johnson

341

A CMOS fault extractor for inductive fault analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductive fault analysis (IFA) method is presented and a description is given of the CMOS fault extraction program FXT. The IFA philosophy is to consider the causes of faults (manufacturing defects) and then simulate these causes to find the faults that are likely to occur in a circuit. FXT automates IFA for a CMOS technology by generating a list

F. Joel Ferguson; John Paul Shen

1988-01-01

342

ZAMBEZI: a parallel pattern parallel fault sequential circuit fault simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential circuit fault simulators use the multiple bits in a computer data word to accelerate simulation. We introduce, and implement, a new sequential circuit fault simulator, a parallel pattern parallel fault simulator, ZAMBEZI, which simultaneously simulates multiple faults with multiple vectors in one data word. ZAMBEZI is developed by enhancing the control flow, of existing parallel pattern algorithms. For a

Minesh B. Amin; Bapiraju Vinnakota

1996-01-01

343

Transient fault modeling and fault injection simulation  

E-print Network

An accurate transient fault model is presented in this thesis. A 7-term exponential current upset model is derived from the results of a device-level, 3-dimensional, single-event-upset simulation. A curve-fitting algorithm is used to extract...

Yuan, Xuejun

1996-01-01

344

System fault diagnostics using fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years advances in technology have led to an increase in the complexity and sophistication of systems. More complex systems can be harder to maintain and the root cause of a fault more difficult to isolate. Down-time resulting from a system failure can be dangerous or expensive depending on the type of system. In aircraft systems the

E. E. Hurdle; L. M. Bartlett; J. D. Andrews

2008-01-01

345

Fault-slip analyses of brittle structures in the Corruvagge valley along the Pärvie fault in North Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a dozen large faults have been subjected to glacially-induced faulting in northern Scandinavia. These faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and they could be of Precambrian age with a long deformation history including repeated periods of reactivations. Based on their size, it has been proposed that these faults have hosted unusually large intraplate earthquakes. These faults are the targets for a scientific drilling project under development for the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the "Drilling into Active Faults in Northern Europe" (Kukkonen et al. 2010). A major issue to be address before submitting the full IDCP proposal regards the question: Did the fault scarps host one large mega-earthquake or has it hosted several smaller events. To address this question, a field study was conducted in the summer of 2011, at three locations along the Pärvie fault in northern Sweden. The Pärvie fault scarp is ~160 km in length and 10-15 m in height, and it is the longest known postglacial fault in the world. It is suggested that the Pärvie fault hosted a mega-earthquake (M?8.2; Arvidsson, 1996) at the end or just after the last ice age, and seismic monitoring reveal that it remains seismically active today (e.g. Lindblom, 2011), with several hundreds of microearthquakes a year (M?3). Brittle structures were first collected in two locations by Riad (1990). Additional data have now been collected at three new locations. The Corruvagge valley is the most impressive site from the recent campaign, where data were collected along a profile that followed a dried-up river valley that cuts the Pärvie fault at approximately a perpendicular angle. This site offers a unique opportunity for a detailed investigation of brittle deformation from the hanging wall to the foot wall. About 1000 kinematic indicators were collected, in at least three different fracture filling minerals. We are currently in the process of evaluating structural fault-slip analyses of brittle structures; (2) chemical identification of minerals; and (3) assess the age of one sample. The anticipated results from the fault-slip analysis is the relative age between structures and together with the paleostress analysis and the absolute dating it will strengthen the chronological order of the different stress fields that has affected the fault through time.

Bäckström, A.; Rantakokko, N.; Ask, M. V. S.

2012-04-01

346

Characterization of Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- There are currently three major competing views on the essential geometrical, mechanical, and mathematical nature of faults. The standard view is that faults are (possibly segmented and heterogeneous) Euclidean zones in a continuum solid. The continuum-Euclidean view is supported by seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic imaging studies; by successful modeling of observed seismic radiation, geodetic data, and changes in seismicity patterns; by detailed field studies of earthquake rupture zones and exhumed faults; and by recent high resolution hypocenter distributions along several faults. The second view focuses on granular aspects of fault structures and deformation fields. The granular view is supported by observations of rock particles in fault zone gouge; by studies of block rotations and the mosaic structure of the lithosphere (which includes the overall geometry of plate tectonics); by concentration of deformation signals along block boundaries; by correlation of seismicity patterns on scales several times larger than those compatible with a continuum framework; and by strongly heterogeneous wave propagation effects on the earth's surface. The third view is that faults are fractal objects with rough surfaces and branching geometry. The fractal view is supported by some statistical analysis of regional hypocenter locations; by long-range correlation of various measurements in geophysical boreholes; by the fact that observed power-law statistics of earthquakes are compatible with an underlying scale-invariant geometrical structure; by geometrical analysis of fault traces at the earth's surface; and by measurements of joint and fault surfaces topography.There are several overlaps between expected phenomenology in continuum-Euclidean, granular, and fractal frameworks of crustal deformation. As examples, highly heterogeneous seismic wavefields can be generated by granular media, by fractal structures, and by ground motion amplification around and scattering from an ensemble of Euclidean fault zones. A hierarchical granular structure may have fractal geometry. Power-law statistics of earthquakes can be generated by slip on one or more heterogeneous planar faults, by a fractal collection of faults, and by deformation of granular material. Each of the three frameworks can produce complex spatio-temporal patterns of earthquakes and faults. At present the existing data cannot distinguish unequivocally between the three different views on the nature of fault zones or determine their scale of relevance. However, in each observational category, the highest resolution results associated with mature large-displacement faults are compatible with the standard continuum-Euclidean framework. This can be explained by a positive feedback mechanism associated with strain weakening rheology and localization, which attracts the long-term evolution of faults toward progressive regularization and Euclidean geometry. A negative feedback mechanism associated with strain hardening during initial deformation phases and around persisting geometrical irregularities and conjugate sets of faults generates new fractures and granularity at different scales. We conclude that long-term deformation in the crust, including many aspects of the observed spatio-temporal complexity of earthquakes and faults, may be explained to first order within the continuum-Euclidean framework.

Ben-Zion, Y.; Sammis, C. G.

347

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

348

TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR OF WINTERING RED HEADED WOODPECKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERRITORIES of Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) were studied near Seneca, Montgomery County, Maryland, where a win- ter population was attracted to pin oaks (Quercus palustris) growing near the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Potomac River. These woodpeckers appeared in September, 1956, and left in May, 1957. Their breeding grounds were unknown. The winter territories were small, well-defined, and repre-

LAWRENCE KILHAM

349

Fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley, California - Field survey and fault model test -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop hydrologic characterization technology of fault zones, it is desirable to clarify the relationship between the geologic structure and hydrologic properties of fault zones. To this end, we are performing surface-based geologic and trench investigations, geophysical surveys and borehole-based hydrologic investigations along the Wildcat fault in Berkeley,California to investigate the effect of fault zone structure on regional hydrology. The present paper outlines the fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley on the basis of results from trench excavation surveys. The approximately 20 - 25 km long Wildcat fault is located within the Berkeley Hills and extends northwest-southeast from Richmond to Oakland, subparallel to the Hayward fault. The Wildcat fault, which is a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip fault, steps right in a releasing bend at the Berkeley Hills region. A total of five trenches have been excavated across the fault to investigate the deformation structure of the fault zone in the bedrock. Along the Wildcat fault, multiple fault surfaces are branched, bent, paralleled, forming a complicated shear zone. The shear zone is ~ 300 m in width, and the fault surfaces may be classified under the following two groups: 1) Fault surfaces offsetting middle Miocene Claremont Chert on the east against late Miocene Orinda formation and/or San Pablo Group on the west. These NNW-SSE trending fault surfaces dip 50 - 60° to the southwest. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 1 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 60 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show normal right-slip shear sense. 2) Fault surfaces forming a positive flower structure in Claremont Chert. These NW-SE trending fault surfaces are sub-vertical or steeply dipping. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 3 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 200 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show reverse right-slip shear sense. We are performing sandbox experiments to investigate the three-dimensional kinematic evolution of fault systems caused by oblique-slip motion. The geometry of the Wildcat fault in the Berkeley Hills region shows a strong resemblance to our sandbox experimental model. Based on these geological and experimental data, we inferred that the complicated fault systems were dominantly developed within the fault step and the tectonic regime switched from transpression to transtension during the middle to late Miocene along the Wildcat fault.

Ueta, K.; Onishi, C. T.; Karasaki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Hamada, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ito, H.; Tsukuda, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, J.; Moriya, T.

2010-12-01

350

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

351

Fault diagnosis of analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, various fault location techniques in analog networks are described and compared. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in the subject. Four main approaches for fault location are addressed, examined, and illustrated using simple network examples. In particular, we consider the fault dictionary approach, the parameter identification approach, the fault verification approach, and the approximation approach.

J. W. Bandler; A. E. Salama

1985-01-01

352

Development of secondary faults between en echelon, oblique-slip faults: examples from basement controlled, small-fault systems in the Llano Uplift of central Texas  

E-print Network

observed in outcrops of the lower 2-1O m of the basal Cambrian Hickory Sandstone, exposed along the Llano river in Mason County, Texas. Numerous fault systems, defined by fault type, timing, distribution and orientation are often observed in the same..., by the Center for Tectonophysics, by a fellowship from Chevron Oil Company and by a thesis research grant from the Gulf Coast Section Society ot Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogfsts. Robin McNeely artfully interpreted my handwriting and typed the text...

Hedgcoxe, Howard Reiffert

1987-01-01

353

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

354

Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.

355

Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

2002-09-01

356

THE LITTLE WASHITA RIVER EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) located in the Red River Basin of the Southern Great Plains near Chickasha, OK is one of USDA Agricultural Research Service's largest and best-instrumented watersheds. The LWREW drains an area of 610 square kilometers and is characterized by v...

357

A “mesh” of crossing faults: Fault networks of southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed geologic mapping of active fault systems in the western Salton Trough and northern Peninsular Ranges of southern California make it possible to expand the inventory of mapped and known faults by compiling and updating existing geologic maps, and analyzing high resolution imagery, LIDAR, InSAR, relocated hypocenters and other geophysical datasets. A fault map is being compiled on Google Earth and will ultimately discriminate between a range of different fault expressions: from well-mapped faults to subtle lineaments and geomorphic anomalies. The fault map shows deformation patterns in both crystalline and basinal deposits and reveals a complex fault mesh with many curious and unexpected relationships. Key findings are: 1) Many fault systems have mutually interpenetrating geometries, are grossly coeval, and allow faults to cross one another. A typical relationship reveals a dextral fault zone that appears to be continuous at the regional scale. In detail, however, there are no continuous NW-striking dextral fault traces and instead the master dextral fault is offset in a left-lateral sense by numerous crossing faults. Left-lateral faults also show small offsets where they interact with right lateral faults. Both fault sets show evidence of Quaternary activity. Examples occur along the Clark, Coyote Creek, Earthquake Valley and Torres Martinez fault zones. 2) Fault zones cross in other ways. There are locations where active faults continue across or beneath significant structural barriers. Major fault zones like the Clark fault of the San Jacinto fault system appears to end at NE-striking sinistral fault zones (like the Extra and Pumpkin faults) that clearly cross from the SW to the NE side of the projection of the dextral traces. Despite these blocking structures, there is good evidence for continuation of the dextral faults on the opposite sides of the crossing fault array. In some instances there is clear evidence (in deep microseismic alignments of hypocenters) that the master dextral faults zones pass beneath shallower crossing fault arrays above them and this mechanism may transfer strain through the blocking zones. 3) The curvature of strands of the Coyote Creek fault and the Elsinore fault are similar along their SE 60 km. The scale, locations and concavity of bends are so similar that their shape appears to be coordinated. The matching contractional and extensional bends suggests that originally straighter dextral fault zones may be deforming in response of coeval sinistral deformation between, beneath, and around them. 4) Deformation is strongly domainal with one style or geometry of structure dominating in one area then another in an adjacent area. Boundaries may be abrupt. 5) There are drastic lateral changes in the width of damage zones adjacent to master faults. Outlines of the deformation related to some dextral fault zones resemble a snake that has ingested a squirming cat or soccer ball. 6) A mesh of interconnected faults seems to transfer slip back and forth between structures. 7) Scarps are not necessarily more abundant on the long master faults than on connector or crossing faults. Much remains to be learned upon completion the fault map.

Janecke, S. U.

2009-12-01

358

Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

E-print Network

Library Monday, June 9 Kalispell, MT 430-6 pm Red Lion Hotel Tuesday, June 10 Missoula, MT 430-6 pm Double Tree Edgewater Monday, June 16 Spokane, WA 5-6 pm Red Lion River Inn Tuesday, June 17 Yakima, WA 5-6 pm Hilton Garden Inn Wednesday, June 18 Pendleton, OR 430-6 pm Red Lion Pendleton Wednesday, June 25 Boise

359

Late Quaternary faulting and historic seismicity in the western Lake Mead area, Nevada, Arizona and California  

SciTech Connect

As part of a regional seismic hazard study for Reclamation dams on the northern lower Colorado River, the age and distribution of known and suspected late Quaternary faults were investigated and historic seismicity was analyzed for the western Lake Mead area. Late Quaternary faults in the area consist of the Mead Slope, Black Hills, Frenchman Mountain, and California Wash faults. Geologic mapping and scarp profiles indicate that of these late Quaternary faults, the Black Hills fault displays evidence for the youngest (probably mid-Holocene) surface faulting. No information about the ages of older events was obtained for any of the faults; however, the ages of the most recent surface-rupturing events for individual faults suggest recurrence intervals of tens of thousands of years for specific faults and regional recurrence rates of several thousand years for M[sub 3] [>=] 6 1/2 events. Since 1936 when Hoover Dam was completed and the initial filling of Lake Mead began, the Boulder Basin area, the largest and deepest part of Lake Mead, has experienced abundant seismic activity that includes some of the largest historic earthquakes in southern Nevada (at least 21 M 4 events and one M 5). Based on earthquake locations from early networks (1937--1950) and those from temporary networks operating in 1975--1976 and 1988, earthquakes are clearly associated with the northeast-striking Mead Slope and Black Hills faults; one of the few associations of seismicity with late Quaternary faults in the Basin and Range. However, earthquakes also appear to be associated with the Fortification fault, a north-striking fault with no evidence of Quaternary surface faulting. Focal mechanisms for some of the 1975--1976 and 1988 events (all events M [<=] 3) suggest active strike-slip/oblique-slip motion on north-striking faults and normal/oblique-slip motion on northeast-striking structures.

Anderson, L.W.; O'Connel, D.R. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

360

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our growing reliance on online services accessible on the Internet demands highly-available systemsthat provide correct service without interruptions. Byzantine faults such as software bugs, operatormistakes, and malicious attacks are the major cause of service interruptions. This thesis describesa new replication algorithm, BFT, that can be used to build highly-available systems that tolerateByzantine faults. It shows, for the first time, how

Miguel Castro

2001-01-01

361

Fault reactivation control on normal fault growth: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies frequently emphasize how fault reactivation is involved in the deformation of the upper crust. However, this phenomenon is generally neglected (except in inversion models) in analogue and numerical models performed to study fault network growth. Using sand/silicon analogue models, we show how pre-existing discontinuities can control the geometry and evolution of a younger fault network. The models show that the reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities and their orientation control: (i) the evolution of the main fault orientation distribution through time, (ii) the geometry of relay fault zones, (iii) the geometry of small scale faulting, and (iv) the geometry and location of fault-controlled basins and depocenters. These results are in good agreement with natural fault networks observed in both the Gulf of Suez and Lake Tanganyika. They demonstrate that heterogeneities such as pre-existing faults should be included in models designed to understand the behavior and the tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Daniel, Jean Marc

2005-04-01

362

Seeing Red  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

2008-01-01

363

The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

2014-06-11

364

Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of strike-slip faults in Jamaica: Implications for distribution of strain and seismic hazard along the southern edge of the Gonave microplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The east-west, left lateral strike-slip fault system forming the southern edge of the Gonave microplate crosses the110-km-long and 70-km-wide island of Jamaica. GPS measurements in the northeastern Caribbean are supportive of the microplate interpretation and indicate that ~ half of the Caribbean-North America left-lateral plate motion (8-14 mm/yr) is carried by the Plantain Garden (PGFZ) and associated faults in Jamaica. We performed Neotectonic mapping of the Plantain Garden fault along the southern rangefront of the Blue Mountains and conducted a paleoseismic study of the fault at Morant River. Between Holland Bay and Morant River, the fault is characterized by a steep, faceted, linear mountain front, prominent linear valleys and depressions, shutter ridges, and springs. At the eastern end of the island, the PGFZ is characterized by a left-stepping fault geometry that includes a major, active hot spring. The river cut exposure at Morant River exposes a 1.5-m-wide, sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and faulted Cretaceous basement rocks. This section is overlain by an, unfaulted 3-m-thick fluvial terrace inset into a late Pleistocene terrace that is culturally modified. Upward fault terminations indicate the occurrence of three paleoearthquakes that occurred prior to deposition of the flat lying inset terrace around 341-628 cal yr BP. At this time, our radiocarbon results suggest that we can rule out the PGFZ as the source of the 1907 Kingston earthquake 102 years ago, as well as, the 1692 event that destroyed Port Royal 317 years ago and produced a major landslide at Yallahs. Pending OSL ages will constrain the age of the penultimate and most recent ruptures. Gently to steeply dipping rocks as young as Pliocene exposed in roadcuts within the low coastal hills south of and parallel to the Plantain Garden fault may indicate active folding and blind thrust faulting. These structures are poorly characterized and may accommodate an unknown amount of oblique strain. Reconnaissance mapping was also performed along the South Coast fault in south-central Jamaica north of Portland Ridge, and along the Crawle River-Rio Minho fault near Frankfield in the Central Inlier. The absence of fault scarps or other tectonic geomorphic features across fluvial terraces of the Milk and Minho Rivers indicate that the South Coast fault has not been active in Holocene time. Left laterally offset streams, linear valleys, and saddles support active faulting along the east-west Crawle River-Rio Minho fault that is roughly collinear with the western extension of the Plantain Garden fault.

Koehler, R. D.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

2009-12-01

365

Geology Fieldnotes: Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information on the Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve in Alaska, including geology, visitor information, photographs, and links to further resources. The Yukon is a large river flowing along a fault through Alaska, and the Charley is a major tributary flowing into it. Some gold rush history is discussed, as well as wildlife and vegetation.

366

Quaternary faults of the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado: A new seismotectonic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Quaternary faults in the central Rocky Mountain of CO exhibit normal displacement, are generally parallel to the strike of pre-existing Larmide structures, and typically occur in the hanging walls of Laramide thrust faults. These observations are consistent with models in which Mesozoic thrust faults are being reactivated as normal faults in the contemporary extensional tectonic setting. To assess the seismogenic potential of these faults, the authors evaluated the recency of fault movement and style of deformation via aerial reconnaissance, interpretation of aerial photography and field mapping of selected sites. The 82-km-long Red Rocks-Climarron fault zone shows evidence of late Quaternary displacement and may be capable of producing an M[>=]6.75 earthquake based on its total fault length and inferred fault width. Earthquake hypocenters indicate that the thickness of the seismogence crust in CO is similar to much of the western US (ca. 15 km). In additional to tectonic deformation, numerous faults and lineaments have been identified in the Paradox Basin and along the southern Grand Hogback monocline that are active due to diapiric movement of halite. In particular, active deformation along the Grand Hogback is limited to portions of the structure underlain by a 3-km-deep Pennsylvania halite basin. Because Quaternary deformation along and near these large Laramide structures is due to the movement of halite rather than deep-seated tectonism, the maximum size of a potential earthquake is limited by the down-dip width and lateral extent of fault planes within brittle rocks overlying the halite. The authors infer that the maximum depth of brittle faulting due to diapiric halite flow is 6 km, and the earthquakes larger than M 5 are unlikely to occur on faults associated with the Grand Hogback and salt anticlines of the Paradox Basin. The 1984 Carbondale earthquake swarm (M[<=]3.2) may have been the result of such faulting.

Unruh, J.R.; Noller, J.S.; Lettis, W.R. (William Lettis and Association, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)); Wong, I.G.; Sawyer, T.L.; Bott, J.D.J. (Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

367

Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

D. P. McKenzie; D. Davies; P. MOLNAR

1970-01-01

368

Generation of relief by fault propagation folding in the Kochkor Basin of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern margin of the Kochkor basin in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan is actively shortening. At the range front the South Kochkor Fault, a north verging basement bounding thrust fault, is emplacing Paleozoic granite on orogenic Tertiary sediments from the onset of Tien Shan exhumation. Displacement on the fault in the area of focus is at most a few hundred meters; however, the structural relief in the region amounts to 4-5 kilometers. North of the uplifted basement is a 2km thick unit of east-west striking, steeply dipping to overturned sediments that exhibit signs of flexural sheer such as intraformational folds. This steep section is separated from limbs of gently dipping beds both to the north and south by narrow hinge zones. Farther into the basin, the top of the tertiary formation is thrusting over Quaternary deposits in two younger episodes of faulting. Through detailed (1:25,000) mapping west of the Djuanarik River, we can conclude that most of the structural relief in the area is due to fault propagation folding of the entire Tertiary package. Post folding, the original fault has propagated into the basin in two distinct branches. Age constraints from PMAG data and fossil specimens place the conformable uppermost deformed unit (Sharpyldak formation) in the Pleistocene, indicating the relief due to folding in the basin has accumulated in the last 2-5 million years. Elsewhere in the basin the balance between faulting and folding changes. As the South Kochkor fault trends east, displacement on the fault increases as the degree of folding decreases. Within the area of focus the South Kochkor Fault, Achop Hills Fault and the farthest rupturing fault overlap along a north-south transect. Across the three fault traces, Quaternary terraces are clearly uplifted with discrete hinges, indicating all three faults are active.

Paulson, K. T.; Weldon, R. J.; Hopkins, S. S.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Weldon, N. M.

2012-12-01

369

Origin and Evolution of the Western Snake River Plain: Implications From Stratigraphy,  

E-print Network

Origin and Evolution of the Western Snake River Plain: Implications From Stratigraphy, Faulting.J. McGee, 2002, Origin and evolution of the western Snake River Plain: Implications from stratigraphy, and Michael McCurry, eds., Tectonic and Magmatic Evolution of the Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Idaho

Shervais, John W.

370

River Thames River Thames  

E-print Network

Road Barlby Road Dalgarno Gardens St. Charles Hospital St. Charles Square St. Mark's Road Cambridge Greenford Greenford Red Lion Allenby Road Ruislip Road Dormer's Wells Lane Telford Road Southall Town Hall for your chosen bus service. The disc appears on the top of the bus stop in the street (see map of town

371

Raft River geoscience case study  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (a) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone, apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (b) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (c) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (d) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

1981-11-01

372

Wrench faulting in selected areas of Permian Basin  

SciTech Connect

Landsat and NASA High Altitude Special Mission Aircraft imagery have made it possible to define at least six separate lineament trends between the Amarillo-Wichita uplift (N62/sup 0/W) and the Texas lineament (N54/sup 0/W) that are 200 to 330 mi (320 to 530 km) long and oriented N54/sup 0/W to N62/sup 0/W. These long lineaments are thought to be P shears and are left-lateral wrench faults by definition. This left-lateral wrench fault system has been demonstrated at the Carta Valley fault zone. The Permian surface between Brown-Bassett and JM field of Terrell, Crockett, and Val Verde Counties along the Pecos River has a fracture system that is compatible with wrench faulting. In Garza and Borden Counties, the elements of left-lateral wrench faulting can be demonstrated from high altitude aircraft imagery and demonstrated on the surface and in the subsurface with seismic support. Surface lineaments are observed on Landsat imagery throughout the Permian basin and lead to the belief that the very long N54/sup 0/ to 62/sup 0/W lineaments are P shears. The set oriented N86/sup 0/ +/- E are the Riedel shears and the N36/sup 0/E are conjugate Riedel shears. These for high angle en echelon faults at the surface in Borden and Garza Counties, and with the surface alignments being documented on CDP seismic lines in the subsurface.

Bolden, G.P.

1984-01-01

373

Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

2011-01-01

374

Development of a bridge fault extractor tool  

E-print Network

complete list of realistic two-node bridging faults. The DEFAM (Defect to Fault Mapper) fault extractor tool [23] was one of the first hierarchical fault extractors. The DEFAM tool consists of three main parts: 1) Hierarchy Identification 11 2...

Bhat, Nandan D.

2005-02-17

375

Stresses and Faulting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for students in an introductory structural geology course. While key concepts are described here, it is assumed that the students will have access to a good textbook to augment the information presented here. Learning goals: (1) Understand the role of gravity and rock properties in producing stresses in the shallow Earth. (2) Graphically represent stress states using Mohr diagrams. (3) Determine failure criteria from the results of laboratory experiments. (4) Explore the interaction of gravity-induced and tectonic stresses on fault formation. (5) Apply models of fault formation to predict fault behavior in two natural settings: San Onofre Beach in southern California and Canyonland National Park in Utah. The module is implemented entirely using Microsoft Excel. This program was selected due to its widespread availability and relative ease-of-use. It is assumed that students are familiar with using equations and graphing tools in Excel.

Linda Reinen

376

Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah  

SciTech Connect

A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

377

Transition-fault test generation  

E-print Network

. One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2013-02-22

378

Fault-Scarp Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the evolution of Earth's surface over time, as governed by the balance between constructional (tectonic) processes and destructional (erosional) processes. Introductory materials explain the processes of degradation, including the concepts of weathering-limited versus transport-limited slopes, and diffusion modeling. Using the process of diffusion modeling, students will determine how a slope changes through four 100-year time steps, calculate gradient angles for a fault scarp, and compare parameters calculated for two fault scarps, attempting to determine the age of the scarp created by the older, unknown earthquake. Example problems, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Nicholas Pinter

379

Computer hardware fault administration  

DOEpatents

Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Megerian, Mark G. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

2010-09-14

380

Fault tolerant linear actuator  

DOEpatents

In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

Tesar, Delbert

2004-09-14

381

Fault Rate Acceleration and Low Angle Normal Faulting: The Hunter Mountain Fault, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panamint Valley, Hunter Mountain, Saline Range (PHS) faults are, together with the Death Valley and Owens Valley faults, one of the three major fault zones within the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). The ECSZ is the most active fault system bounding the Basin and Range to the southwest with approximately 10 mm/yr of cumulative slip along strike-slip and trans-tensional segments. Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a geodetic technique that allows measurement of ground motion at a mm/yr accuracy over large areas with a high measurement sampling. We processed a large number of data to investigate ground motion in the PHS fault system to shed light on the interseismic strain accumulation and its relation to the fault geometry. Results indicate high strain rate over the Hunter Mountain fault, possibly showing slip rate acceleration of the fault since inception time. The locking depth of the fault inferred from elastic modeling of interseismic strain accumulation is on the order of a few kilometers, significantly shallower than for neighboring faults. The shallow locking depth inferred for the Hunter Mountain fault corresponds to the extension at depth of two suggested bounding low angle normal faults. This finding reinforced recent field study findings about possible activity of the low angle normal fault system.

Gourmelen, N.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.; Manzo, M.; Casu, F.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

2008-05-01

382

Analyzing Fault/Fracture Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a lab period, students go out in the field to an area that contains at least 2 fault/fracture sets. Students measure orientations of faults and make observations about the relationship between different fault sets. After the field trip, the students compile their field data, plot it on a stereonet and write-up a brief report. In this report students will use their field observations and stereonet patterns to determine whether faults are related or unrelated to each other.

Jamie Levine

383

Examine animations of fault motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for high school students, this Earth science resource provides animations of each of four different fault types: normal, reverse, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Each animation has its own set of movie control buttons, and arrows in each animation indicate the direction of force that causes that particular kind of fault. The introductory paragraph defines the terms fault plane, handing wall, and footwall--features that are labeled at the end of the appropriate animations. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

384

Fault reconstruction from sensor and actuator failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fault detection filters have been developed to detect and identify sensor and actuator faults by using analytical redundancy. In this paper, an approach for reconstructing sensor and actuator faults from the residual generated by the fault detection filter is proposed. The transfer matrix from the faults to the residual is derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the fault

Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer

2001-01-01

385

Optimal stochastic multiple-fault detection filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of robust fault detection filters is generalized from detecting single fault to multiple faults. This generalization is called the optimal stochastic multiple-fault detection filter since in the formulation, the unknown fault amplitudes are modeled as white noise. The residual space of the filter is divided into several subspaces and each subspace is sensitive to only one fault (target

Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer

1999-01-01

386

Organic Nitrogen Retention in the Atchafalaya River Swamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater diversions from the lower Mississippi River into the region’s wetlands have been considered an alternative means\\u000a for reducing nitrogen loading. The Atchafalaya River Swamp, the largest freshwater swamp in North America, carries the entire\\u000a discharge of the Red River and 30% of the discharge of the Mississippi River, but it is largely unknown how much nitrogen\\u000a actually can be

Y. Jun Xu

2006-01-01

387

New high impedance fault detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high impedance fault detection in power system is one of the hard works and if the fault does not clear then the power system may get into damage. In this paper a new method for high impedance fault detection is proposed. The proposed method is based on the chaotic and doffing function. The paper will propose the appropriate formula

A. Siadatan; H. Kazemi Karegar; V. Najmi

2010-01-01

388

A decentralized fault detection filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the decentralized fault detection filter which is the structure that results from merging decentralized estimation theory with a game theoretic fault detection filter. A decentralized approach may be the ideal way to health monitor large-scale systems for faults, since it decomposes the problem down into (potentially smaller) “local” problems and then blends the “local” results into a “global”

W. H. Chung; Jason L. Speyer

1998-01-01

389

Tolerating transient faults in MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of transient fault handling in the MARS architecture are discussed. After an overview of the MARS architecture, the mechanisms for the detection of transient faults are discussed in detail. In addition to extensive checks in the hardware and in the operating system, time-redundant execution of application tasks is proposed for the detection of transient faults. The time difference

H. Kopetz; H. Kantz; G. Grunsteidl; P. Puschner; J. Reisinger

1990-01-01

390

Diagnosable Systems for Intermittent Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosable systems composed of interconnected units which are capable of testing each other have been studied primarily from the point of view of permanent faults. Along such lines, designs have been proposed, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the diagnosis of such faults have been established. In this paper, we study the intermittent fault diagnosis capabilities of such systems. Necessary

Sivanarayana Mallela; Gerald M. Masson

1978-01-01

391

Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

Nason, R.

1979-01-01

392

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2010-02-23

393

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2012-02-07

394

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2008-10-14

395

Prudhoe Bay COLVILLE RIVER  

E-print Network

Fairbanks Juneau Tok Nome Circle Barrow Prudhoe Bay TANANA RIVER LOWER YUKON KOYUKUK RIVER COPPER RIVER COLVILLE RIVER SUSITNA RIVER BARROW ALASKA CENTRAL YUKON NORTON SOUND UPPER YUKON RIVER PORCUPINE RIVER UPPER KUSKOKWIM RIVER NUSHAGAK RIVER LOWER KUSKOKWIM RIVER PRUDHOE BAY CANADA KOBUK- SELAWIK

396

Turtle River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Turtle River at Turtle River State Park near Arvilla, North Dakota, shot of the riffle (towards center of picture, about 700 feet downstream) looking downstream, streamflow 14 cubic feet per second, August 19, 2010....

397

Trig River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about and use a right triangle to determine the width of a pretend river. Working in teams, they estimate of the width of the river, measure it and compare their results with classmates.

2011-04-12

398

River Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched the River Watch site, providing up-to-date river forecast information for the nation's largest river basins: the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, and Ohio River Basins). Daily river level summaries are provided for each basin, in addition to five-day forecasts for river stage heights (in feet). This site also offers hyperlinks to river forecast sites for the other major regions of the US (Southern, Central, and Eastern Regions), and other related sites. For current information on river level conditions in the US, this is a top-notch resource, made more valuable by the geographical extent of its coverage.

399

Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

Padilla, Peter A.

1991-03-01

400

Magnitudes of slip along the Greenville Fault in the Diablo Range and Corral Hollow areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geological description of the Greenville fault is given. The Greenville fault forms the eastern boundary to Livermore Valley and extends into the Diablo Range south of San Antonio Valley, a probable pull-apart structure. Gravity, magnetic, structural, and petrologic data indicate that the serpentinized ophiolite units at Cedar Mountain and Red Mountain were once continuous and are displaced dextrally along the Greenville fault by 9 km. The Livermore Oil Field marks the location of the buried western end of the Corral Hollow anticline which was displaced about 2 km northward along the Greenville fault following deposition and folding of Plio-Pleistocene rocks. Further east, the Corral Hollow syncline was displaced northward about 600 m along the Corral Hollow fault in a similar manner.

Sweeney, J. J.

1982-03-01

401

Fault diagnosis of analog circuits  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, various fault location techniques in analog networks are described and compared. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in the subject. Four main approaches for fault location are addressed, examined, and illustrated using simple network examples. In particular, we consider the fault dictionary approach, the parameter identification approach, the fault verification approach, and the approximation approach. Theory and algorithms that are associated with these approaches are reviewed and problems of their practical application are identified. Associated with the fault dictionary approach we consider fault dictionary construction techniques, methods of optimum measurement selection, different fault isolation criteria, and efficient fault simulation techniques. Parameter identification techniques that either utilize linear or nonlinear systems of equations to identify all network elements are examined very thoroughly. Under fault verification techniques we discuss node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. For the approximation approach we consider probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods. The artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are also considered. The main features of the techniques considered are summarized in a comparative table. An extensive, but not exhaustive, bibliography is provided.

Bandler, J.W.; Salama, A.E.

1985-08-01

402

Mississippi River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... of major cities are marked on the left-hand image; major rivers are marked on the right. The portion of the Mississippi River captured ... heavy rainfall swelled the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers. In the early morning of April 25, two days before the right-hand image ...

2014-05-15

403

Heart River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

404

Mississippi River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... the effect of snowmelt and heavy rainfalls on the Upper Mississippi River area of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Illinois. In the ...

2014-05-15

405

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

2004-01-01

406

Fractal dimension of faults network in the upper silesian coal basin (Poland): Preliminary studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal analysis of faults network, tremor foci spatial distribution as well as the Gutenberg-Richter relationship could further explain whether the biggest seismic events are connected with recent tectonic activity. Fractality of fault systems geometry, as a first step of the analysis, was tested fro a part of the USCB embodying the main structural units. The cluster analysis and the box counting methods were employed. The calculated fractal dimension of fault network was 1.98 for the whole area yet for considered structural units it was close to 1.6. The results point to similarity of studied fault pattern to river network. Faults within selected tectonic units make separate sets which have a distinct geometry and origin. The value of 1.6 is an upper limit to the fracture geometry of rocks that can be explained on the basis of Griffith energy balance concept.

Idziak, Adam; Teper, Les?aw

1996-07-01

407

Microtremors from the Reelfoot Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phased array of 19 broadband seismometers has been deployed since November 2009 in Mooring, TN, in order to re-observe microtremor activity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. An unusual set of high velocity signals identified in this region on an active source experiment in 2006 were interpreted as non-volcanic tremor. We search for signals with high phase velocity (3-25 km/s) in the 8-15 Hz frequency band that originate directly below the array, possibly on the Reelfoot thrust fault, similar to the original signals seen in the active source survey. We are interested in arrivals in the vertical components since there was no noticeable horizontal displacement in the original 2006 data set. In order to search this large dataset quickly and efficiently, an auto-detection algorithm has been written that filters the data and uses a broadband frequency/wavenumber array analysis to choose the energy peak with a certain slowness and azimuth window. When implemented, a weeks worth of data can be analyzed overnight. We have searched 6 months of data and have detected hundreds of candidate signals. These signals are only detectable on the vertical components of the array; no corresponding arrivals can be found within horizontal components. Detections are very different from local earthquakes and teleseismic events in both frequency content and duration. They are easily distinguishable from local well pumping, road and river traffic because they lack periodicity. These microtremor signals can occur as short burst of P-wave energy from a single to multiple arrivals over a duration of 2 minutes. The source of these arrivals is not yet known, but the high apparent phase velocity would imply that they originate from directly below the array. We are continuing to assemble a catalog of these mystery signals and are searching for patterns or trends to gain insight into their source processes. Our results will determine whether or not these signals are related to non-volcanic tremor noted in other fault settings or if they are a manifestation of another unknown process in the New Madrid Seismic Zone.

Bockholt, B.; Langston, C. A.; DeShon, H. R.

2011-12-01

408

Late quaternary active characteristics and slip-rate of Pingding-Huama Fault, the eastern segment of Guanggaishan-Dieshan Fault zone ( West Qinlin Mountain )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stretching along the west QinlinShan in the north Tibet, the Guanggaishan-Dieshanfaultis composed of three sub-parallel faults among which the major one is a fault named Pingding-Huama fault. The Pingding-Huama fault can be further defined as a combination of a western segment and an eastern segment separated by Minjiang river at Dangchang. Along the western segment of the Pingding-Huama fault, significant linear characteristics, scars, and fault scarps cutting several alluvial fans can be easily distinguished, indicating that the western segment is active since the late Quatenary and the elapsed time of the last event should be less than 1ka B.P.. We estimated the slip rates of the western segment through geomorphology analysis and dating the age of the top surface of terraces and the deformed strata (OSL, 14C). The results show that its reverse slip rate ranges from 0.69±0.16 to 1.15±0.28mm/a and the sinistral slip rate is 0.51±0.13mm/a. In contrast to the simple structure of the western segment, the eastern segment consists of several sub-parallel faults as well as oblique intersected faults. On all faults of the eastern segment, no sign of recent movement was discovered. Along these faults, the tectonic topography features a sequence of linear valleys in the west and dominant folds in the east. Only striations in bedrock and geomorphology show that the eastern segment was reversely slipping on the whole with sinistral component. In summary, at present the Pingding-Huama fault is active along its western segment while shows very weak deformation along the eastern segment.

Jingxing, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Daoyang, Y.; Jianzhang, P.; Xingwang, L.; Baiyun, L.

2012-12-01

409

The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left).

A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements.

Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled in mostly by sedimentary and erosional material deposited from above. Comparisons between faults on Europa and Earth may generate ideas useful in the study of terrestrial faulting.

One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. The tidal tension opens the fault; subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then the tidal forces close the fault up again. This prevents the area from moving back to its original position. If it moves forward with the next daily tidal cycle, the result is a steady accumulation of these lengthwise offset motions.

Unlike Europa, here on Earth, large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas are set in motion not by tidal pull, but by plate tectonic forces from the planet's mantle.

North is to the top of the picture. The Earth picture (left) shows a LandSat Thematic Mapper image acquired in the infrared (1.55 to 1.75 micrometers) by LandSat5 on Friday, October 20th 1989 at 10:21 am. The original resolution was 28.5 meters per picture element.

The Europa picture (right)is centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude. The highest resolution frames, obtained at 40 meters per picture element with a spacecraft range of less than 4200 kilometers (2600 miles), are set in the context of lower resolution regional frames obtained at 200 meters per picture element and a range of 22,000 kilometers (13,600 miles). The images were taken on September 26, 1998 by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL HTTP://www.j

1998-01-01

410

M. Gordon “Reds” Wolman (1924-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M. Gordon Wolman, known to all as “Reds,” died at his home in Baltimore, Md., on 24 February 2010. He was 85. His career was defined by fundamental contributions to scientists' understanding of rivers, pioneering work in developing interdisciplinary environmental education, and an extraordinary commitment to the application of research to water management and policy. His warmth, affection, and delight inspired generations of students, colleagues, and friends.

Wilcock, Peter

2010-08-01

411

Paleoseismological evidence from lake sediments for recent movement on the Denali and other faults, Yukon Territory, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the Pacific-North America plate motion in northwestern Canada and southeastern Alaska occurs along coastal faults that are the inland extension of the Queen Charlotte dextral transform fault. More ancient faults farther east, such as the Denali and Duke River faults, exhibit moderate earthquake activity and may be accommodating part of the Pacific plate motion. Paleoseismological results based on seismic resuspension of lake sediments, covering a period of up to 3000 years, show that the seismicity on the Denali-Duke River fault system is remarkably recent, spanning just the last three to five centuries. There is a northerly-trending zone of seismicity from the active Fairweather-Contact fault system on the coast, across to the part of the Denali fault that is currently, as well as prehistorically, active. This partial transfer eastward of Pacific plate motion may be analogous to a similar proposed transfer of motion northward to the Denali fault from the same Fairweather-Contact fault system, farther west in Alaska.

Doig, Ronald

1998-11-01

412

Displacement rates on the Toroweap and Hurricane faults: implications for Quaternary downcutting in the Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toroweap and Hurricane faults, considered to be the most active in Arizona, cross the Uinkaret volcanic field in the western Grand Canyon. These normal faults are downthrown to the west, and the Colorado River crosses these faults as it flows west in the Grand Canyon. Cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) dates on basalt flows and related landforms are used to calculate vertical displacement rates for these faults. The two faults cross unruptured alluvial fans dated as 3 ka (Toroweap) and 8 ka (Hurricane), and 10 other landforms that range in age from 30 to 400 ka are displaced. Middle and late Quaternary displacement rates of the Toroweap and Hurricane faults are 70–180 and 70–170 m/m.y., respectively. On the basis of these rates, the combined displacement of 580 m on these faults could have occurred in the past 3 to 5 m.y. All 3Hec dates are younger than existing K- Ar dates and are consistent with new 40Ar/39Ar dates and existing thermoluminescence (TL) dates on basalt flows. These different dating techniques may be combined in an analysis of displacement rates. Downcutting rates for the Colorado River in the eastern Grand Canyon (400 m/m.y.) are at least double the downcutting rates west of the faults (70–160 m/m.y.). Faulting probably increased downcutting in the eastern Grand Canyon relative to downcutting in the western Grand Canyon during the late Quaternary.

Fenton, Cassandra R.; Webb, Robert H.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.

2001-01-01

413

Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcanic