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1

Structure and tectonic geomorphology of the Qujiang fault at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwest-striking Qujiang fault is located at the southeastern tip of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system. The Qujiang fault is one of the most seismically active faults in western Yunnan, China and is considered to be the seismogenic fault of the 1970 Ms 7.7 Tonghai earthquake. In this study, we examine the geometry, kinematics, and geomorphology of this fault through field observations, satellite images, and DEMs. It is a Holocene active fault characterized by dextral strike-slip movements with dip-slip components. It can be divided into northwest and southeast segments depending on different kinematics. The northwest segment from Baiyizhai to Wujie shows right-lateral strike slip with normal components, whereas it is characterized by dextral movements with the northeast wall thrusting over the opposite in the southeast segment from Wujie to Miaobeishan. The geophysical data combined with our investigations indicate that the fault dips steeply to the NE at depth, while secondary faults with different dip directions developed at shallow surface owing to fault bifurcation. During the Tonghai earthquake, a blind fault may have developed on the southwest wall, resulting in aftershocks concentrated to the southwest of the surface raptures. Multiple tectonic landforms are developed along the fault. The right-lateral Holocene slip rate was determined to be 2.84-3.27 mm/year based on radiometrically dated offset gullies. Our analyses show that the present deformation at the intersection of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault and the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system is partitioned into a shortening distributed over a region ~ 150 km wide and a right-lateral strike slip localized on the Qujiang and Jianshui faults. Since the late Pleistocene, the Qujiang fault has been playing an important role in accommodating the ongoing SE-directed movements of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, creating strong earthquakes to release strain energy.

Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiwei

2014-11-01

2

Extensional step-over between the Zhongdian and Red River faults: kinematics of the Daju normal fault constrained by cosmogenic dating of the Yangtze terraces (Yulong Shan, Yunnan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extension in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibet, is limited by two dextral strike-slip faults, the Zhongdian and Red River faults, to the north and south, respectively, and is characterized by N-S directed normal faults and basins. In the northwestern corner of this large extensional step-over, the Yangtze River crosses the Daju normal fault at the foot of the Yulong Shan. Due to uplift of the Yulong Shan, the Yangtze carved the huge Huxiao Jia (Tiger Leap) Gorges (˜3500 m deep) and abandoned sets of fluvial terraces across the fault zone and in the Daju basin to the north. Cosmogenic dating of blocks sampled on top of the terraces provide ages ranging from 8 to 30 ka. In the hanging wall basin to the north, the terraces may have been abandoned after the breach of a natural dam formed in the river (moraine or landslide) during the last glacial period. The average incision rate of the river in the basin is about 5.9 mm/yr, the vertical slip-rate on the Daju fault is 4.9±1.3 mm/yr, thus implying an incision rate of the river inside the gorge reaching about 11 mm/year. These rates may explain the exceptional size and steepness of the gorge. These results show that active faulting plays a major role in shaping the present relief of this region and that recent strain changes involve movement along the largest strike-slip faults of the region, in accordance with models implying large-scale block extrusion.

van der Woerd, J.; Perrineau, A.; Gaudemer, Y.; Leloup, P.-H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Barrier, L.; Thuizat, R.

2012-04-01

3

Potassic magma genesis and the Ailao Shan-Red River fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of K-rich magma of Eocene to Early Oligocene (ca. 40-30) and Plio-Pleistocene (ca. 5-0.1 Ma) age were emplaced prior to and following left-lateral slip on the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, a regional shear zone extending between southwest China and the Tonkin Gulf (South China Sea) that accommodated 'escape' of the Indochina block. The first type is exposed in the Dali-Lijiang and adjacent regions of western Yunnan and Sichuan and comprises ultramafic potassic to ultrapotassic 'absarokites' and their shoshonite, banakite, and SiO2-rich derivatives which were emplaced immediately prior to activation of the ASRR fault. They are characterized by high Mg.-nos, and low contents of fusible oxides (FeO*, CaO, Al2O3), for equivalent MgO content, and pronounced primitive mantle-normalized high-field strength element (HFSE) depletions. In contrast, 'post-escape' K-rich magmas were erupted in the Puer, Maguan-Pingbian regions of south and southeast Yunnan. Apart from their relative enrichments in potassium they show typical HFSE-rich intra-plate compositional affinity. Geological and geomorphic evidence, and thermochronologic age dating of metamorphisc events, suggest that left-lateral shearing occurred between ca. 30 and 17 Ma; thereby accommodating the southeastward 'escape' of Indochina and (possibly) two episodes of spreading in the South China Sea. The southwestern part of Dali-Lijiang magmatic products was detached and offset by ca. 600 km and are now located in Phan Xi Pang in northern Viet Nam. The same is true for the Permo-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts, whose western exposures were likewise displaced by the same amount and are now represented by the Song Da complex, also in northern Viet Nam. Here, we report geochemical, isotopic, and 40Ar/39Ar age data for samples from both the 'pre-escape' Dali-Lijiang magmas and the 'post-escape' K-rich Puer, Maguan-Pingbian basalts and basanites, with a view to comparing and contrasting their interpolated source compositions, estimated conditions of upper mantle melt segregation and, by inference, their mantle dynamic and contamination histories insofar as these were conditioned by the India-Asia collision. Our interpretations yielded two complementary conclusions. The first contends that the pre-escape magmas result from adiabatic melting of crust-contaminated asthenosphere comprising a 'mélange' of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) (hydrated by sab-derived hysdrous fluids released at 0.2-0.5 GPa) and lower crust, delaminated from the overriding plate during mantle wedge corner flow and further enriched by metasomatic melts of subducted continental crust. We postulate that incipient H2O-saturated melting of the 'mélange' occurs at depths of between ca. 100 and 200 km after being 'dragged' down by relict oceanic slab fragments, in response to the dehydration of supra-subduction amphibole- and phlogopite. The ensuing viscosity 'crisis' and buoyancy relative to ambient 'fertile' convecting mantle of such asthenospheric 'pockets', and the collision-related change from lithospheric compression to extension, almost certainly predisposes such a refractory yet crust-contaminated 'pockets' to rapid adiabatic melting. The second conclusion concerns the post-escape K-rich basalts and basanites and is based on the contention that decompression melting of thermally anomalous K-rich asthenospheric occurred in response to regional post-escape transtension, concomitant with the cessation Indochina escape and contiguous seafloor spreading. However, although these magmas share the HFSE-rich fertile source character of other, widely dispersed, post-escape Cenozoic basalts they more specifically resemble relatively rare examples of intra-plate, K-rich activity observed in northeast China, central Spain, and elsewhere in Asia and Europe, arguably (indirectly) reflecting mantle perturbations caused by major continental collisions.

Flower, Martin F. J.; Hoàng, Nguy?n; Lo, Chinh-hua; Chí, Cung Thu'?'ng; Cu'ò'ng, Nguy?n Qu?c; Liu, Fu-tian; Deng, Jin-fu; Mo, Xuan-xue

2013-09-01

4

How crustal-scale strike-slip faults initiate and further develop: The Red River fault and the East Himalaya Syntaxis as a result of the two-stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major question of tectonics is how and where major intracontinental transcurrent strike-slip faults initiate. Models assume an important rheological contrast between rheologically weak and strong lithologies, e.g. at margins of a stiff craton and juxtaposed mobile belts (Molnar & Dayem, 2010 and references therein). Several models assume weakening of the lithosphere by uprise of magma, e.g., formed by subduction or break off of the previously subducted lithosphere or as K-granites at the bases of a metasomatized lithosphere. In the case of slab break-off following oblique convergence, orogen-parallel strike-slip accommodation has been documented. Especially, the spatiotemporal relationships between synkinematic plutons and crustal-scale strike-slip faults have been documented worldwide. It is a matter of continuous debate whether strike-slip faults nucleate where melts have previously weakened the crust/lithosphere or whether pre-existing faults represent the preferred pathways for the ascending melt. A few further models document the role of lateral boundaries of metamorphic core complexes. The significance of some of these processes could be studied along the Red River (RR) fault, SE, Asia. Here we propose a model, how the development of RR fault evolved in response to the two-stage India-Asia collision that recently was proposed by van Hinsbergen et al., (2012 and references therein) and the interaction of the northeastern corner of the East Himalayan Syntaxis with Himalayan-Burman/Indochina collision belt. We propose a four-phase tectonic evolution for the RR fault. During the Eocene accretion of the Tethyan block to Asia, the Sichuan foreland subducted and Eocene K-granites evolved, which started to vertically extrude and introduced, causing a zone of weakness within the crust (Phase 1) along the future RR fault. Another consequence of continuing shortening after the Tethyan block-Asia collision (Stage 1 collision) is lateral extrusion of blocks, and the Lhasa-Indochina block extruded towards east and southeast (Phase 2) initiating and continuously evolving to the Oligocene sinistral RR fault. Synkinematic granites and evolving migmatites within obliquely uprising metamorphic core complexes localized and enhanced the rheologically weak boundary. Possibly, southward subduction of oceanic crust underneath the Indonesian island arc created suction and a pulling force for the southeastward extruding Lhasa-Indochina block up to ca. 20 Ma, later interrupted by the westward progression of the opening South China Sea across the southern termination of the RR fault. The second, main stage of India-Asia collision (Stage 2 collision), after consumption of the Greater India oceanic basin, led to disruption of the coherent Lhasa-Indochina block by inception of the East Himalayan syntaxis (Phase 3) at the interface between Himalayan and Burman A-subduction zones. A consequence of the disruption is the first dextral (Phase 3) and subsequent ENE-WSW extensional (Phase 4) reactivation of the RR fault. References Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467. van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Lippert, Peter C., Dupont-Nivet, G., McQuarrie, N., Doubrovine, P. V., Spakman, W., Torsvik, T. H., 2012. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 , 7659-7664.

Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

2014-05-01

5

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...of the Port, Marine Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...

2011-04-20

6

76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland, Cass,...

2011-04-27

7

RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

8

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

9

Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion.

Cumbest, R.J.

2000-11-14

10

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA's search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

2003-04-10

11

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA�s search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

Magazine, Astrobiology; Ames, Nasa

12

75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0198] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a...

2010-03-31

13

The Red River Valley archeological project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

1986-01-01

14

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2010-07-01

15

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...

2014-07-01

16

Fault and joint geometry at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene Salt Lake Formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the Salt Lake Formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 5/sup 0/ on top of metamorphosed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 50/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/ and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field. The north-trending joint set is prominent in the fold's hinge. Surface joint intensity decreases in proximity to known faults, indicating that surface joint intensity mapping may be useful for locating the surface traces of faults in the reservoir.

Guth, L.R.; Bruhn, R.L.; Beck, S.L.

1981-07-01

17

The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties.  

E-print Network

leave. ***In cooperation w~th U. S. Department of Agricu ****In cooperation with the School of Agriculture SYNOPSIS This is the eleventh bulletin dealing, by counties, with the chemical composition of Texas soils, and discusses the soils of Bowie... of Freestone County 31 Alphabetical List of Soil Series of Freestone County ........ 32 ................................... Soils of Red River County 38 ................................... Chemical Composition 38 Classification of Soils of Red River County...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1928-01-01

18

Controls on Patterns of Repeated Fault Rupture: Examples From the Denali and Bear River Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A requirement for estimating seismic hazards is assigning magnitudes to earthquake sources. This relies on anticipating rupture length and slip along faults. Fundamental questions include whether lengths of past surface ruptures can be reasonably determined from fault zone characteristics and whether the variability in length and slip during repeated faulting can be constrained. To address these issues, we look at rupture characteristics and their possible controls from examples in very different tectonic settings: the high slip rate (?15 mm/yr) Denali fault system, Alaska, and the recently activated Bear River normal fault, Wyoming-Utah. The 2002 rupture of the central Denali fault (CDF) is associated with two noteworthy geometric features. First, rupture initiated where the Susitna Glacier thrust fault (SG) intersects the CDF at depth, near the apex of a structurally complex restraining bend along the Denali. Paleoseismic data show that for the past 700 years the timing of large surface ruptures on the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture has been distinct from those along the CDF. For the past ~6ka the frequency of SG to Denali ruptures has been ~1:12, indicating that this complexity of the 2002 rupture has not been common. Second, rupture propagated off of one strike-slip fault (CDF) onto another (the Totschunda fault, TF), an occurrence that seldom has been observed. LiDAR mapping of the intersection shows direct connectivity of the two faults--the CDF simply branches into both the TF and the eastern Denali fault (EDF). Differences in the timing of earthquakes during the past 700-800 years at sites surrounding this intersection, and estimates of accumulated slip from slip rates, indicate that for the 2002 rupture sufficient strain had accumulated on the TF to favor its failure. In contrast, the penultimate CDF rupture, with the same slip distribution as in 2002, appears to have stopped at or near the branch point, implying that neither the TF nor the EDF was stressed sufficiently to fail at that time. The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ) is a young normal fault along the eastern margin of basin-range extension that appears to have reactivated a ramp in the Laramide-age Darby-Hogsback thrust. The entire Cenozoic history of the BRFZ may consist of only two surface-rupturing events in the late Holocene (one at ~5 ka and the most recent at ~2.5 ka). The 40-km-long fault comprises synthetic and antithetic scarps extending across a zone up to 5 km wide. Remote sensing, including airborne LiDAR, and field studies show that, despite the complexity, the pattern of faulting was similar (in location and amount) for each of the two events and, at the south end, was strongly influenced by the east-west-trending Uinta Arch. Pre-existing structure clearly has exerted a first-order control on moment release on this immature fault. As shown by these examples, data on timing of surface ruptures, coseismic slip, slip rate, and fault geometry can provide a basis to constrain lengths of past and future earthquake ruptures, including possible alternative rupture scenarios. The difficult question for hazard analysis is whether the available data capture the full range of behavior and with what relative frequency do the alternatives occur?

Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.

2013-12-01

19

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department) on their geologic maps of the Wind River Basin and Wyoming, respectively. #12;[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin and Christiansen (1985) mapped in the area north of Wilderness and southeast and northwest of Horse Creek (shown

Lee Jr., Richard E.

20

The Bear River Fault Zone, Wyoming and Utah: Complex Ruptures on a Young Normal Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ), a set of normal fault scarps located in the Rocky Mountains at the eastern margin of Basin and Range extension, is a rare example of a nascent surface-rupturing fault. Paleoseismic investigations (West, 1994; this study) indicate that the entire neotectonic history of the BRFZ may consist of two large surface-faulting events in the late Holocene. We have estimated a maximum per-event vertical displacement of 6-6.5 m at the south end of the fault where it abuts the north flank of the east-west-trending Uinta Mountains. However, large hanging-wall depressions resulting from back rotation, which front scarps that locally exceed 15 m in height, are prevalent along the main trace, obscuring the net displacement and its along-strike distribution. The modest length (~35 km) of the BRFZ indicates ruptures with a large displacement-to-length ratio, which implies earthquakes with a high static stress drop. The BRFZ is one of several immature (low cumulative displacement) normal faults in the Rocky Mountain region that appear to produce high-stress drop earthquakes. West (1992) interpreted the BRFZ as an extensionally reactivated ramp of the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Hogsback thrust. LiDAR data on the southern section of the fault and Google Earth imagery show that these young ruptures are more extensive than currently mapped, with newly identified large (>10m) antithetic scarps and footwall graben. The scarps of the BRFZ extend across a 2.5-5.0 km-wide zone, making this the widest and most complex Holocene surface rupture in the Intermountain West. The broad distribution of Late Holocene scarps is consistent with reactivation of shallow bedrock structures but the overall geometry of the BRFZ at depth and its extent into the seismogenic zone are uncertain.

Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.; Haproff, P.; Beukelman, G.; Erickson, B.

2012-12-01

21

Red River College Academic Annual Report, 1999/2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Red River College (Canada) is at the center of Manitoba's industrial and commercial community, delivering more than 110 diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and providing skilled graduates to the work force. This annual report describes the College's characteristics and accomplishments for the 1999-2000 academic year. Highlights…

Red River Community Coll. (Manitoba).

22

Military-Extension Adventure Camps 2013 RED RIVER GORGE  

E-print Network

Military-Extension Adventure Camps 2013 RED RIVER GORGE EXTREME OUTDOORS EXCURSION JULY 19 PARK SNOWSHOE SKI AND SNOW ADVENTURE JANUARY 3-6,2014 ELKINS,WV Military service member parents. Military families from any state and branch are welcome! Military spouses may attend in place

MacAdam, Keith

23

Late Quaternary Basin-Range faulting north of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade since the Borah Peak earthquake, paleoseismic studies have elucidated details of the late Quaternary histories of the Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead faults of eastern Idaho, which comprise part of the northward continuation of the Basin-Range province across the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The faults are segmented but have temporally and\\/or spatially clustered paleoseismic activity. Each

Knuepfer

1993-01-01

24

Quantifying Morphologic Changes in a Low Gradient River Crossing Southeast Louisiana Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the signature of faulting in low gradient, alluvial rivers crossing the Baton Rouge fault zone (BRFZ) and Denham Springs-Scotlandville fault zone (DSSFZ), which encompass a set of East-West striking normal faults in southeast Louisiana. These faults exhibit surface expressions associated with up to a few meters of vertical displacement of Late Pleistocene sediments, but little is known about their activity during the Holocene. Our study aims to quantify geomorphic changes in a number of rivers that cross these fault zones and to use these changes to gain insight into the history of faulting in the region. We hypothesize that fault movement will be evident in patterns of river sinuosity, slope, and width to depth ratio. We focus on four subparallel channels of various discharges that cross either or both the BRFZ and the DSSFZ. Information on local fault scarp heights and channel reaches are extracted by GIS analysis of the LA LiDAR 5 m DEM, as well as flow modeling using the HEC-RAS software program. On the Tickfaw River, we conducted field surveys using differential GPS to record contemporary water surface slopes and channel location. Historic channel features on the Tickfaw are characterized using a series of aerial photographs dating back to 1952. Over the past 50 years, the Tickfaw River has shortened its course through the study area significantly (~4.9%) by means of meander cutoffs. Since 1952, sinuosity (P) has decreased in all of the Tickfaw channel reaches that cross fault segments. Currently, the sinuosity is extremely low (average P = 1.14) where the river crosses the DSSFZ and slightly higher where the river crosses the BRFZ (average P = 1.9). We use the LiDAR data to quantify offset on the faults that the river crosses. These values will be compared with the average lateral migration rate of the river in order to better understand the time scales over which both processes operate. If the faults appear to have little morphologic impact on the river, it is likely that that fluvial migration rates are rapid enough to erase any signature of the accumulated throw from the faults. With continued analysis, our goal is to develop a reliable method for using alluvial rivers to help unravel the history of fault systems in low gradient landscapes, with possible applications for detecting regions vulnerable to fault-related subsidence.

Fischer, G.; Gasparini, N. M.; Dawers, N. H.

2011-12-01

25

Evolving Water Management Institutions in the Red River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve—with more diverse economies, increased\\u000a populations and incomes, and more water scarcity—new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed.\\u000a This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal\\u000a needs, in the same time period. The Red River of

Robert R. Hearne

2007-01-01

26

The recent evolution of kerynites river and its tectonic setting (eliki fault, gulf of corinth, central greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerynitis River course is critical for understanding the evolution of the East Eliki fault, the tectonostratigraphy along the fault scarp and the geoarchaeology of ancient Helike. Trench stratigraphy and morphotectonic analysis were used to examine the recent evolution of the Helike (Eliki) Plain and Eliki fault. The entire alluvial plain of the Kerynitis and Vouraikos rivers, which cross the

S. P. Pavlides; I. K. Koukouvelas; S. K. Kokkalas; L. S. Stamatopoulos; D. K. Keramidas; I. T. Tsodoulos

2003-01-01

27

Eocene dextral strike-slip and extensional faulting in the Bridge River Terrane, southwest British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Mesozoic Bridge River Terrane of oceanic affinity lies in the eastern Coast Mountains of southwestern British Columbia and is one of several terranes located near the Intermontane Superterrane-Insular Superterrane boundary. Eocene strike-slip faulting and related extensional faulting and plutonism are largely responsible for the present upper crustal configuration of the Bridge River Terrane. This paper presents U-Pb geochronology and a detailed structural and geochronological analysis of Eocene deformation of the Bridge River Terrane near Lillooet, British Columbia. Evidence for Eocene magmatism and deformation within the Bridge River Terrane includes 48.5-46.5 Ma U-Pb zircon ages from four deformed granitic rocks, two of which are from the Mission Ridge pluton. All are cut by the Mission Ridge normal fault, which juxtaposes low-grade Bridge River Group in the hanging wall against medium-grade Bridge River Schist and associated intrusions in the footwall. The Mission Ridge fault is a low-angle east-dipping brittle normal fault with at least 10 km of downdip displacement and a probable dextral strike-slip component. In the Bridge River Schist, in the footwall of the Mission Ridge fault, penetrative ductile fabrics in northwest-trending, steeply to shallowly-dipping mylonites with northwest-southeast trending subhorizontal stretching lineations record a dextral sense of shear. Development of these fabrics predates normal movement on the Mission Ridge fault and is attributed to dextral movement on the Yalakom fault system within the middle crust. Two Middle Eocene syntectonic foliated intrusions, dated by U-Pb zircon methods, have the same kinematic signature as the previously described mylonites; these constrain timing of dextral movement on the Yalakom fault system to be earlier than, contemporaneous with, and in part younger than the intrusion of the circa 47 Ma Mission Ridge pluton. The Mission Ridge fault is correlated with the Petch Creek fault, the probable extension of the Ross Lake fault near the United States border. They were broken and offset by about 100 km of dextral movement on the north-trending Fraser fault. The Petch Creek fault hanging wall consists of the Hozameen Group, which, like the Bridge River Group, is an assemblage of low-grade oceanic rocks. The footwall of the Petch Creek fault, the Custer Gneiss, is higher grade than the Bridge River Schist in the footwall of the Mission Ridge fault but has the same lithological and kinematic signature. Mylonitic fabrics in both the Bridge River Schist and Custer Gneiss have subhorizontal stretching lineations that were generated prior to normal movement on the Mission Ridge-Petch Creek fault system and are attributed to earlier dextral motion along the Yalakom fault system. The clear offset of these geologic features constrains about 100 km of movement on the Fraser fault to be younger than 46.5 Ma. The Fraser fault is cut by 34 Ma phases of the Chilliwack batholith.

Coleman, Margaret E.; Parrish, Randall R.

1991-12-01

28

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Compiled by Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J. Edited by Martin, Cathy R.

2007-01-01

29

The historic evolution of Zhouyuan and the newest activity of the great Wei River fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of vertical differential movement of the great Weihe fault (west segment) in different periods is analyzed by using the data of the historic evolution of the Zhouyuan plateau surface. Results show that the rate reached a maximum in the Ming Dynasty, about 6.4 mm/a, which corresponded well to the period of strong earthquake on the Wei River fault in the 15 16th centuries. Based on such a correspondence, the time separation between active periods of M s=8.0 strong earthquakes in the Wei River fault depression is investigated.

Yi, Xue-Fa; Shi, Ya-Qin

1994-08-01

30

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

31

77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Louisiana] Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No. 12757. The programmatic...

2012-04-26

32

Quaternary faulting of basalt flows on the Melones and Almanor fault zones, North Fork Feather River, northeastern California  

SciTech Connect

Field relations indicate multiple sequences of late Cenozoic basalt flowed down the canyon of the North Fork Feather River from the Modoc Plateau during the Pliocene and early Quaternary. Remnants of at least three flow sequences are exposed in the canyon, the intermediate one yielding a K/Ar plagioclase date of 1.8 Ma. Topographic profiling of the remnants allows identification of Quaternary tectonic deformation along the northern Plumas trench, which separates the Sierra Nevada from the Diamond Mountains. The authors have identified several vertical displacements of the 1.8-Ma unit in the North Fork canyon and the area NE of Lake Almanor. NE of the lake, three NW-striking faults, each having down-to-the-west displacements of up to 35 m, are related to faulting along the east side of the Almanor tectonic depression. Analysis of the displaced basalt flows suggests that uplift of the Sierra Nevada occurred with canyon development prior to 2 Ma, and has continued coincident with several subsequent episodes of basalt deposition. Quaternary faulting of the basalt is associated with the Melones fault zone and the Plumas trench where they extend northward from the northern Sierra Nevada into the Modoc Plateau and southern Cascades. In contrast to the Mohawk Valley area, where the Plumas trench forms a 5-km-wide graben, faulting in the Almanor region is distributed over a 15-km-wide zone. A change in the strike of faulting occurs at Lake Almanor, from N50W along the Plumas trench to N20W north of the lake. The right-slip component on the fault of the Plums trench may result in a releasing bend at the change in strike and explain the origin of the Almanor depression.

Wakabayashi, J. (Wakabayashi (John), Hayward, CA (United States)); Page, W.D. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States). Geosciences Dept.)

1993-04-01

33

Millennial slip rate of the Longitudinal Valley fault from river terraces: Implications for convergence across the active suture  

E-print Network

Millennial slip rate of the Longitudinal Valley fault from river terraces: Implications an actual difference in millennial and decadal rates of convergence. An alternative explanation.-G. Chen (2006), Millennial slip rate of the Longitudinal Valley fault from river terraces: Implications

Avouac, Jean-Philippe

34

Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity  

SciTech Connect

This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface.

Cumbest, R.J.

1998-12-17

35

Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to compile and synthesize this body of knowledge into a comprehensive report for the geologic community. This report follows the format of Dibblee (1976) and includes discussions of the sections of the Rinconada Fault and of the Reliz Fault, as well as their Neogene history and key localities. Accompanying this report is a geologic map database of the faults, key localities, and earthquake epicenters, in ESRI shapefile format.

Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

36

For Immediate Release --Thursday, June 14, 2012 Red Deer River Oil Spill Provides Unique Research  

E-print Network

already started on a study of the Red Deer River oil spill, looking at more break and oil spill was unfortunate, a study opportunity arises and this should remarkably little scientific study on the environmental impacts of oil spills

Morris, Joy

37

Sedimentary processes of the Red River between Denison Dam, TX and Alexandria, LA  

E-print Network

sediment concentration between gaging stations located both upstream and downstream did not show an increase in the suspended sediment concentration nor a significant change in average volumetric flow. The location of this reach of the Red River between... and Alexandria, LA contribute to an increase in the suspended sediment concentration along this reach of the Red River. In addition to this study, a stream table study was conducted. The stream table was filled with alluvial material similar to that found...

Weirich, Thomas Moody - Kenyon

2012-06-07

38

The recent evolution of kerynites river and its tectonic setting (eliki fault, gulf of corinth, central greece).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kerynitis River course is critical for understanding the evolution of the East Eliki fault, the tectonostratigraphy along the fault scarp and the geoarchaeology of ancient Helike. Trench stratigraphy and morphotectonic analysis were used to examine the recent evolution of the Helike (Eliki) Plain and Eliki fault. The entire alluvial plain of the Kerynitis and Vouraikos rivers, which cross the Eliki fault, has subsided at rate of 1.4 mm/year, resulting in the burial of the Late Hellenistic-Roman occupation horizons under 3 m of fluvial and colluvial sediments. Along the eastern segment of the Eliki Fault five trenches have been excavated and their 5000-yr old fluvial and colluvial deposits have been studied in association with the fault strand imprinted on them. The Kerynitis River crosses at high angle the Eliki fault and appears to be sensitive in tectonic movements related with the Eliki Fault. Sedimentation in the alluvial plain and the fluvial geomorphology of the Kerynitis River is important for understanding the fault evolution and the burial of the ancient (4th c. BC) Helike city. The river course indicates that the breaching deformation is the more probable explanation on what connects the East and the West Eliki Fault segments. Also the postseismic deformation is a significant mechanism for stress accommodation for part of the west end of the Gulf of Corinth. There is evidence for at least three strong earthquakes associated with the East Eliki Fault during the past 2000 years, including the 1861 well known event. The vertical displacement ranges from 0.5 m to 1.4 m, as measured at all sites on the fault strands affecting sediments and colluvial layers. Two events of clockwise and one of anticlockwise rotation of the Kerynitis river flow are recognised in the upper 3 m of stratigraphy in the trenches.

Pavlides, S. P.; Koukouvelas, I. K.; Kokkalas, S. K.; Stamatopoulos, L. S.; Keramidas, D. K.; Tsodoulos, I. T.

2003-04-01

39

Streamflow losses along the Balcones Fault Zone, Nueces River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation was conducted to quantify and to determine distribution of streamflow losses and gains that occur during base flow conditions in the Balcones Fault Zone of the Neuces River basin. The streams studied include the West Nueces, Nueces , Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers, and Seco, Hondo, and Verde Creeks. Discharge measurements made during storm recession flows of these streams identified direct recharge to outcrops of the Edwards aquifer and related limestones that ranged from as high as 393 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to as low as 42 cubic feet per second for the Sabinal River. Recharge to outcrops of the Buda Limestone, Eagle Ford Shale, and Austin Group also eventually reaches the Edwards aquifer, and measurements identified losses to these formations ranging from as high as 174 cubic feet per second for the Frio River to near zero for Verde Creek. (USGS)

Land, L.F.; Boning, C.W.; Harmsen, Lynn; Reeves, R.D.

1983-01-01

40

Palaeoflood records for the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, derived from anatomical tree-ring signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoflood records for the Red River in southern Manitoba, Canada, were derived from anatomical tree-ring signatures in Quercus macrocarpa (Michx) collected at 16 living-tree sites, several historical buildings and archaeological sites, and subfossil logs buried in river alluvium. Prolonged inundation of trees during spring and early summer induces the development of anatomical anomalies (flood rings) that provide a proxy record

Scott St. George; Erik Nielsen

2003-01-01

41

Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada  

SciTech Connect

A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

Sabry, H.

1989-03-01

42

Arsenic contents and physicochemical properties of agricultural soils from the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate arsenic (As) levels in agricultural soils of the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam, surface (0–5 cm) and subsurface (20–25 cm) soil samples were collected from 18 paddy and six upland fields on both sides of the river. As a reference, forest soils were also sampled at two sites of the upper river basin. The total As contents of approximately

Nguyen Minh Phuong; Yumei Kang; Katsutoshi Sakurai; Kozo Iwasaki; Chu Ngoc Kien; Nguyen Van Noi; Le Thanh Son

2008-01-01

43

Sediment change under climate changes and human activities in the Yuanjiang-Red River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the climate change and human activities are the major influence factors to the sediment change in mountainous rivers.\\u000a Based on the over 40 years’ record, suspended sediment loads (SSL) change at the Manhao gauging station in the lower reaches\\u000a of Yuanjiang River (upper Red River). In this paper, the variation of the sediment and its drivers were analyzed through

DaMing He; Jing Ren; KaiDao Fu; YunGang Li

2007-01-01

44

The paragenesis chemistry of alteration associated with the P2and fault in metamorphic rocks underlying the Athabasca Basin  

E-print Network

intersecting faults that preferentially host ore pods: ~050° P2 and Vertical Quartzite (VQ), and ~140° cross ~Start of Green Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite Zone 2 McArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose

45

Reinterpretation of relationships among Keystone thrust, Red Springs thrust, contact thrust, and Cottonwood fault, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The basin-range and Sevier tectonic events are well-documented in Clark County, Nevada. Other tectonic events have been interpreted from structural relationships in the Spring Mountains. These include an early thrust-faulting event and a high-angle faulting event that occurred between emplacement of the early thrust and emplacement of the Keystone thrust. The results of this study indicate that there was not an early thrust event nor was there high-angle faulting prior to the Sevier deformational event. The Cottonwood fault and the Contact thrust in the Spring Mountains are interpreted here as a lateral ramp and floor thrust beneath a duplex fault zone. The Keystone thrust forms the roof thrust for the duplex fault zone that bows up the upper plate of the Keystone thrust. The Red Springs thrust is interpreted as the Keystone thrust, which was broken and differentially rotated during Neogene oroclinal bending associated with the Las Vegas shear zone. The structural relationships in the Spring Mountains do not require any Mesozoic or Cenozoic deformational episodes other than the well-known Sevier and basin-range events.

Matthews, V. III

1985-05-01

46

Deep seated landslides along the Meilungshan fault in Laonung River Waterdhed, southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides in Taiwan represent one of most relevant natural hazards for the society. In particular, the large scaled deep-seated landslides deserve attention, because they can be reactivated during intense events and can evolve into destructive failures. For example, one deep seated landslide, the Hsiaolin landslide, with an area of about 250 ha, buried the entire village of Hsiaolin in Kaohsiung County causing 397 causalities, the disappearance of 53 others, and buried over 100 houses during the Typhoon Morakot in 2009. The Laonung River watershed which covered 1367 km2 is selected as our study area. The study area is mainly compose of Miocene slate and sedimentary rocks that are separated by a major fault, the Meilungshan fault. The Meilungshan fault is part of the boundary fault separating the Central Range and Western Foothill in southern Taiwan. The fault is a west verging, high angle NNE trending thrust. Some outcrops show the fault zone is over one hundred and fifty meters thick, and it is mainly composed of gouge and fault breccias of slate. Within the study area, 361 sites with an area greater than 10 ha and with sliding topographic features of deep seated landslide such as crown main escarpment, down slope scarp, up slope scarps, and lateral cracks are recognized from LiDAR derived 1 m resolution DEM. Among these, 16 sites are selected for field investigation and all of them are confirmed as deep seated landslides. This implies the reliability of interpretation results from LiDAR derived DEM even in heavy forest region such as Taiwan. In order to know the influence of the Meilungshan fault in the development of deep seated landslides, landslide density are calculated. The landslide density is 7.7% when whole watershed is considered. However, the landslide density significantly increases to 19.3% when only an area 223km2 that contains the Meilungshan fault with a 2km buffer zone is in the calculation. This result indicates that deformation zone associated with major fault is crucial in the development of deep seated landslides in the study area.

Ho, Dia-Jie; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming

2013-04-01

47

Structure of the eastern Red Rocks and Wind Ridge thrust faults, Wyoming: how a thrust fault gains displacement along strike  

E-print Network

map alone. The terraces are expressed as flat areas ranging in size from 0. 6 kmz to 2. 5 kmz and they range in elevation from 40 to 200 km above the present elevation of the Wind River. Along the banks of the Wind River there are some narrow... map alone. The terraces are expressed as flat areas ranging in size from 0. 6 kmz to 2. 5 kmz and they range in elevation from 40 to 200 km above the present elevation of the Wind River. Along the banks of the Wind River there are some narrow...

Huntsman, Brent Stanley

2012-06-07

48

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and\\u000a native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the\\u000a UCRS

David M. Walters; Mike J. Blum; Brenda Rashleigh; Byron J. Freeman; Brady A. Porter; Noel M. Burkhead

2008-01-01

49

Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

2009-05-04

50

High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

Berkman, E. [Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1991-04-01

51

High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

Berkman, E. (Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1991-04-01

52

Stream Fish Communities and Environmental Correlates in the Red River of the North, Minnesota and North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Red River of the North (Red River) drainage in Minnesota and North Dakota, there are strong east–west hydrological and chemical environmental gradients. Historical fish surveys indicated the presence of species with both widespread and restricted distributions, leading to unique fish communities in several streams. To determine the important physiochemical correlates of stream fish community structure, we partitioned 25

Todd M. Koel; John J. Peterka

2003-01-01

53

A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins  

E-print Network

This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

Cook, John Henry

54

Overcoming the Planning Dilemma: Linking Analysis with Decision-Making at Red River College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes planning at Red River College in Manitoba. The paper suggests that the decision-making process be effectively linked with analytics. The fundamental role of institutional research and planning in postsecondary education is to provide the analytic and planning inputs that can facilitate decision-making. It is necessary to…

Goho, James; Webb, Ken

55

Community-based Disaster Management During the 1997 Red River Flood in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between community preparedness and response to natural disaster and their level and pattern of community development. This is done by investigating preparation and response to the 1997 Red River Flood by three rural communities in Manitoba, Canada. The communities were selected because of their different ethnic mix and associated level and pattern of community development.

Jerry Buckland; Matiur Rahman

1999-01-01

56

RED SHINER INVASION OF THE UPPER COOSA RIVER SYSTEM: DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) has been widely introduced across 11 states outside its native range, presumably through bait-bucket and aquarium releases. Its native range includes Great Plain and Central Lowland tributaries of the Mississippi River and western Coastal Pla...

57

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

58

The Mint River Fault: an Extensional Detachment in the York Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of crustal extension in the origin of the gneiss domes of the Bering Strait region of Alaska and Russia has been debated for over a decade. Alternative models for gneiss dome formation include 1) thermal re-equilibration after crustal thickening by arc collision (Lieberman, 1988; Patrick and Evans, 1989); 2) extensional collapse of the crust during with mid-Cretaceous magmatism (Miller et al., 1992; Amato et al., 1994) and 3) thermally-induced diapiric rise of the high-grade rocks (Calvert et al., 1999). One major difference with the classic metamorphic core complexes of the Basin and Range is that, because of deep exhumation, evidence for mid-Cretaceous supra-crustal extension has not been widely documented in the Bering Strait region. In the York Mountains, the one area of the Seward Peninsula where unmetamorphosed rocks are preserved, the structure was originally described as a thrust belt (Sainsbury, 1969). New detailed mapping, structural analysis, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology, and conodont biostratigraphy carried out in the York Mountains show that the Mint River Fault, which is the basal detachment of the supposed thrust belt, is actually a low angle extensional detachment fault. This fault separates polydeformed low greenschist grade rocks in the lower plate from unmetamorphosed Lower Ordovician to Silurian carbonates in the upper plate. The upper plate is cut by three major normal faults, the largest of which has about 4 km of down-to-the-south slip. These faults also tilt the Early Paleozoic carbonate succession. A younger-on-older relationship across one of the mayor faults is documented by conodont biostratigraphy demonstrating that these are not thrusts, as was previously believed. Stress inversion, based on minor brittle faults in the upper plate, indicates a direction of extension of 194, which is consistent with the strike of major normal faults. No direct evidence of bedding-plane thrusting could be documented, although minor folds do exist, probably formed during shortening that predated extensional deformation. The lower plate is composed of latest Proterozoic to early Cambrian lithic quartzites and slates intruded by 540+/-5 Ma gabbros (LA-ICPMS U/Pb in zircon), overlain by Lower Ordovician metacarbonates. The structure of the lower plate is characterized by at least two generations of folds. The kinematics of the earliest event are obscure, as the F1 fold axes are widely scattered and fold vergence is inconsistent. The D2 event resulted in vertical flattening and the dominant sub-horizontal metamorphic fabric. Lower plate slates yielded disturbed 40Ar/39Ar spectra with predominantly mid-Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous age steps. Although the quality of these data does not allow unambiguous interpretation, it does suggest that greenschist facies metamorphism took place in the Late Mesozoic. Extensional deformation must have occurred after metamorphism and prior to intrusion of the Brooks Mountain granite, which cuts the Mint River Fault, and is dated at 77.8+/-1 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar in biotite. Basaltic dikes in the upper plate, which are subparallel to the mayor normal faults, yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 77 to 78 Ma. Although the timing of the onset of extension in the York Mountains is poorly constrained so far, it appears to be compatible with the rise of the Kigluiak dome, which culminated at about 90 Ma (Amato et al., 2001).

Toro, J.; Burnette, L.; Amato, J.; Repetski, J.; Gehrels, G.

2005-12-01

59

Brittle extension of the continental crust along a rooted system of low-angle normal faults: Colorado River extensional corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transect across the 100 km wide Colorado River extensional corridor of mid-Tertiary age shows that the upper 10 to 15 km of crystalline crust extended along an imbricate system of brittle low-angle normal faults. The faults cut gently down a section in the NE-direction of tectonic transport from a headwall breakaway in the Old Woman Mountains, California. Successively higher

B. E. John; K. A. Howard

1985-01-01

60

Repeated Historic Surface Ruptures of the Denali Fault at Delta River, Alaska During Large Earthquakes in 1912 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Denali fault ruptured through stands of mature spruce trees on the Delta River valley floor during an Ms 7.2-7.4 earthquake on July 6, 1912 and again during the Mw 7.9 earthquake of November 3, 2002. In both events, most trees on the surface rupture along 2 km of the fault trace were damaged by splitting and tilting. Displacements in

G. Plafker; G. Carver; M. Metz; L. Cluff

2004-01-01

61

Preconstruction and simulated postconstruction ground-water levels at urban centers in the Red River Navigation Project area, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Valley in Louisiana is 3 to 10 miles wide and is underlain by the Red River alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is in hydraulic connection with the Red River. Precipitation infiltrates the aquifer and water discharges from the aquifer at the Red River and major tributaries. Construction of locks and dams along the Red River will cause new, higher minimum stages for the river for each of the pools. Water levels will rise and outflow from the alluvial aquifer to the river after construction of the locks and dams will be at higher elevations because of the new river stages. Mathematical models of the stream-aquifer system simulate the effects of the lock and dam system for plan B-3, modified. Water-level changes in the aquifer in response to the changes imposed by the system are greatest near the river and are progressively smaller away from the river. The saturated zone in the fine-grained material overlying the aquifer provides the principal potential impact on structures and vegetation in urban areas. As water levels in the aquifer rise, the saturated zone above the aquifer will decrease the thickness. The soil zone in low areas in some communities will be waterlogged. (USGS)

Rogers, J. E.

1984-01-01

62

Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values < 0.05). No significant differences exist between organic matter content of soil beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless, soils underlying red cedar and cottonwood trees are functionally similar with regard to soil organic matter content.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2012-12-01

63

The paragenesis of alteration associated with the P2 fault in the basement rocks of the Athabasca Basin E. E. Adlakha , K. Hattori , University of Ottawa: adla028@uottawa.ca, khattori@uOttawa.ca  

E-print Network

and Vertical Quartzite (VQ) transcurrent faults; therefore, the P2 is a potential fluid pathway for uraniferous Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite ArkoseArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose Graphitic Pelitic

64

N, P, Si budgets for the Red River Delta (northern Vietnam): how the delta affects river nutrient delivery to the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Delta (RRD) (Vietnam), a region experiencing rapid population growth, industrialization, and economic development,\\u000a concentrates 54% of the population of the whole Red River watershed in less than 10% of the basin area. Our study aimed at\\u000a understanding and quantifying the processes by which the delta affects the nutrient fluxes coming from the upstream watershed\\u000a before they reach

Thi Nguyet Minh Luu; Josette Garnier; Gilles Billen; Thi Phuong Quynh Le; Julien Nemery; Didier Orange; Lan Anh Le

65

Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

66

Evolution of the K?z?l?rmak river and its interaction with the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a 1500km long dextral strike-slip fault, which accommodates the extrusion of the Anatolian Plate away from the Arabia/Eurasia collision zone at a rate of 20-25mm/yr. The fault strongly affects the whole drainage network and, especially, the K?z?l?rmak River. The K?z?l?rmak River is the longest river in Turkey (1350km); it formed during the Pliocene and rose in eastern Anatolia. The river drains a part of the Anatolian Plateau, crosses the North Anatolian Fault and the Pontides mountains before reaching the Black Sea. Whereas wide terraces are preserved along the K?z?l?rmak River in the Anatolian Plateau, where a recent study (Dogan 2009) determines an incision rate of 0.08 mm/yr according to 40Ar/39Ar datations on basalts, no clear terraces can be mapped further North where the river incises through the Pontides Mountains. Our study focuses on the central part of the fault affected by the 280 km long 1943 Tosya earthquake rupture. In this area the NAF makes a wide convex arc about 100km south to the Black Sea coast, and offset by 30 km the K?z?l?rmak River. Indeed, south of the NAF the K?z?l?rmak River flows to North/East. Then it is deviated along the NAF in the Karg? pull-apart and flows to the East parallel to the fault for 30km before bending again to the North/East in the Kamil pull-apart. Around the two bends of the River three alluvial terraces can be mapped. The lowest one (10m high above the present river level) is preserved in the Karg? pull-apart. The two other ones (60 and 100m above the K?z?l?rmak River) are situated further east in the Kamil pull-apart. The highest terrace is offset by at least 300m offset along the NAF. The ages of sampled terraces are constrained using 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods. The in situ cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages calculated apply from 22ka for the lowest terrace, to 100 ka for the highest terrace in the erosion preserved area. The highest terrace shows a contribution of younger ages (the same time interval of 50ka of the intermediate terrace) certainly coming from the catchement just above. The proximity of ages may be due to the short time-interval between the both highest terraces incision by the K?z?l?rmak river. 10Be measurements on sand coming from river beds will provide past to actual erosion rates along the K?z?l?rmak River as well as present erosion rate from small rivers flowing to the river. The goals of this study are to constrain, 1/ the origin of the terraces (climatic or tectonic), 2/ the slip rate of the NAF integrated over more than 20 000 years, 3/ the evolution of the K?z?l?rmak River incision rate, 4/ the influence of the vertical motion in the NAF convex arc region on the present incision rate of small rivers flowing toward the K?z?l?rmak.

Drab, L.; Hubert Ferrari, A.; Benedetti, L.; van der Woerd, J.

2010-12-01

67

Engineering report on drilling in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Valley drilling project consisted of 32 drill holes. The objective was to investigate uranium favorability in Precambrian through Cretaceous rocks in a 20,000-square-mile area of eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota. A total of 18,262 ft was drilled; 1,083 ft were cored. The average depth of the holes was 570 ft. Core recovery averaged 64 percent. All

Hesse

1978-01-01

68

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

2003-11-12

69

Modeling Regional Variation in Riverine Fish Biodiversity in the Arkansas–White–Red River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas–White–Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models

Peter E. Schweizer; Henriette I. Jager

2011-01-01

70

Persistence and dissipation of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in red soils from the Yangtze River Delta area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory incubation trials were conducted to investigate the effects of several factors on the persistence as well as the\\u000a dissipation of three synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in red soils obtained from the Yangtze River Delta region in China. The\\u000a pyrethroids selected for investigation were cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin, which continue to be used extensively\\u000a to control pests on farmland in the

Xiao-zhi Gu; Gang-ya Zhang; Li Chen; Rong-ling Dai; Yuan-chun Yu

2008-01-01

71

Extracting tectonic information using the integral method of river profile analysis: applications along the Wasatch fault, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic deformation at the Earth's surface is reflected in the morphology of river profiles, hill slopes, and drainage networks. Various topographic metrics derived from river profiles have been proposed to identify tectonic hotspots in neotectonic regions. Using a high resolution digital elevation model to extract topographic data from channel networks, the advantages of the 'integral method' are exploited to analyse river profiles and catchments across two segments of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah. The results demonstrate much lower data noise when compared to standard practices of taking derivatives of topographic data. Combined with statistical analysis, it is possible to identify segments of river profiles that have responded to spatially variable rates of rock-deformation along the fault zone. Using a channel steepness index derived from the integral method, we find that previously published 10Be catchment-wide erosion rates exhibit conflicting scaling relationships with basin-averaged steepness indices. This is possibly explained due to occurrence of glacial erosion in certain basins during the last glacial maximum. A simple method for calibrating stream power model parameters using the integral method is used to estimate areas of fault displacement acceleration along the Wasatch Fault.

Valters, Declan

2014-05-01

72

Changes in Population, Growth, and Physiological Indices of Longnose Dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer’s municipal\\u000a wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end\\u000a points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the

Ken M. Jeffries; Leland J. Jackson; Lisa E. Peters; Kelly R. Munkittrick

2008-01-01

73

Ground-water quality in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1991--1995  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of the Red River Basin NAWQA study-unit survey. The specific purposes of the report are: (1) to describe the water quality in surficial aquifers (in three physiographic areas) and in shallow buried aquifers; (2) to contrast and explain the water-quality differences among surficial aquifers (in each physiographic area) and between surficial and shallow buried aquifers; and (3) to describe the implications of ground-water quality on drinking water in the Red River Basin.

Cowdery, T.K.

1998-12-31

74

Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

Allen, D.H.

1989-01-01

75

Long-term monitoring (1960–2008) of the river-sediment transport in the Red River Watershed (Vietnam): Temporal variability and dam-reservoir impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River (China\\/Vietnam, A=155,000km²) is a typical humid tropics river originating from the mountainous area of Yunnan Province in China. Based on information on daily discharge (Q) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration between 1960–2008 for the SonTay gauging station (outlet of the River and entry to the Delta) provided by the National Institute IMHE-MONRE, the mean annual SPM

Thi Ha Dang; Alexandra Coynel; Didier Orange; Gérard Blanc; Henri Etcheber; Lan Anh Le

2010-01-01

76

Evaluating the evolution of the Red River system based on in situ UPb dating and Hf isotope analysis of zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River originates from SW China and SE Tibet and has a total length >1000 km. In this study, we present new U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic analysis of zircon grains, from both modern and paleoriver sands in order to constrain the provenance of the modern river and to decipher drainage evolution through time. Our data show that the

Long van Hoang; Fu-Yuan Wu; Peter D. Clift; Anna Wysocka; Anna Swierczewska

2009-01-01

77

Repeated Historic Surface Ruptures of the Denali Fault at Delta River, Alaska During Large Earthquakes in 1912 and 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Denali fault ruptured through stands of mature spruce trees on the Delta River valley floor during an Ms 7.2-7.4 earthquake on July 6, 1912 and again during the Mw 7.9 earthquake of November 3, 2002. In both events, most trees on the surface rupture along 2 km of the fault trace were damaged by splitting and tilting. Displacements in both events were dextral with a subordinate dip-slip component (south side down). Tree ring counts from older damaged trees on the fault trace closely date the age of the penultimate event at 1912. The only earthquake that fits the requirements for timing, location, and size to have caused the pre-2002 tree damage is an Ms 7.2-7.4 event on July 6, 1912, the epicenter of which had been located 40 km southwest of the Delta River fault crossing by Boyd and Lerner-Lam (1988). Intensity data for the widely felt 1912 earthquake are compatible with unilateral westward rupture on the Denali Fault. Empirical data for the estimated magnitude range of the 1912 earthquake suggest a surface rupture length of 60-84 km, average horizontal displacement of 140-210 cm, and maximum horizontal displacement of 240-390 cm (Wells and Coppersmith, 1994). The 2002 surface rupture was marked by large dextral surface slip (to 800+ cm) and variable dip slip along 240 km of the Denali Fault and 65 km of the Totschunda fault in the central Alaska Range. The Delta River valley, 90 km east of the 2002 epicenter, lies within a transition zone about 10 km wide in which dextral slip diminishes from 600 cm or more east of the valley to less than 450 cm west of the valley. Geodetic data for the 2002 rupture along the TAPS oil pipeline in the Delta River valley indicate a total of 580 cm dextral slip and 130 cm dip slip distributed over a zone 1,000 m wide. Surface trace of the fault is poorly developed on the valley floor because of distributive deformation in the thick underlying unconsolidated deposits; offsets on individual fissures are less than 130 cm dextral and 60 cm vertical. Paleoseismologic data from test pits at the west bank of the Delta River indicate two earlier surface faulting events on the Denali Fault probably comparable in size to the 2002 earthquake. Preliminary 14C dates of these paleo-events suggest a recurrence interval of about 350-400 years and an average long term slip rate of about 15 mm/yr. Rupture during the smaller 1912 earthquake contributes to reduce the size of any 2002 slip deficit that may exist along the Denali fault in the Delta River valley and probably also in the low-slip segment extending 70 km west of the valley to the end of the 2002 Denali fault surface trace.

Plafker, G.; Carver, G.; Metz, M.; Cluff, L.

2004-12-01

78

Changes in population, growth, and physiological indices of Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer's municipal wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the Red Deer River. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer had elevated catch per unit effort with larger body and liver sizes compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, likely due to elevated riverine productivity from Red Deer's wastewater effluent. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer showed depressed testosterone production capacity and elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which is consistent with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Longnose dace 150-180 km downstream of Red Deer had reduced liver and gonad sizes, elevated EROD, and increased 11-ketotestosterone production capacity compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, possibly related to a non-point-source agricultural influence on water quality. Longnose dace populations at the most downstream sites were missing the oldest age classes and might reach sexual maturity faster than at upstream sites, which is consistent with a younger age structure. Our results highlight the importance of assessing multiple performance end points to reveal physiological or reproductive effects in natural fish populations. We have demonstrated how longnose dace populations change over a river impacted by municipal wastewater and agricultural runoff; further studies are required to determine if these changes will influence the long-term viability of longnose dace in the Red Deer River. PMID:18322724

Jeffries, Ken M; Jackson, Leland J; Peters, Lisa E; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2008-11-01

79

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...day. Said parties must provide a sufficient force of log drivers to keep their logs in motion throughout the section of river above mentioned...any time. (f) This section shall remain in force until modified or rescinded. [Regs.,...

2011-07-01

80

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...day. Said parties must provide a sufficient force of log drivers to keep their logs in motion throughout the section of river above mentioned...any time. (f) This section shall remain in force until modified or rescinded. [Regs.,...

2012-07-01

81

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...day. Said parties must provide a sufficient force of log drivers to keep their logs in motion throughout the section of river above mentioned...any time. (f) This section shall remain in force until modified or rescinded. [Regs.,...

2013-07-01

82

Effects of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic faulting on the geology and hydrology of the coastal plain near the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic and hydrologic investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey have defined stratigraphic and hydraulic anomalies suggestive of faulting within Coastal Plain sediments between the Ogeechee River in east-central Georgia and the Edisto River in west-central South Carolina. Examination of borehole cuttings, cores, and geophysical logs from test wells indicate that Triassic rocks and Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments near the Barnwell-Allendale County line near Millett, South Carolina, are offset by a northeast-trending fault downthrown to the northwest. The location of this suspected Coastal Plain fault generally coincides with the location of an inferred fault in basement rocks as interpreted from aeromagnetic surveys. Apparent vertical offsets range from about 700 feet at the base of Upper Cretaceous sediments to about 20 feet in strata of Late Eocene age. As a result, the Upper Cretaceous Middendorf Formation which directly overlies crystalline and Triassic rocks updip (northwest) of this fault, is absent immediately downdip of the fault. The thickness of Tipper Cretaceous sediments is also sharply reduced from about 700 feet to about 180 feet across the fault. Sediments of the basal Coastal Plain aquifer are largely truncated by uplifted Triassic rocks at the fault near Millett, South Carolina. Lateral ground-water flow near the Savannah River Is consequently disrupted updip of the fault and ground water is transferred vertically into overlying sediments and possibly into the Savannah River. At several locations, abrupt changes in potentiometric head occur across this fault. Computed transmissivity of the basal Coastal Plain aquifer is also radically reduced downdip of the fault, sharply reversing a downdip trend of rapidly increasing aquifer transmissivity. Other anomalous potentiometric data along a northeast-trending line between Statesboro, Georgia, and Fairfax, South Carolina, suggest the possibility of similar faulting in correlative geologic units. The location of the suspected fault near Statesboro, Georgia, generally coincides with the eastward extension of the Gulf Trough, a regional potentiometric anomaly in central Georgia.

Faye, R.E.; Prowell, D.C.

1982-01-01

83

Evolving east Asian river systems reconstructed by trace element and Pb and Nd isotope variations in modern and ancient Red River-Song Hong sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers in east Asia have been recognized as having unusual geometries, suggestive of drainage reorganization linked to Tibetan Plateau surface uplift. In this study we applied a series of major and trace element proxies, together with bulk Nd and single K-feldspar grain Pb isotope ion probe isotope analyses, to understand the sediment budget of the modern Red River. We also investigate how this may have evolved during the Cenozoic. We show that while most of the modern sediment is generated by physical erosion in the upper reaches in Yunnan there is significant additional flux from the Song Lo, draining Cathaysia and the SW Yangtze Block. Nd isotope data suggest that 40% of the modern delta sediment comes from the Song Lo. Carbonates in the Song Lo basin make this a major control on the Red River Sr budget. Erosion is not a simple function of monsoon precipitation. Active rock uplift is also required to drive strong erosion. Single grain Pb data show a connection in the Eocene between the middle Yangtze and the Red River, and probably with rivers draining the Songpan Garze terrane. However, the isotope data do not support a former connection with the upper Yangtze, Mekong, or Salween rivers. Drainage capture appears to have occurred throughout the Cenozoic, consistent with surface uplift propagating gradually to the southeast. The middle Yangtze was lost from the Red River prior to 24 Ma, while the connection to the Songpan Garze was cut prior to 12 Ma. The Song Lo joined the Red River after 9 Ma. Bulk sample Pb analyses have limited provenance use compared to single grain data, and detailed provenance is only possible with a matrix of different proxies.

Clift, Peter D.; Long, Hoang Van; Hinton, Richard; Ellam, Robert M.; Hannigan, Robyn; Tan, Mai Thanh; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Duc, Nguyen Anh

2008-04-01

84

Surface rupture on the Denali Fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta river Mw 7.2-7.4 earthquake: Implications for the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake slip distribution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 3 November 2002 Denali fault earthquake, surface rupture propagated through a small, old-growth forest in the Delta River valley and damaged many trees growing on the fault. Damage was principally the result of fault offset of tree roots and tilting of trees. Some trees were split by surface faults that intersected the base of their trunks or large taproots. A few trees appear to have been damaged by strong shaking. Many of the older trees damaged in 2002 were deformed and scarred. Some of these scarred trees exhibit past damage indicative of surface faulting and have abrupt changes in their annual ring patterns that coincide with the past damage. Annual ring counts from several of these older scarred trees indicate the damage was caused by surface rupture on the Denali fault in 1912. The only earthquake of sufficient magnitude that fits the requirements for timing and general location as recorded by the damaged trees is a widely felt Ms 7.2-7.4 earthquake on 6 July 1912 informally referred to as the 1912 Delta River earthquake. Seismologic data and intensity distribution for the 1912 Delta River earthquake indicate that its epicenter was within 60-90 km of the Delta River and that rupture probably propagated toward the west. Inferred fault length, displacement, and rupture direction suggest the 1912 rupture was probably largely coincident with the western, lower slip section of the 2002 rupture.

Carver, G.; Plafker, G.; Metz, M.; Cluff, L.; Slemmons, B.; Johnson, E.; Roddick, J.; Sorensen, S.

2004-01-01

85

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-09-30

86

Structure and geological history of the Lepanto-Cervantes releasing bend on the Abra river fault, Luzon Central Cordillera, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Luzon Central Cordillera corresponds to the uplifted and tectonized magmatic arc associated with the Manila Trench subduction zone. It is cut into N-S trending strips by the horsetail-like overprint of the Philippine strike-slip fault. The median branch, herein named the Abra River Fault, splits away to the west from the Dalton Fault and runs north-northwestward for 240 km through the range. Trending N150E in its southern part, it undergoes a sinistral bend in the Lepanto-Cervantes area, and then strikes N-S, makes a second bend and runs north-northeast up to the northwestern tip of the island. In the bend area, the compartment east of the fault has subsided, forming a narrow strip along the southern Lepanto segment and a wider trough parallel to the fault which stretches 25 km from Cervantes. The basement of the strip is position dependent, corresponding either to the Oligo-Miocene arc succession (volcanoclastic sediments and dioritic intrusive), or to the pre-Late Eocene ophiolitic basement of the arc. In the Lepanto area, two volcanic formations are preserved: the oldest one, the Malaya Formation is latest Miocene in age (6.1 ± 0.3 and 5.7 ± 0.28 Ma by K/Ar) and represents the infill of the trough, the youngest, the Mount Pudso volcanics, is Holocene in age (0.5 Ma by K/Ar). The Cervantes trough contains a thick (reaching 1700 m) volcanoclastic sequence dated as latest Miocene-Early Pliocene (3.7 ± 0.18-6.2 ± 0.28 Ma by K/Ar (the Malaya Formation). On the western and southern sides, the Abra River Fault separates the very deformed infill from the strongly uplifted pre-Late Miocene basement. On the east side, the basement, whose elevation increases gradually eastward, is disconformably overlain by the Mio-Pliocene sequence. To the north, the trough is slightly deformed. The structural analysis of the Lepanto-Cervantes strip, together with the local and regional geological and geochronological data, allow us to propose a three-stage history. The first stage during the early Late Miocene, is the major left-lateral wrench displacement of the Abra River Fault and the appearance of the bend under a transpressive regime. The second stage from latest Miocene to Early Pliocene, and marked by strong volcanic activity, comes with and/or immediately follows the subsidence of the Lepanto-Cervantes strip. The last stage, starting in the Late Pliocene, is characterized by the E-W foreshortening of the Cervantes Trough, and the beginning of its erosion.

Ringenbach, Jean Claude; Stephan, Jean François; Maleterre, Philippe; Bellon, Herve

1990-11-01

87

Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.  

SciTech Connect

The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

2003-07-01

88

Modeling regional variation in riverine fish biodiversity in the Arkansas-White-Red River basin  

SciTech Connect

The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas White Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models and identified well-supported models. Subbasin attributes that were retained as predictors included discharge, elevation, number of downstream dams, percent forest, percent shrubland, nitrate, total phosphorus, and sediment. The random component of our models, which assumed a negative binomial distribution, included spatial correlation within larger river basins and overdispersed residual variance. This study differs from previous biodiversity modeling efforts in several ways. First, obtaining likelihoods for negative binomial mixed models, and thereby avoiding reliance on quasi-likelihoods, has only recently become practical. We found the ranking of models based on these likelihood estimates to be more believable than that produced using quasi-likelihoods. Second, because we had access to a regional-scale watershed model for this river basin, we were able to include model-estimated water quality attributes as predictors. Thus, the resulting models have potential value as tools with which to evaluate the benefits of water quality improvements to fish.

Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-01-01

89

Quaternary faulting of basalt flows on the Melones and Almanor fault zones, North Fork Feather River, northeastern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field relations indicate multiple sequences of late Cenozoic basalt flowed down the canyon of the North Fork Feather River from the Modoc Plateau during the Pliocene and early Quaternary. Remnants of at least three flow sequences are exposed in the canyon, the intermediate one yielding a K\\/Ar plagioclase date of 1.8 Ma. Topographic profiling of the remnants allows identification of

J. Wakabayashi; W. D. Page

1993-01-01

90

Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and latest Quaternary faulting: Migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intermountain and Idaho seismic belts within Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana form an unusual parabolic pattern about the axis of the aseismic eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). This pattern is also reflected in the distribution of latest Quaternary normal faults. Several late Cenozoic normal faults that trend perpendicular to the axis of the eastern SRP extend from the aseismic region to the region of latest Quaternary faulting and seismicity. A study of the late Miocene to Holocene displacement history of one of these, the Grand Valley fault system in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming, indicates that a locus of high displacement rates has migrated away from the eastern SRP to its present location in southern Star Valley in western Wyoming. In Swan Valley the studied area closest to the eastern SRP, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data for over 300 samples from 47 sites on well-exposed late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (the tuff of Spring Creek, the tuff of Heise, the Huckleberry Ridge tuff, the Pine Creek Basalt, and an older tuff thought to be the tuff of Cosgrove Road) are used to demonstrate differences in the displacement rate on the Grand Valley fault over the last ˜10 m.y. Tectonic tilts for these volcanic rocks are estimated by comparing the results of paleomagnetic analyses in Swan Valley to similar analyses of samples from undeformed volcanic rocks outside of Swan Valley. Basin geometry and tilt axes are established using seismic reflection profiles and field mapping. Combining these data with the tilt data makes it possible to calculate displacement rates during discrete temporal intervals. An average displacement rate of ˜1.8 mm/yr is calculated for the Grand Valley fault in Swan Valley between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. In the subsequent 2.0-m.y. interval the rate dropped 2 orders of magnitude to ˜0.014 mm/yr; during the preceding 5.5-m.y. interval the displacement rate is ˜0.15 mm/yr, or about 1 order of magnitude less than the rate between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. Mapping of fault scarps and unfaulted deposits along the Grand Valley fault system shows that latest Quaternary fault scarps are restricted to the portion farthest from the eastern SRP, the southern part of the Star Valley fault. Surface displacements estimated from scarp profiles and deposit ages estimated from soil development suggest a latest Quaternary displacement rate of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault. Morphologic evidence suggests that this displacement rate persisted on the Star Valley fault throughout most of the Quaternary. The latest Quaternary displacement rate calculated for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault is similar to the rate calculated for Swan Valley during the interval from 2.0 to 4.4 Ma. This similarity, together with evidence for a low Quaternary displacement rate on the fault system in Swan Valley, suggests that the location of the highest displacement rate has migrated away from the eastern SRP. Other normal faults in southeastern Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, and southwestern Montana, while less well described than the Grand Valley fault system, exhibit a similar outward migrating pattern of increased fault activity followed by quiescence. Furthermore, a temporal and spatial relationship between fault activity and the 3.5 cm/yr northeastward track of the Yellowstone hotspot is observable on the Grand Valley fault system and on other north-northwest trending late Cenozoic faults that border the eastern SRP. The temporal and spatial relationship of Miocene to present high displacement rates for other circumeastern SRP faults and the observable outwardly migrating pattern of fault activity suggest that a similar parabolic distribution of seismicity and high displacement rates was symmetrically positioned about the former position of the hotspot. Moreover, the tandem migration of the hotspot and the parabolic distribution of increased fault activity and seismicity are closely followed by a parabolic-shaped "collapse shadow," or region of fault inactivity and aseismicity. We suggest that t

Anders, Mark H.; Geissman, John Wm.; Piety, Lucille A.; Sullivan, J. Timothy

1989-02-01

91

Evidence for synsedimentary coseismic hydraulic fracturing in the Middle Devonian Cedar Valley Group, Plum River Fault Zone of Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Correspondence between the Plum River Fault Zone and stratigraphic asymmetry the Middle Devonian Wapsipinicon and Cedar Valley groups in eastern Iowa have long been considered to record probable paleotectonism. Mesoscopic evidence for Devonian paleotectonism is exposed in strata of the Rapid Mbr of the Little Cedar Fm (Givetian) at the Silver Creek Graben, a 150 m-wide fault block within the Plum River Fault zone in southern Jackson county, Iowa. Little Cedar limestones are cut by multiple generations of brittle microstructures including compound sediment/spar-filled veins, tectonic stylolites that cut bedding at high angles, and late calcite veins coupled with stylolites. Internal sediments filling compound veins are preserved as unfossiliferous early gray and late olive-colored inclusion-rich microspars, both with mottled luminescence. Inclusions in the microspars consist of detrital illite and diagenetic microdolomite. Spars enclosing the internal sediments have a constructional oscillatory luminescent-nonluminescent zonation. Internal sediments in compound veins at Silver Creek Graben apparently were drawn downward through 15--30 m of overlying Cedar Valley carbonates to fill dilational fractures opened by coseismic hydraulic fracturing during the late Givetian erosional episode that followed deposition of the Coralville Fm. Preliminary sampling of cements and gray microspars from compound veins have [delta][sup 18]O values ranging from [minus]6 to [minus]5 [per thousand] and [delta][sup 13]C values ranging from [minus]6.5 to [minus]3 [per thousand]. These components are interpreted to record diagenesis in a meteoric phreatic environment.

Ludvigson, G.A.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Faulds, J.E. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States))

1993-03-01

92

Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

1983-01-01

93

Ground-water quality in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1991--1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the results of the Red River Basin NAWQA study-unit survey. The specific purposes of the report are: (1) to describe the water quality in surficial aquifers (in three physiographic areas) and in shallow buried aquifers; (2) to contrast and explain the water-quality differences among surficial aquifers (in each physiographic area) and between surficial and shallow buried aquifers;

Cowdery

1998-01-01

94

Simulation of retention and transport of copper, lead and zinc in a paddy soil of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal (HM) contaminations in the topsoil around handicraft villages with non-ferrous heavy metal recycling in the Red River Delta can impose serious threats to the subsoil as well as to the groundwater quality. This feature is very important for paddy soils due to relatively high leaching rates and the dissolution of Fe–Mn oxides under reducing conditions which can accelerate

Minh Nguyen Ngoc; Stefan Dultz; Jörn Kasbohm

2009-01-01

95

Late-summer food of red-winged blackbirds in a fresh tidal-river marsh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During late summer in the Delaware Valley and Chesapeake Bay region, hundreds of thousands of Red-winged Blackbirds feed in wild rice beds of fresh tidal-river marshes. The period during which wild rice seed is available coincides with the ripening period of a part of the corn crop, and there is evidence to indicate that the availability of the wild rice reduces bird feeding pressure on corn in the area. The importance of wild rice and other marsh plants to the redwing during the period when wild rice seed is available was studied further by field observations and by analysis of stomach contents of 130 birds collected in wild rice beds of the Patuxent River in southern Maryland. Seeds of marsh plants formed the bulk of the food of redwings collected. Dotted smartweed, wild rice, and Walter?s millet were the most important food plants. Corn was the fourth most important item. It occurred in 35, approximately one-fourth, of the stomachs

Meanley, B.

1961-01-01

96

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

2005-01-01

97

New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New structural, petrographic, and 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the kinematics of the ASRR (Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone). In the XueLong Shan (XLS), geochronological data reveal Triassic, Early Tertiary, and Oligo-Miocene thermal events. The latter event (33-26 Ma) corresponds to cooling during left-lateral shear. In the FanSiPan (FSP) range, thrusting of the SaPa nappe, linked to left-lateral deformation, and cooling of the FSP granite occurred at ?35 Ma. Rapid cooling resumed at 25-29 Ma as a result of uplift within the transtensive ASRR. In the DayNuiConVoi (DNCV), foliation trends NW-SE, but is deflected near large-scale shear planes. Stretching lineation is nearly horizontal. On steep foliations, shear criteria indicate left-lateral shear sense. Zones with flatter foliations show compatible shear senses. Petrographic data indicate decompression from ?6.5 kbar during left-lateral shear (temperatures >700°C). 40Ar/39Ar data imply rapid cooling from above 350°C to below 150°C between 25 and 22 Ma without diachronism along strike. Along the whole ASRR cooling histories show two main episodes: (1) rapid cooling from peak metamorphism during left-lateral shear; (2) rapid cooling from greenschist conditions during right-lateral reactivation of the ASRR. In the NW part of the ASRR (XLS, Diancang Shan), we link rapid cooling 1 to local denudations in a transpressive environment. In the SW part (Ailao Shan and DNCV), cooling 1 resulted from regional denudation by zipper-like tectonics in a transtensive regime. The induced cooling diachronism observed in the Ailao Shan suggests left-lateral rates of 4 to 5 cm/yr from 27 Ma until ?17 Ma. DNCV rocks always stayed in a transtensive regime and do not show cooling diachronism. The similarities of deformation kinematics along the ASRR and in the South China Sea confirms the causal link between continental strike-slip faulting and marginal basin opening.

Leloup, P. H.; Arnaud, N.; Lacassin, R.; Kienast, J. R.; Harrison, T. M.; Trong, T. T. Phan; Replumaz, A.; Tapponnier, P.

2001-04-01

98

Dynamic Emulation Modeling of irrigation water deficit in the Red-Thai Binh River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water deficit (WD) is the factor that most affects agricultural productivity in irrigated land. The optimal management of water resources requires estimating and forecasting its intensity in space and time. In large irrigation systems, the adoption of a physically-based (PB), distributed, dynamic model (e.g.Mike11) is a viable solution, since it can simulate the hydraulic processes that occurs in the system, including the operation of hydraulic structures according with rules based on water demand and water availability. However PB models always have a high dimensional state that prevents their adoption within optimization algorithms, even the most advanced ones. Additionally, the information they produce (the time trajectories of all the variables of the systems) is definitively larger than what is actually required (the trajectories of WDs in pre-specified areas) in the management problem. Thus input/output (I/O) lumped models would be more appropriate, but their calibration is generally prevented by the lack of sufficiently long time series of the output variables (WDs in our case). The solution we explored is to split the process into two steps: the first is the calibration of a PB model (Mike11 in our case study) in a traditional way, using the available time series; the second is the identification of an I/O model from the WD time series generated by the PB model We present a dynamic emulation modelling (DEMo) approach which leads to the identification of an emulation model, namely a simplified, computationally-efficient model built over a sample data-set produced via simulation of the original model (Mike11). The core mechanism of the procedure is a feature-ranking algorithm, based on Extremely Randomized Trees, through which the suitable input variables of the emulation model are automatically selected. The emulation model, in the form of an I/O relationship, is then identified using Artificial Neural Networks. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a real-world case study: the Red-Thai Binh River Delta in Vietnam. It is a large and complex river system, supplied by five unregulated rivers and four large multi-purpose reservoirs, the operating rules of which have to be designed. In order to ascertain the effects of their regulation on the WD in the Delta, a Mike11 model was calibrated and validated. It describes 320 rivers and canals for a total length of 4200 km, 11 irrigation districts and many structures, among which 88 sluice gates and 302 irrigation water intakes (simulated as controlled pumps). Its inputs are the four reservoirs releases, the non-regulated flows of the five rivers, the sea levels at the nine river mouths, the water demand at each one of the irrigation water intakes. The considered outputs are the daily WD in the 11 districts. The dimension of the state vector of the model is of the order of 16,000. From the high dimensional Mike11, a low dimensional (11 dimension) DEMo model was identified that mimics very well (R2=0.95) the WDs as computed by the Mike11 model. The DEMo model will be later on embedded within a large multi-objective optimal control problem to design the operating rules of the four reservoirs.

Dinh, Q.; Cassaro, L.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2013-12-01

99

Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially distributed geomorphic drivers at catchment scale for the Red River basin. This novel dataset has been then analysed using self-organizing maps (SOM) an artificial neural network model that is capable of learning from complex, multidimensional data without specification of what the outputs should be, and of generating a nonlinear classification of visually decipherable clusters. The use of the above framework allowed to analyze the spatial distribution of geomorphic features at catchment scale, reviling patterns of similarities and dissimilarities within the catchment and allowing classification of river reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers and then likely (but still to be validated) fluvial processes. The paper proposes an innovative and promising technique to produce hydromorphological classifications at catchment scale opening the way towards regional or national scale hydromorphological assessments through automatic GIS and statistical procedures with moderate effort, an urgent requirement of modern catchment management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

2012-12-01

100

33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Captain of the Port Sector Upper Mississippi River will inform the public through...Captain of the Port Sector Upper Mississippi River and Marine Safety Unit Duluth...Captain of the Port Sector Upper Mississippi River or a designated...

2011-07-01

101

Hydrological Effects of an Uncontrolled Flowing Well, Red River Valley, North Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas of the Red River Valley that overlie permeable Paleozoic sediments, wetlands and salinization have developed where unregulated flowing wells discharge brackish water. Field data were collected to assess the fate of water and salt from a well 25 km northwest of Grand Forks. Drilled during the drought of the 1930s, discharge was used to replenish water in a small oxbow pond used by livestock. The unregulated well discharges about 56 m3/day, measured since 1993. This discharge exceeds ground water flow from the site, thereby forming a ground water mound with a maximum height of 1 m and a diameter of about 300 m. Most soil and underlying sediments near the well have a hydraulic conductivity of 0.3 m3/day. Flow net analysis suggests that less than 25 percent infiltrates, with the remaining water lost to surface flow and evapotranspiration (ET). Evapotranspiration and slow infiltration has led to increased salinization, with shallow soils exhibiting EC to 500 milliSiemens/m. The most pronounced soil salinization occurs along the margins of the oxbow pond and meander scars. Wetland vegetation with low diversity comprises three zones, with species associations similar to those of closed basin prairie potholes to the west.

Gerla, Philip J.

2004-10-01

102

Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater from the two main aquifers in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Red River Delta, situated in the northern part of Vietnam, nearly its entire population depends solely on groundwater for daily water consumptions. For this reason, groundwater quality assessments must be carefully carried out using hydrogeochemical properties, to ensure effective groundwater resource planning for the Delta’s present and future groundwater use. In this study, the spatial and seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the two main aquifers of the RRD were investigated by analyzing the physicochemical data obtained in 2011 from 31 conjunctive wells in the Delta’s Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) using the Piper diagram and the Gibbs diagram. Results of the data analysis show that the groundwater in both aquifers in the upstream area of the delta is dominated by the [Ca2+-HCO3-] water-type, while the [Na+-Cl-] dominates along the middle-stream and downstream areas. Seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical facies in both aquifers, comparing the results for the dry and the rainy seasons, were detected in about one third of the sampling wells, which were mainly located at the upstream portion of the Delta. The hydrogeochemical facies of HUA were different from that of PCA by about 45% of the sampling wells in both the dry and the rainy seasons, which were found mostly in the upstream and middle-stream areas.

Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Kawamura, Akira; Tong, Thanh Ngoc; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo; Gilbuena, Romeo

2014-10-01

103

Characterisation of Adaptive Genetic Diversity in Environmentally Contrasted Populations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (River Red Gum)  

PubMed Central

As an increasing number of ecosystems face departures from long standing environmental conditions under climate change, our understanding of the capacity of species to adapt will become important for directing conservation and management of biodiversity. Insights into the potential for genetic adaptation might be gained by assessing genomic signatures of adaptation to historic or prevailing environmental conditions. The river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) is a widespread Australian eucalypt inhabiting riverine and floodplain habitats which spans strong environmental gradients. We investigated the effects of adaptation to environment on population level genetic diversity of E. camaldulensis, examining SNP variation in candidate gene loci sampled across 20 climatically diverse populations approximating the species natural distribution. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (FST?=?17%), exceeding previous estimates based on neutral markers. Complementary statistical approaches identified 6 SNP loci in four genes (COMT, Dehydrin, ERECTA and PIP2) which, after accounting for demographic effects, exhibited higher than expected levels of genetic differentiation among populations and whose allelic variation was associated with local environment. While this study employs but a small proportion of available diversity in the eucalyptus genome, it draws our attention to the potential for application of wide spread eucalypt species to test adaptive hypotheses. PMID:25093589

Dillon, Shannon; McEvoy, Rachel; Baldwin, Darren S.; Rees, Gavin N.; Parsons, Yvonne; Southerton, Simon

2014-01-01

104

Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

2001-12-01

105

Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.  

SciTech Connect

A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

Ashley, Paul

2004-11-01

106

A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

1981-01-01

107

Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE for organic fields was less spatially and temporally variable than conventional, with average daily flux between 0.48 and 1.44 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1. Average daily flux in conventional fields ranged between 0.48 and 3.12 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1, with highest values in April and May. While soil moisture in organic fields was significantly greater than conventional, it did not interact with treatment to affect trace gas flux. Instead, the effect of organic on N2O, CO2 and the net GHE was strongly influenced by crop stage, an agronomically meaningful proxy integrating time and plant growth conditions. Most CH4 flux observations were 0. Integrated fluxes for each of the 40 sites over the growing season was averaged by field pair and treatment. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect for average seasonal integrated flux varied between field pairs for CO2 and N2O fluxes, the overall influence of treatment on the net GHE was similar. Overall, soils under organically produced wheat emitted 200 kg CO2 equiv. ha-1 per season less than conventionally produced wheat. We observed 1) the net GHE for similar field sites in the Red River Valley was reduced under organic versus conventional agriculture, 2) N2O flux in organic fields was significantly lower than conventional fields for both field pair sites, and 3) the effect of treatment on CO2 flux was site specific.

Phillips, R. L.

2004-12-01

108

Monitoring of Inorganic Nitrogen Levels in the Surface and Ground Water of the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ammonium-nitrogen (N) and nitrate-N and the pH of the surface and ground water were monitored in three rural communes differing in topography, soil type, and cropping pattern in the central Red River Delta, northern Vietnam, at the end of the rainy season in 2002. Information on the amount of fertilizer N applied and the kind and number of

Kiyoshi Kurosawa; Do Nguyen Hai; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Ho Thi Lam Tra; Nguyen Tat Canh; Kazuhiko Egashira

2004-01-01

109

Numerical simulation of the influence of a Red River flood on circulation and contaminant dispersion in Lake Winnipeg  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River valley experienced one of the worst floods in 1997 because of above average snow accumulation, a blizzard during\\u000a the snowmelt period and high soil moisture conditions. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling system is used to study the\\u000a impact of the flood on the circulation and contaminant dispersion in Lake Winnipeg. To assess the model performance, we first\\u000a simulate

Yerubandi R. Rao; Jun Zhao

2010-01-01

110

Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm

111

Signatures of high-magnitude 19th-century floods in Quercus macrocarpa tree rings along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus macrocarpa (Michx.) growing along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, contain an anatomical signature related to high-magnitude 19th-century floods. Tree-ring samples were collected from 194 Q. macrocarpa over a 100 km transect along the Red River valley. The combined tree-ring record extends from A.D. 1463 to A.D. 1999; sample depth between 1463 and 1650 is limited and made up exclusively

Scott St. George; Erik Nielsen

2000-01-01

112

National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Data Collection in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1992-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality assessment began in 1991 for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin as part of a national study. Data collection for the reconnainssance and intensive phases of the study briefly is described for each of the major components (streams, aquatic biology, and ground water) used to assess regional water quality. The data will be analyzed to address national and local water-quality concerns.

Stoner, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.

1995-01-01

113

Reinterpretation of relationships among Keystone thrust, Red Springs thrust, contact thrust, and Cottonwood fault, Clark County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basin-range and Sevier tectonic events are well-documented in Clark County, Nevada. Other tectonic events have been interpreted from structural relationships in the Spring Mountains. These include an early thrust-faulting event and a high-angle faulting event that occurred between emplacement of the early thrust and emplacement of the Keystone thrust. The results of this study indicate that there was not

Vincent Matthews; III

1985-01-01

114

Fractal structure and characteristic scale in the distributions of earthquake epicentres, active faults and rivers in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a box-counting method, we examined the fractal structures of the spatial distributions of three geological systems in Japan, namely those of earthquake epicentres, active faults, and rivers. Our results show that, in the scale range from 1 to 100 km, all geological systems have a common characteristic scale of ~13 km, which divides the spatial distribution into two bands: a smaller scale r<13 km and larger scale r>13 km (where r is the box size). In both bands, the three systems obey a power law distribution, and therefore it is proposed that all geological systems have a band-limited fractal structure. Since the characteristic scale of ~13 km is in agreement with the depth of the brittle-ductile transition zone of the crust, we suggest that it is a common feature of the heterogeneity of the crust.

Lei, Xinglin; Kusunose, Kinichiro

1999-12-01

115

Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages, management boundaries, compliance points, and impaired water body endpoints. Incorporation of the LiDAR datasets has been critical to representing the topographic characteristics that impact hydrologic and water quality processes in the extremely flat, heavily drained sub-basins of the RRB. Beyond providing more detailed elevation and slope measurements, the high resolution LiDAR datasets have helped to identify drainage alterations due to agricultural practices, as well as improve representation of channel geometry. Additionally, when available, LiDAR based hydraulic models completed as part of the RRB flood mitigation efforts, are incorporated to further improve flow routing. The MPCA will ultimately use these HSPF models to aid in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, permit development/compliance, analysis of Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation scenarios, and other watershed planning and management objectives. LiDAR datasets are an essential component of the water quality models build for the watersheds within the RRB and would greatly benefit water quality modeling efforts in similarly characterized areas.

Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

2013-12-01

116

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

117

Change in Sahelian Rivers hydrograph: The case of recent red floods of the Niger River in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the hydrological regime of Sahelian Rivers are considered based upon the example of the Middle Niger River and its exceptional flood in 2010 near the city of Niamey. It is shown that rainfall in 2010 was only average with respect to the long term record, with neither the monthly rainfall distribution in terms of the amount of rainfall nor the distribution of rainy events changing significantly in the last few decades. Particularly, no increase in the number of extreme rainfall events is observed. In spite of this, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970s, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in a modification of the Niger River's regime from a single hydrograph to a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. This modification is likely due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure, resulting mostly from the spatial extension of crop areas and the shortening of fallow periods. Changes in connectivity of the river networks on both banks of the Niger such as endorheism bursting events also caused an increase in the contributing basin area. Policy makers should be alerted to the effects of intensive cropping, land clearing and overgrazing in some areas, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian Rivers.

Descroix, Luc; Genthon, Pierre; Amogu, Okechukwu; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Sighomnou, Daniel; Vauclin, Michel

2012-12-01

118

Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Red River Region, Yunnan Province, China  

E-print Network

(cont.) Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system during growth of the southeast plateau margin. Cosmogenic ²?A1 and ¹?Be basin-wide erosion rate and burial ages indicate a background incision rate of [approximately] 0.05 to 0.10 ...

Schoenbohm, Lindsay M. (Lindsay Marie), 1976-

2004-01-01

119

Evidence of Late Quaternary Faulting along the Northeastern Segment of the Stagner Creek Fault in the Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stagner Creek fault, located along the southern margin of the Owl Creek Mountains in central Wyoming, is one of several east-west striking Quaternary faults that may correspond with scattered, present-day, intraplate seismicity in the region. These Quaternary faults are peculiar in that they strike nearly orthogonal to the Basin and Range faults observed in western Wyoming, and their orientation may reflect the influence of inherited, Laramide structures. These east-west striking faults are inferred to be predominantly normal faults. Previous studies have documented the Quaternary activity of the Stagner Creek fault affecting 6 distinct alluvial fan southeast of the Boysen Reservoir. This study aims to expand on these prior efforts using geomorphic and geophysical analyses. In this area, the Stagner Creek fault is expressed as a prominent scarp, visible in air photos and satellite imagery. Microtopographic mapping was accomplished using a real-time kinematic GPS surveying. The resulting DEM provides detailed scarp morphology, as well as documenting possible knick points within the alluvial surfaces upstream from the scarp. The alluvial surface has a regional slope of 2-3 degrees, and the scarp face has a relatively shallow slope of 6-12 degrees. Scarp heights range from 0.4 to 2 meters. The minimum scarp may reflect a single faulting event, corresponding with a magnitude 6.5 - 6.7. These surfaces are believed to be Late Pleistocene and younger, and geochronological constraints are pending. A shallow seismic reflection profile acquired across the scarp imaged structure to depths of about 500 meters. The profile suggests a steep fault coincident with the surface scarp that offsets Tertiary reflectors several 10s of meters in the subsurface. The steep dip is similar to Laradmide structures. These results suggest that the Stagner Creek fault is capable of generating moderate magnitude earthquakes in this low-strain tectonic environment.

Abousaif, A.; Wang, H.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Gomez, F.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

120

Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Controlling geochemical processes and reactive transport modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The groundwater chemistry was investigated in a transect of 100 piezometers. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis. Enhanced PCO 2 pressure causes carbonate dissolution to take place but mainly in the soil and unsaturated zone. The concentration of As increases over depth to a concentration of up to 550 ?g/L. Most As is present as As(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH 4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced. Part of the produced Fe(II) is apparently reprecipitated as siderite containing less As. Results from sediment extraction indicate most As to be related to the Fe-oxide fractions. The measured amount of sorbed As is low. In agreement, speciation calculations for a Fe-oxide surface suggest As(III) to constitute only 3% of the surface sites while the remainder is occupied by carbonate and silica species. The evolution in water chemistry over depth is homogeneous and a reactive transport model was constructed to quantify the geochemical processes along the vertical groundwater flow component. A redox zonation model was constructed using the partial equilibrium approach with organic carbon degradation in the sediment as the only rate controlling parameter. Apart from the upper meter a constant degradation rate of 0.15 C mmol/L/yr could explain the redox zonation throughout the aquifer. Modeling also indicates that the Fe-oxide being reduced is of a stable type like goethite or hematite. Arsenic is contained in the Fe-oxides and is first released during their dissolution. Our model further suggests that part of the released As is adsorbed on the surface of the remaining Fe-oxides and in this way may be retarded.

Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Minh Hue, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Mai Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung; Nhan, Pham Quy; Jessen, Søren

2007-11-01

121

Active normal faults and river damming: the importance of tectonics and climate in shaping the landscape of the southern Tibetan plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interaction between tectonics, climate and erosion is key to unravel the geodynamic evolution of rapidly evolving landscapes. Normal faulting along the Ama Drime and fluvial incision of the Arun river are used to better describe the recent evolution of the south-central Tibetan plateau. The Arun catchment can be separated in two parts, an upper catchment characterized by the presence of abandoned shorelines testifying of the presence of a paleolake, and a lower basin with deep gorges characterized by strong fluvial incision. This geometry implies ancient damming of the Arun river in the vicinity of the Kharta normal fault. Two shorelines, the highest at 4400 m asl and a major one at 4260 m a.s.l. have been dated at about 200-250 ka and at 80-120 ka using both OSL and 10Be cosmogenic dating methods of surface and subsurface samples. In the south Kharta basin, river terraces ˜100 m above the present riverbed are offset between 10 and 15 m by one branch of the normal fault. 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of these terraces range between 9 and 11 ka, consistent with aggradation after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ˜20 ka), followed by rapid incision of the Arun. A few kilometres south of Kharta, the normal fault offsets by about 30 m abandoned lateral moraines with ages ranging from 20 to 70 ka. These measurements constrain the rates of vertical displacement along the normal faults to range between 0.7 and 1.4 mm/yr since 10-15 ka. The 20-70 ka rate is less well constrained but is of the same order. To the north, the range of ages (30 to 166 ka) of a terrace offset by 150 m suggests a formation during MIS-5e, and thus a vertical slip-rate of about 1±0.5 mm/yr. 70 kilometres farther north-east, moraines are offset by 20-40 m across the Mabja west-dipping normal fault in the nothward prologation of the Kharta fault. If the moraines are correlated with the LGM advance the Mabja fault vertical slip-rate is similar to that of the Kharta fault. All these data indicate vertical rates on the order of 0.6 to 1.7 mm/yr on the North-Ssouth active faults in the Ama Drime area. The peculiar course of the Arun river meandering within gorges into the footwall of the Kharta fault downstream of the paleolake remnants indicates interaction between river damming and active normal faulting. The high lake stands may be correlated to the penultimate and last interglacial stages corresponding to enhance moisture across the Himalayas. It further suggest dam buildup during cold and dry glacial stages favoring diminished fluvial erosion and enhanced morainic debris accumulation in the gorge during continuous tectonic uplift. The end of the last lake high-stand (100-120ka) is in agreement with the highest and oldest evidence of fluvial terraces downstream of the gorge. These results show the importance of fluvial and tectonic interaction in connecting closed basins to drained valleys and thus in shaping large parts of the Tibetan plateau.

Kali, E.; van der Woerd, J.; Liu-Zeng, J.; LeBéon, M.; Leloup, P.-H.; Mahéo, G.; Tapponnier, P.; Thuizat, R.

2012-04-01

122

Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh dam (HBD), located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although it is important for flood prevention, electricity production and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from a 50-year data set of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010), and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was simulated using the MIKE11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 9%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average, by 61% at Son Tay near Hanoi (from 119 to 46 × 106 t yr-1). Along the coast, reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh dam. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season (-14% in the Red River at Son Tay) and increased water discharge in the dry season (+12% at the same station). The ratios of water and suspended sediment flows, as compared to the total flows in the nine mouths, increased in the northern and southern estuaries and decreased in the central, main Ba Lat mouth. The increasing volume of dredged sediments in the Haiphong harbour is evidence of the silting up of the northern estuary of Cam-Bach Dang. The effect of tidal pumping on enhanced flow occurring in the dry season and resulting from changed water regulation is discussed as a possible cause of the enhanced siltation of the estuary after Hoa Binh dam impoundment.

Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

2014-10-01

123

A Statistical Analysis of Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective System Mountain Initiation Location Clusters in the Arkansas-Red River Basin  

E-print Network

.3: Improvements 403 7: References 406 Appendix A: Cluster Location Maps 417 Appendix B: After Initiation Result Tables 434 Table of Figures and Tables Figure 3.2.1: Map of the Arkansas-Red River Basin 24 Figure 3.4.1: Map of the Entire Set of Clusters... Used for Surface Data and Upper Air Data 37 viii Table 3.7.2: Stations Used for Each Cluster 38 Table 3.7.3: Quick Surface and Upper Air Variable Reference 39 Table 4.2.1: Median Values for the Upper Air and Surface Variables for the Entire...

Callen, Elisabeth F.

2012-12-31

124

Trace metal and metalloid levels in surface water of Marcal River before and after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare and assess the dissolved concentrations of trace elements (As, Zn, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu) in surface water of Marcal River before and after the red mud spill that occurred in Ajka, western Hungary, in October 2010. The caustic sludge flooded the surrounding settlements and polluted the nearby Torna Creek, which flows through the Marcal and Raba rivers into the Danube. A total of 92 surface water samples were collected from the Marcal River in the period of 2007-2012 and analysed for dissolved trace metal(loid)s by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After the spill, the water management authority initially focused on acid dosing of surface waters to lower pH and was effective in lowering both pH and metal(loid) concentrations. Among the dissolved trace metal(loid)s, arsenic and nickel levels were moderately higher in the Marcal River 2 years since the spill compared to that observed in the pre-disaster period. The concentrations of dissolved trace metal(loid)s did not exceed the European water quality standards and the US Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria values (excluding one sample for cadmium). PMID:23975713

Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

2013-11-01

125

Influence of growth faults on coastal fluvial systems: Examples from the late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The details of how fluvial systems respond to spatial changes in land-surface subsidence produced by active faulting remain incompletely understood. Here, we examine the degree to which the positioning of individual channels and channel-belts is affected by local maxima in subsidence associated with the hanging walls of growth faults. The channel forms and faults are imaged using a seismic volume covering 1400 km2 of Breton Sound and Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana, USA. We look at the consequences of interactions between channels, channel-belts, and faults in late Miocene to Recent strata. More than fifty individual channels that crossed the traces of active growth faults were examined. Of these channels, only three appear to have been redirected by the faults. There also appeared to be no systematic change in the cross-sectional geometries of channels or channel-belts associated with crossing a fault, though the orientation of the channel-belts appears to be more influenced by faulting than the orientation of individual channels. Seven out of ten mapped channel-belts appear to have been steered by growth faults. We propose that channel belts are more likely to be influenced by faults than individual channels because channel-belts are longer lived features, unlikely to shift their overall position before experiencing a discrete faulting event. In addition, the style of influence in the few cases where an individual channel is affected by a fault is different from that of larger systems. While downstream of a fault channel-belts generally become oriented perpendicular to fault strike, the individual channels are directed along the hanging wall of the fault, running parallel to the fault trace. We relate this to the ratio of the length-scale of fault rollover relative to the channel or channel-belt width. Fluvial-fault interactions with higher values for this ratio are more likely to be carried parallel to the fault trace than systems with lower ratio values.

Armstrong, Christopher; Mohrig, David; Hess, Thomas; George, Terra; Straub, Kyle M.

2014-03-01

126

Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, also less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level. Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicated statistically significant differences among bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations at the three gages. Regression equations to estimate bromide, chloride, and sulfate loads were developed for each of the three gages. The largest loads were estimated for a period of relatively large streamflow, June-September 2007, when about 50 percent of the load for the study period occurred at each gage. Adjusted R-squared values were largest for regression equations for the DeKalb gage, ranging from .957 for sulfate to .976 for chloride. Adjusted R-squared values for all regression equations developed to estimate loads of bromide, chloride, and sulfate at the three gages were .899 or larger.

Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

2010-01-01

127

Large-scale geometry, oset and kinematic evolution of the Karakorum fault, Tibet  

E-print Network

of the convergence between India and Asia. In Yunnan and Sichuan, for instance, the Ailao Shan^Red River shear zone the edge of the Tarim, the Altyn Tagh fault also ap- pears to cut the lithosphere (e.g. [3]) and contrib

Lacassin, Robin

128

Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010) and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr-1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr-1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide). The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

Vu, D. V.; Ouillon, S.; Tran, D. T.; La, V. C.

2014-01-01

129

Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992  

SciTech Connect

The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

Laves, K.S. [Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States). Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

1992-09-11

130

Signatures of high-magnitude 19th-century floods in Quercus macrocarpa tree rings along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quercus macrocarpa (Michx.) growing along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, contain an anatomical signature related to high-magnitude 19th-century floods. Tree-ring samples were collected from 194 Q. macrocarpa over a 100 km transect along the Red River valley. The combined tree-ring record extends from A.D. 1463 to A.D. 1999; sample depth between 1463 and 1650 is limited and made up exclusively of subfossil logs derived from alluvial deposits. Thirteen trees from four sites contain annual rings with reduced earlywood-vessel transverse areas that reflect flooding during the tree's growing season. Flood rings in 1826 are present in 24% of Q. macrocarpa samples and are coincident with the largest flood observed in the Red River valley. Flood rings in 1852 are exhibited in 5.9% of samples and correspond with the second largest Red River flood. These results confirm that Quercus species adapt to prolonged inundation by reducing the transverse area of their earlywood vessels and suggest that anatomical signatures in riverbank trees may be used to identify and delineate high-magnitude paleofloods for low-gradient rivers.

St. George, Scott; Nielsen, Erik

2000-10-01

131

Kinematics and tectonic implications of the Mae Kuang Fault, northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the hypothesis that northeast-trending strike-slip faults partially accommodated mid-Tertiary east-west extension in northern Thailand, we investigated a prominent lineament that marks the trace of the Mae Kuang fault. The trace of the this fault follows the linear Mae Kuang Valley for approximately 30 km through the Mae Tho Range northeast of Chiang Mai, where it cuts granitic rocks of the Fang - Mae Suai batholith and roof pendants of Paleozoic terranes. Along the trace of the fault we identified offset contacts, and slickenlines on fault surfaces that suggest a total sinistral slip of 3.5 km and a dip-slip of 600 m. The fault also offsets three north-flowing tributaries to the Mae Kuang River by 400-700 m. At its southwestern end, the Mae Kuang fault is apparently truncated by the right-lateral Mae Tha fault and does not extend to the west side of the Chiang Mai Basin. Therefore, it cannot be accommodating the transfer of extension from basin to basin, however, it may accommodate small amounts of differential rotation between adjacent crustal blocks. The fault probably initiated between 20 and 5 Ma, simultaneous with the slip inversion on the Mae Ping and Red River Faults.

Rhodes, Brady P.; Perez, Robert; Lamjuan, Apichard; Kosuwan, Suwith

2004-10-01

132

Lead and cadmium concentrations in red crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii , G.) in the Guadalquivir River Marshes (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of contamination found in muscle and exoskeleton of red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, G.) are compared and the interpretation of these results with relation to the level of contamination by lead and cadmium present in the aquatic environment are discussed. The development of the chelipeds in males is greater than those of females which distorts the total weight relationship.

F. Rincon-Leon; G. Zurera-Cosano; R. Pozo-Lora

1988-01-01

133

Faults of Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map displays faults for five regions in Southern California. Clicking on a region links to an enlarged relief map of the area, with local faults highlighted in colors. Users can click on individual faults to access pages with more detailed information, such as type, length, nearest communities, and a written description. In all of the maps, the segment of the San Andreas fault that is visible is highlighted in red, and scales for distances and elevations are provided. There is also a link to an alphabetical listing of faults by name.

134

Imaging the M7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake 2002 rupture at the Delta River using LiDAR, RADAR, and SASW Surface Wave Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake of 3 November 2002 resulted in approximately 5.5 meters of right-lateral offset and sub-meter (0.6m average) up-to-the north vertical displacement of alluvial deposits of the Delta River. We characterize the surface rupture and shallow fault structure of the Denali fault zone at the Delta River in order to better understand these most recent displacements and to estimate the total vertical offset of alluvium above glacially scoured bedrock. To analyze deformations along the fault-trace, we performed tripod-mounted ground-based LiDAR surveys, and Spectral analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) and Ground Penetrating RADAR (GPR) geophysical investigations. These studies were performed between the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAPS) corridor on the terrace deposits of the eastern flanks of the Delta River valley and the steeply sloping bedrock surface on the western side of the river. To produce digital terrain models (DTM) of the surface break we used a Riegl Z210i Laser-scanner to image eight independent LiDAR scans, and ISite3D modeling software to merge these scans into three DTM surfaces. We find that using a rotating scanning-laser allows us to produce ultra-high resolution quantitative DTMs for geomorphic analysis that can be used to resolve features and detect topographic changes on a fine-scale (0.9-2.5cm). Local geo-referencing control points are established using fixed auto reflectors. The near subsurface alluvium was imaged using reflection-based (GPR). A suite of parallel and orthogonal GPR reflection lines were measured to develop block models of the surface rupture at two locations. Radar imagery clearly delineates a plane of chaotic reflectors across the rupture zone. To characterize the depth of alluvium over bedrock on either side of the fault, we used the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) approach to invert the near-surface shear wave velocity profile. An Alyeska Co. Catepillar D9N track-mounted dozer was used as a high-energy random-wave source for the SASW test. This source allowed us to profile to depths in excess of 200 meters on either side of the fault. We found the combination of LiDAR and GPR allows us to analyze the surface and near-surface characteristics of a complex oblique rupture across the braid bars of the Delta River. SASW-based shear wave velocity profiles on either side of the fault indicate total up-to-the north uplift on the Denali fault of between 60-90 meters since Pleistocene (?) deglaciation. This investigation is the product of a collaborative research and development agreement between the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company, Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Kayen, R.; Barnhardt, W.; Carkin, B.; Collins, B. D.; Grossman, E. E.; Minasian, D.; Thompson, E.

2004-12-01

135

Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

2012-12-01

136

75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wiggins park Marina and South of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. The safety zone will...Wiggins Park Marina and south of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. Except for persons...13 in the Delaware River South of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge from 10 a.m. to...

2010-09-03

137

Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD  

SciTech Connect

This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

1998-07-01

138

The kinematic and cloud-to-ground lightning structure of the 9-10, June 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System  

E-print Network

An investigation of the kinematic and electrical properties of the 9-10 June, 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as observed by the NOAA P3 Tail Radar and the National Lightning Detection Network, is presented. This system exhibits...

Santarpia, Joshua

2012-06-07

139

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in

Christine A. Bishop; Margie D. Koster; Andrew A. Chek; David J. T. Hussell; Ken Jock

1995-01-01

140

The use of the red swamp crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii, Girard) as indicator of the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental monitoring in the River Guadiamar (SW, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A translocation experiment of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to different sites located in the River Guadiamar was performed in order to assess the ability of this species as bioindicator of heavy metal and metalloid contamination. Crayfish were placed in cages and exposed to polluted environment during either 6 or 12days in the three sites with different concentration of contaminants.

Paloma Alcorlo; Marina Otero; María Crehuet; Angel Baltanás; Carlos Montes

2006-01-01

141

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY SURVEYS WITHIN THE RED RIVER-DEVILS LAKE BASIN-GRIGGS AND NELSON COUNTIES. EPA-REGIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilize funding from the Regional Geographic Initiative Program to conduct a survey of ecological communities within the Red River-Devils Lake Basins. The study will be targeting Griggs and Nelson Counties to identify significant natural communities and to collect and interpret n...

142

IN VITRO STUDIES OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ADJUVANTS, HERBICIDES, AND FUNGICIDES COMMONLY USED IN RED RIVER VALLEY, MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies showed increased frequency of birth defects in pesticide applicators and general population of the Red River Valley, Minnesota. These studies further indicated that this crop growing area used more chlorophenoxy herbicides and fungicides than elsewhere in Minnesota. Based on frequency of use and known biology, certain herbicides, pesticide additives, fungicides, and mycotoxins are suspect agents. To define

2000-01-01

143

Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of the Granite Wash: Contact Rapids and Keg River Sandstone (Red Earth Area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Granite Wash is comprised of diachronous, Cambrian to Devonian sandstone deposits, which include the Devonian Contact Rapids and Keg River sandstones of which this study will focus. Prolific oil production from the Granite Wash has fueled exploration since the 1950s and as a result substantial core and wireline data is available. Mapping of the Precambrian subcrop suggests that palaeo-highs, known as inselbergs, strongly influenced sedimentation transport, volume, rate and ultimately preservation after marine transgression. Several distinct surfaces identified from wireline data and cores indicate an overall marine transgression throughout Keg River time. The facies observed represent continental, shallow marine and sabkha environments and a climatic shift from arid to semi-arid to arid. This detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic study provided the depositional framework that allowed for palaeogeographic maps to be constructed.

Balshaw, Kevin Ewart

144

Adsorption and desorption of arsenic to aquifer sediment on the Red River floodplain at Nam Du, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of arsenic onto aquifer sediment from the Red River floodplain, Vietnam, was determined in a series of batch experiments. Due to water supply pumping, river water infiltrates into the aquifer at the field site and has leached the uppermost aquifer sediments. The leached sediments remain anoxic but contain little reactive arsenic and iron, and are used in our experiments. The adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out by addition or removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase in sediment suspensions under strictly anoxic conditions. Also the effects of HCO3, Fe(II), PO4 and Si on arsenic adsorption were explored. The results show much stronger adsorption of As(V) as compared to As(III), full reversibility for As(III) adsorption and less so for As(V). The presence or absence of HCO3 did not influence arsenic adsorption. Fe(II) enhanced As(V) sorption but did not influence the adsorption of As(III) in any way. During simultaneous adsorption of As(III) and Fe(II), As(III) was found to be fully desorbable while Fe(II) was completely irreversibly adsorbed and clearly the two sorption processes are uncoupled. Phosphate was the only solute that significantly could displace As(III) from the sediment surface. Compiling literature data on arsenic adsorption to aquifer sediment in Vietnam and Bangladesh revealed As(III) isotherms to be almost identical regardless of the nature of the sediment or the site of sampling. In contrast, there was a large variation in As(V) adsorption isotherms between studies. A tentative conclusion is that As(III) and As(V) are not adsorbing onto the same sediment surface sites. The adsorption behavior of arsenic onto aquifer sediments and synthetic Fe-oxides is compared. Particularly, the much stronger adsorption of As(V) than of As(III) onto Red River as well as on most Bangladesh aquifer sediments, indicates that the perception that arsenic, phosphate and other species compete for the same surface sites of iron oxides in sediments with properties similar to those of, for example a synthetic goethite, probably is not correct. A simple two-component Langmuir adsorption model was constructed to quantitatively describe the reactive transport of As(III) and PO4 in the aquifer.

Thi Hoa Mai, Nguyen; Postma, Dieke; Thi Kim Trang, Pham; Jessen, Søren; Hung Viet, Pham; Larsen, Flemming

2014-10-01

145

Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

146

Discussion of tectonic models for Cenozoic strike-slip fault-affected continental margins of mainland SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the roles of Cenozoic strike-slip faults in SE Asia observed in outcrop onshore, with their offshore continuation has produced a variety of structural models (particularly pull-apart vs. oblique extension, escape tectonics vs. slab-pull-driven extension) to explain their relationships to sedimentary basins. Key problems with interpreting the offshore significance of major strike-slip faults are: (1) reconciling conflicting palaeomagnetic data, (2) discriminating extensional, and oblique-extensional fault geometries from strike-slip geometries on 2D seismic reflection data, and (3) estimating strike-slip displacements from seismic reflection data. Focus on basic strike-slip fault geometries such as restraining vs. releasing bends, and strongly splaying geometries approach the gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin, suggest major strike-slip faults probably do not extend far offshore Splays covering areas 10,000's km2 in extent are characteristic of the southern portions of the Sagaing, Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Ailao Shan-Red River faults, and are indicative of major faults dying out. The areas of the fault tips associated with faults of potentially 100 km+ displacement, scale appropriately with global examples of strike-slip faults on log-log displacement vs. tip area plots. The fault geometries in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin are inappropriate for a sinistral pull-apart geometry, and instead the southern fault strands of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault are interpreted to die out within the NW part of the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin. Hence the fault zone does not transfer displacement onto the South China Seas spreading centre. The strike-slip faults are replaced by more extensional, oblique-extensional fault systems offshore to the south. The Sagaing Fault is also superimposed on an older Paleogene-Early Miocene oblique-extensional rift system. The Sagaing Fault geometry is complex, and one branch of the offshore fault zone transfers displacement onto the Pliocene-Recent Andaman spreading centre, and links with the West Andaman and related faults to form a very large pull-apart basin.

Morley, C. K.

2013-10-01

147

Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. (Calamity Resources, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1991-06-01

148

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

White, Donald Edward; Gates, J. S.; Smith, J. T.; Fry, B. J.

1978-01-01

149

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

1980-01-01

150

Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Plant: Progress report, 1985 through 1988  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In early 1986 there were four RCW's on the SRP, including one pair in colony 19 and solitary males in colonies 5 and 16. Because of the decline in past years, it was deemed necessary to bring in birds from outside the plant to augment the local RCW population. In the next two years, translocations and local reproduction increased the population to 14 birds and the number of breeding clans from one to three. Although only two clans bred and fledged young in 1988, the population remains at 14 birds and has expanded to occupy five colony sites. Research and management activities implemented or continued over the past year include: translocations of birds within the SRP and from the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) to SRP, herbicide, burning and thinning for hardwood control and increased diameter growth of pines, the removal of flying squirrels from active colonies, and the installation of nest boxes, RCW artificial cavities and metal restrictors to reduce competition from other species.

Allen, D.H.; Lennartz, M.R.

1988-12-06

151

Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

2001-01-01

152

Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and 40.7% could transfer R determinants to the Escherichia coli recipient. Of the resistant Salmonella, 57% transferred one or two determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and 39% transferred one or two determinants to the E. coli recipient. It was calculated that populations of fecal coliforms containing R factors were as high as 1,400 per 100 ml and that an accidental intake of a few milliliters of water could lead to transient or permanent colonization of the digestive tract. Consideration of data on bacteria with R factors should be made in future water quality deliberations and in discharge regulations. PMID:6999991

Bell, J B; Macrae, W R; Elliott, G E

1980-01-01

153

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

Bishop, C.A. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Koster, M.D. [Springborn Labs. (Europe) AG, Seestrasse (Switzerland); Chek, A.A. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Hussell, D.J.T. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, Ontario (Canada); Jock, K. [St. Regis Mohawk Health Service, Hogansburg, NY (United States)

1995-03-01

154

Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles  

SciTech Connect

The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

2012-02-29

155

Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas. PMID:12462491

Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

2002-09-01

156

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

157

Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 {mu}g/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2009-04-15

158

Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.j [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2010-02-01

159

Geophysical and Geological Evidence of Neotectonic Deformation Along the Hovey Lake Fault, Lower Wabash Valley Fault System, Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic (shear-wave) reflection profiles were collected over a segment of the Hovey Lake fault, a known Paleozoic fault within a system of faults in the southernmost Wabash River valley of the central United States. Although the system of faults, called the Wabash Valley fault system, lie in an area of recognized prehistoric and contemporary seismicity, their seismogenic potential remain

E. W. Woolery; F. A. Rutledge; Z. Wang

2004-01-01

160

Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both the seasonal and annual variability removed are called standardized concentrations. Numerous changes that could not be attributed to natural streamflow-related variability occurred in the standardized concentrations during the trend-analysis period. During various times from the late 1970's to the mid-1990's, significant increases occurred in standardized dissolved sulfate, dissolved chloride, and dissolved- solids concentrations for eight of the nine stations for which water-quality trends were analyzed. Significant increases also occurred from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's for standardized dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations for the main-stem stations. The increasing concentrations for the main-stem stations indicate the upward trends may have been caused by human activities along the main stem of the Red River. Significant trends for standardized total ammonia plus organic nitrogen concentrations occurred for most stations. The fitted trends for standardized total phosphorus concentrations for one tributary station increased from the late 1970's to the early 1980's and decreased from the early 1980's to the mid-1990's. Small but insignificant increases occurred for two main-stem stations. No trends were detected for standardized dissolved iron or dissolved manganese concentrations. However, the combination of extreme high-frequency variability, few data, and the number of censored values may have disguised the streamflow-related variability for iron. The time-series model used to detect historical concentration trends also was used to evaluate sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. Various sampling designs were evaluated with regard to their sensitivity to detect both annual and seasonal trends during three 4-month seasons. A reasonable overall design for detecting trends for all stations and constituents consisted of eight samples per year, with monthly sampling from April to August and bimonthly sampling from Oct

Vecchia, Aldo V.

2005-01-01

161

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

162

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

163

Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1994-01-01

164

Fault Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gestures to explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed.

Ormand, Carol

165

Faulted Barn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This barn is faulted through the middle; the moletrack is seen in the foreground with the viewer standing on the fault. From the air one can see metal roof panels of the barn that rotated as the barn was faulted....

2009-01-22

166

Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and smectite increasing toward to the fault, whereas illite decreases. These trends are likely the result of CO2-related diagenesis, and similar trends are also observed in sandstone units at the site. Fracture mechanics testing of unaltered and CO2-altered sandstone and siltstone samples shows that CO2-related diagenesis, which is indicated by bleaching of the Entrada Fm, has significantly decreased the fracture resistance. The subcritical fracture index is similarly affected by alteration. These compositional and mechanical changes are expected to affect the extent, geometry, and flow properties of fracture networks in CO2 sequestration systems, and thus may significantly affect reservoir and seal performance in CO2 reservoirs. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

2012-12-01

167

Water-Quality Data for Water- and Wastewater-Treatment Plants Along the Red River of the North, North Dakota and Minnesota, January through October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From January through October 2006, six sets of water-quality samples were collected at 28 sites, which included inflow and outflow from seven major municipal water-treatment plants (14 sites) and influent and effluent samples from seven major municipal wastewater treatment plants (14 sites) along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota. Samples were collected in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the development of return-flow boundary conditions in a 2006 water-quality model for the Red River of the North. All samples were analyzed for nutrients and major ions. For one set of effluent samples from each of the wastewater-treatment plants, water was analyzed for Eschirichia coli, fecal coliform, 20-day biochemical oxygen demand, 20-day nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. In general, results from the field equipment blank and replicate samples indicate that the overall process of sample collection, processing, and analysis did not introduce substantial contamination and that consistent results were obtained.

Damschen, William C.; Hansel, John A.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

168

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

2005-01-01

169

A Geologist's Perspective on the Red River of the North: History, Geography, and Planning\\/Management Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, Arndt and Moran published a geologic report providing baseline information to guide planning in the region of Fargo, North Dakota, and adjacent Moorhead, Minnesota. To most inhabitants of this region, this report today remains obscure. But to regional geologists, Arndt and Moran's report represents a pioneering perspective on knowledgeable, geologic-centered planning within an urban setting in the Red

Donald P. Schwert

170

Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

Emerson, Douglas G.

2005-01-01

171

The highest red flood of the Niger River ever recorded at Niamey: climate change or land use change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2010, the middle Niger River valley suffered from a severe flood. The water reached its highest level ever recorded during a monsoon, inundating an area of about 3.1 sq.km in the city of Niamey where some 5,000 people lost their homes. Data on rainfall, on the runoff of the tributaries of the Niger River near Niamey and on Land Use Changes since the 50s in this region will be shown and analyzed. It is shown that although there was a partial recovery after the severe droughts of the 1970's and 1980's, rainfall was not the main causative factor of this exceptional flood: the annual rainfall amount for 2010 was below that of 20 other rainy seasons in the middle Niger Basin since 1950, and neither the monthly rainfall distribution, nor the rainfall amount distribution of events changed significantly in the last few decades. Rather, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970's, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in an evolution of the Niger River's hydrograph at Niamey during the rainy season. We show that this is due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure and/or of non reversible effects of the drought. Changes in connectivity such as endorheism bursting events caused an increase in catchment area. Policy makers should be aware of the effect of human pressure, mainly cropping and grazing, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian rivers.

Descroix, L.; Genthon, P.; Amogu, O.; Rajot, J.; Sighomnou, D.

2011-12-01

172

For its 53rd season; Summer Circle Theatre is devoted to exploring family in its many permutations. A collection of plays of varying styles all exploring "Family Dynamics" on the banks of the Red Cedar River.  

E-print Network

. A collection of plays of varying styles all exploring "Family Dynamics" on the banks of the Red Cedar River in a relaxed, informal setting, rain or shine. Bleacher seating is available, but bring your blankets the extensive historical cookbook collection in the archives of the MSU Library. n n n ALL AGES n n n n n n June

Liu, Taosheng

173

Genetic diversity among red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) populations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River based on AFLP markers.  

PubMed

The red swamp crayfish has become one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. At present, although it is widely distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangze River basin, little is known about its population genetics and geographic distribution in China. We estimated the genetic diversity among 6 crayfish populations from 4 lakes (Hongze Lake, Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, and Yue Lake) using AFLPs. A total of 129 loci were generated with 5 EcoRI-MseI primer combinations and scored as binary data in 139 individuals. These data were analyzed by cluster methods with the NTSYSpc software package. The 6 populations were separated into 3 major clusters by principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis. Among the 6 populations, the highest gene diversity was found within the Nanjing population. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that most variation occurred within populations (91.20%). The estimated average GST value across all loci was 0.4186, suggesting (very) low gene flow among the different localities. We conclude that there is high genetic differentiation among crayfish in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangze River. This information will help in the selection of high-quality individuals for artificial reproduction. PMID:23546963

Zhu, B F; Huang, Y; Dai, Y G; Bi, C W; Hu, C Y

2013-01-01

174

Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2009-04-01

175

Climatic versus tectonic control on river incision at the margin of NE Tibet: 10Be exposure dating of river terraces at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document late Pleistocene-Holocene aggradation and incision processes at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan, an active intracontinental fold-and-thrust belt accommodating a significant portion of the India-Asia convergence. The Shiyou River cuts through a NNE vergent fault propagation fold with Miocene red beds in the core and Pliocene-Quaternary growth strata on the northern forelimb. South of the anticline, Miocene

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Manfred R. Strecker

2006-01-01

176

Climatic versus tectonic control on river incision at the margin of NE Tibet: 10Be exposure dating of river terraces at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document late Pleistocene–Holocene aggradation and incision processes at the mountain front of the Qilian Shan, an active intracontinental fold-and-thrust belt accommodating a significant portion of the India-Asia convergence. The Shiyou River cuts through a NNE vergent fault propagation fold with Miocene red beds in the core and Pliocene–Quaternary growth strata on the northern forelimb. South of the anticline, Miocene

Ralf Hetzel; Samuel Niedermann; Mingxin Tao; Peter W. Kubik; Manfred R. Strecker

2006-01-01

177

Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary  

SciTech Connect

For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

2011-01-04

178

Fault finder  

DOEpatents

A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

Bunch, Richard H. (1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665)

1986-01-01

179

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

180

Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

2014-07-01

181

Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

2005-01-01

182

Preliminary Report on Conodont and Sm-Nd Isotope Data from Upper Ordovician Red River Strata (Herald and Yeoman Formations) in the Williston Basin, Berkley et al Midale 12-2-7-11W2, Southeastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that conodont and Nd isotope data are useful in interpreting the depositional history of Upper Ordovician epeiric sea carbonates in Saskatchewan and Iowa. Detailed analysis of an additional core (Berkley et al Midale 12-2-7-11W2) was undertaken to further document the usefulness of these tools in the interpretation of Red River strata in Saskatchewan. This paper reports the

F. M. Haidl; C. Holmden; G. S. Nowlan; K. C. Fanton

183

Tectonics and Landforms: Types of Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers animations depicting the defining motions of five different types of faults. Also included is a data visualization showing the geographic patterns of faults and earthquakes, and a documentary video which discusses a series of great earthquakes that occurred between 1811 - 1812 and includes an animation of how the Mississippi River Valley was created.

Ritter, Michael

184

Technical and economic feasibility of salt-gradient solar ponds at the Truscott Brine Lake of the Red River Chloride Control Project. A report to the House-Senate Committee on Appropriations of the Ninety-Seventh Congress  

SciTech Connect

The Truscott Brine Lake is being constructed to impound highly brackish water from a number of sources which would normally flow into the Wichita River, a tributary of the Red River in Knox County, Texas. A 35.4-km (22-mile) pipeline is being constructed to carry the brines from their primary source to the Truscott Brine Lake site. The reservoir is designed to contain 100 years of brine emissions from three chloride emission areas in the Wichita River Basin. The solar ponds and power generating facilities would be located in the Bluff Creek Arm of Truscott Brine Lake. The Truscott Brine Lake study includes: survey of suitability of Truscott Lake site, review of solar pond technology, preconceptual design of solar salt pond power plant, and economic evaluation.

Not Available

1982-09-01

185

In vitro studies of cellular and molecular developmental toxicity of adjuvants, herbicides, and fungicides commonly used in Red River Valley, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiologic studies showed increased frequency of birth defects in pesticide applicators and general population of the Red River Valley, Minnesota. These studies further indicated that this crop growing area used more chlorophenoxy herbicides and fungicides than elsewhere in Minnesota. Based on frequency of use and known biology, certain herbicides, pesticide additives, fungicides, and mycotoxins are suspect agents. To define whether these agents affect developmental endpoints in vitro, 16 selected agrochemicals were examined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In the flow cytometric assay, cell proliferation in this estrogen-responsive cell line indicates xenobiotic-mediated estrogenic effects. Cell viability, morphology, ploidy, and apoptosis were incorporated in this assay. Data showed that the adjuvants X-77 and Activate Plus induced significant cell proliferation at 0.1 and 1 microg/ml. The commercial-grade herbicides 2,4-D LV4 and 2,4-D amine induced cell proliferation at 1 and 10 microg/ml. The reagent-grade 2,4-D products failed to induce proliferation over the same concentration range, suggesting that other ingredients in the commercial products, presumably adjuvants, could be a factor in these results. The fungicides triphenyltin and mancozeb induced apoptosis at concentrations of 4.1 microg/ml (10(-5) M) and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Triphenyltin also induced aneuploidy (C2/M arrest) at 0.41 microg/ml (10(-6) M). Data provide a mechanistic step to understanding human reproductive and developmental effects in populations exposed to these agrochemicals, and initiative to focusing limited resources for future in vivo animal developmental toxicity studies. PMID:10933758

Lin, N; Garry, V F

2000-07-28

186

Fault mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

Segall, P. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

187

Red Tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

Control, U. S.

188

Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program  

SciTech Connect

This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

Stieve, A.

1991-05-15

189

Background and triggered microseismicity in the Alpine Fault zone, central Southern Alps, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpine Fault is a 460 km-long continental transform fault that bounds the western edge of the Southern Alps and constitutes the primary structure accommodating Pacific-Australia relative plate motion in the central South Island. Paleoseismic evidence suggests that large earthquakes (MW~7.9) occur every 200-400 years and that the central Alpine Fault last ruptured in 1717 AD. In historic times, however, there have been no large earthquakes and the central section of the Alpine Fault exhibits particularly low levels of seismicity above magnitude ML=2. This central portion of the fault is associated with the highest rates of dip-slip faulting (~10 mm/yr) and hanging-wall uplift (6-9 mm/yr). Previous geological and geophysical studies have suggested that large volumes of fluid are present in the rapidly exhumed crustal section immediately to the east of the central Alpine Fault. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) of 11 short-period seismometers installed in 1-100 m-deep boreholes was established in early 2009. SAMBA extends for 50 km along the Alpine Fault between the Whataroa and Karangarua Rivers and recorded ~1300 earthquakes of magnitude -0.5 < ML < 3. This is the longest microseismicity study in this region to date and has yielded a cut-off magnitude of approximately ML=1. This presentation addresses absolute and relative locations, magnitudes and focal mechanisms for microearthquakes recorded by SAMBA in the central Southern Alps. Most microearthquakes occur at depths shallower than 10 km and exhibit predominantly strike-slip focal mechanisms. The observations reinforce previous results indicating very low levels of seismicity northeast of the Whataroa River, a possible site of future deep drilling. The highest daily number of events recorded so far occurred after the MW=7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake of 15 July 2009, which ruptured the subduction interface beneath Fiordland and offshore, approximately 360 km southwest of the center of the SAMBA array. The triggered microearthquakes occurred in the middle of a pre-existing cluster. After five days, the rate of seismicity returned to the previous level. Map of the central Southern Alps showing the national station network (GeoNet, black triangles) and the SAMBA station network (red triangles) and place names mentioned in the text. Inset: Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault in the central South Island, New Zealand

Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Smith, E. G.; Townend, J.; Henderson, M.

2010-12-01

190

Seismic and gravity investigations of the shallow (upper 1 km) hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the vicinity of the Whataroa River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic evidence from the vicinity of the plate-bounding Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island suggests that earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occur every 200-400 years, with the last earthquake occurring in AD 1717. No human observations of this event are recorded. Therefore, the Deep Fault Drilling Project 2 (DFDP-2) drill hole, which is planned for 2014 on the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley, provides a critical opportunity to study the behavior of this transpressive plate boundary late in its seismogenic cycle. New seismic and gravity data collected since 2011 have been analyzed to assist with the positioning of the drill hole in this glacial valley that provides rare low-elevation access to the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The WhataDUSIE controlled-source seismic project, led by researchers from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada), provided relatively high-resolution coverage (4-8 m geophone spacing, 25-100 m shot spacing) along a 5-km-long profile across the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley. This work has been supplemented by focused hammer-seismic studies and gravity data collection in the valley. The former targets surface layer properties, whereas the latter targets the depth to the base of the glacially carved paleovalley. In positioning DFDP-2, an understanding of the nature of overburden and valley-fill sediments is critical for drilling design. A velocity model has been developed for the valley based on refraction analysis of the WhataDUSIE and hammer-seismic data combined with a ray-theoretical travel-time tomography (RAYINVR) image of the shallow (uppermost 1 km or so) part of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The model shows that the glacial valley, which presumably was last scoured by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum, has been filled with 200-350 m of post-glacial sediments and outwash gravels. The hanging-wall rocks into which the valley was cut are presumed to be mylonitized Alpine Schist. Considering uplift rates of 6-10 mm/a on the hanging wall of the fault and a glacial withdrawal date of 10,000 years before present (i.e., 60-100 m of uplift since the ice vacated the valley), the floor of the valley would have been as deep as about 350 m below sea level at the time that the ice withdrew (given the current elevation of ~100 m on the valley floor). Basal sediments in the valley could therefore be either marine (if the valley was open to the ocean) or lacustrine (if the valley was isolated from the open ocean by elevated footwall rocks along the west coast of the South Island). Once the original water body in the valley was filled, sediments would accumulate as outwash gravels above sea level.

Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lay, V.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

191

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

192

Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent for both data sets. Overall, application of the Fargo WASP water-quality model to the 1989 and 1990 data sets resulted in poor agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. This likely is a result of changes in the waste-load composition for the Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment plants as a result of improvements to the wastewater-treatment plants since 1990. The change in waste-load composition probably resulted in a change in decay rates and in dissolved oxygen no longer being substantially depressed downstream from the Moorhead and Fargo wastewater-treatment plants. The Fargo WASP water-quality model is valid for the current (2008) treatment processes at the wastewater-treatment plants.

Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

193

33 CFR 165.T08-0080 - Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH.  

...August 8 & 22; September 5 & 26. Should the Cincinnati Reds make the playoffs and have additional home games, the Coast Guard will provide the game dates and enforcement periods as soon as practicable with advance notification via Broadcast...

2014-07-01

194

Distinct Variations in Seismic Velocity Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle across the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone in Northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic evolution of the Aliao Shan-Red River shear zone (RRSZ) that runs from southeast Tibet through North Vietnam to the South China Sea and marks the boundary between the Indochina and South China blocks has been considered closely linked with the northward indention of the strong Indian plate into the Eurasian continent and the consequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. A variety of models have been proposed to explain the postcollisional deformation and magmatism of SE Asia and movement along the RRSZ. Since December 2005, Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica of Taiwan has deployed a regional broadband array with station spacing of ~50 km in Northern Vietnam for earthquake and seismic structure studies. We collect data from earthquakes with magnitude?5.5 and epicentral distances of 30-90o between December, 2005 and June, 2008. Using this new dataset, we report 3-D variations of P- and S-wave speeds (?lnVP and ?lnVS) and Poisson's ratios via ?ln(VP/VS) in the crust and upper mantle across the shear zone, obtained with tomographic inversion of P and S relative travel time residuals measured by inter-station cross-correlation of waveforms at both high- and low-frequencies. We employ physically realistic 3-D sensitivity kernels for frequency-dependent traveltime data and data-adaptive, multi-scale parameterization in the inversion. The resulting models reveal noticeable differences across the RRSZ, where the anomalies of distinctly low VS and VP/VS are widely-dispersed in the lower crust and uppermost mantle down to the depth of 100 km to the southwest of the RRSZ. This may indicate that ductile crustal mass has flowed out of Tibet into Indochina accompanying extrusion of relatively hot lithospheric mantle along the RRSZ related to Late Cenozoic volcanism in the region. Though less distinct in the S velocity model, an elongated fast anomaly about 60 km wide that strikes parallel to the RRSZ and subvertically extends to the depth of 60 km clearly emerges in VP. Such narrow high-wavespeed feature indicates the RRSZ may be strong and probably did not cut through the entire lithosphere. Besides, a prominent, localized low velocity region with positive free-air gravity anomalies is present in the crust between the RRSZ and subparallel Song-Ma suture to the south. The characteristics of low seismic velocity and high density suggest that it may originate from the Emeshian flood volcanism being offset along the RRSZ of several hundred kilometers. Moreover, two pronounced, larger-scale low-velocity anomalies are distributed at depths greater than 100 km. One is located to the south of the Tonkin Gulf, and the other situated in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, Southeast China. The latter is correlated with the deep, low-velocity anomaly found in the proximity of Hainan, which has been previously reported in global tomographic models.

Hung, S.; Pan, Y.; Huang, B.; Huang, W.; Le, T.; Dinh, V.

2011-12-01

195

Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in farm families ascertained from parent-reported birth defects. In the present study, in the first year of life, the birth defect rate was 31.3 births per 1,000, with 83% of the total reported birth defects confirmed by medical records. Inclusion of children identified with birth or developmental disorders within the first 3 years of life and later led to a rate of 47.0 per 1,000 (72 children from 1,532 live births). Conceptions in spring resulted in significantly more children with birth defects than found in any other season (7.6 vs. 3.7%). Twelve families had more than one child with a birth defect (n = 28 children). Forty-two percent of the children from families with recurrent birth defects were conceived in spring, a significantly higher rate than that for any other season. Three families in the kinships defined contributed a first-degree relative other than a sibling with the same or similar birth defect, consistent with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The remaining nine families did not follow a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The sex ratio of children with birth defects born to applicator families shows a male predominance (1.75 to 1) across specific pesticide class use and exposure categories exclusive of fungicides. In the fungicide exposure category, normal female births significantly exceed male births (1.25 to 1). Similarly, the proportion of male to female children with birth defects is significantly lower (0.57 to 1; p = 0.02). Adverse neurologic and neurobehavioral developmental effects clustered among the children born to applicators of the fumigant phosphine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; confidence interval [CI], 1.2-5.1). Use of the herbicide glyphosate yielded an OR of 3.6 (CI, 1.3-9.6) in the neurobehavioral category. Finally, these studies point out that (a) herbicides applied in the spring may be a factor in the birth defects observed and (b) fungicides can be a significant factor in the determination of sex of the children of the families of the RRV. Thus, two distinct classes of pesticides seem to have adverse effects on different reproductive outcomes. Biologically based confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:12060842

Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

2002-01-01

196

Neotectonic and paleoseismicity studies on the Urumaco Fault, northern Falcón Basin, northwestern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern Falcón Basin in northwestern Venezuela is affected by several small active faults, subordinated to the major right-lateral east–west-trending Oca–Ancón Fault System. A set of prominent NW–SE right-lateral faults — synthetic shears — such as the Urumaco, R??o Seco, Lagarto and La Soledad faults, stands out among those. The Urumaco Fault, located between the Lagarto and Mitare rivers (in

Franck A. Audemard; Jean-Claude Bousquet; José A. Rodr??guez

1999-01-01

197

CMOS Bridging Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the performance of two test generation techniques, stuck fault testing and current testing, when applied to CMOS bridging faults. Accurate simulation of such faults mandated the development of several new design automation tools, including an analog-digital fault simulator. The results of this simulation are analyzed. It is shown that stuck fault test generation, while inherently incapable of

Thomas M. Storey; Wojciech Maly

1990-01-01

198

Influence of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergence on shallow structure, geomorphology, and hazards, Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mapped a ~94-km-long portion of the right-lateral Hosgri Fault Zone from Point Sal to Piedras Blancas in offshore central California using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, marine magnetic data, and multibeam bathymetry. The database includes 121 seismic profiles across the fault zone and is perhaps the most comprehensive reported survey of the shallow structure of an active strike-slip fault. These data document the location, length, and near-surface continuity of multiple fault strands, highlight fault-zone heterogeneity, and demonstrate the importance of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergences in the development of shallow structure and tectonic geomorphology. The Hosgri Fault Zone is continuous through the study area passing through a broad arc in which fault trend changes from about 338° to 328° from south to north. The southern ~40 km of the fault zone in this area is more extensional, resulting in accommodation space that is filled by deltaic sediments of the Santa Maria River. The central ~24 km of the fault zone is characterized by oblique convergence of the Hosgri Fault Zone with the more northwest-trending Los Osos and Shoreline Faults. Convergence between these faults has resulted in the formation of local restraining and releasing fault bends, transpressive uplifts, and transtensional basins of varying size and morphology. We present a hypothesis that links development of a paired fault bend to indenting and bulging of the Hosgri Fault by a strong crustal block translated to the northwest along the Shoreline Fault. Two diverging Hosgri Fault strands bounding a central uplifted block characterize the northern ~30 km of the Hosgri Fault in this area. The eastern Hosgri strand passes through releasing and restraining bends; the releasing bend is the primary control on development of an elongate, asymmetric, "Lazy Z" sedimentary basin. The western strand of the Hosgri Fault Zone passes through a significant restraining bend and dies out northward where we propose that its slip transfers to active structures in the Piedras Blancas fold belt. Given the continuity of the Hosgri Fault Zone through our study area, earthquake hazard assessments should incorporate a minimum rupture length of 110 km. Our data do not constrain lateral slip rates on the Hosgri, which probably vary along the fault (both to the north and south) as different structures converge and diverge but are likely in the geodetically estimated range of 2 to 4 mm/yr. More focused mapping of lowstand geomorphic features (e.g., channels, paleoshorelines) has the potential to provide better constraints. The post-Last-Glacial Maximum unconformity is an important surface for constraining vertical deformation, yielding local fault offset rates that may be as high as 1.4 mm/yr and off-fault deformation rates as high as 0.5 mm/yr. These vertical rates are short-term and not sustainable over longer geologic time, emphasizing the complex evolution and dynamics of strike-slip zones.

Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.

2012-12-01

199

Geotechnical Reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture

Robert E. Kayen; Eric Thompson; Diane Minasian; Robb E. S. Moss; Brian D. Collins; Nicholas Sitar; Douglas Dreger; Gary Carver

2004-01-01

200

Fault Separation Gestures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed. They work in teams to explore these complex geometric relationships via gestures.

Ormand, Carol

201

Neotectonic characteristics of Liuchia fault, southwestern Taiwan, from the analysis of fluvial channel morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liuchia fault in southwestern Taiwan has been considered as one of major active faults in the active Taiwan orogen. It is identified by its clear geomorphic features, and forms a major geologic boundary of Taiwan's Western Foothills. In the twentieth century, several large earthquakes occurred in southwestern Taiwan and caused significant damages. However, there is no unanimous historical evidence for the activity on the Liuchia fault. Therefore, the Liuchia fault poses large hazard potentials for this populous area. Several previous studies have shown that fluvial channel morphology, such as channel slope and width, is strongly influenced by tectonic activities. As river channels reach steady state, the rock uplift would be balanced by the incision of river channels. Base on these hypotheses, it has been shown previously that the analysis of river channel morphology can successfully estimate the activity of potentially active faults in central Taiwan. As a result, we attempted to obtain information of recent activity of the Liuchia fault by analyzing the channel morphology of the Erchung River, which flows across the fault. We also attempted to calculate the actual river incision rates from the age of river terraces along the river. Such information would enable us to construct the subsurface geometry of this important active structure. We have obtained a detailed river long profile of the Erchung River from surveys using RTK-GPS, and the channel width profile from actual field measurements using a Laser Rangefinder. The fluvial channel morphology of the Erchung River appears to have been affected by active folding in the hanging-wall block of the Liuchia fault. Such active deformation pattern is also evident from river incision rate patterns, calculated from the ages and elevations of river terraces along the channel. We have also measured bedrock attitudes across the Liuchia fault and into its hanging-wall block. Combing these different datasets, we are able to construct a realistic model of the subsurface geometry of the Liuchia fault in southwestern Taiwan.

Du, Kuan-Ying; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

2013-04-01

202

Timing and offset on strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Belt, B. C. and WA, and 40--80 MA fault reconstructions  

SciTech Connect

New evidence for displacement and timing on the Yalakom fault system (YFS) and from other dextral strike-slip faults in the SE Coast Mountains and North Cascades gives an improved fault reconstruction for Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time. About 125 km of dextral offset on the YFS occurred in three stages: a cryptic [approximately]80--[approximately]55 Ma dextral-transpressive stage; a dextral-slip and extensional stage from [approximately]55--44 Ma; and a 44-->34 Ma stage on the marshall Creek-Yalakom faults. The authors fault reconstruction includes speculative offset estimates on the Hozameen (80--90 km) and Ross Lake Faults (10 km), previous estimates on the Fraser River (90 km) and Straight Creek faults (160 km), and accounts for timing differences on the Fraser River and Straight Creek faults.

Umhoefer, P.J. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology); Schiarizza, P. (British Columbia Geological Survey, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-04-01

203

Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

Ward, P. E.

1963-01-01

204

Impact of Urban Pollution from the Hanoi Area on Benthic Diatom Communities Collected from the Red, Nhue and Tolich Rivers (Vietnam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of urban pollution from Hanoi city on the benthic diatom communities of the Nhue–Tolich river system were studied\\u000a during the 2003 dry season. Benthic diatoms were allowed to grow on glass slides suspended in the water flow for 4 weeks.\\u000a To reveal the relationship between water quality and diatom communities, Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used\\u000a on data concerning

Thi Thuy Duong; Michel Coste; Agnès Feurtet-Mazel; Dinh Kim Dang; Caroline Gold; Young Seuk Park; Alain Boudou

2006-01-01

205

Fault slip distribution and fault roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of the spatial correlations of seismological slip maps and fault topography roughness, illuminating their identical self-affine exponent. Though the complexity of the coseismic spatial slip distribution can be intuitively associated with geometrical or stress heterogeneities along the fault surface, this has never been demonstrated. Based on new measurements of fault surface topography and on statistical analyses of kinematic inversions of slip maps, we propose a model, which quantitatively characterizes the link between slip distribution and fault surface roughness. Our approach can be divided into two complementary steps: (i) Using a numerical computation, we estimate the influence of fault roughness on the frictional strength (pre-stress). We model a fault as a rough interface where elastic asperities are squeezed. The Hurst exponent ?, characterizing the self-affinity of the frictional strength field, approaches ?, where ? is the roughness exponent of the fault surface in the direction of slip. (ii) Using a quasi-static model of fault propagation, which includes the effect of long-range elastic interactions and spatial correlations in the frictional strength, the spatial slip correlation is observed to scale as ?, where ? represents the Hurst exponent of the slip distribution. Under the assumption that the origin of the spatial fluctuations in frictional strength along faults is the elastic squeeze of fault asperities, we show that self-affine geometrical properties of fault surface roughness control slip correlations and that ?. Given that ? for a wide range of faults (various accumulated displacement, host rock and slip movement), we predict that ?. Even if our quasi-static fault model is more relevant for creeping faults, the spatial slip correlations observed are consistent with those of seismological slip maps. A consequence is that the self-affinity property of slip roughness may be explained by fault geometry without considering dynamical effects produced during an earthquake.

Candela, Thibault; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Bouchon, Michel; Brodsky, Emily E.

2011-11-01

206

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department O.

207

Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

1990-01-01

208

Transition Fault Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay fault testing is becoming more important as VLSI chips become more complex. Components that are fragments of functions, such as those in gate-array designs, need a general model of a delay fault and a feasible method of generating test patterns and simulating the fault. The authors present such a model, called a transition fault, which when used with parallel-pattern,

John Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom; Barry Rosen; Vijay Iyengar

1987-01-01

209

Diagnosis of instrument fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of faults in instrumentation equipment can often be confused with faults in the system. The correct diagnosis of instrument faults is of importance. Here it is described how to detect instrument faults in non-linearity. Time-varying processes that include uncertainties such as modelling error, parameter ambiguity, and input and output noise. The design of state estimation filters with zero

K. Watanabe; A. Komori; T. Kiyama

1994-01-01

210

Rainfall-River Forecasting Colonel Thatch Shepard  

E-print Network

of Engineers #12;BUILDING STRONG® Red River of the North Characteristics Flows North into Canada ­ Hudson BayRainfall-River Forecasting Summit Colonel Thatch Shepard Deputy Commander Mississippi Valley Lakes & Ohio River Division Mississippi River Watershed Southwestern Division #12;BUILDING STRONG® Our

US Army Corps of Engineers

211

33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P. Long Bridge, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction...

2013-07-01

212

33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P. Long Bridge, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction...

2012-07-01

213

33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the Huey P. Long Bridge, and that part of the Atchafalaya River above its junction...

2011-07-01

214

Fault analysis based on fault reporting in JSP software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault analysis procedure is proposed for software development using JSP (Jackson structured programming). In the procedure, it is assumed that developers submit a fault report, which includes information (such as fault type, cause of fault and product) on actual fault correction activities. The procedure can identify the step in the JSP process at which fault might be introduced. Fault

Yukio MOHRI; T. Kikuno

1991-01-01

215

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Swanson, Sue

216

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

217

Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [geological faults in California mountain regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery shows that the southern segment of the San Gabriel fault which controls the west fork of the San Gabriel River is strikingly similar to the Mill Creek Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains. It has also been noted that there is a similarity between the Sierra Madre thrust zone of the San Gabriel Mountains to the Banning thrust of the San Bernardino Mountains. This suggests that the southern San Gabriel fault was once continuous with the Mill Creek fault. When the San Bernardino Mountain block is theoretically moved to the northwest along the San Jacinto fault so that the Mill Creek fault is aligned with the southern part of the San Gabriel fault, it was found that the four transverse fault segments become aligned with the Pinto Fault on the east and with the Raymond-Santa Monica Malibu Fault zone on the west. The reconstruction identifies a continuous zone of transverse faulting extending from the Colorado River Desert to the Pacific. It seems likely that the entire fault zone was once a continuous left-lateral shear. This Anacapa Shear has probably been subjected to a 50 km left lateral movement. This analysis strongly indicates that the tectonic history of the Transverse Range has been characterized by left lateral shear on transverse faults and right lateral shear on the San Andreas fault system.

Abdel-Gawad, M. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

218

Mountain front migration and drainage captures related to fault segment linkage and growth: The Polopos transpressive fault zone (southeastern Betics, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polopos E-W- to ESE-WNW-oriented dextral-reverse fault zone is formed by the North Alhamilla reverse fault and the North and South Gafarillos dextral faults. It is a conjugate fault system of the sinistral NNE-SSW Palomares fault zone, active from the late most Tortonian (?7 Ma) up to the late Pleistocene (?70 ky) in the southeastern Betics. The helicoidal geometry of the fault zone permits to shift SE-directed movement along the South Cabrera reverse fault to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical Gafarillos fault segments, in between. Since the Messinian, fault activity migrated southwards forming the South Gafarillos fault and displacing the active fault-related mountain-front from the north to the south of Sierra de Polopos; whilst recent activity of the North Alhamilla reverse fault migrated westwards. The Polopos fault zone determined the differential uplift between the Sierra Alhamilla and the Tabernas-Sorbas basin promoting the middle Pleistocene capture that occurred in the southern margin of the Sorbas basin. Continued tectonic uplift of the Sierra Alhamilla-Polopos and Cabrera anticlinoria and local subsidence associated to the Palomares fault zone in the Vera basin promoted the headward erosion of the Aguas river drainage that captured the Sorbas basin during the late Pleistocene.

Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Azañón, José Miguel; Pérez-Romero, Joaquín; Villegas, Irene

2013-01-01

219

Red Clover  

MedlinePLUS

Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search NIH…Turning ... body, including how red clover isoflavones may affect human prostate cells and the safety and effectiveness of ...

220

Using fluvial channel morphology to obtain the neotectonic characteristics of the Liuchia fault, an important active structure in southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liuchia fault in southwestern Taiwan has been considered as one of the major active faults in the active Taiwan orogen. It is identified by its clear geomorphic features, and forms a major geologic boundary of Taiwan's Western Foothills. No unanimous historical evidence for seismic activity of the Liuchia fault exists, thus the fault poses large earthquake hazard potentials for the populous southwestern Taiwan. Here we attempted to analyze the characteristics of the fault from fluvial channel morphology of the Kueichung River that flows across the fault. We also calculated actual river incision rates from the age of river terraces along the river to obtain the rock uplift rates of the hanging-wall block of the fault. We have obtained a detailed river long profile of the Kueichung River from surveys using RTK-GPS, and a channel width profile from actual field measurements using a Laser Rangefinder. The fluvial channel morphology of the Kueichung River appears to have been affected by active folding in the hanging-wall block of the Liuchia fault. Such active deformation pattern is also evident from river incision rate patterns. Combining these different datasets, we constructed a realistic model of the subsurface geometry of the Liuchia fault in southwestern Taiwan, and calculated the long-term slip rates of this important active structure in southwestern Taiwan.

Shyu, J. H.; Du, K.

2013-12-01

221

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-08-01

222

Optimal fault location  

E-print Network

sequence of events newly obtained recording belongs. Software prototype of the proposed automated fault location analysis is developed using Java programming language. Fault location analysis is automatically triggered by appearance of new event files in a...

Knezev, Maja

2008-10-10

223

Optimal fault location  

E-print Network

sequence of events newly obtained recording belongs. Software prototype of the proposed automated fault location analysis is developed using Java programming language. Fault location analysis is automatically triggered by appearance of new event files in a...

Knezev, Maja

2009-05-15

224

Every Place Has Its Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site covers the four main types of faults (not including growth faults): the normal fault, reverse fault, transcurrent (strike-slip) fault, and thrust fault. Animations show the type of movement for each different type of fault. There is a section on the initial stage of a landform, containing a diagram of a graben and horst system. Also included are photographs of fault scarps along Hebgen Lake, Montana.

Mustoe, M.

2011-04-20

225

Fault zone hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

2013-12-01

226

Transient fault detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present fault detectors for transient faults, (i.e., corruptions of the memory of the processors, but not of the code of\\u000a the processors). We distinguish fault detectors for tasks (i.e., the problem to be solved) from failure detectors for implementations (i.e., the algorithm that solves the problem). The aim of our fault detectors is to detect a memory corruption as

Joffroy Beauquier; Sylvie Delaët; Shlomi Dolev; Sébastien Tixeuil

2007-01-01

227

High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

Stieve, A.

1991-05-15

228

Sensor noise fault detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current sensor FDIR (fault detection, isolation, & recovery) generally focuses on sensor bias and drift anomalies, which require models. However, dead sensors and excessive noise faults are more common in practice. The latter two faults are interesting in that they can be detected using only the measurements from each sensor. The objective of this paper is to show a few

Steve Rogers

2003-01-01

229

Mechanics of discontinuous faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault traces consist of numerous discrete segments, commonly arranged as echelon arrays. In some cases, discontinuities influence the distribution of slip and seismicity along faults. To analyze fault segments, we derive a two-dimensional solution for any number of nonintersecting cracks arbitrarily located in a homogeneous elastic material. The solution includes the elastic interaction between cracks. Crack surfaces are assumed to

P. Segall; D. D. Pollard

1980-01-01

230

Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and climatic scenarios. To address these goals, we developed models and approaches to spatially represent storage volumes and interception areas of existing and potentially restorable wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin within Grant County, Minn. We then developed and applied a model to simulate wetland water storage increases that would result from restoring 25 and 50 percent of the farmed and drained wetlands in the upper Mustinka subbasin. The model simulations were performed during the growing season (May-October) for relatively wet (1993; 0.79 m of precipitation) and dry (1987; 0.40 m of precipitation) years. Results from the simulations indicated that the 25 percent restoration scenario would increase water storage by 21-24 percent and that a 50 percent scenario would increase storage by 34-38 percent. Additionally, we estimated that wetlands in the subbasin have potential to store 11.57-20.98 percent of the total precipitation that fell over the entire subbasin area (52,758 ha). Our simulation results indicated that there is considerable potential to enhance water storage in the subbasin; however, evaluation and calibration of the model is necessary before simulation results can be applied to management and planning decisions. In this report we present guidance for the development and application of models (e.g., surface area-volume predictive models, hydrology simulation model) to simulate wetland water storage to provide a basis from which to understand and predict the effects of natural or human-induced hydrologic alterations. In developing these approaches, we tried to use simple and widely available input data to simulate wetland hydrology and predict wetland water storage for a specific precipitation event or a series of events. Further, the hydrology simulation model accounted for land use and soil type, which influence surface water inputs to wetlands. Although information presented in this report is specific to the Mustinka subbasin, the approaches

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.

2007-01-01

231

Fault-Tree Compiler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

1993-01-01

232

Diagnosing CMOS bridging faults with stuck-at fault dictionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the traditional approach to diagnosing stuck-at faults with fault dictionaries generated for stuck-at faults is not appropriate for diagnosing CMOS bridging faults. A novel technique for using stuck-at-fault dictionaries to diagnose bridging faults is described. Teradyne's LASAR was used to simulate bridging and stuck-at faults in a number of combinational circuits, including parity trees, multiplexers, and

Steven D. Millman; Edward J. McCluskey; John M. Acken

1990-01-01

233

Physical properties of surface outcrop cataclastic fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a unified analysis of physical properties of cataclastic fault rocks collected from surface exposures of the central Alpine Fault at Gaunt Creek and Waikukupa River, New Zealand. Friction experiments on fault gouge and intact samples of cataclasite were conducted at 30-33 MPa effective normal stress (?n') using a double-direct shear configuration and controlled pore fluid pressure in a true triaxial pressure vessel. Samples from a scarp outcrop on the southwest bank of Gaunt Creek display (1) an increase in fault normal permeability (k = 7.45 × 10-20 m2 to k = 1.15 × 10-16 m2), (2) a transition from frictionally weak (? = 0.44) fault gouge to frictionally strong (? = 0.50-0.55) cataclasite, (3) a change in friction rate dependence (a-b) from solely velocity strengthening, to velocity strengthening and weakening, and (4) an increase in the rate of frictional healing with increasing distance from the footwall fluvioglacial gravels contact. At Gaunt Creek, alteration of the primary clay minerals chlorite and illite/muscovite to smectite, kaolinite, and goethite accompanies an increase in friction coefficient (? = 0.31 to ? = 0.44) and fault-perpendicular permeability (k = 3.10 × 10-20 m2 to k = 7.45 × 10-20 m2). Comminution of frictionally strong (? = 0.51-0.57) cataclasites forms weaker (? = 0.31-0.50) foliated cataclasites and fault gouges with behaviors associated with aseismic creep at low strain rates. Combined with published evidence of large magnitude (Mw ˜ 8) surface ruptures on the Alpine Fault, petrological observations indicate that shear failure involved frictional sliding within previously formed, velocity-strengthening fault gouge.

Boulton, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Toy, V.; Marone, C.

2012-01-01

234

77 FR 73976 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project AGENCY: Forest...Environmental Impact Statement for the Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project. The Red River Ranger District of the Nez Perce-...

2012-12-12

235

For Immediate Release --Friday, September 27, 2013 World Rivers Day: University of Lethbridge experts  

E-print Network

For Immediate Release -- Friday, September 27, 2013 World Rivers Day: University of Lethbridge experts available to talk about protecting our river systems - Oil Spill Recovery ­ What's in the Red Deer River, one year later

Seldin, Jonathan P.

236

Fuzzy fault diagnostic system based on fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for process fault diagnosis using information from fault tree analysis and uncertainty\\/imprecision of data. Fault tree analysis, which has been used as a method of system reliability\\/safety analysis, provides a procedure for identifying failures within a process. A fuzzy fault diagnostic system is constructed which uses the fuzzy fault tree analysis to represent a knowledge of

Zong-Xiao Yang; Kazuhiko SUZUKI; Yukiyasu SHIMADA; Hayatoshi SAYAMA

1995-01-01

237

Amu Darya River  

... areas to appear red. The Amu Darya river forms a wide delta in the western deserts of Uzbekistan and northeastern Turkmenistan, ... precipitation or glacial meltwater) do not compensate for the water lost from this shrinking inland sea. Commercial fishing in the region ...

2013-04-16

238

How do we identify big rivers? And how big is big?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Big rivers" are the trunk rivers that carry the water and sediment load from major orogens, or that drain large areas of a continent. Identifying such rivers in the ancient record is a challenge. Some guidance may be provided by tectonic setting and sedimentological evidence, including the scale of architectural elements, and clues from provenance studies, but such data are not infallible guides to river magnitude. The scale of depositional elements is the most obvious clue to channel size, but evidence is typically sparse and inadequate, and may be misleading. For example, thick fining-upward successions may be tectonic cyclothems. Two examples of the analysis of large ancient river systems are discussed here in order to highlight problems of methodology and interpretation. The Hawkesbury Sandstone (Triassic) of the Sydney Basin, Australia, is commonly cited as the deposit of a large river, on the basis of abundant very large-scale crossbedding. An examination of very large outcrops of this unit, including a coastal cliff section 6 km long near Sydney, showed that even with 100% exposure there are ambiguities in the determination of channel scale. It was concluded in this case that the channel dimensions of the Hawkesbury rivers were about half the size of the modern Brahmaputra River. The tectonic setting of a major ancient fluvial system is commonly not a useful clue to river scale. The Hawkesbury Sandstone is a system draining transversely from a cratonic source into a foreland basin, whereas most large rivers in foreland basins flow axially and are derived mainly from the orogenic uplifts (e.g., the large tidally influenced rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta). Epeirogenic tilting of a continent by the dynamic topography process may generate drainages in unexpected directions. For example, analyses of detrital zircons in Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine successions in the SW United States suggests significant derivation from the Appalachian orogen. Many large rivers in SE Asia flow along structural trends generated during the Himalayan orogeny (e.g., Brahmaputra/Jamuna, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Red), but evidence for large channel systems is not always present where it might be expected. For example, in the Gulf of Thailand, up to 8 km of Cenozoic nonmarine sediments have been recorded in fault-bounded basins, but seismic time-slice images of the Pliocene-Holocene section indicate rivers of modest dimensions. The existing major trunk river, the Chao Phraya, which empties into the gulf at Bangkok, may be but a remnant of the Mekong, which was tectonically diverted to its present course at some point during the late Cenozoic.

Miall, Andrew D.

2006-04-01

239

PCB cleanup battle wages on in the Hudson River Valley  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River between Troy, NY and Fort Edward, NY has sediments contaminated with polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The author discusses the legal red tape and public opinion problems associated with the clean up of this river.

Nichols, A.B.

1990-07-01

240

Its Not My Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students become familiar with strike-slip faults, normal faults, reverse faults and visualize these geological structures using cardboard or a plank of wood, a stack of books, protractor, and a spring scale. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

241

The San Andreas Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the San Andreas Fault in California; specifically what has caused the fault, where it is located, surface features that characterize it, and movement that has occurred. General earthquake information includes an explanation of what earthquakes are, and earthquake magnitude versus intensity. Earthquakes that have occurred along the fault are covered, as well as where the next large one may occur and what can be done about large earthquakes in general.

Schulz, Sandra; Wallace, Robert

242

Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults  

E-print Network

Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

Qiu, Wangqi

2007-04-25

243

Fault detection and fault tolerance in robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots are used in inaccessible or hazardous environments in order to alleviate some of the time, cost and risk involved in preparing men to endure these conditions. In order to perform their expected tasks, the robots are often quite complex, thus increasing their potential for failures. If men must be sent into these environments to repair each component failure in the robot, the advantages of using the robot are quickly lost. Fault tolerant robots are needed which can effectively cope with failures and continue their tasks until repairs can be realistically scheduled. Before fault tolerant capabilities can be created, methods of detecting and pinpointing failures must be perfected. This paper develops a basic fault tree analysis of a robot in order to obtain a better understanding of where failures can occur and how they contribute to other failures in the robot. The resulting failure flow chart can also be used to analyze the resiliency of the robot in the presence of specific faults. By simulating robot failures and fault detection schemes, the problems involved in detecting failures for robots are explored in more depth.

Visinsky, Monica; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

1992-01-01

244

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

245

Folds and Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how rock layers are folded and faulted and how to represent these structures in maps and cross sections. They will use playdough to represent layers of rock and make cuts in varying orientations to represent faults and other structures.

246

SFT: scalable fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency---requiring

Fabrizio Petrini; Jarek Nieplocha; Vinod Tipparaju

2006-01-01

247

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new replication algorithm that is able to tolerate Byzantine faults. We believe that Byzantine- fault-tolerant algorithms will be increasingly important in the future because malicious attacks and software errors are increasingly common and can cause faulty nodes to exhibit arbitrary behavior. Whereas previous algorithms assumed a synchronous system or were too slow to be used in

Miguel Castro; Barbara Liskov

1999-01-01

248

Puente Hills Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puente Hills Fault posses a disaster threat for Los Angeles region. Earthquake simulations on this fault estimate damages over $250 billion. Visualizations created by SDSC using the data computed from earthquake simulations helps one to fathom the propagation of siesmic waves and the areas affected.

249

Fault rocks lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is intended to give students some hands on experience looking at fault rocks with a suite of cataclasites and mylonites I have collected. The focus is on identifying key textural features in both hand sample and thin section and understanding how deformation within a fault zone varies with depth.

Singleton, John

250

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

251

Surface roughness evolution on experimentally simulated faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the physical processes operating in active fault zones, we conduct analogue laboratory experiments where we track the morphological and mechanical evolution of an interface during slip. Our laboratory friction experiments consist of a halite (NaCl) slider held under constant normal load that is dragged across a coarse sandpaper substrate. This set-up is a surrogate for a fault surface, where brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms operate simultaneously during sliding. Surface morphology evolution, frictional resistance and infra-red emission are recorded with cumulative slip. After experiments, we characterize the roughness developed on slid surfaces, to nanometer resolution, using white light interferometry. We directly observe the formation of deformation features, such as slip parallel linear striations, as well as deformation products or gouge. The striations are often associated with marginal ridges of positive relief suggesting sideways transport of gouge products in the plane of the slip surface in a snow-plough-like fashion. Deeper striations are commonly bounded by triangular brittle fractures that fragment the salt surface and efficiently generate a breccia or gouge. Experiments with an abundance of gouge at the sliding interface have reduced shear resistance compared to bare surfaces and we show that friction is reduced with cumulative slip as gouge accumulates from initially bare surfaces. The relative importance of these deformation mechanisms may influence gouge production rate, fault surface roughness evolution, as well as mechanical behavior. Finally, our experimental results are linked to Nature by comparing the experimental surfaces to an actual fault surface, whose striated morphology has been characterized to centimeter resolution using a laser scanner. It is observed that both the stress field and the energy dissipation are heterogeneous at all scales during the maturation of the interface with cumulative slip. Importantly, we show that the formation of striations on fault planes by mechanical abrasion involves transport of gouge products in the fault plane not only along the slip direction, but also perpendicular to it.

Renard, François; Mair, Karen; Gundersen, Olav

2012-12-01

252

Red River chloride remote sensing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Side looking radar, infrared thermal imagery and color photography, together with a few examples of black and white panoramic photos, are used to supplement information on the natural saline pollution problem that is hydrologically and geologically oriented. The study area was explored concurrently by ground methods and a reasonably good understanding of hydrogeological conditions has been achieved. Examples of the products acquired, their interpretation, and use techniques are included.

1975-01-01

253

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

254

Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.

255

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

256

Palaeoseismology of the L'Aquila faults (central Italy, 2009, Mw 6.3 earthquake): implications for active fault linkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urgent urban-planning problems related to the 2009 April, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake prompted immediate excavation of palaeoseismological trenches across the active faults bordering the Aterno river valley; namely, the Mt. Marine, Mt. Pettino and Paganica faults. Cross-cutting correlations amongst existing and new trenches that were strengthened by radiocarbon ages and archaeological constraints show unambiguously that these three investigated structures have been active since the Last Glacial Maximum period, as seen by the metric offset that affected the whole slope/alluvial sedimentary succession up to the historical deposits. Moreover, in agreement with both 18th century accounts and previous palaeoseismological data, we can affirm now that these faults were responsible for the catastrophic 1703 February 2, earthquake (Mw 6.7). The data indicate that the Paganica-San Demetrio fault system has ruptured in the past both together with the conterminous Mt. Pettino-Mt. Marine fault system, along more than 30 km and causing an Mw 6.7 earthquake, and on its own, along ca. 19 km, as in the recent 2009 event and in the similar 1461 AD event. This behaviour of the L'Aquila faults has important implications in terms of seismic hazard assessment, while it also casts new light on the ongoing fault linkage processes amongst these L'Aquila faults.

Galli, Paolo A. C.; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Peronace, Edoardo; Zuppi, Giovanni Maria

2011-12-01

257

Transient fault modeling and fault injection simulation  

E-print Network

An accurate transient fault model is presented in this thesis. A 7-term exponential current upset model is derived from the results of a device-level, 3-dimensional, single-event-upset simulation. A curve-fitting algorithm is used to extract...

Yuan, Xuejun

2012-06-07

258

System fault diagnostics using fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years advances in technology have led to an increase in the complexity and sophistication of systems. More complex systems can be harder to maintain and the root cause of a fault more difficult to isolate. Down-time resulting from a system failure can be dangerous or expensive depending on the type of system. In aircraft systems the

E. E. Hurdle; L. M. Bartlett; J. D. Andrews

2008-01-01

259

Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

1995-01-01

260

Fault diagnosis of analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, various fault location techniques in analog networks are described and compared. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in the subject. Four main approaches for fault location are addressed, examined, and illustrated using simple network examples. In particular, we consider the fault dictionary approach, the parameter identification approach, the fault verification approach, and the approximation approach.

J. W. Bandler; A. E. Salama

1985-01-01

261

Red Giant Red Giant White Giant  

E-print Network

Red Giant Red Giant White Giant Red Giant White Giant White Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant Blue GiantPower Points: 9 The hottest, brightest, and most massive stars. The three stars in Orion's belt, Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka, are blue giant stars. Mass: 10 - 70 SM StarPower Points: 10 The hottest, brightest

Bechtold, Jill

262

Glossary of normal faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest in normal faults and extended terranes has led to the development of an increasingly complex terminology. The most important terms are defined in this paper, with original references being given wherever possible, along with examples of current usage.

D. C. P. Peacock; R. J. Knipe; D. J. Sanderson

2000-01-01

263

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our growing reliance on online services accessible on the Internet demands highly-available systemsthat provide correct service without interruptions. Byzantine faults such as software bugs, operatormistakes, and malicious attacks are the major cause of service interruptions. This thesis describesa new replication algorithm, BFT, that can be used to build highly-available systems that tolerateByzantine faults. It shows, for the first time, how

Miguel Castro

2001-01-01

264

Strongly Fault Secure Logic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongly fault secure logic networks are defined and are shown to include totally self-checking networks as a special case. Strongly fault secure networks provide the same protection against assumed faults as totally self-checking networks, and it is shown that when stuck-at faults are assumed a strongly fault secure network can be easily modified to form a totally self-checking network. A

James E. Smith; Gernot Metze

1978-01-01

265

Fault tolerant magnetic bearings  

SciTech Connect

A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Aimone, R.J. [Mobile Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1999-07-01

266

The distribution and abundance of the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionacea) of the Navasota River, Texas  

E-print Network

. Distribution: Throughout the Mississippi River drainage from New York west to Minnesota, Kansas and Iowa and south to Texas, Mississippi and Alabama, the Saint Lawrence River drainage; the Red River of the North; and the Hudson River. In Texas it is reported.... Distribution: Throughout the Mississippi River drainage from New York west to Minnesota, Kansas and Iowa and south to Texas, Mississippi and Alabama, the Saint Lawrence River drainage; the Red River of the North; and the Hudson River. In Texas it is reported...

Littleton, Thomas Glynn

2012-06-07

267

Fault reactivation control on normal fault growth: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies frequently emphasize how fault reactivation is involved in the deformation of the upper crust. However, this phenomenon is generally neglected (except in inversion models) in analogue and numerical models performed to study fault network growth. Using sand/silicon analogue models, we show how pre-existing discontinuities can control the geometry and evolution of a younger fault network. The models show that the reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities and their orientation control: (i) the evolution of the main fault orientation distribution through time, (ii) the geometry of relay fault zones, (iii) the geometry of small scale faulting, and (iv) the geometry and location of fault-controlled basins and depocenters. These results are in good agreement with natural fault networks observed in both the Gulf of Suez and Lake Tanganyika. They demonstrate that heterogeneities such as pre-existing faults should be included in models designed to understand the behavior and the tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Daniel, Jean Marc

2005-04-01

268

Lower Mississippi River tributaries: contributions to the collective science concerning the “Father of Waters”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological and geomorphic information preserved in the tributary valleys of the lower Mississippi River (LMR) contributes to our understanding of the lower valley's Quaternary geological history. Prominent Pleistocene terraces are preserved in the tributary valleys. Fisk first formulated his four terraces framework on the Red River. Caution needs to be followed in projecting the Red River terraces across the

Paul E. Albertson; David M. Patrick

1996-01-01

269

Interplay between river discharge and topography of the basin floor in a hyperpycnal lacustrine delta  

E-print Network

influences the flow path of hyperpycnal plumes and delta morphology during progradation of the Red River total dissolved solids. Because the river plume is a bottom-hugging hyperpycnal flow, lake bathymetry. Keywords Discharge, hyperpycnal, lacustrine delta, Lake Texoma, morphology, Red River, topography

Stern, Robert J.

270

Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

2002-09-01

271

Pecos River Ecosystem Monitoring Project  

E-print Network

quality are observed through a series of annual water samples taken along the river from Red Bluff Reservoir to Girvin, hourly electrical conductivity measurements at two sites, and comparison of this data to historical water quality data. Any change..., increased flooding from increased sedimentation and decreased channel width, and increased water loss due to high evapotranspiration rates. The specific objectives of the monitoring aspects of the Pecos River Ecosystem Project are: 1. Document acreage...

McDonald, A.; Hart, C.

2004-01-01

272

Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

D. P. McKenzie; D. Davies; P. MOLNAR

1970-01-01

273

Emerging technologies for the control of the Defense Red Switch Network (DRSN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the Defense Red Switch Network (DRSN) into a multi-node worldwide secure voice and data network has necessitated the requirement for centralized multilevel secure control and monitor capability. Centralized control would provide management of the BLACK Network routers, switches and multiplexers, as well as RED Switch control, status and database management. Centralized control would provide fault management, performance

N. K. Cranfill; J. R. Cleveland

1994-01-01

274

Late Quaternary faulting along the southern Lemhi fault, southeastern Idaho: A complex segmentation history  

SciTech Connect

The Lemhi fault is a 140-km-long range-bounding normal fault in the northern Basin and Range province, north of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The authors investigation of the southern two (proposed) rupture segments, the Howe and the Fallert Springs, to the north, identified multiple large late Quaternary, surface-faulting events, some of which occurred in temporal clusters. Geologic evidence suggest that the history of the late Pleistocene activity along the northern part of the Fallert Springs segment differs from that along the southern part of the segment. The distribution and timing of surface ruptures, suggest that the Howe segment has ruptured together with at least the southern half of the Fallert Springs segment during the late Pleistocene faulting events. They propose that the Howe-Fallert Springs segment boundary has had little, if any, influence on the propagation of coseismic ruptures for some events, but appears to have effectively arrested others. Their data imply that the central portion of the Fallert-Springs segment has ruptured independent of the southern part of the segment, and that a non-persistent boundary exists within the segment. Paleoseismic activity of the southern Lemhi fault was evaluated in five trenches, two excavated on the Howe segment and three on the Fallert Springs segment; all trenches were excavated in mapped Pinedale-aged alluvial fan deposits (Pierce, 1982). At the southern site on the Howe segment, the most-recent-event colluvial wedge is interbedded with reworked loess, probably derived from the ESRP, that was deposited from about 25 to 15 ka. Thermoluminescence (TL) dates on loess bracket the event between 19 and 15 ka. TL dates indicate the penultimate event occurred before 27--25 ka. TL dates on a probable colluvial wedge, partly exposed in a trench on the southern Fallert Springs segment, suggests that the first of three faulting events occurred about 75 ka.

Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L.; Wong, I.G. (Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States)); Knuepfer, P.L.K. (State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States)); Forman, S.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Byrd Polar Research Center); Smith, R.P. (EG G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.)

1993-04-01

275

RICE UNIVERSITY Fault Detection and Fault Tolerance Methods for  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Fault Detection and Fault Tolerance Methods for Robotics by Monica L. Visinsky for their contributions to the dragon. Thanks are also due to Larry, J.D. and Dr. Johnson for their constant help

Cavallaro, Joseph R.

276

Late Quaternary right-lateral displacement along active faults in the Yanqi Basin, southeastern Tian Shan, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary right-lateral displacement and slip rates have been determined along WNW–ESE-trending active faults in the intermontane Yanqi Basin on the southeastern flank of the Chinese Tian Shan. Detailed analyses of satellite images and field investigation have revealed that the active Kaidu River fault zone on the southern margin of the basin is a strike–slip fault zone. Drainage systems incising

Aiming Lin; Bihong Fu; Ken-ichi Kano; Tadashi Maruyama; Jianming Guo

2002-01-01

277

Seismic fault geometry and kinematics of the 13 May 1995 Western Macedonia (Greece) earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the devastating earthquake of 13 May 1995, in the Kozani-Grevena area (Western Macedonia, Greece), many surface ruptures formed in the epicentral area. Most of these fractures were due to faulting, but some were secondary ground ruptures and landslides. Geological field work in the area has shown that the Aliakmon river neotectonic fault consists of several (three or more) fault strands: the Servia, the Rymnio and the Paleochori-Sarakina strands. Using geological criteria, all of these fault strands were judged to be active faults affecting recent (Holocene) deposits and scree. The main new surface fractures caused by the earthquake, and particularly those clearly of tectonic origin, follow systematically the traces of the last two neotectonic fault strands, forming a new fracture line. This tectonic line, trending ENE-WSW (N 70 °), coincides with the focal mechanism solution and the satelite image major lineament. Both the geological and instrumental seismological data suggest that the seismogenic fault is a segment of the Aliakmon river neotectonic fault zone situated among the villages of Rymnio, Paleochori, Sarakina, Kentro and Nisi. The total length of the reactivated fault segment is about 30km long overall and is separated from the non-activated Servia fault segment by a geometrical seismic segment barrier near the village of Goules. The seismic fault is a normal fault trending ENE-WSW and dipping to NNW, with high angle at the surface and low angle at depth. The majority of the epicentres of the seismic sequence were distributed on the hangingwall of this reactivated fault segment. Additionaly a series of subparallel antithetic surface fractures, mainly striking E-W or ENE-WSW and dipping to the South, following previous neotectonic strike-slip faults, were reactivated during the earthquake with the geometry of normal faults antithetic to the main seismic fault. The most important of these are the Chromio-Varis-Myrsina fracture line (length 15km), along the Vourinos corridor dextral strike-slip structure and the Felli fracture line (length 6 km) along the Felli sinistral strike-slip fault. An interpretation of the geometry and kinematics of the reactivated faults is shown in the proposed geological model with simplified cross sections.

Mountrakis, D.; Pavlides, S.; Zouros, N.; Astaras, Th.; Chatzipetros, A.

278

Stresses and Faulting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for students in an introductory structural geology course. While key concepts are described here, it is assumed that the students will have access to a good textbook to augment the information presented here. Learning goals: (1) Understand the role of gravity and rock properties in producing stresses in the shallow Earth. (2) Graphically represent stress states using Mohr diagrams. (3) Determine failure criteria from the results of laboratory experiments. (4) Explore the interaction of gravity-induced and tectonic stresses on fault formation. (5) Apply models of fault formation to predict fault behavior in two natural settings: San Onofre Beach in southern California and Canyonland National Park in Utah. The module is implemented entirely using Microsoft Excel. This program was selected due to its widespread availability and relative ease-of-use. It is assumed that students are familiar with using equations and graphing tools in Excel.

Reinen, Linda

279

Structural analysis of compressional and extensional deformation within the Wood River and Milligen Formations, south-central, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvanian to Permian Wood River Formation consists of calcareous and siliciclastic rocks that were deposited unconformably on argillaceous rocks of the Devonian Milligen Formation. The original depositional contact between the two formations is preserved locally; however, the contact was also mapped as a thrust, a normal fault, a reactivated thrust with a normal sense of movement, and as a sheared unconformity with an indeterminate sense of movement. Early reverse movement with northeast tectonic transport along the Milligen-Wood River contact is documented by mesoscopic and microscopic field evidence, including Riedel shears, drag folds, angular relations of cleavage in the fault plane, and oriented thin sections. Faults that separate middle Wood River in the upper plate from upper Wood River in the lower plate are also associated with this early phase of thrusting. Tertiary extensional deformation resulted in high-angle and low-angle normal faulting with some reactivation of Mesozoic thrusts. High-angle fault have normal, dip-slip or normal, obliquie-slip movements. Low-angle normal faults with north-west to southwest tectonic transport cut the Milligen and Wood River Formations, as well as units within the Tertiary Challis Volcanics. The movement sense on the normal faults in documented by drag folds, the angular relation of extension joints relative to the fault plane, shear steps, and oriented thin sections. Faults that separate younger sequences of the Wood River in the upper plate from older sequences in the lower plate are also associated with this phase of normal faulting.

Ratchford, M.E.; Reid, R.R. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

1993-04-01

280

Neotectonic and structural characteristics along the Chaochou fault system in SW Taiwan: implications for tectonic escape during oblique plate convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic escape has been recognized as a common geologic process that relates to the lateral expulsion of a tectonic block during oblique plate convergence and collision. To better understand fault behaviors in such tectonically active regions, we characterized short-term and recent deformation in the SW Taiwan, where deformation largely associates with tectonic escape. This study focuses on a prominent boundary for the tectonic escape: the Chaochou fault system, which separates the Eo-Miocene slate belt of the Central Range and an extensive composite of alluvium plains. Structural data show that the Chaochou fault cut across the strike of the slaty cleavage within the Central Range, suggesting that the fault developed at later stages during the Pio-Pleistocene plate convergence. Morphologic features along the Chaochou fault suggest presence of several active fault strands and changeable mountain front characteristics. The northern and middle portions of the fault show evidence of compression and uplifting based on alluvial fans and river terraces. In contrast, the southern portion of the fault shows significant embayments at river mouths, which may suggest slower rate of uplifting or even subsidence in the southern segment. GPS data from this area indicate extensional deformation with some left lateral movement component in the southern portion. Data from seismicity indicate complex deformation at present along the length of the fault. Locations of three swarms of seismicity suggest current fault activities are underneath the Central Range. Unexpectedly, just below the Chaochou fault shows little seismicity, suggesting the fault may be locked and the deformation is largely taking place in the Central Range at the moment. These observations indicate diverse patterns of deformation along the Chaochou fault, the eastern boundary fault for the tectonic escape in the SW Taiwan. The patterns of deformation imply that the process of tectonic escape may involve compression and relaxation through various faulting mechanisms during the process. In addition, extension may be common at the outer portion of the escaped block where widened space contributes to such tectonic adjustment.

Chan, Y.; Lee, J.; Lu, C.; Hu, J.; Chu, H.; Hou, C.; Rau, R.; Ching, K.

2002-12-01

281

Fault-Scarp Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the evolution of Earth's surface over time, as governed by the balance between constructional (tectonic) processes and destructional (erosional) processes. Introductory materials explain the processes of degradation, including the concepts of weathering-limited versus transport-limited slopes, and diffusion modeling. Using the process of diffusion modeling, students will determine how a slope changes through four 100-year time steps, calculate gradient angles for a fault scarp, and compare parameters calculated for two fault scarps, attempting to determine the age of the scarp created by the older, unknown earthquake. Example problems, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2010-09-27

282

Fault tree models for fault tolerant hypercube multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three candidate fault tolerant hypercube architectures are modeled, their reliability analyses are compared, and the resulting implications of these methods of incorporating fault tolerance into hypercube multiprocessors are discussed. In the course of performing the reliability analyses, the use of HARP and fault trees in modeling sequence dependent system behaviors is demonstrated.

Boyd, Mark A.; Tuazon, Jezus O.

1991-01-01

283

The application of Skylab imagery to analysis of fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Frame 114 of the Salton Sea area was studied in all bands to analyze the appearance of important faults. These faults were also studied in the field as well as from aircraft and in aerial photography. The San Andreas/Banning and the Mission Creek faults can be traced across Coachella Valley even though they are buried by alluvium. The faults form ground water barriers and the near surface ground water on the northeast sides of the faults supports patches of vegetation (mesquite and palms) in an otherwise barren desert. These oases are best seen in band 3 (color IR). Otherwise, faults are best seen in band 4 (aerial color). Of the B and W bands, 5 (red) is best for delineating faults. Bands 1 and 2 are excessively grainy and the resolution is considerably inferior to the other bands.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

284

Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah  

SciTech Connect

A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

285

Fault diagnosis of analog circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory and algorithms associated with four main categories of modern techniques used to locate faults in analog circuits are presented. These four general approaches are: the fault dictionary (FDA), the parameter identification (PIA), the fault verification (FVA), and the approximation (AA) approaches. The preliminaries and problems associated with the FDA, such as fault dictionary construction, the methods of optimum measurement selection, fault isolation criteria, and efficient methods of fault simulation, are discussed. The PIA techniques that utilize either linear or nonlinear systems of equations for identification of network elements are examined. Description of the FVA includes node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions, as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure-bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. In the AA, probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods are considered. In addition, the artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are presented. A series of block diagrams is included.

Bandler, J. W.; Salama, A. E.

1985-08-01

286

Transition-fault test generation  

E-print Network

. One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2013-02-22

287

Analyzing Fault/Fracture Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a lab period, students go out in the field to an area that contains at least 2 fault/fracture sets. Students measure orientations of faults and make observations about the relationship between different fault sets. After the field trip, the students compile their field data, plot it on a stereonet and write-up a brief report. In this report students will use their field observations and stereonet patterns to determine whether faults are related or unrelated to each other.

Levine, Jamie

288

Examine animations of fault motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for high school students, this Earth science resource provides animations of each of four different fault types: normal, reverse, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Each animation has its own set of movie control buttons, and arrows in each animation indicate the direction of force that causes that particular kind of fault. The introductory paragraph defines the terms fault plane, handing wall, and footwall--features that are labeled at the end of the appropriate animations. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

289

Fault scaling laws and the temporal evolution of fault systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an analysis of the temporal evolution of duplex fault systems, this contribution shows that it is unlikely that all faults in a deformed area will conform to a single frequency-size scaling relationship. The development of a duplex leads to different size—frequency relationships for the faults that compose the duplex and those confined to individual horses. The faults that compose the duplex define segments with relatively steep stopes on a log N (number of faults, i.e. frequency) vs log D (displacement magnitude, i.e. size) plot; faults within individual horses define segments with relatively shallow slopes on a log N vs log D plot. The distinction between these two types of faults in a duplex is akin to the distinction between large active faults, which cut the entire seismogenic layer, and small active faults, which do not extend across the seismogenic layer. If, as is often the case, the faults that compose a duplex do not extend across the seismogenic layer, the stepped nature of the resulting log N vs log D plot may make it particularly difficult to assess the contribution of these 'small' faults to regional deformation. Since duplex geometries result in part from anisotropies present in deforming rocks, the anisotropy present in nearly all crustal rocks will affect the size-frequency relationship observed for systems of faults. Different parts of a deforming rock mass are likely to have different initial anisotropies. Combining data on fault systems from markedly different portions of a deforming region may, then, obscure the unique characteristics of the size-frequency relationship in either area and may lead to inaccurate assessments of the relative contributions of 'small' and 'large' faults to regional fault-accommodated strains.

Wojtal, Steven F.

1994-04-01

290

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: \\

L. Piccardi

2001-01-01

291

Fuzzy fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of products is frequently a prime safety consideration. Interpretation of reliability is both quantitative and qualitative. Extensive quantitative analysis employing probablistic risk assessment has been widely performed to provide predicted hazard or accident minimization. Weibull probability data and information is a vital tool of these quantitative risk assessments, but so are qualitative methods such as fault tree analysis. Qualitative

David P. Weber

1994-01-01

292

Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting in the NE Mojave Block: Deformation at the southwest boundary of the Walker Lane belt  

SciTech Connect

New structural and stratigraphy data from the NE Mojave Block (NEMB) establish the timing and style of Cenozoic deformation south of the Garlock fault and west of the Avawatz Mts. Unlike adjacent areas, most of the NEMB did not undergo early-mid Miocene extension. Major fault zones strike EW; offset markers and small-scale shear criteria indicate left-lateral strike slip with a small reverse component. Lateral offsets average ca. 1--6 km and vertical offset is locally >200m. Pre-Tertiary markers indicate minimum cumulative sinistral shear of ca. 15 km in the area between the Garlock and Coyote Lake faults. Tertiary strata are deformed together with the older rocks. Along the Ft. Irwin fault, alluvial fan deposits interpreted to be <11Ma appear to be displaced as much as Mesozoic igneous rocks. EW sinistral faults S. of the Garlock fault cut unconsolidated Quaternary deposits; geomorphologic features and trench exposures along segments of the McLean Lake fault and the Tiefort Mt. fault suggest Late Quaternary activity. The EW faults do not cut modern drainages and are not seismically active. NW-striking faults are largely absent within the NEMB; the largest faults bound the domain of EW-striking faults. Offset of Cretaceous and Miocene rocks suggests the W boundary (Goldstone Lake fault) has <2km right separation. Along the E boundary (Soda-Avawatz fault zone), the presence of distinctive clasts in mid-late Miocene conglomerates west of the Avawatz Mts. supports the suggestion of Brady (1984) of ca. 20 km dextral displacement. Other NW-striking faults are cut by EW faults, have unknown or minor dextral displacement (Desert King Spring Fault, Garlic Spring fault) or are low- to moderate-angle left-oblique thrust faults (Red Pass Lake fault zone).

Schermer, E.R. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-04-01

293

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy). European Union of Geophysics Congress, Strasbourg, March 1999. Piccardi L., 2000: Active faulting at Delphi (Greece): seismotectonic remarks and a hypothesis for the geological environment of a myth. Geology, 28, 651-654. Piccardi L., 2001: Seismotectonic Origin of the Monster of Loch Ness. Earth System Processes, Joint Meeting of G.S.A. and G.S.L., Edinburgh, June 2001.

Piccardi, L.

2001-12-01

294

Paleoseismological study along the Magome-toge fault, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kiso-sanmyaku-seien fault zone, extending for 60 km along the Kiso River, consists of three echelon faults which trend in the N-S to NE-SW direction. We trenched the southernmost of these faults, the Magome-toge fault, at Kudaritani and Fukutochizawa. Though only 16 km apart along the same fault, these two sites differ greatly in their earthquake histories. In trench walls of Kudaritani, we recognized three faulting events: one in the Holocene and two in the Late Pleistocene. Another older event is also inferred from a prismatic gravelly clay bed deposited in front of the fault plain. Our precise sequential 14C dating of the humic soils revealed that the latest faulting event occurred 5,000 - 3,800 cal yr BP. The penultimate event occurred after the fall of AT tephra (25,000 - 27,000 cal yr BP) and before 11,000 cal yr BP, and the third recent event predated the fall of the AT tephra. Faulting intervals are therefore estimated to be around 10,000 to 23,000 years. At Fukutochizawa, geological evidence of two faulting events in the late Holocene was detected at an outcrop and four hand-dug pits. We conclude that the latest event occurred in or after 13th century because the youngest radiocarbon age of humus displaced by the latest faulting is 720-650 cal yr BP (AD 1230-1300). An earlier event was recognized by a colluvial wedge intercalated in the gravel beds. Since the layers above and below the colluvial wedge were dated to 1860-1690 cal yr BP and 2290-2270 / 2160-1990 cal yr BP, respectively, we estimate that the penultimate event occurred 1690-2290 cal yr BP. The interval between the two dated events is thus about 1000-2000 years. The northern part of the Magome-toge fault appears more active than the southern part, and a segment boundary probably exists somewhere between the two sites.

Shishikura, M.; Toda, S.; Kariya, Y.; Nikaido, M.; Takase, N.

2002-12-01

295

Earthquakes and fault creep on the northern San Andreas fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At present there is an absence of both fault creep and small earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault, which had a magnitude 8 earthquake with 5 m of slip in 1906. The fault has apparently been dormant after the 1906 earthquake. One possibility is that the fault is 'locked' in some way and only produces great earthquakes. An alternative possibility, presented here, is that the lack of current activity on the northern San Andreas fault is because of a lack of sufficient elastic strain after the 1906 earthquake. This is indicated by geodetic measurements at Fort Ross in 1874, 1906 (post-earthquake), and 1969, which show that the strain accumulation in 1969 (69 ?? 10-6 engineering strain) was only about one-third of the strain release (rebound) in the 1906 earthquake (200 ?? 10-6 engineering strain). The large difference in seismicity before and after 1906, with many strong local earthquakes from 1836 to 1906, but only a few strong earthquakes from 1906 to 1976, also indicates a difference of elastic strain. The geologic characteristics (serpentine, fault straightness) of most of the northern San Andreas fault are very similar to the characteristics of the fault south of Hollister, where fault creep is occurring. Thus, the current absence of fault creep on the northern fault segment is probably due to a lack of sufficient elastic strain at the present time. ?? 1979.

Nason, R.

1979-01-01

296

Geology Fieldnotes: Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information on the Yukon - Charley Rivers National Preserve in Alaska, including geology, visitor information, photographs, and links to further resources. The Yukon is a large river flowing along a fault through Alaska, and the Charley is a major tributary flowing into it. Some gold rush history is discussed, as well as wildlife and vegetation.

297

Fault Scarp Offsets and Fault Population Analysis on Dione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini images of Dione show several fault zones cutting through the moon’s icy surface. We have measured the displacement and length of 271 faults, and estimated the strain occurring in 6 different fault zones. These measurements allow us to quantify the total amount of surface strain on Dione as well as constrain what processes might have caused these faults to form. Though we do not have detailed topography across fault scarps on Dione, we can use their projected size on the camera plane to estimate their heights, assuming a reasonable surface slope. Starting with high resolution images of Dione obtained by the Cassini ISS, we marked points at the top to the bottom of each fault scarp to measure the fault’s projected displacement and its orientation along strike. Line and sample information for the measurements were then processed through ISIS to derive latitude/longitude information and pixel dimensions. We then calculate the three dimensional orientation of a vector running from the bottom to the top of the fault scarp, assuming a 45 degree angle with respect to the surface, and project this vector onto the spacecraft camera plane. This projected vector gives us a correction factor to estimate the actual vertical displacement of the fault scarp. This process was repeated many times for each fault, to show variations of displacement along the length of the fault. To compare each fault to its neighbors and see how strain was accommodated across a population of faults, we divided the faults into fault zones, and created new coordinate systems oriented along the central axis of each fault zone. We could then quantify the amount of fault overlap and add the displacement of overlapping faults to estimate the amount of strain accommodated in each zone. Faults in the southern portion of Padua have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.0097, central Padua exhibits a strain of .032(+/-) 0.012, and faults in northern Padua have a strain of 0.025(+/-) 0.0080. The western faults of Eurotas have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.011, while the eastern faults have a strain of 0.037(+/-) 0.025. Lastly, Clusium has a strain of 0.10 (+/-) 0.029. We also calculated the ratio of maximum fault displacement vs. the length of the faults, and we found this ratio to be 0.019 when drawing a trend line through all the faults that were analyzed. D/L measurements performed on two faults on Europa using stereo topography showed a value of .021 (Nimmo and Schenk 2006), the only other icy satellite where this ratio has been measured. In contrast, faults on Earth has a D/L ratio of about .1 and Mars has a D/L Ratio of about .01 (Schultz et al. 2006).

Tarlow, S.; Collins, G. C.

2010-12-01

298

Characterization of fault recovery through fault injection on FTMP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of fault-injection procedures and statistical analysis techniques to characterize the fault recovery of fault-tolerant systems is described. Pin-level fault-injection was conducted on a fault-tolerant microprocessor computer in order to generate data to assess the utility of current fault-injection sampling methods. The validity of common reliability-modeling assumptions concerning the statistical distribution of recovery times is investigated. A multiple comparison analysis for detecting behavior variations, and a distribution fitting for determining the best fit for the data were conducted. It is observed that the detection behavior is not homogeneous across all data sets, and that none of the factors under experimental control can account for the observed groupings of behavior. It is determined that no single distribution fits all the data sets, and that stratified random sampling and statistically robust parameter-estimation techniques are required to characterize fault detection time.

Finelli, George B.

1987-01-01

299

An empirical comparison of software fault tolerance and fault elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability is an important concern in the development of software for modern systems. Some researchers have hypothesized that particular fault-handling approaches or techniques are so effective that other approaches or techniques are superfluous. The authors have performed a study that compares two major approaches to the improvement of software, software fault elimination and software fault tolerance, by examination of the fault detection obtained by five techniques: run-time assertions, multi-version voting, functional testing augmented by structural testing, code reading by stepwise abstraction, and static data-flow analysis. This study has focused on characterizing the sets of faults detected by the techniques and on characterizing the relationships between these sets of faults. The results of the study show that none of the techniques studied is necessarily redundant to any combination of the others. Further results reveal strengths and weakness in the fault detection by the techniques studied and suggest directions for future research.

Shimeall, Timothy J.; Leveson, Nancy G.

1991-01-01

300

Quantifying Anderson's fault types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Célérier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ? and ? to new quantities named A? and A?. In their simple forms, A? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?/ranges from 0° to 60°, 60° to 120°, and 120° to 180°, respectively. After scaling, A? and A? agree to within 2% (or 1°), a difference of little practical significance, although A? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A? ranging from -3 to +3 and A? from -180° to +180°. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A? and A? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields.

Simpson, Robert W.

1997-08-01

301

Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of about 80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of 5-10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with about 20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure at shallow depth of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 2,391 wave traces from 121 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of about 15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). Fig.1 (a) Horizontal distribution of relative scattering coefficients, averaged for a depth range from 0 to 15 km. Open and solid symbols represent stronger and weaker scattering than the average, respectively. (b) Distribution of relative scattering coefficients, inside the rectangular area shown in (a), projected on a vertical cross section along the Yamasaki fault zone. Red crosses show distribution of microearthquakes in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009 (JMA data). The Yamasaki fault zone is composed of Ohara (OF), Hijima (HF), Yasutomi (YF), Kuresakatoge (KF), Biwako (BF), and Miki faults (MF), whose approximate location is shown at the top.

Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

2010-12-01

302

Effect of surrounding fault on distributed fault of blind reverse fault in sedimentary basin - Uemachi Faults, Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several large cities and metropolitan areas, such as Osaka and Kobe are located in the Osaka basin, which has been filled by the Pleistocene Osaka group and the later sediments. The basin is surrounded by E-W trending strike slip faults and N-S trending reverse faults. The N-S trending 42-km-long Uemachi faults traverse in the central part of the Osaka city. The various geological, geophysical surveys, such as seismic reflection, micro tremor, gravity surveys and deep boreholes, revealed the complex basement configuration along the Uemachi faults. The depth of the basement is shallow in the central part of the Osaka plain. The Uemachi faults are locates on the western side of the basement upland. In the central part of the Uemachi faults, the displacement decreases. The fault model of the Uemachi faults consists of the two parts, the north and south parts. The NE-SW trending branch faults, Suminoe and Sakuragawa flexures, are also recognized based on various surveys around the central part. Kusumoto et al. (2001) reported that surrounding faults enable to form the basement configuration without the Uemachi faults model based on a dislocation model. Inoue et al. (2011) performed various parameter studies for dislocation model and gravity changes based on simplified faults model, which were designed based on the distribution of the real faults. The model was consisted of 7 faults including the Uemachi faults. In this study, the Osaka-wan fault was considered for the dislocation model. The results show the basement configuration including NE-SW branch faults. The basement configuration differs from the subsurface structure derived from the investigation of abundance geotechnical borehole data around the central part of the Uemachi faults. The tectonic developing process including the erosion and sea level change are require to understanding the structure from the basement to the surface of the Uemachi Fault Zone. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (in FY2010 and FY2011) by MEXT.

Inoue, N.

2012-12-01

303

Raft River geoscience case study  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (a) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone, apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (b) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (c) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (d) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

1981-11-01

304

Paleoseismic results of the east strand of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone, Central Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ) is a northeast-southwest trending tectonic structure located within the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV), in central Portugal associated with at least two historical events: the 1909 Mw 6.0-6.2 Benavente earthquake and the 1531 Mw 6.9 earthquake. Recent investigations indicate that the relatively linear valley associated with the Lower Tagus River is controlled by active faults in varying geometry and slip rates. Based on mapped traces, LTVFZ is about 80 kilometers long and transects Miocene to Holocene deposit. The east and west strands of the fault zone may have different level of activity based on the variable clarity of mapped morphological expressions. In recent studies new fault strands were identified using aerial photos and field survey on eastern side of LTV. These eastern faults have a trend that almost parallel those active traces previously mapped by Besana-Ostman et al., 2012 on the western side of the valley. Quaternary activity of this fault deforms fluvial terraces and produces morphological features related to left-lateral strike-slip movement like river offsets. In this work we present the results of the first paleoseismic analysis carried out on this strand of the fault. Trenching studies shows that surface rupture events have occurred affecting Tagus fluvial terraces. The geometry of faulting exposed in the trench provides valuable insights into the kinematics of the fault, and provides a preliminary minimum net slip rate. New relative ages of the deformation are established on preliminary trenching results, and recurrence intervals will be determined upon receipt of results of sample processing for C14 dating. The aim of this work is to contribute with new data to parameterize the paleoseismic activity of this active fault in order to be included in the future seismic hazard assessments. Further studies are proposed and underway to characterize the LTVFZ, including high-resolution LIDAR images analysis, more active fault mapping and paleoseismic excavations.

Canora, Carolina; Vilanova, Susana; Besana-Ostman, Glenda; Heleno, Sandra; Fonseca, Joao; Domingues, Ana; Pinheiro, Patricia; Pinto, Luis

2014-05-01

305

Lifeguarding American Red Cross  

E-print Network

Lifeguarding Manual #12;American Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual The following organizations provided review of the materials and/or support American Red Cross Lifeguarding: #12;This manual is part of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding program. By itself, it does not constitute complete and comprehensive

Carter, John

306

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

307

The tectonic evolution of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden  

SciTech Connect

The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, formed by rifting of the Arabian plate away from Africa, have been the subjects of numerous studies since the 1960s. Geophysical and geological data gathered during hydrocarbon exploration by several companies are being synthesized as part of the World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project. This synthesis provides an opportunity to study the regional variation in tectonic history and structural style within the two basins, particularly toward the basin margins, where data coverage is most complete and a thinner sedimentary cover allows more reliable interpretation of deeper horizons. Based on this data, most of the Red Sea shows a similar tectonic history to that of the Gulf of Suez. Widespread normal faulting developed contemporaneous with deposition of a dominantly clastic sequence of Oligocene( ) to middle Miocene age. The faulting often dies out within or below thick middle to upper Miocene evaporite deposits with only few faults affecting the younger units. The Gulf of Aden, on the other hand, shows a strong contrast between largely west-northwest-east-southeast oriented extensional structures on land, and generally more east-west oriented extensional structures on the continental shelves and slopes. The onshore extensional structures oriented oblique to the coast, and approximately perpendicular to transform fault trends in the oceanic crust of the central Gulf of Aden. This contrast is extensional structure orientations has important implications for the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aden.

Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Sikander, A.H. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)); Abouzakhm, A.G.

1991-08-01

308

An experiment in software fault elimination and fault tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Three primary approaches have been taken in developing methods to improve software reliability: fault avoidance, fault elimination and fault tolerance. This study investigates the error detection obtained by application of two of these approaches, fault tolerance and fault elimination, on a set of independently developed versions of a program. Different fault detection techniques following each approach are used to provide a broad exposure of each approach on the versions. The fault detection techniques chosen were multi-version voting, programmer-inserted run-time assertions, testing, code reading of uncommented code by stepwise abstraction and static data flow analysis. Voting and run-time assertions are most commonly associated with fault tolerance. Testing, code reading and static data flow analysis are most commonly associated with fault elimination. After application of the techniques following each approach, the errors detected and the circumstances of detection were analyzed as a means of characterizing the differences between the approaches. The results of this study provide insight on a series of research questions. The results demonstrate weaknesses in the fault tolerance approach and specifically in the multi-version voting method. In particular, the results demonstrate that voting of untested software may produce an insufficient improvement in the probability of producing a correct result to consider such use in systems where reliability is important. Voting is not to be a substitute for testing. Examination of the faults detected in this experiment show that the majority of faults were detected by only one technique. The results of this study suggest a series of questions for further research. For example, research is needed on how to broaden the classes of faults detected by each technique.

Shimeall, T.J.

1989-01-01

309

Late Holocene evolution of the East Eliki fault, Gulf of Corinth (Central Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trench stratigraphy and morphotectonic analysis was used to examine the recent evolution of the Helike (Eliki) Plain and Eliki Fault. The entire alluvial plain of the Kerynites and Vouraikos Rivers, which cross the Eliki Fault, has subsided at rate of 1.4mm\\/yr, resulting in the burial of the Late Hellenistic-Roman occupation horizons under ?3m of fluvial and colluvial sediments. Along the

S. B. Pavlides; I. K. Koukouvelas; S. Kokkalas; L. Stamatopoulos; D. Keramydas; I. Tsodoulos

2004-01-01

310

Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events.The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE–SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense

João Batista Sena Costa; Ruth Léa Bemerguy; Yociteru Hasui; Maur??cio da Silva Borges

2001-01-01

311

Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern

312

The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left).

A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements.

Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled in mostly by sedimentary and erosional material deposited from above. Comparisons between faults on Europa and Earth may generate ideas useful in the study of terrestrial faulting.

One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. The tidal tension opens the fault; subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then the tidal forces close the fault up again. This prevents the area from moving back to its original position. If it moves forward with the next daily tidal cycle, the result is a steady accumulation of these lengthwise offset motions.

Unlike Europa, here on Earth, large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas are set in motion not by tidal pull, but by plate tectonic forces from the planet's mantle.

North is to the top of the picture. The Earth picture (left) shows a LandSat Thematic Mapper image acquired in the infrared (1.55 to 1.75 micrometers) by LandSat5 on Friday, October 20th 1989 at 10:21 am. The original resolution was 28.5 meters per picture element.

The Europa picture (right)is centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude. The highest resolution frames, obtained at 40 meters per picture element with a spacecraft range of less than 4200 kilometers (2600 miles), are set in the context of lower resolution regional frames obtained at 200 meters per picture element and a range of 22,000 kilometers (13,600 miles). The images were taken on September 26, 1998 by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL HTTP://www.j

1998-01-01

313

Randomness fault detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

314

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

315

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

316

The temporal relationship between joints and faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples are presented of three temporal relationships between joints and faults: joints that pre-date faults; joints that are precursors to, or synchronous with, faults; and joints that post-date faults. Emphasis is placed on strike-slip faults in carbonate beds, but other examples are used. General rules are given for identifying the three temporal relationships between joints and faults. Joints that formed before faults can be dilated, sheared or affected by pressure solution during faulting, depending on their orientation in relation to the applied stress system. Faulted joints can preserve some original geometry of a joint pattern, with pinnate joints or veins commonly developing where faulted joints interact. Joints formed synchronously with faults reflect the same stress system that caused the faulting, and tend to increase in frequency toward faults. In contrast, joints that pre- or post-date faults tend not to increase in frequency towards the fault. Joints that post-date a fault may cut across or abut the fault and fault-related veins, without being displaced by the fault. They may also lack dilation near the fault, even if the fault has associated veins. Joints formed either syn- or post-faulting may curve into the fault, indicating stress perturbation around the fault. Different joint patterns may exist across the fault because of mechanical variations. Geometric features may therefore be used in the field to identify the temporal relationships between faults and joints, especially where early joints affect or control fault development, or where the distribution of late joints are influenced by faults.

Peacock, D. C. P.

2001-02-01

317

Fault tolerant control laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

1986-01-01

318

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

2004-01-01

319

Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed the angular unconformity and resulted in deposition of the lower clast-rich colluvium. A thin layer of pre-Mazama (>7600 years B.P.) loess caps the colluvium and post-dates the earthquake. The second earthquake is marked by shearing of the lower colluvium by small faults emanating from the carbonate-cemented breccia layer, and probable folding of the lower colluvium. A thin layer of clast-rich colluvium marks this youngest earthquake, the distal parts of which bury loess containing Mazama tephra. The preserved basalt scarp in the outcrop suggests between 1.8 and 2.8 m of post-flood vertical displacement. Faint straie on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest a reverse oblique mechanism for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ~8.5 Ma basalt dikes (Blakely and others, this meeting).

Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

2013-12-01

320

An empirical comparison of software fault tolerance and fault elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale experiment comparing software fault tolerance and software fault elimination as approaches to improving software reliability is described. Results are examined that apply to the appropriateness and underlying assumption of the two i.e., reducing standard testing procedures when using voting to achieve fault-tolerance in operational software and using voting in the testing process. Among other results, it was found

Timothy J. Shimeall; Nancy G. Leveson

1988-01-01

321

Early Proterozoic activity on Archean faults in the western Superior province - evidence from pseudotachylite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major transcurrent faults in the Superior province developed in the Late Archean at the close of the Kenoran orogeny. Reactivation of some of these faults late in the Early Proterozoic is indicated by Rb-Sr analyses of pseudotachylite from the Rainy Lake-Seine River and Quetico faults in the Rainy Lake region of Minnesota and Ontario. Fault veins of pseudotachylite and immediately adjacent country rock at two localities yielded subparallel isochrons that are pooled for an age of 1947??23 Ma. K-Ar and Rb-Sr biotite ages register earlier regional cooling of the terrane at about 2500 Ma with no evidence of younger thermal overprinting at temperatures exceeding 300??C. Accordingly, the 1947??23 Ma age is interpreted as dating the formation of the pseudotachylite. Reactivation of existing faults at this time was caused by stresses transmitted from margins of the Superior province where compressional tectonic events were occurring. -Authors

Peterman, Z. E.; Day, W.

1989-01-01

322

Location of the Border Ranges fault southwest of Kodiak Island, Alaska.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A positive magnetic anomaly extends discontinuously from the S side of the Copper River basin, along the SE side of Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait, and SW from Kodiak Island to near Sutwik Island. Regionally, this anomaly parallels the Border Ranges fault and is within 10km of it along the Kodiak Islands. The most probable source for the anomaly near Kodiak Island is mainly early Jurassic plutonic rocks and locally ultramafic rocks that are associated with a melange. The Border Ranges fault lies between these two rock types, and given the regional parallelism of the fault and the magnetic anomaly, the fault can be traced offshore SW of Kodiak Island to near Sutwik Island using marine magnetic data. Lithologic evidence suggests that the fault continues SE of Sutwik Island towards the SW end of the Alaska Peninsula.-Author

Fisher, M.A.

1981-01-01

323

Geology and seismic potential of the Hustain fault, Tov Province, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hustain fault is a 100-km long, northeasterly-striking, active extensional structure that bounds the Tuul River Valley (TRV). The fault originated as a late Paleozoic compressional structure during closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. After a period of geologic quiescence during the early Cenozoic, the fault was reactivated as an extensional structure and may be associated with the same extension that formed Baikal Lake. The trace of the Hustain fault is clearly visible in false-color satellite images and topographic maps due to its large escarpments, truncation of Mesozoic intrusions, and a series of active springs located in the Quaternary alluvium. A southeast-northwest extensional vector (143.3/323.3±3.93° azimuth) was deduced from kinematic indicators. This fault possesses a left-lateral, strike-slip component and is capable of producing Magnitude 7.5 earthquakes that could severely impact the inhabitants of nearby Ulaanbaatar.

Day, Paul Patrick

324

Lidar reveals paleoseismic sites and recent strike-slip and thrust faulting along the central Alpine Fault, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the South Island of New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates and is thought to fail in large to great earthquakes approximately every 100 to 400 years, with the most recent major surface rupture event occurring in 1717 AD. We used a recently collected lidar dataset to evaluate the central section of the fault to both measure recent slip along the fault, recent co-seismic uplift, and to find new paleoseismic sites. The new high-resolution topography in the dense temperate rainforest allowed insight into the fault that was previously unavailable. Lidar mapping, combined with field mapping facilitated the discovery of a multi-event thrust fault scarp of the Alpine Fault that was later trenched at Gaunt Creek. C-14 dating of units in the trench and mapping there, show that the last earthquake was probably the 1717 event. Along the length of the lidar survey, small (< 25 m) dextral offsets were also mapped along the fault, which were rated for quality, and then visited in the field. The lidar itself was a guide to locate these offsets, and the offset measurements in the field have lower uncertainties than the lidar resolution; dextral slip in the 1717 earthquake here was c. 7 m × 1 m. Additional sites with evidence for cumulative slip were also mapped in the field which showing repetitive slip of ~ 7 to 8 m per event for the past three surface ruptures on the fault. Sag ponds discovered during field mapping are important new targets for investigation and will likely yield slip-rate information here for the correlation of slip with events. Additional field mapping near the Whataroa River and Mint Creek demonstrates that between debris flow fans that cross the Alpine Fault at the rangefront of the Southern Alps, preservation of strike-slip scarps is rare due to post-earthquake deposition and erosion. However, one likely scarp was found in a post-earthquake aggradation surface, along strike from a clear-strike slip trace, between two post-1717 fans. Based on field and lidar mapping, this scarp likely formed during the 1717 earthquake in pre-1717 Whataroa River outwash deposits.

De Pascale, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.; Davies, T. R.

2013-12-01

325

Trig River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about and use a right triangle to determine the width of a "pretend" river. Working in teams, they estimate of the width of the river, measure it and compare their results with classmates.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

326

Amazon River  

... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-17

327

Amazon River  

article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that ...

2013-04-17

328

Fault tree analysis is widely used in industry for fault diagnosis. The diagnosis of incipient or `soft' faults is  

E-print Network

Fault tree analysis is widely used in industry for fault diagnosis. The diagnosis of incipient results based on a neural network approach. INTRODUCTION Fault tree analysis (FTA) and fault tree used in systems safety analysis for over 30 years. During this time the fault tree method has been used

Madden, Michael

329

This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault  

E-print Network

Abstract This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault injection in a physical system using built in test logic, and fault injection in a VHDL software simulation model of a system. The fault injections were used to evaluate the error

Karlsson, Johan

330

Red Squirrels in South Scotland Project Update 96 landowners have been successfully recruited onto SRDP and are receiving funding  

E-print Network

Red Squirrels in South Scotland Project Update 96 landowners have been successfully recruited squirrels have moved. In December 2011 a new red squirrel pox outbreak occurred along the River Tweed at Paxton House in Berwickshire. To date 2 poxed red squirrels have been found (1 confirmed case

331

River Mouths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the main peculiarities of river mouths as geographical objects forming\\u000a as a result of river and sea interaction, presenting the principles of classification of river mouths\\u000a and their subdivision into the parts are presented. Furthermore, structure and regime of mouths of the\\u000a rivers flowing into the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and natural and

Vadim N. Mikhailov; Maria V. Mikhailova

332

Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A previously unmapped seismically active fault has been identified in south-central Alaska on the basis of ERTS-1 imagery. It can be traced for at least 120 km. An unmapped fault was found on the northwest flank of Mt. Sanford that is apparently a reverse fault. A large scale, seismically active fracture system has been identified in central Alaska on the basis of MSS imagery. The system consists of two sets of fractures which intersect at an angle of about 55 degrees. The dominant feature of the system is the Minook Creek fault, on which an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 occurred on October 29, 1968. A possible related feature is a 60 km long lineament near the Toklat River north of Mt. McKinley. These areas are all moderately seismically active. Focal mechanism studies of the 1968 earthquake revealed that left-lateral displacement had occurred on the Minook Creek fault due to compressive stress. A similarly oriented direction of compressive stress could be responsible for the entire fracture system.

Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

333

Mississippi River  

article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... the effect of snowmelt and heavy rainfalls on the Upper Mississippi River area of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Illinois. In the ...

2014-05-15

334

Mississippi River  

E-print Network

The Mississippi River is one of the world’s major river systems in size, habitat diversity, and biological productivity. It is the longest and largest river in North America, flowing 3,705 kilometers from its source at Lake Itasca in the Minnesota North Woods, through the midcontinental United States, the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, and its subtropical

unknown authors

335

Neotectonics of the Periadriatic Fault System (Eastern and Southern Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Periadriatic Fault System (PFS) is the surface trace of the leading edge of the present Adriatic microplate, which has indented the European lithosphere since at least Miocene time. The PFS is also the tectonic boundary between the Southern Alps with its S-directed fold-and-thrust belt and the rest of the Alps that experienced Cretaceous and Tertiary metamorphism and deformation. In contrast to other Oligo-Miocene faults in the Eastern Alps (Engadine, Brenner and Inntal faults, Friuli-Trieste and the Giudicarie thrust systems) the PFS is seismically silent. In reassessing recent GPS data of Devoti et al. [2008], we find that the northward component of Adriatic motion is accommodated primarily by the Friuli-Trieste and Giudicarie thrust belts. This is manifested by a step-like decrease of the northward-component of Adriatic convergence and a drastic reduction in the seismic activity going from south to north along the Giudicarie belt. Nevertheless, the PFS may still be active, as indicated by an M=4.8 earthquake in 2001 near Merano. Geochronological ages show no evidence for tectonic movements younger than mid-Miocene along the PFS, except along the Giudicarie thrust system where exhumation rates have increased since the Messinian [Martin et al., 1998; Müller et al., 2001]. To investigate the current role of the PFS in accommodating Adriatic indentation, we tried to quantify deformation along the PFS over a time span longer than that accessible through seismic or GPS data, but shorter than that constrained by Rb-Sr or Ar-Ar geochronology. For this purpose, we analysed the geomorphology along the PFS in the Eastern Alps, using surface markers to identify possible offsets (e.g., alluvial fans, river terraces or thalwegs). First analyses of aerial photos and river networks combined with DEMs reveal a clear influence of the PFS on the morphology and on drainage network. For example, river channels along the Gailtal fault have apparent dextral offsets of up to 4 km; the dextral displacement is consistent with that inferred for early Miocene tectonics and consistent with that expected for accommodating the currently measured counter-clockwise rotation and WNW indentation of the Adriatic plate [e.g., Vrabec et al., 2006]. Unfortunately, geomorphological markers with unequivocal offsets are lacking along the Pustertal Fault. We can only speculate that the westernmost part of the PFS (i.e., the Pustertal fault) is either inactive or creeps at much lower rates than the eastern part (the Gailtal fault). If so, the PFS could be interpreted as a stretching fault. This interpretation is consistent with the concentration of seismicity in the "Gurktal block" rather than in the "Tauern window block". References Devoti, R., F. Riguzzi, M. Cuffaro, and C. Doglioni, New GPS constraints on the kinematics of the Apennines subduction, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 273, 163-174, 2008. Martin, S., G. Bigazzi, M. Zattin, G. Viola, and M.L. Balestrieri, Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie fault (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy): new apatite fission-track data, Terra Nova, 10, 217-221, 1998. Müller, W., S.P. Kelley, and I.M. Villa, Dating fault-generated pseudotachylytes: comparison of 40Ar/39Ar stepwise-heating, laser ablation and Rb-Sr microsampling analyses, Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 144, 57-77, 2002. Müller, W., G. Prosser, N.S. Mancktelow, I.M. Villa, S.P. Kelley, G. Viola, and F. Oberli, Geochronological constraints on the evolution of the Periadriatic Fault System (Alps), The International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 623-653, 2001. Vrabec, M., P. Pavlovcic Preseren, and B. Stopar, GPS study (1996-2002) of active deformation along the Periadriatic fault system in northeastern Slovenia: tectonic model, Geologica Carpathica, 57, 57-65, 2006.

Garcia, Sebastian; Handy, Mark R.; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

2010-05-01

336

Displacement rates on the Toroweap and Hurricane faults: implications for Quaternary downcutting in the Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toroweap and Hurricane faults, considered to be the most active in Arizona, cross the Uinkaret volcanic field in the western Grand Canyon. These normal faults are downthrown to the west, and the Colorado River crosses these faults as it flows west in the Grand Canyon. Cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) dates on basalt flows and related landforms are used to calculate vertical displacement rates for these faults. The two faults cross unruptured alluvial fans dated as 3 ka (Toroweap) and 8 ka (Hurricane), and 10 other landforms that range in age from 30 to 400 ka are displaced. Middle and late Quaternary displacement rates of the Toroweap and Hurricane faults are 70–180 and 70–170 m/m.y., respectively. On the basis of these rates, the combined displacement of 580 m on these faults could have occurred in the past 3 to 5 m.y. All 3Hec dates are younger than existing K- Ar dates and are consistent with new 40Ar/39Ar dates and existing thermoluminescence (TL) dates on basalt flows. These different dating techniques may be combined in an analysis of displacement rates. Downcutting rates for the Colorado River in the eastern Grand Canyon (400 m/m.y.) are at least double the downcutting rates west of the faults (70–160 m/m.y.). Faulting probably increased downcutting in the eastern Grand Canyon relative to downcutting in the western Grand Canyon during the late Quaternary.

Fenton, Cassandra R.; Webb, Robert H.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.

2001-01-01

337

New geomorphic evidence probably provided by recent activities of the Gyaring Co Fault, Central Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gyaring Co Fault is one of the most active en echelon minor faults of the Karakoram-Jiali Fault zone (KJFZ) in the Tibetan Plateau. These minor en echelon faults have been affirmed as active right-lateral strike-slip faults, striking N120°-130°E. The Gyaring Co Fault is one of above-mentioned faults. According to previous study, the slip rate of it is about 10-20 mm/yr. A M7 event occurred in 1934 along the southern Gyaring Co Fault, while little has been known for the northern segment. Based on recent analysis by high resolution satellite images, we found various offset river channels to suggest the northern segment is still active as its southern counterpart. The evidence includes a number of 10- 12m offset or bending small creeks on the Quaternary terraces, which are perhaps produced by the last large earthquake event along the northern segment. Also found are ten meters to kilometer scale displacements, which are generally identified by larger river and must be cumulative offsets. For the purpose of deriving slip rates along this segment, dating methods of OSL, 10Be, and Radiocarbon are applied in this study. By the new findings along the Gyaring Co Fault, it can be further affirmed that the above-mentioned en echelon minor faults may play as southern boundary zone that marks. a fast eastward moving block in the Central Tibet. The recently published GPS velocities, showing a relatively large WNW-ESE extension rate of ~22 ± 3 mm/yr within the Tibetan plateau, also supports our finding. However, the northern boundary zone of this block still need further work to unravel.

Chung, L.; Chen, Y.; Yu, K.; Cao, Z.; Yin, G.

2010-12-01

338

Interpretation of footwall (lowside) fault traps sealed by reverse faults and convergent wrench faults  

SciTech Connect

Lowside (footwall) closures sealed by reverse-slip faults and convergent strike-slip faults offer opportunities for significant field extension and new field prospects in basins deformed by contraction. The faults have reverse separation in cross section and transverse closure (in the direction of reservoir dip) is often provided by dip of beds away from the fault at structural upturns. The upturns are common and form at the edge of the footwall block as a consequence of block-edge folding, fault drag, and shortening transverse to fault strike. Effective fault seal and longitudinal closure (parallel to reservoir strike) are the most uncertain trap controls. Fault seal may be provided by the juxtaposition of older, less permeable rocks against the down-dropped reservoir or by impermeable material within the fault zone. Fault-zone barriers to fluid flow include shaly smear gouge, cataclastic gouge, mineral deposits, or asphalt or tar impregnation. Longitudinal closure is most commonly formed by a broad positive warp or bowing at the edge of the footwall block or by stratigraphic reservoir terminations. Secondary faults, intersections of primary block faults, and en echelon folds may also provide longitudinal closure. Prospects can range in importance from secondary extensions of existing highside closures to large traps unrelated to hanging-wall structure. The variety of geometries, relationships that provide transverse and longitudinal closure, and important geologic parameters that determine fault seal are illustrated with examples from oil fields in Sumatra and southern California. These fields can be used as models for the recognition and delineation of prospects in other basins. 16 figures.

Harding, T.P.; Tuminas, A.C.

1988-06-01

339

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-print Network

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

Standiford, Richard B.

340

Fault-tolerant TCP mechanisms  

E-print Network

OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page IV INTRODUCTION . RELATED WORK A. Replication Schemes 1. Active Replication/State Machine 2. Passive Replication/Primary-Backup Paradigm B. Group Communication . C. Fault-Tolerant Distributed Object Methodology D. Programming... and Virtual Synchrony. . . . . . FAULT- TOLERANT MECHANISMS A. Synchronization Using TCP Reassembly Queue 1. TCP Reassembly . 2. Modified TCP Reassembly 3. Various Schemes of Processing Incoming Segments B. Fault Detection, Fail-Over and Recovery 1...

Satapati, Suresh Kumar

2012-06-07

341

Compositional Temporal Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HiP-HOPS (Hierarchically-Performed Hazard Origin and Propaga- tion Studies) is a recent technique that partly automates Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) by constructing fault trees from system topologies annotated with component-level failure specifications. HiP-HOPS has hitherto created only classical combinatorial fault trees that fail to capture the often significant temporal ordering of failure events. In this paper, we propose temporal extensions to

Martin Walker; Leonardo Bottaci; Yiannis Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

342

Polynomially Complete Fault Detection Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at several variations of the single fault detection problem for combinational logic circuits and show that deciding whether single faults are detectable by input-output (I\\/O) experiments is polynomially complete, i.e., there is a polynomial time algorithm to decide if these single faults are detectable if and only if there is a polynomial time algorithm for problems such as

Oscar H. Ibarra; Sartaj Sahni

1975-01-01

343

Fault interaction near Hollister, California  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model is used to study fault stress slip near Hollister, California. The geometrically complex system of interacting faults, including the San Andreas, Calaveras, Sargent, and Busch faults, is approximated with a two-dimensional distribution of short planar fault segments in an elastic medium. The steady stress and slip rate are simulated by specifying frictional strength and stepping the remote stress ahead in time. The resulting computed fault stress is roughly proportional to the observed spatial density of small earthquakes, suggesting that the distinction between segments characterized by earthquakes and those with aseismic creep results, in part, from geometry. A nonsteady simulation is made by introducing, in addition, stress drops for individual moderate earthquakes. A close fit of observed creep with calculated slip on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults suggests that many changes in creep rate (averaged over several months) are caused by local moderate earthquakes. In particular, a 3-year creep lag preceding the August 6, 1979, Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault seems to have been a direct result of the November 28, 1974, Thanksgiving Day earthquake on the Busch fault. Computed lags in slip rate preceding some other moderate earthquakes in the area are also due to earlier earthquakes. Although the response of the upper 1 km of the fault zone may cause some individual creep events and introduce delays in others, the long-term rate appears to reflect deep slip.

Mavko, G.M.

1982-09-10

344

Fault-Tree Compiler Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

1992-01-01

345

Imaging Faults and Shear Zones Using Receiver Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry of faults at seismogenic depths and their continuation into the ductile zone is of interest for a number of applications ranging from earthquake hazard to modes of lithospheric deformation. Teleseismic passive source imaging of faults and shear zones can be useful particularly where faults are not outlined by local seismicity. Passive seismic signatures of faults may arise from abrupt changes in lithology or foliation orientation in the upper crust, and from mylonitic shear zones at greater depths. Faults and shear zones with less than near-vertical dip lend themselves to detection with teleseismic mode-converted waves (receiver functions) provided that they have either a contrast in isotropic shear velocity (V s), or a contrast in orientation or strength of anisotropic compressional velocity (V p). We introduce a detection method for faults and shear zones based on receiver functions. We use synthetic seismograms to demonstrate common features of dipping isotropic interfaces and contrasts in dipping foliation that allows determination of their strike and depth without making further assumptions about the model. We proceed with two applications. We first image a Laramide thrust fault in the western U.S. (the Wind River thrust fault) as a steeply dipping isotropic velocity contrast in the middle crust near the surface trace of the fault; further downdip and across the range, where basin geometry suggests the fault may sole into a subhorizontal shear zone, we identify a candidate shear zone signal from midcrustal depths. The second application is the use of microstructural data from exhumed ductile shear zones in Scotland and in the western Canadian Shield to predict the character of seismic signatures of present-day deep crustal shear zones. Realistic anisotropy in observed shear fabrics generates a signal in receiver functions that is comparable in amplitude to first-order features like the Moho. Observables that can be robustly constrained without significant tradeoffs are foliation strike and the depth of the foliation contrast. We find that an anisotropy of only a few percent in the shear zone is sufficient to generate a strong signal, but that the shear zone width is required to be >2 km for typical frequencies used in receiver function analysis to avoid destructive interference due to the signals from the boundaries of the shear zone.

Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Mahan, Kevin H.

2014-05-01

346

Neotectonic faulting in northern Norway; the Stuoragurra and Nordmannvikdalen postglacial faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic compilation and characterisation of many reports of neotectonic crustal deformation in Norway (both on local and regional scales) has identified two neotectonic faults in northern Norway. The Stuoragurra Fault is a large reverse fault in Finnmark County. The Nordmannvikdalen fault is a much smaller normal fault in Troms County. The Stuoragurra postglacial fault can be followed, in several

John F. Dehls; Odleiv Olesen; Lars Olsen; Lars Harald Blikra

2000-01-01

347

An Approach to Fault Modeling and Fault Seeding Using the Program Dependence Graph1  

E-print Network

fault seeder makes controlled fault transformations to the PDG for a C program, and generates C code from the transformed PDG. The current version of the fault seeder creates multiple faultAn Approach to Fault Modeling and Fault Seeding Using the Program Dependence Graph1 Mary Jean

Harrold, Mary Jean

348

Fault-tolerant Sensor Network based on Fault Evaluation Matrix and Compensation for Intermittent Observation  

E-print Network

Fault-tolerant Sensor Network based on Fault Evaluation Matrix and Compensation for Intermittent Observation Kazuya Kosugi, Shinichiro Tokumoto and Toru Namerikawa Abstract-- This paper deals with a fault for constructing a fault tolerant system. Specifically, we propose a fault-evaluation matrix for the fault

349

Fault Location Orion is the distribution company for the Canterbury region. In 2007, a Ground Fault  

E-print Network

Fault Location Orion is the distribution company for the Canterbury region. In 2007, a Ground Fault faults. This system operates by reducing the fault currents present during a fault, extinguishing and preventing arcing from occurring. Although this is greatly beneficial to the system, the reduction in fault

Hickman, Mark

350

Geophysical anomalies and segmentation of the Hayward Fault, San Andreas Fault System, Northern California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hayward Fault, part of the San Andreas Fault System, extends for about 90 km and is regarded as one of the most hazardous faults in northern California. The Hayward Fault is predominantly a right-lateral strike-slip fault that forms the western boundary of the East Bay Hills with about 100 km of total offset along the fault zone. The Hayward

D. A. Ponce; T. G. Hildenbrand; R. C. Jachens

2003-01-01

351

San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements.

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart.

Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above.

One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then tidal forces close the fault again, preventing the area from moving back to its original position. Daily tidal cycles produce a steady accumulation of lengthwise offset motions. Here on Earth, unlike Europa, large strike-slip faults like the San Andreas are set in motion by plate tectonic forces.

North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the top. The image, centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 300 by 203 kilometers(185 by 125 miles). The pictures were taken on September 26, 1998by Galileo's solid-state imaging system.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1998-01-01

352

Fault current limiter  

DOEpatents

A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

Darmann, Francis Anthony

2013-10-08

353

Perspective View, Garlock Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 35.25 deg. North lat., 118.05 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking southwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

354

Dynamics of earthquake faults  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault, discussing the model's behavior in the context of current seismology. The topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the distinction between small and large events and the magnitude vs frequency distribution; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher-dimensional models; and (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

Carlson, J.M. (Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Langer, J.S. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Shaw, B.E. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States))

1994-04-01

355

Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Yukon-Tanana uplands north and east of Fairbanks appear, on ERTS-1 imagery, to be composed of a number of large-scale (approximately 100 kilometers square) crustal blocks. The boundaries of these blocks appear to be defined by a number of northeast-striking lineaments which form the major river valleys of the area. Principal among these are the valleys of the Salcha River, the Cehan River, and the Chatanika River. These lineaments are all seismically active, and are thus presumed to be faults. This parallel set of lineaments appears to be intersected at various angles by a secondary set of faults trending generally north to south. The larger earthquakes in the area occur at the intersections of the two sets. It appears that seismicity of this part of Alaska may be conceptually represented by the grinding together of rigid blocks, with earthquakes occurring along their common boundaries and at the intersections where three or more blocks come in contact.

Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

356

Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation along the San Andreas fault, Mecca Hills, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary rocks in the Mecca Hills record a 3-4 Myr history of basin evolution and deformation within the southern San Andreas fault (SAF) zone. Detailed geologic mapping, measured sections, lithofacies analysis, and preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate that sedimentation and deformation in the Mecca Hills resulted from evolution of local fault zone complexities superimposed on regional subsidence and uplift. Sediment was derived from sources northeast of the SAF and transported southeast along the fault zone in large rivers, alluvial fans, and a smaller fault-bounded lake. Inversion of the Painted Canyon fault from oblique SW-side down to SW-side up slip was the main control on local deposition and deformation. Regional controls are suggested by an angular unconformity observed in the Mecca and Indio Hills along ˜50 km of the SAF and synchronous post-740 ka uplift northeast of the SAF along ˜80 km of the fault zone.

McNabb, James Carlton

357

Measuring the slip rate on faults with InSAR in difficult interferometric conditions: The Denali Fault (Alaska).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Denali Fault, Alaska is a major strike-slip fault which ruptured in the Mw 7.9, 3 November 2002, Denali Earthquake - the largest strike slip earthquake in North America for more than 150 years. Geological estimates of Holocene offsets on the McKinley and Totschunda Faults suggests that the slip rate on the Denali Fault is 10-20mm/yr (Plafker, 1977) whereas geodetic estimates of the rate from VLBI (Ma et al, 1990), triangulation networks (Savage and Lisowski, 1991; Page and Lahr, 1971) and GPS (Fletcher, 2002) are around 5 mm/yr. Previous studies have measured interseismic deformation on several faults and folds, including the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey), the Karakorum Fault (Tibet) , the San Andreas Fault (California), and the Tainan Tableland (Taiwan). However, these studies all focus on fast moving features in flat, desert or urban areas. The Denali Fault is a more difficult target because the coherence is poorer and the deformation rate slower. Mountains, vegetation and snow-cover limit the time-span of individual interferograms to 1-2 years and mean that only a very small number of pixels are coherent in all the interferograms. A right-lateral slip rate of 5 mm/yr on the Denali Fault corresponds to a line of sight range change of about 2 mm/yr. Atmospheric errors in a single interferogram are typically of the order of 1 cm in the satellite line of sight so to detect this rate of strain acccumulation requires a large number of interferograms. Using synthetic data, we investigate and compare methods for detecting interseismic strain accumulation in these conditions including simple stacking, weighted stacking and time series approaches. We pay particular attention to data selection and error propagation. We use the large archive of SAR acquisitions collected during the period 1992-2002 by ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 and apply these methods to over 100 interferograms constructed from 4 tracks (2 ascending and 2 descending) centered on the Delta River Valley where the Trans-Alaska Pipeline crosses the Denali Mountains.

Biggs, J.; Wright, T.; Lu, Z.; Parsons, B.

2005-12-01

358

Central Asia Active Fault Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

2014-05-01

359

SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5?s; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

2006-04-15

360

Colorado Regional Faults  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Khalid Hussein

2012-02-01

361

Geophysical study of the Monroe-Red Hill geothermal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed geophysical study consisting of heat flow, dipole-dipole resistivity, ground magnetics and gravity was conducted in the vicinity of Monroe, Utah to assess the resource potential of an identified hydrothermal system. The detailed study covered a 40 km² area along the Sevier fault near the Monroe-Red Hill hot springs. Fourteen 100m dipole-dipole resistivity profiles across the system were used

C. W. Mase; D. S. Chapman; S. H. Ward

1978-01-01

362

Fault Models for Quantum Mechanical Switching Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between faults and errors is that, unlike faults, errors can\\u000abe corrected using control codes. In classical test and verification one\\u000adevelops a test set separating a correct circuit from a circuit containing any\\u000aconsidered fault. Classical faults are modelled at the logical level by fault\\u000amodels that act on classical states. The stuck fault model, thought of

Jacob D. Biamonte; Jeff S. Allen; Marek A. Perkowski

2010-01-01

363

Development of a bridge fault extractor tool  

E-print Network

to process variations and the limitations of the patterning process. What is more important from a test and diagnosis viewpoint is ensuring that the more probable faults are on the fault list. ATPG will likely not target all possible realistic faults... to process variations and the limitations of the patterning process. What is more important from a test and diagnosis viewpoint is ensuring that the more probable faults are on the fault list. ATPG will likely not target all possible realistic faults...

Bhat, Nandan D.

2005-02-17

364

Detecting Faults in Computational Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will first present a basic definition and a brief history of grid computing since its inception during the last decade. We will then look at a review of the most common faults occurring within the grid environment as identified by a survey of grid computing users. Two papers addressing fault detection are then reviewed for comparison.

Russ Wakefield

365

AFTP Fault Tree Analysis Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the cut sets of large s-coherent and non-coherent fault trees presents a severe computational problem. The computer program, AFTP has been used to evaluate the important minimal cut and path sets of large fault trees containing many hundreds of gates. The computational advantages of a Boolean algebra, bottom-up approach are emphasised.

Richard A. Pullen

1984-01-01

366

Uncertainties in Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tree analysis is one kind of the probabilistic safety analysis method. After constructing a fault tree, many basic events which can happen theoretically have never occurred so far or have occurred so infrequently that their reasonable data are not available. However, the use of fuzzy probability can describe the failure probability and its uncertainty of each basic event ,

Yue-Lung Cheng

367

Surface Creep on California Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data from a number of creepmeters in California. A creepmeter is an instrument that monitors the slow surface displacement of an active fault. Its function is not to measure fault slip during earthquakes, but to record the slow aseismic slip between earthquakes.

Bilham, Roger; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado

368

FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINE FAULT DIAGNOSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and timely detection and diagnosis of aircraft engine fault is critical to the normal operation of engine\\/airplane and to maintain them in a healthy state. In engine fault diagnostics, engine gas path measurements, such as exhaust gas temperature (EGT), fuel flow (WF) and core speed (N2), etc. are frequently used. Some diagnostics models employ trend shift detection for these

Xiao Hu; Neil Eklund; Kai Goebel

369

Intelligent Fault Localization in Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thtis paper reports on two areas of research in softmare fault localization. We propose a conceptual model of software fault localization with roots in cognitive science. The model has both shallow and deep reasoning phases. It requires the programmer to activate complex knowledge bases and build internal models of the Buggy code and a correct representation. An architecture for an

Ilene Burnstein; Nitya Jani; Steve Mannina; Joe Tamsevicius; Michael Goldshteynl; Louis Lendif

1992-01-01

370

A palaeoseismological and geoarchaeological investigation of the Eliki fault, Gulf of Corinth, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeoseismological and morphotectonic analyses enable us to define a 400-m-wide actively deformed zone associated with the active Eliki normal fault, central Greece, bounded on the south by a second-order fault and on the north by a composite and prominent fault scarp. This scarp is further analysed by trenching. Based on colluvium stratigraphy, displacement of distinct horizons and deposition of sedimentary layers, three faulting events have been identified along four fault strands affecting unconsolidated sediments in the trench. The two younger events, with throws of 0.93 and 1.37 m, respectively, the third event, with a throw of 0.44 m, and the penultimate 373 BC event suggest a variable seismic history. The entire alluvial plain of the Kerynitis and Vouraikos rivers, which cross the Eliki fault, has subsided at a rate of 1.4 mm/year, resulting in the burial of the Late Hellenistic-Roman occupation horizons under 3 m of fluvial and colluvial sediments in places. Extension in the broader area is accommodated by the seismically active Eliki and Egion faults. Structural and palaeoseismological analysis of those two faults indicates that they accommodate 1.5 mm/year, or about 10% of the geodetically estimated extension of up to 13 mm/year.

Koukouvelas, Ioannis K.; Stamatopoulos, Leonidas; Katsonopoulou, Dora; Pavlides, Spyros

2001-02-01

371

New aspects of the Dead Sea strike slip fault zone from the northeastern side of the Dead Sea - reflection seismic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several reflection seismic lines directly north of the Dead Sea shore (eastern side of Jericho basin, in Jordan) were interpreted to analyze the subsurface structure and to trace the intensive deformation in the Dead Sea fault zone there. The seismic data indicate that the Jericho basin could be part of the Dead Sea Basin and its northern end. Comparing the fault structure to the east of the Jordan River with the results obtained by Rotstein et al (1991) to the west of the Jordan River, we conclude that the northern part could have similar fault distribution such as the southern Dead Sea basin. We agree with Rotstein (1991) that to the east of the Western border fault the main fault (Jordan Fault) could be an analogue of the Sedom Fault. We suggest the young strike-slip faulting identified by us in the eastern side of the Jordan River Valley may be a continuation of the Ghor Safi Fault (southern Dead Sea basin, Jordan).

Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Heinrichs, T.; Hoetzl, H.; Qabbani, I.; Ali, W.

2005-12-01

372

The red Warba potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of the original tuber was divided longitudinally into approximately two equal parts. About one-half of the surface of the original tuber was similar to the VV'arba in that the red color was localized in the eye region immediately adjacent to the eyes. The remaining half of the surface was of a suffused red color. Scattered throughout the suffused

F. A. Krantz; A. G. Tolaas

1939-01-01

373

Whence the Red Panda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the “bear-like” arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids

John J. Flynn; Michael A. Nedbal; Jerry W. Dragoo; Rodney L. Honeycutt

2000-01-01

374

Intelligent fault diagnosis of power transmission line; -.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation presents the application of recent intelligent newlinetechniques for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission line Fault newlinesection identification classification and location are the… (more)

Malathi, V

2014-01-01

375

Faults paragenesis and paleostress state in the zone of actively propagating continental strike-slip on the example of North Khangai fault (Northern Mongolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sublatitudinal North Khangai fault extends from Ubsunuur basin to the eastern part of the Selenga corridor trough 800 km. It is the northern boundary of the massive Mongolian block and limits of the Baikal rift system structures propagation in the south (Logatchev, 2003). Late Cenozoic and present-day fault activity are expressed in the left-lateral displacements of a different order of river valleys and high seismicity. We have carried out studies of the kinematics of active faults and palaeostresses reconstruction in the zone of the dynamic influence of North Khangai fault, the width of which varies along the strike and can exceeds 100 km. The result shows that the fault zone has a longitudinal and a transverse zoning. Longitudinal zonation presented gradual change from west to east regions of compression and transpression regimes (Khan-Khukhey ridge) to strike-slip regime (Bolnay ridge) and strike-slip and transtensive regimes (west of Selenga corridor). Strike-slip zones are represented by linearly concentrated rupture deformations. In contrast, near the termination of the fault the cluster fault deformation formed. Here, from north to south, there are radical changes in the palaeostress state. In the north-western sector (east of Selenga corridor) strike-slip faults, strike-slip faults with normal components and normal faults are dominated. For this sector the stress tensors of extensive, transtension and strike-slip regimes are typical. South-western sector is separated from the north-eastern one by massive Buren Nuruu ridge within which the active faults are not identified. In the south-western sector between the Orkhon and Tola rivers the cluster of NW thrusts and N-S strike-slip faults with reverse component are discovered. The faults are perfectly expressed by NW and N-S scarps in the relief. The most structures dip to the east and north-east. Holocene fault activity is demonstrated by the hanging river valleys and horizontal displacements with amplitudes up to 15-25 m along the scarps. The type of displacements and the ratio of vertical and horizontal components in the NW and N-S zones of studied faults are similar to those established for Mogod earthquake seismodislocations (1967, M=7.0). According to paleostress states reconstructions the stress tensors of compression and strike-slip regimes are dominated in this area. The resulting pattern of faults distribution and palaeostresses reflects one of the stages of the North Khangai strike-slip zone development during Late Cenozoic under the conditions of its gradual propagation to the east. At the eastern fault termination the complex picture of the stress state corresponds to the situation typical for the termination of the left-lateral strike-slip, developing in an elastic half-space modeled by D.Osokina (Osokina, 1977, 2008). RFBR project No. 13-05-01097

Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna

2014-05-01

376

Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010). Combined with this previous work, our paleoseismic assessment of the western Cathedral Rapids fault, including trenching in fall 2010, may contribute to increasing the understanding of the style and timing of deformation for faults bounding the northern flank of the Alaska Range. These data may also provide insight into the eastern extent of the NFFTB and its role in accommodating regional shortening.

Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

2010-12-01

377

The Pietra Grande thrust (Brenta Dolomites, Italy): looking for co-seismic indicators along a main fault in carbonate sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, pseudotachylytes (i.e. solidified frictional melts) are the only unambiguous geological record of seismic faulting. Even if pseudotachylytes are frequently observed along faults within crystalline rocks they are discovered along carbonate faults in very few cases only, suggesting that other chemico-physical processes than melting could occur (e.g. thermal decomposition). In order to investigate possible co-seismic indicators we study the Pietra Grande thrust, a carbonate fault in the Brenta Dolomites (Trentino, NE Italy), to analyse field structure, microtextures and composition of rocks from the principal slip plane, the fault core and the damage zone. The Pietra Grande thrust is developed within limestones and dolomitic limestones of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age (Calcari di Zu and Monte Zugna Formations). The thrust, interpreted as a north-vergent décollement deeply connected with the major Cima Tosa thrust, is a sub-horizontal fault plane gently dipping to the North that mainly separates the massive Monte Zugna Fm. limestones (upper side) from the stratified Calcari di Zu Fm. limestones with intercalated marls (lower side). On the western face of the Pietra Grande klippe the thrust is continuously well-exposed for about 1 km. The main fault plane shows reddish infillings, which form veins with thicknesses between few millimetres to several decimetres. These red veins lie parallel to the thrust plane or in same cases inject lateral fractures and minor high-angle faults departing from the main fault plane. Veins have carbonate composition and show textures characterized by fine-grained reddish matrix with embedded carbonate clasts of different size (from few millimetres to centimetres). In some portions carbonate boulders (dimension of some decimetres) are embedded in the red matrix, while clast content generally significantly decreases at the vein borders (chilled margins). Red veins are typically associated with cohesive cataclasites and/or breccias of the fault zone. Host and fault rocks are locally folded, with fold axes having a rough E-W direction compatible with simultaneous thrust activation, suggesting deformation under brittle-ductile conditions. A late brittle deformation is testified by near-vertical fractures and strike-slip faults (WNW-directed) intersecting the whole thrust system. Field structure, microtextures, chemical and mineralogical compositions of host rocks, cataclasites and breccias are analysed. In particular, red veins are carefully compared with the very similar Grigne carbonate pseudotachylytes (Viganò et al. 2011, Terra Nova, vol. 23, pp.187-194), in order to evaluate if they could represent a certain geological record of seismic faulting of the Pietra Grande thrust.

Viganò, Alfio; Tumiati, Simone; Martin, Silvana; Rigo, Manuel

2013-04-01

378

Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

2003-10-01

379

Along strike applicability of results from the Deep Fault Drilling Project, Alpine Fault, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large proportion of coseismic slip is thought to occur along narrow principal slip zones (PSZs) that are millimeters to centimeters- thick. Understanding the physical properties of PSZ gouges and cataclasites, and their along strike extent, is a primary goal of fieldwork being done in conjunction with the Deep Fault Drilling Program (DFDP), Alpine Fault. Core retrieved from two shallow boreholes at Gaunt Creek contains mylonites with a Pacific Plate Alpine Schist protolith, cataclasites derived from Pacific Plate mylonites and from Australian Plate felsic igneous rocks, gneisses, and possibly metasediments, and three PSZ gouges. These three PSZ gouges are: (1) DFDP-1a PSZ gouge (90.5 - 90.8 m depth), which occurs at the contact between Pacific Plate cataclasite and Australian Plate Late Quaternary gravel; (2) DFDP-1b PSZ1 gouge (128.0 - 128.3 m depth), which occurs below Pacific Plate cataclasite and above mixed Pacific and Australian Plate-derived cataclasite; (3) DFDP-1b PSZ2 gouge (143.83 - 143.94 m depth), which occurs below the mixed protolith cataclasite and above Australian Plate augen mylonite Microstructurally, PSZ gouges in the core are similar to those documented in a nearby outcrop at Gaunt Creek by Boulton et al. (2012). Brown PSZ gouge layers contain reworked fault gouge clasts together with subrounded to rounded clasts of mylonite, ultramylonite, quartz and carbonate-rich fragments. From quantitative XRD, the brown PSZ gouges in DFDP-1b comprise 18% dioctahedral smectite, along with quartz (25 - 29%), orthoclase/microcline (3 - 4%), albite (24 - 25%), calcite (8 - 9%), kaolinite (0 - 6%), muscovite/illite (12 - 17%), chlorite (0 - 1%), and trace amounts of pyrite. Boulton et al. (2012) reported similar mineralogy for Gaunt Creek outcrop and Waikukupa Thrust outcrop PSZ gouges and found that the PSZ gouges have lower friction coefficients and lower permeability than surrounding cataclasites. Mineralogically, microstructurally, and geochemically similar brown PSZ gouges also occur at localities north and south of Gaunt Creek, from Little Man River to Robinson Creek, an along strike distance of 120 km. Everywhere mapped, brown PSZ gouges form at the contact between Pacific Plate and Australian Plate-derived cataclasites, which, importantly, do not contain smectite. Smectite-bearing gouges are generally absent on shallow dipping dextral-reverse faults at the toes of large thrust sheets, where plate boundary cataclasites overlie Late Quaternary gravels in sharp contact. Our results suggest that PSZ gouges retrieved in the DFDP-1 cores are commonly present on moderately dipping (average orientation 043°/30°SE; Norris and Cooper, 2007) dextral-reverse faults along the central Alpine Fault, and we discuss modes of PSZ formation. References Boulton, C., B.M. Carpenter, V. Toy, and C. Marone (2012). Physical properties of surface outcrop cataclastic fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003872. Norris, R.J., and A.F. Cooper (2007). The Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Surface Geology and Field Relationships, in A Continental Plate Boundary: Tectonics at South Island, New Zealand, edited by Okaya, D., Stern, T., and F. Davey, American Geophysical Union Monograph Vol 175, Washington, D.C., 159-178.

Boulton, C. J.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N. C.; Carpenter, B. M.

2012-12-01

380

Contrasting D/H ratios in hydrothermally altered thrust and strike-slip faults, western Chugach Mountains, AK  

SciTech Connect

In the western Chugach Mountains of southern Alaska, the Cretaceous Knik River Terrane, a complex of regionally metamorphosed amphibolites and schists, tonalite and trondhjemites intrusives and ultramafic rocks, is thrust over the Jurassic-Cretaceous Flysch of the Chugach terrane by the Border Ranges Fault System (BRFS). Parts of the BRFS were reactivated in the Tertiary by brittle strike-slip faulting along the dextral Carpenter Creek Fault (CCF) and related faults. Lithologies in the Knik River Terrane commonly show strong hydrothermal alteration along the Carpenter Creek Fault. In order to determine the origin and circulation patterns of hydrothermal fluids responsible for the alteration of samples in the BRFS and CCF, the authors have analyzed D/H ratios of minerals, whole rocks and veins from unfaulted metamorphic and intrusive rocks and from within and adjacent to hydrothermally altered cretaceous thrust faults and Tertiary strike-slip faults. The fluids responsible for hydrothermal alteration in the BRFS were apparently in D/H exchange equilibrium with the unfaulted lithologies presently exposed in the Western Chugach. These fluids may have been derived from devolatilization of the footwall during prograde metamorphism contemporaneous with thrust faulting. The fluids responsible for hydrothermal alteration of the CCF were apparently local meteoric waters confined in a channelized fracture flow system where isotopic equilibration with the wall rocks was strongly inhibited.

Barnett, D.E.; Bowman, J.R. (Univ. of Utah, UT (United States). Geology and Geophysics); Pavlis, T. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)); Rubenstone, J. (LDGO, Palisades, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

381

Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation for Local Leakage Faults  

E-print Network

We provide a rigorous analysis of fault-tolerant quantum computation in the presence of local leakage faults. We show that one can systematically deal with leakage by using appropriate leakage-reduction units such as quantum teleportation. The leakage noise is described by a Hamiltonian and the noise is treated coherently, similar to general non-Markovian noise analyzed in Refs. quant-ph/0402104 and quant-ph/0504218. We describe ways to limit the use of leakage-reduction units while keeping the quantum circuits fault-tolerant and we also discuss how leakage reduction by teleportation is naturally achieved in measurement-based computation.

Panos Aliferis; Barbara M. Terhal

2005-11-07

382

Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

2012-01-01

383

Arc fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

Jha, K.N.

1999-05-18

384

Insights into Wasatch fault vertical slip rates using the age of sediments in Timpanogos Cave, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timpanogos Cave, located near the Wasatch fault, is about 357 m above the American Fork River. Fluvial cave sediments and an interbedded carbonate flowstone yield a paleomagnetic and U-Th depositional age of 350 to 780 ka. Fault vertical slip rates, inferred from calculated river downcutting rates, range between 1.02 and 0.46 mm yr - 1 . These slip rates are in the range of the 0-12 Ma Wasatch Range exhumation rate (˜ 0.5-0.7 mm yr - 1 ), suggesting that the long-term vertical slip rate remained stable through mid-Pleistocene time. However, the late Pleistocene (0-250 ka) decelerated slip rate (˜ 0.2-0.3 mm yr - 1 ) and the accelerated Holocene slip rate (˜ 1.2 mm yr - 1 ) are consistent with episodic fault activity. Assuming that the late Pleistocene vertical slip rate represents an episodic slowing of fault movement and the long-term (0-12 Ma) average vertical slip rate, including the late Pleistocene and Holocene, should be ˜ 0.6 mm yr - 1 , there is a net late Pleistocene vertical slip deficit of ˜ 50-75 m. The Holocene and late Pleistocene slip rates may be typical for episodes of accelerated and slowed fault movement, respectively. The calculated late Pleistocene slip deficit may mean that the current accelerated Wasatch fault slip rate will extend well into the future.

Mayo, Alan L.; Bruthans, Jiri; Tingey, David; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Nelson, Steve

2009-09-01

385

Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the intraplate Euphrates fault system, Syria: implications for regional tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lack of dramatic surface geological structures along the Euphrates River in Syria belie a complex tectonic history revealed by newly released seismic reflection and well data. We document the intraplate Euphrates fault system, characterize the variation in structural style along its 350 km length in Syria, and infer its Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic and deformational history. We then relate the defor-

ROBERT K. LITAK; MUAWIA BARAZANGI; WELDON BEAUCHAMP; DOGAN SEBER; GRAHAM BREW; TARIF SAWAF; WASIF AL-YOUSSEF

1997-01-01

386

Precambrian control of Laramide faulting, Sheep Ridge anticline, western Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penetrative fabric data from a basement-involved Laramide fold and thrust structure on the north margin of the Wind River Basin were measured to investigate the role of Precambrian structural control on Laramide fault orientation. Three elements of the basement fabric were mapped along the crest and flanks of the Sheep Ridge anticline: (1) foliations; (2) fractures; and (3) mafic dikes.

J. S. Blundell; R. W. Marrs

2008-01-01

387

Structure and seismic hazard of the Ventura Avenue anticline and Ventura fault, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ventura Avenue anticline, in the western Transverse Ranges, is one of the fastest uplifting structures in southern California, rising at a rate of ~5 mm/yr (Rockwell et al., 1988). However, there is disagreement about whether this structure poses a seismic hazard, due to uncertainty about the nature of the Ventura fault, which lies along the southern margin of the fold. Two models have been proposed: either the Ventura fault extends to seismogenic depths beneath the anticline (e.g., Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 1976), or it is a shallow, bending-moment fault that does not pose a significant seismic hazard (e.g., Yeats, 1982a,b; Huftile and Yeats, 1995). Seismic data across the tip of the Ventura fault suggest that it deforms late Pleistocene and younger strata, implying that the fault system is active. Given that the fault trace extends directly through the city of Ventura, distinguishing between these two interpretations has considerable importance in regional seismic hazard assessments. We use well data, industry seismic reflection profiles, and two seismic profiles acquired by our group in August 2010, to construct a more complete 3D model of the system. Based on dipmeter logs and stratigraphic cutoffs imaged in seismic reflection profiles, we show that the north-dipping Ventura fault extends to seismogenic depth beneath the anticline. Fault offset increases with depth, implying that the Ventura fault has propagated upwards over time. Thus, we interpret the Ventura Avenue anticline to be a fault-propagation fold underlain by an active thrust ramp. A decrease in the uplift rate of the anticline at 30 ka, as measured from uplifted terraces (Rockwell et al., 1988), is consistent with a breakthrough of the Ventura fault at that time, although the fault is still blind as it is buried by a sedimentary cover. In order to assess the hazard of the fault, we examine its regional extent. The Ventura fold trend continues offshore and coincides with a set of oil fields. A 3D seismic dataset across the Dos Cuadras field, which lies along the trend, shows that it is a fault-propagation fold, structurally similar to the Ventura Avenue anticline. Dos Cuadras is also underlain by a north-dipping thrust fault, known as the Pitas Point thrust. Based on our and others' mapping, the Ventura and Pitas Point faults form an en echelon system that extends at least 40 km offshore. Other regional faults, including the San Cayetano, Lion, and Red Mountain faults, link with the Ventura/Pitas Point system at depth; we suggest that at 15 km depth, these faults may all link into a single, continuous fault surface. One of the greatest hazards in fold-and-thrust belts is the risk of large, multi-segment ruptures. Linkage of the Ventura/Pitas Point fault could generate a M7.3 earthquake, while rupture in association with other regional faults could produce even larger events. We provide 3D models of these faults and estimate the magnitudes of potential multi-segment earthquakes. Finally, we show that GPS data are consistent with a very high shortening rate (> 6 mm/yr) across the anticline, reinforcing the hazardous nature of the system.

Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.; Pratt, T. L.; McAuliffe, L. J.

2011-12-01

388

Fault-induced deformation in a poorly consolidated, siliciclastic growth basin: A study from the Devonian in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensional Berge fault (Devonian Kvamshesten Basin, West Norway) displays 430 m of syntectonic stratigraphy with fluvial sandstones and red fines exposed in a hanging wall growth section. The fault consists of three linked strands, where the offset diminishes and tips out stratigraphically upwards. Folds in the growth basin include a rollover and drag fold that record cumulative deformation during the main phases of fault slip, and a monocline that records the death and burial of the fault. Deformation styles in both the subbasin fill and the fault core indicate that the sediments were unconsolidated to poorly lithified during deformation. The upward-narrowing fault core consists of indurated breccias derived from footwall conglomerates, and mainly laminated fault gouge of subbasin affinity. Towards the hanging wall there is a mixed layer of sandstone lenses enclosed in fault gouge; this unit is variably sheared. In the damage zone deeper in the subbasin, truncating-style small-scale tabular shear bands show a general increase in frequency towards the fault, with abundant peaks in frequency next to the fault core. Smearing-style shear bands are merely encountered near the master fault. In the upper monocline realm, an overall broad zone of deformation reveals a moderate frequency of shear bands, characterized by clear distinctions between variably deformed layers. Some tabular dilation structures are found locally as layer-confined strain throughout the basin. We reason that the mixed layer is a product of fluid mobilization in/along the fault core. Fluid induced weakening combined with differential compaction would augment aseismic creep, as advocated for the creation of the smearing shear bands. We discuss a conceptual model in which damage zones grow by repeated rejuvenation and expand during propagation events, advocating that a distinctive damage zone becomes better expressed with increasing faulting events and depth (consolidation) in a growth basin.

Braathen, A.; Osmundsen, P. T.; Hauso, H.; Semshaug, S.; Fredman, N.; Buckley, S. J.

2013-02-01

389

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1  

E-print Network

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1 Chelungpu faults 2 3 Anne-Marie Boullier 4 active faults with the aim of 11 learning about the geology of the fault

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Structural and Geomorphic Control on Landscape Evolution by the Kern Canyon Fault, Southern Sierra Nevada, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene-active Kern Canyon fault (KCF) exerts first-order control on patterns of late Quaternary deformation, volcanism, and drainage within the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The 135-km-long KCF is a long-lived, reactivated geologic structure, and deep incision and drainage localization of the Kern River along the KCF reflect both current and earlier phases of deformation. We mapped late Quaternary strands of the KCF using geologic field mapping, aerial photography and lidar-derived digital elevation models to assess fault displacements and rupture segmentation. Structural segments of the KCF are marked by fault step-overs and/or complex intersections with ancient, inactive faults. Locally, the KCF and intersecting faults controlled the location of Pliocene volcanism, which in turn affected Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in the Little Kern River Valley (LKRV) and the Kern River Canyon upstream of the town of Kernville. More recently, late Quaternary movement has produced prominent east-facing fault scarps and aligned drainages that locally control hillslope and tributary sediment-transport processes. The KCF displaces a 3.5-Ma basalt flow underlying the “Flatiron”, a broad intermontane plateau near the confluence of the Kern and Little Kern rivers that coincides with the structurally complex intersection of the Farewell fault and the KCF. The Pliocene basalt flanking Kern Canyon and within the adjacent LKRV reveals a dominant structural (fault) control on the location of eruptive centers. Basalt flows emanating from eruptive centers paralleling the KCF on the Flatiron and the Farewell fault in the LKRV indicate that both faults affected the pattern of shallow crustal processes. Three-dimensional exposures within the LKRV reveal basalt flows as much as 165 m thick filling a steep-sided, incised paleo-valley, which has since been re-incised by the present-day Little Kern River. The uppermost surface of the LKRV basalt has ~30 m of west-down displacement across the Farewell