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1

Red River and associated faults, Yunnan Province, China: Quaternary geology, slip rates, and seismic hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 9OO-km-long right-slip Red River fault of southernmost China and northern Vietnam is a profound structural discontinuity that is me­ chanically associated with the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Although history records no large earthquakes resulting from slippage along at least the principal segment of the fault in China, youthful landforms and disruptions of young sedimentary rocks indicate

C. R. ALLEN; A. R. GILLESPIE; HAN YUAN; K. E. SIEH; ZHANG BUCHUN; ZHU CHENGNAN

1984-01-01

2

Extensional step-over between the Zhongdian and Red River faults: kinematics of the Daju normal fault constrained by cosmogenic dating of the Yangtze terraces (Yulong Shan, Yunnan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extension in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibet, is limited by two dextral strike-slip faults, the Zhongdian and Red River faults, to the north and south, respectively, and is characterized by N-S directed normal faults and basins. In the northwestern corner of this large extensional step-over, the Yangtze River crosses the Daju normal fault at the foot of the Yulong Shan. Due to uplift of the Yulong Shan, the Yangtze carved the huge Huxiao Jia (Tiger Leap) Gorges (˜3500 m deep) and abandoned sets of fluvial terraces across the fault zone and in the Daju basin to the north. Cosmogenic dating of blocks sampled on top of the terraces provide ages ranging from 8 to 30 ka. In the hanging wall basin to the north, the terraces may have been abandoned after the breach of a natural dam formed in the river (moraine or landslide) during the last glacial period. The average incision rate of the river in the basin is about 5.9 mm/yr, the vertical slip-rate on the Daju fault is 4.9±1.3 mm/yr, thus implying an incision rate of the river inside the gorge reaching about 11 mm/year. These rates may explain the exceptional size and steepness of the gorge. These results show that active faulting plays a major role in shaping the present relief of this region and that recent strain changes involve movement along the largest strike-slip faults of the region, in accordance with models implying large-scale block extrusion.

van der Woerd, J.; Perrineau, A.; Gaudemer, Y.; Leloup, P.-H.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Barrier, L.; Thuizat, R.

2012-04-01

3

Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

2004-12-01

4

Implications of river morphology response to Dien Bien Phu fault in NW Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Vietnam, most rivers are flowing southeastward sub- or parallel to the valley of Red River and characterized by long but narrow catchments. The Dien Bien Phu fault is associated with the most seismically active zone in Vietnam and situated in the potential eastern boundary of the rotating southeastern Tibetan block. It cuts the Da River, the largest tributary of Red River in northwest Vietnam and has distorted the drainage basin resulting in complex river patterns. To assess the river morphology response to active Dien Bien Phu fault, we use 1/50,000 topographic data and ASTER images to map the precise river courses and digital elevation model data of SRTM to retrieve and analyze the river profiles. From the mapping results, the N-S striking fault results in three conspicuous north-trending river valleys coincided with the different fault segments to facilitate the measurement and reconstruction of the offsets along the fault. Further combining the longitudinal profile analysis we obtain ca. 10 km offsets by deflected river as the largest left-lateral displacement recorded along the active fault. The restored results show the downstream paleochannel of the Da River had been abandoned and becomes two small tributaries in opposite flow directions at present due to differential crustal uplift. Also the present crisscross valley at the junction of the Da River and the fault is resulted from the capture by another river which has been also deflected by the neotectonics. Based on our observations on river response, the Dien Bien Phu fault is a sinistral dominant fault with an uplift occurring in its eastern block. Furthermore the active Dien Bien Phu fault does not cut through the Red River northward indicating the western block of the fault can not be regarded as a single rigid block. There should be possible to find NW-SE trending faults paralleling to Red River to accommodate the deformation of the western block of the fault.

Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Lam, D.

2007-12-01

5

76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0263] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being...

2011-04-20

6

33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263...Guard District § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a)...

2011-07-01

7

76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0260] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota, including...associated with flooding occurring on the Red River. Entry into this zone is...

2011-04-27

8

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2011-07-01

9

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2012-07-01

10

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2010-07-01

11

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2013-07-01

12

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2010-07-01

13

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2013-07-01

14

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2012-07-01

15

33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges above mile 276.0 at the...

2014-07-01

16

33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union Pacific Railroad...

2014-07-01

17

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

18

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2011-07-01

19

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2013-07-01

20

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2014-07-01

21

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2012-07-01

22

33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.380 Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations... (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms...

2010-07-01

23

Life Under a Spanish Red River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article introduces the Rio Tinto - a polluted, acidic river in Spain - and its significance in the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). As part of NASA�s search for Mars analogs, the blood-red river is an expedition target to drill for core samples and test satellite links in preparation for remote robots that might survey the red planet. The article explains that extremophiles inhabiting the Rio Tinto might be used as model systems to test for both subsurface life on Mars and sulfur-based life on Europa. It includes images of sulfide minerals and microbes found in the river, links to supplementary resources, and an MP3 audio-to-text option.

Magazine, Astrobiology; Ames, Nasa

24

75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0198] RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established...from entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north...

2010-03-31

25

The Red River Valley archeological project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

1986-01-01

26

Overview of the Proposed Mississippi Headwaters - Red River Hydrologic Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consortium of universities, led by The Ohio State University and the University of North Dakota, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota and the Dakotas Chapter, are proposing to develop the Mississippi Headwaters - Red River (MHRR) Hydrologic Observatory (HO). The region encompassed by the observatory includes the Red River watershed, the Upper Crow Wing River, the headwaters

F. W. Schwartz; P. J. Gerla; P. A. Kucera

2004-01-01

27

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

28

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2014-07-01

29

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2011-07-01

30

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2010-07-01

31

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2014-07-01

32

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2013-07-01

33

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2010-07-01

34

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2012-07-01

35

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2012-07-01

36

33 CFR 117.665 - Red River of the North.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River of the North. 117.665 Section 117.665 Navigation...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.665 Red River of the North. The draws of the bridges need not be...

2011-07-01

37

33 CFR 117.129 - Little Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Red River. 117.129 Section 117.129 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.129 Little Red River. The draws of the Burlington Northern railroad...

2013-07-01

38

Paleoseismology of the Denali fault at the Nenana River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Denali fault is a major right-lateral strike-slip fault that has seen increased investigation since the 2002 M 7.9 rupture. The western limit of the 2002 rupture lies 60 km east of the Parks Highway and the remainder of the Denali fault west of this point has not experienced a historic rupture. The Denali fault trace at the Parks Highway has seen only reconnaissance investigation and paleoseismic data remains nonexistent. If the Denali fault slip rate at the Parks Highway is similar to the slip rates determined to the east (~10mm/yr.) and west (~7-9mm/yr.), then at least one meter of strain has accumulated since the last major earthquake on this portion of the fault. To contribute to the development of the paleoearthquake history of the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture, we chose to target the portion of the fault adjacent to the Parks Highway where it crosses the Nenana River. Using LiDAR digital elevation models we identified a portion of the Denali Fault immediately east of the Parks Highway to investigate. The site, Dead Mouse, is located on a fluvial terrace approximately 10 m above the modern Nenana River, and the scarp is characterized by 3 en-echelon fissures that trend 30 degrees clockwise relative to the main fault trace. We excavated two trenches, DM1 and DM2, exposing evidence for 3, possibly 4, earthquakes. Our first trench, DM1, crosses the well-defined surface trace of the Denali fault, whereas the second trench, DM2, is approximately 5 m northeast of DM1 and across an en-echelon fissure. DM1 exposed up to 1.7 m of fine grained sediment lying on top of fluvial gravels; hand-augering revealed up to 1 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM1 also exposed evidence of multiple deformation events, with the most recent event creating two fissure-like rubble zones with normal displacement. DM2 exposed up to 1.5 m of fine grained sediment also lying on top of fluvial gravels; further augering revealed up to 2 m of additional fine grained sediment below our exposed stratigraphy. DM2 exposed a series of north-dipping reverse faults and south-dipping normal faults suggesting multiple deformational events. Fault displacements in both DM1 and DM2 trenches are well-constrained by organic-bearing horizons and dating of radiocarbon samples from these horizons are in progress. The thickness of fine-grained sediment and abundant dateable material illustrate the significant potential for this site to expand the paleoseismic record of the Denali fault. Furthermore, our interpretation of the emplacement of these fine-grained sediments suggests significant flood events during the recent history of the Nenana River.

Taylor, T. P.; Bemis, S. P.

2012-12-01

39

Controls on Patterns of Repeated Fault Rupture: Examples From the Denali and Bear River Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A requirement for estimating seismic hazards is assigning magnitudes to earthquake sources. This relies on anticipating rupture length and slip along faults. Fundamental questions include whether lengths of past surface ruptures can be reasonably determined from fault zone characteristics and whether the variability in length and slip during repeated faulting can be constrained. To address these issues, we look at rupture characteristics and their possible controls from examples in very different tectonic settings: the high slip rate (?15 mm/yr) Denali fault system, Alaska, and the recently activated Bear River normal fault, Wyoming-Utah. The 2002 rupture of the central Denali fault (CDF) is associated with two noteworthy geometric features. First, rupture initiated where the Susitna Glacier thrust fault (SG) intersects the CDF at depth, near the apex of a structurally complex restraining bend along the Denali. Paleoseismic data show that for the past 700 years the timing of large surface ruptures on the Denali fault west of the 2002 rupture has been distinct from those along the CDF. For the past ~6ka the frequency of SG to Denali ruptures has been ~1:12, indicating that this complexity of the 2002 rupture has not been common. Second, rupture propagated off of one strike-slip fault (CDF) onto another (the Totschunda fault, TF), an occurrence that seldom has been observed. LiDAR mapping of the intersection shows direct connectivity of the two faults--the CDF simply branches into both the TF and the eastern Denali fault (EDF). Differences in the timing of earthquakes during the past 700-800 years at sites surrounding this intersection, and estimates of accumulated slip from slip rates, indicate that for the 2002 rupture sufficient strain had accumulated on the TF to favor its failure. In contrast, the penultimate CDF rupture, with the same slip distribution as in 2002, appears to have stopped at or near the branch point, implying that neither the TF nor the EDF was stressed sufficiently to fail at that time. The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ) is a young normal fault along the eastern margin of basin-range extension that appears to have reactivated a ramp in the Laramide-age Darby-Hogsback thrust. The entire Cenozoic history of the BRFZ may consist of only two surface-rupturing events in the late Holocene (one at ~5 ka and the most recent at ~2.5 ka). The 40-km-long fault comprises synthetic and antithetic scarps extending across a zone up to 5 km wide. Remote sensing, including airborne LiDAR, and field studies show that, despite the complexity, the pattern of faulting was similar (in location and amount) for each of the two events and, at the south end, was strongly influenced by the east-west-trending Uinta Arch. Pre-existing structure clearly has exerted a first-order control on moment release on this immature fault. As shown by these examples, data on timing of surface ruptures, coseismic slip, slip rate, and fault geometry can provide a basis to constrain lengths of past and future earthquake ruptures, including possible alternative rupture scenarios. The difficult question for hazard analysis is whether the available data capture the full range of behavior and with what relative frequency do the alternatives occur?

Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.

2013-12-01

40

Red River College Graduate Employment Report, 1997-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Red River College (Canada) conducts this graduate employment survey annually to obtain information on employment status and program satisfaction from graduates of diploma, certificate, and refresher programs. For this report, a questionnaire and personalized letter from the College president were sent to each student who graduated between July 1,…

Red River Community Coll. (Manitoba).

41

Fault patterns in Benin River and Makaraba Fields: A regional play type for the Niger Delta  

SciTech Connect

Using 830 km{sup 2} of excellent 3-D seismic data, we determined the fault patterns that are responsible for hydrocarbon entrapment in the Benin River and Makaraba fields, onshore northwestern Niger Delta. Both fields are trapped downthrown to the major listric GbokoMaka growth fault system, which trends E18{degrees}S for over 40 km, and has at least 2000 m of displacement to the southwest. Several major splay faults break off the main trend in a southeasterly direction, creating a series of fault-bounded structural compartments. Each of these compartments opens to the southeast and has a structural attic at the junction of the splay fault with the main fault trend. These compartments create large-scale traps for hydrocarbons migrating from east to west up the gentle regional dip within the Miocene Ughelli depobelt. The Benin River field is trapped in the major compartment between the GbokoMaka fault and the Benin River splay fault. The large Makaraba field is similarly trapped between the GbokoMaka and MakaWest faults. Such traps require an upthrown fault seal at the master fault and a downthrown fault seal at the splay fault. In the Makamba field, the trap potential is enhanced by rollover into the GbokoMaka fault. The same structural style is also evident along several other major fault trends to the north and the south, and probably represents an important play type in the onshore western Niger delta.

Adeyekun, A.B.; Faparusi, B.D.; Nunns, A.G. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)] [and others

1995-08-01

42

Sedimentary processes of the Red River between Denison Dam, TX and Alexandria, LA  

E-print Network

Load Data . . . . . 50 Aerial Photo Analysis. U. S. Engineer Department 1892 Survey of the Red River. . . . . . Topographic Map Study. . gradient changes . sinuosity changes. U. S. G. S. 7 t/2 Minute Quadrangle Map Study. . . . . 51... of U. S. G. S. gaging stations located on the Red River. . . . . . . 43 Figure 12. 1892 U. S. ENGINEER DEPARTMENT SURVEY OF THE RED RIVER. . . . (map pocket). Figure 13, 1938 COURSE MAP OF THE RED RIVER. . (map pocket). Figure 14 Long elevation...

Weirich, Thomas Moody - Kenyon

1990-01-01

43

33 CFR 165.T09-0260 - Safety zone; Red River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River. 165.T09-0260 Section 165...District § 165.T09-0260 Safety zone; Red River. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: Waters of the Red River in the State of North Dakota,...

2011-07-01

44

The paragenesis chemistry of alteration associated with the P2and fault in metamorphic rocks underlying the Athabasca Basin  

E-print Network

~Start of Green Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite Zone 2 McArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose

45

Deep-fault connection characterization from combined field and geochemical methodology; examples from Green River and Haiti fault systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault transfer properties are depending on different parameters, such as fault plane geometry, regional to local offset guiding the morphology through time, but are also very sensitive on other factors which may vary through time and space. Detailed along-strike observations and analyses of the Green River Fault system (Utah) outline the strong impact of several parameters; pre-existing structures or basement heterogeneities, lateral variation of the host-rock mechanical properties, the change of paleostress field through time which creates complex fault intersections. This last parameter, is often associated either with along-and-across fluid drainage (fault leaking) or with abnormal sealing deformation and uplifts corresponding to the locked fault segments. Along the Green River anticline, which is dissected by Salt wash and Little Grand wash major faults, several leaking segments are distributed. They have been analysed for geochemical characterization. In fact, carbon dioxide rich waters expelled from natural or artificial (well-driven geyser) springs, are located preferentially at structural intersection points. Changes in fault transfer properties has been proved as discontinuous from detailed datings (U/Th datings: see Frery et al AGU 2011 this meeting) on the top-fault travertines precipitation. The correlation with fault mineralisation at depth is still under investigation. In this area, not considered as very seismic one compared to the adjacent Basin and Ranges area, fault activity relates both on slow processes indicating a long seismic recurrence time, and on local reservoir short-time de-pressurisation processes. The same methods of investigation will be used on the very active Haitian fault system. The new constraints applied on the Enriquillo-Plantain-garden Fault (EPGF) responsible for the initial deep tectonic stress release (12 January 2010), have not been expressed by a clear surface fault rupture (surface locked segment), but by a northward widening of the impacted zones indicating a strong partitioning of the deformation. The resulting stress re-location is well expressed by (1) the dispersion of the aftershocks, essentially North of the strike-slip fault, (2) a progressive local uplift on the hanging wall, and (3) by along-fault fluid flow variation (leaking segments) either along the EPGF recently active segments but also around the Cul-de-Sac plain. As a first approach, we focus our attention on fault-related fluid leakage distribution, located at intersection points between strike-slip and compressive faults. Using this combined approach, mixing structural and geochemical analytical work, we will hopefully be able (i) to identify the transient and permanent fault activity, and (ii) to characterize the time recurrence (if any) and (iii) the location of the seismic activity during the Quaternary in this two natural analogues.

Nadine, E. Z.; Frery, E.; Leroy, S.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Momplaisir, R.

2011-12-01

46

The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties.  

E-print Network

OF BOWIE, DENTON, FREESTONE, AND RED RIVER COUNTIES G. S. FRAPS This Bulletin deals with the chemical composition and fertility .of samples of typical soils from four counties in Texas, and is the eleventh bulletin of a series dealing with the chemical... for distribution. I MAINTENANCE OF FERTILITY I The following are some of the essentials to the maintenance of soil fertility : (1) The supply of nitrogen and vegetable matter in the soil should be maintained by growing legumes in a proper rotation...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1928-01-01

47

75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0728] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden...portion of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is...result from the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull has contracted to conduct a...

2010-09-03

48

75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit...portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...trials and race in conjunction with the Red Bull Air Race. The safety zone will...

2010-04-05

49

Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and

LRK Communications

2003-01-01

50

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

2007-01-01

51

Overview of the Proposed Mississippi Headwaters - Red River Hydrologic Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A consortium of universities, led by The Ohio State University and the University of North Dakota, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota and the Dakotas Chapter, are proposing to develop the Mississippi Headwaters - Red River (MHRR) Hydrologic Observatory (HO). The region encompassed by the observatory includes the Red River watershed, the Upper Crow Wing River, the headwaters of the Mississippi River above Leech Lake, the closed Devils Lake basin and the central portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). The MHRR HO covers about 101,000 km2 and straddles the continental divide. The large size will permit the study of unique science problems and will provide a large contiguous region suitable for coupled large-scale climatic/hydrologic/ecological investigations. Although not part of this proposal, we are also organizing a consortium of primarily Canadian universities interested in carrying out complementary studies on the large Assiniboine basin in Manitoba and Saskatchewan with funding from Canadian sources. The combined study areas will facilitate climate/hydrologic/ecological studies on a broad scale, together with much more focused local scale studies. The research plan focuses on (i) climate variability and future climate change, (ii) wetland dynamics, restoration, and policy considerations associated with global climate change, (iii) carbon, nutrient, and contaminant cycling in complex systems, (iv) assessment and modeling of large, coupled climate/water systems, and (v) new and emerging technologies for near real-time monitoring and assessment. The science themes focus explicitly on exploring the interfaces among traditional science disciplines (hydrology, ecology, climatology) and implicitly on the atmosphere/land surface/subsurface interfaces that are part of the hydrologic cycle. The location of the MHRR HO was purposely selected as one of the most promising areas to pursue these science and technology themes. The region is distinguished by broad climate variability, which has been manifested by extreme swings from drought to deluge. Lake and river systems are considered to be extremely vulnerable to effects related to global climate change. This HO is a place where wetlands and small lakes still remain as an important component of hydrologic/ecological settings and have important implications for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas production, and recycling of water between terrestrial and atmospheric systems.

Schwartz, F. W.; Gerla, P. J.; Kucera, P. A.

2004-12-01

52

The paragenesis of alteration associated with the P2 fault in the basement rocks of the Athabasca Basin E. E. Adlakha , K. Hattori , University of Ottawa: adla028@uottawa.ca, khattori@uOttawa.ca  

E-print Network

Zone ~Start of Red Zone Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite/Anatexite Quartzite ArkoseArthur River Mine VQ Fault Fault Unconformity U-mineralization Pegmatite Quartzite Arkose Graphitic Pelitic

53

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2011-07-01

54

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2013-07-01

55

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2014-07-01

56

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2012-07-01

57

77 FR 47493 - DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Red River Valley & Western Railroad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Acquisition of Control Exemption-- Red River Valley & Western Railroad and Rutland...notice of exemption to acquire control of Red River Valley & Western Railroad (RRVW...copy of each pleading must be served on Rose-Michele Nardi, Weiner Brodsky...

2012-08-08

58

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

59

77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2012-0694] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden...proposes to establish a safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden'', a marine event...Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Red Bull is sponsoring a Flugtag event...

2012-08-08

60

77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale...Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola rowing event. The event is...receive necessary information about the Red Bull Candola until February 3, 2012....

2012-03-14

61

Simple shear detachment fault system and marginal grabens in the southernmost Red Sea rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NNW-SSE oriented Red Sea rift, which separates the African and Arabian plates, bifurcates southwards into two parallel branches, southeastern and southern, collectively referred to as the southernmost Red Sea rift. The southern branch forms the magmatically and seismo-tectonically active Afar rift, while the less active southeastern branch connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. The Afar rift is characterized by lateral heterogeneities in crustal thickness, and along-strike variation in extension. The Danakil horst, a counterclockwise rotating, narrow sliver of coherent continental relic, stands between the two rift branches. The western margin of the Afar rift is marked by a series of N-S aligned right-lateral-stepping and seismo-tectonically active marginal grabens. The tectonic configuration of the parallel rift branches, the alignment of the marginal grabens, and the Danakil horst are linked to the initial mode of stretching of the continental crust and its progressive deformation that led to the breakup of the once contiguous African-Arabian plates. We attribute the initial stretching of the continental crust to a simple shear ramp-flat detachment fault geometry where the marginal grabens mark the breakaway zone. The rift basins represent the ramps and the Danakil horst corresponds to the flat in the detachment fault system. As extension progressed, pure shear deformation dominated and overprinted the initial low-angle detachment fault system. Magmatic activity continues to play an integral part in extensional deformation in the southernmost Red Sea rift.

Tesfaye, Samson; Ghebreab, Woldai

2013-11-01

62

Red River Stream Improvement Final Design Nez Perce National Forest.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the final stream improvement design along the reach of Red River between the bridge below Dawson Creek, upstream for approximately 2 miles, Idaho County, Idaho. Geomorphic mapping, hydrologic profiles and cross-sections were presented along with existing fish habitat maps in the conceptual design report. This information is used to develop a stream improvement design intended to improve aquatic habitat and restore riparian health in the reach. The area was placer mined using large bucket dredges between 1938 and 1957. This activity removed most of the riparian vegetation in the stream corridor and obliterated the channel bed and banks. The reach was also cut-off from most valley margin tributaries. In the 50 years since large-scale dredging ceased, the channel has been re-established and parts of the riparian zone have grown in. However, the recruitment of large woody debris to the stream has been extremely low and overhead cover is poor. Pool habitat makes up more than 37% of the reach, and habitat diversity is much better than the project reach on Crooked River. There is little large woody debris in the stream to provide cover for spawning and juvenile rearing, because the majority of the woody debris does not span a significant part of the channel, but is mainly on the side slopes of the stream. Most of the riparian zone has very little soil or subsoil left after the mining and so now consists primarily of unconsolidated cobble tailings or heavily compacted gravel tailings. Knapweed and lodgepole pine are the most successful colonizers of these post mining landforms. Tributary fans which add complexity to many other streams in the region, have been isolated from the main reach due to placer mining and road building.

Watershed Consulting, LLC

2007-03-15

63

The Agricultural Benefits of Salinity Control on the Red River of Texas and Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Salinity of the waters from the Red River and its major tributaries has virtually eliminated its use for irrigation of agricultural crops in Texas and Oklahoma. A chloride control project has been proposed whereby the source salt waters...

Laughlin, D. H.; Lacewell, R. D.; Moore, D. S.

64

For Immediate Release --Thursday, June 14, 2012 Red Deer River Oil Spill Provides Unique Research  

E-print Network

already started on a study of the Red Deer River oil spill, looking at more break and oil spill was unfortunate, a study opportunity arises and this should remarkably little scientific study on the environmental impacts of oil spills

Morris, Joy

65

Does Karakorum Fault Cut Across the Great Himalaya? Findings of Strike Slip Active Fault Along the Humla-Karnali River in the Northwestern Part of Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates does not cause only mega thrusting along the Himalayan front but also great strike-slip shear or N-S extensional zones in the Tibetan block. Active tectonics of Tibet is presumed to be extrusion of Tibetan block along great strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh and the Kunlun faults and consequent evolution of normal faults of N-S direction in the tensional stress field. The Karakorum fault seems to be terminated by Himalayan range on its southeastern edge (Searle,1996). As a southeastern extension of the fault, we found a new fault named Yari fault that was strike-slip fault across the Great Himalayan Range along Humla-Karnali River using a method of photo interpretation of aerial photographs and US spy satellite images. Nakata (1989) showed that MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system and Bari Gad fault which is located within the Lesser Himalaya of western Nepal are right-stepping echelon striking NW- SE for 170km based on photo interpretation and fieldwork, and also pointed out that those could connect to the Karakoram fault system. There was, however, a gap for about 100 km between the Karakoram fault and the northernmost of the MCT active fault system. In 1990_fs, the Topological Survey of Nepal took vertical air photographs covered all the territory with the aim of publishing topographical maps. With using those new aerial photographs, we recognized an active fault cutting the Great Himalaya in the northwestern Nepal up to the international border of China as NW extension of the MCT active fault system. It is named Yari fault after nearest village name, which has single trace for 50km striking NW-SE generally. In the east of Yari village, alluvial fans and river terraces of different age have been displaced along the fault trace continuously with marked by north-facing scarp and right-lateral offset stream. Yari fault should play very important role as a bridge connecting Karakorum fault on the north of Himalaya and MCT (Main Central Trust) active fault system that is located along the topographical boundary of Higher Himalaya and Lower Himalaya. We would like to establish a hypothesis that not only Tibetan block but also Himalayan ranges are being divided by a series of strike-slip faults such as those strike-slip faults and extruded eastward.

Kumahara, Y.; Maemoku, H.; Yagi, H.; Nagatomo, T.; Upreti, B. N.

2005-12-01

66

Distribution of Fishes in the Red River of the North Basin on Multivariate Environmental Gradients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has placed online this 1997 report on fish distribution in the Red River. Author Todd Koel, of North Dakota State University, has based his results on surveys of fishes "conducted at 1026 sites from 1892-1994," in which "77 native and seven introduced species" were identified in the Red River of the US North Basin. In addition to the main text, the report offers a substantial bibliography and a dozen detailed tables.

Koel, Todd M.

1997-01-01

67

Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to compile and synthesize this body of knowledge into a comprehensive report for the geologic community. This report follows the format of Dibblee (1976) and includes discussions of the sections of the Rinconada Fault and of the Reliz Fault, as well as their Neogene history and key localities. Accompanying this report is a geologic map database of the faults, key localities, and earthquake epicenters, in ESRI shapefile format.

Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

68

Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

2004-12-31

69

Characterization of the Monument Hill fault system and implications for the active tectonics of the Red Rock Valley, Southwestern Montana  

E-print Network

of the Red Rock Valley, Southwestern Montana Christine A. Regalla*, David J. Anastasio, Frank J. Pazzaglia Montana, help characterize the Quaternary history of the virtually unstudied Monument Hill fault reserved. Keywords: Active tectonics; Basin and Range; Montana; Tectonic geomorphology 1. Introduction

Pazzaglia, Frank J.

70

Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human disturbance increases the invasibility of lotic ecosystems and the likelihood of hybridization between invasive and\\u000a native species. We investigated whether disturbance contributed to the invasion of red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and their hybridization with native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) in the Upper Coosa River System (UCRS). Historical records indicated that red shiners and hybrids rapidly dispersed in the\\u000a UCRS

David M. Walters; Mike J. Blum; Brenda Rashleigh; Byron J. Freeman; Brady A. Porter; Noel M. Burkhead

2008-01-01

71

Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

2009-05-04

72

Earthquake fault superhighways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.

2010-10-01

73

A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Diverting a Portion of the Red River into the Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins  

E-print Network

This study involves four of the twelve major river basins of the state of Texas and is essentially a proposal to divert water from the Red River into the trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins. When first considered, it appears to be a rather...

Cook, John Henry

74

RED SHINER INVASION OF THE UPPER COOSA RIVER SYSTEM: DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) has been widely introduced across 11 states outside its native range, presumably through bait-bucket and aquarium releases. Its native range includes Great Plain and Central Lowland tributaries of the Mississippi River and western Coastal Pla...

75

Fish Discoveries by the Lewis and Clark and Red River Expeditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 and the Red River Expedition of 1806 were two early explorations of the land acquired by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in western North America. They were the first such western excursions to include natural history investigations as part of the trip objectives—a reflection of Thomas Jefferson's strong scientific curiosity. Whereas

John R. Moring

1996-01-01

76

High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

Berkman, E. [Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1991-04-01

77

High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

Berkman, E. (Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1991-04-01

78

Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river

Anna E. Tryfonas; John K. Tucker; Paul E. Brunkow; Kevin A. Johnson; Hussein S. Hussein; Zhi-Qing Lin

2006-01-01

79

Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values < 0.05). No significant differences exist between organic matter content of soil beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless, soils underlying red cedar and cottonwood trees are functionally similar with regard to soil organic matter content.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2012-12-01

80

Impact of subsurface drainage on streamflows in the Red River of the North basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate about subsurface drainage effects on streamflows has been reignited in the Red River of the North basin in North America, after a decades-long abnormally wet weather pattern in the region. Our study evaluated the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in modeling subsurface drainage in a cold environment; we then employed streamflow response analyses to assess the potential impacts of the extensive subsurface drainage development in the Red River Valley (RRV) on streamflows in the Red River. The results showed that extensive subsurface drainage in the RRV would likely increase the magnitude of smaller peak flows while decreasing the magnitude of larger peak flows. Discharge reduction of large peak flows was mainly caused by reducing the flow volumes rather than increasing the time-to-peak of the hydrograph. Our analysis also suggested that extensive subsurface drainage could move more water from the watershed to the rivers in the fall season, creating more storage capacity in the soils. However, such increase in storage capacity in soils would have a negligible effect in reducing the monthly flow volumes in the following spring. The proposed method of coupling a watershed model with streamflow response analysis can be readily adopted by other researchers to evaluate the streamflow impact of land-use and climate changes around the world.

Rahman, Mohammed M.; Lin, Zhulu; Jia, Xinhua; Steele, Dean D.; DeSutter, Thomas M.

2014-04-01

81

Water type and suitability of Oklahoma surface waters for public supply and irrigation Part 4: Red River mainstem and North Fork Red River basin through 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data for the Red River mainstem and the North Fork Red River basin within Oklahoma, through 1979, were examined for water type and suitability for public water supply and irrigation use. Of 96 stations with available data, 53 stations or 55 percent were considered to have sufficient data for analysis. The classification of water type was based on the relation of the major ions: calcium, magnesium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride to each other within the range of measured specific conductance. The suitability of the water for use as a public supply was based on the concentration distribution of selected constituents. The constituents selected were those with maximum contaminant levels established by regulation, or constituents for which recommended maximum limits have been established and for which historic data are available. The irrigation-classification method of Wilcox was used to relate sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations and the salinity distribution to the use of the water for irrigation. If data are available, the chance of phytotoxic effects by boron is discussed.

Stoner, Jerry D.

1981-01-01

82

Structure of the eastern Red Rocks and Wind Ridge thrust faults, Wyoming: how a thrust fault gains displacement along strike  

E-print Network

of this change 1n displacement along strike occurs in two transverse fault zones. To help conceptualize these field relations, two-layer clay models were constructed each with two hn echelon, precut, dip ramps. The models were deformed such that shortening... 53 54 59 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont1nuedj CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES CITED VITA Page 65 67 70 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Figure 2: Three end-member classification of transfer zones, (after O'Keefe, 1980) Photograph of anticline...

Huntsman, Brent Stanley

1983-01-01

83

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

2003-11-12

84

Long-term monitoring (1960–2008) of the river-sediment transport in the Red River Watershed (Vietnam): Temporal variability and dam-reservoir impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River (China\\/Vietnam, A=155,000km²) is a typical humid tropics river originating from the mountainous area of Yunnan Province in China. Based on information on daily discharge (Q) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration between 1960–2008 for the SonTay gauging station (outlet of the River and entry to the Delta) provided by the National Institute IMHE-MONRE, the mean annual SPM

Thi Ha Dang; Alexandra Coynel; Didier Orange; Gérard Blanc; Henri Etcheber; Lan Anh Le

2010-01-01

85

Changes in Population, Growth, and Physiological Indices of Longnose Dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer’s municipal\\u000a wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end\\u000a points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the

Ken M. Jeffries; Leland J. Jackson; Lisa E. Peters; Kelly R. Munkittrick

2008-01-01

86

Extracting tectonic information using the integral method of river profile analysis: applications along the Wasatch fault, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic deformation at the Earth's surface is reflected in the morphology of river profiles, hill slopes, and drainage networks. Various topographic metrics derived from river profiles have been proposed to identify tectonic hotspots in neotectonic regions. Using a high resolution digital elevation model to extract topographic data from channel networks, the advantages of the 'integral method' are exploited to analyse river profiles and catchments across two segments of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah. The results demonstrate much lower data noise when compared to standard practices of taking derivatives of topographic data. Combined with statistical analysis, it is possible to identify segments of river profiles that have responded to spatially variable rates of rock-deformation along the fault zone. Using a channel steepness index derived from the integral method, we find that previously published 10Be catchment-wide erosion rates exhibit conflicting scaling relationships with basin-averaged steepness indices. This is possibly explained due to occurrence of glacial erosion in certain basins during the last glacial maximum. A simple method for calibrating stream power model parameters using the integral method is used to estimate areas of fault displacement acceleration along the Wasatch Fault.

Valters, Declan

2014-05-01

87

33 CFR 165.T08-0080 - Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470.1-470.4, Cincinnati, OH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470...T08-0080 Safety Zone; Cincinnati Reds Fireworks Displays Ohio River, Mile 470...September 5 & 26. Should the Cincinnati Reds make the playoffs and have...

2014-07-01

88

Changes in population, growth, and physiological indices of Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada is a prairie river that is impacted by the point-source input of Red Deer's municipal wastewater effluent and non-point- source agricultural runoff. We used population, growth, and physiological performance end points in longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), an endemic and abundant minnow, to evaluate changes in fish health over a 220 km section of the Red Deer River. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer had elevated catch per unit effort with larger body and liver sizes compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, likely due to elevated riverine productivity from Red Deer's wastewater effluent. Longnose dace immediately downstream of Red Deer showed depressed testosterone production capacity and elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which is consistent with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Longnose dace 150-180 km downstream of Red Deer had reduced liver and gonad sizes, elevated EROD, and increased 11-ketotestosterone production capacity compared to upstream of Red Deer sites, possibly related to a non-point-source agricultural influence on water quality. Longnose dace populations at the most downstream sites were missing the oldest age classes and might reach sexual maturity faster than at upstream sites, which is consistent with a younger age structure. Our results highlight the importance of assessing multiple performance end points to reveal physiological or reproductive effects in natural fish populations. We have demonstrated how longnose dace populations change over a river impacted by municipal wastewater and agricultural runoff; further studies are required to determine if these changes will influence the long-term viability of longnose dace in the Red Deer River. PMID:18322724

Jeffries, Ken M; Jackson, Leland J; Peters, Lisa E; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2008-11-01

89

Depositional environment of lower Green River Formation sandstones (Eocene), Red Wash field (Uinta Basin), Uintah County, Utah  

E-print Network

facies changes. This study deals with an interval of several sand facies in the lower part of the Green River Formation in the Red Wash field. The Red Wash field is located in the northeastern part of the Uinta Basin in Uintah County, Utah (Figure 1.... The dominance of fine-grained sediments indicates a fluvial-flood plain origin (Chatfield, 1965). The objectives of this study are to determine the depositional environments of the lower Green River sands in the Red Wash field, determine paleoenvironmental...

McClain, Anthony Scott

2012-06-07

90

Rheological control on the initial geometry of the Raft River detachment fault and shear zone, western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain, exhumation history, and field orientation of a well-exposed shear zone and detachment fault in the Raft River Mountains of northwestern Utah, a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex, have been studied to determine the kinematics of ductile shearing and initial orientations of the shear zone and detachment fault. Mapping and strain and kinematic analysis indicate that the top-to-the-east Raft River shear zone initially developed parallel to an unconformity separating Archean rocks from overlying Proterozoic quartzite and schist for at least 24 km in the shear direction. Experimental rock deformation data from lithologies similar to the Archean and Proterozoic rocks suggest the unconformity represented a significant rheological boundary at the deformation temperatures; the base of the shear zone was localized along the boundary between relatively weak quartzite above and stronger monzogranite below. An extensive thermochronological database is used to reconstruct the position of the basement unconformity in temperature-lateral distance coordinates. The initial average dip of the shear zone and basement unconformity is estimated between 7° and 30°, assuming subhorizontal isotherms and geothermal gradients of 20°-40°C/km. The east dip of the unconformity at the onset of Miocene extension is interpreted to have resulted from late Eocene unroofing and flexure beneath a top-to-the-WNW extensional shear zone in the western Raft River, Grouse Creek, and Albion Mountains. The observations from the Raft River shear zone suggest that the orientation of some midcrustal shear zones may not reflect the predicted orientation for ductile faults according to ductile failure criteria but, rather, the orientation of rheological boundaries along which deformation is localized. Furthermore, detachment faults that are superimposed on mylonite during progressive displacement and footwall unroofing may use an inherited mechanical anisotropy from the mylonite, and their orientations may not reflect the predicted orientation of shear fractures in isotropic rock. The common parallelism between detachment faults and mylonitic foliation may indicate a mechanical and kinematic preference for localization of throughgoing brittle faults parallel to preexisting mylonitic foliation. Because of this preference, studies restricted to detachment faults which lack footwall mylonite or restricted to structural levels between the breakaway and mylonitic front have more bearing on the question of the initial dip of normal-sense shear fractures (faults) within the seismogenic crust.

Wells, Michael L.

2001-08-01

91

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-09-30

92

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-06-30

93

Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.  

SciTech Connect

The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

2003-07-01

94

Pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study assessed pesticide residues in soils, sediments, and vegetables in the Xuan Khe and Hop Ly communes located along the Chau Giang River in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from agricultural areas within and outside of embankments built to prevent flooding. In Xuan Khe, the soils outside of the embankment were more clayey with higher organic matter contents compared with the inside, due to selective deposition during river flooding. Many of the soils contained significant amounts of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dicofol, isoprothiolane, and metalaxyl although their levels were below the maximum allowable concentration set by the Vietnamese government. The spectrum of DDT derivatives found suggested that the source of DDTs was not contaminated dicofol. Soils in Hop Ly resembled soils in Xuan Khe but were relatively sandy; one field showed appreciable contents of DDT derivatives. The ratios of (p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)/ summation operatorDDT in the surface and subsurface soils in Hop Ly were 0.34 and 0.57, suggesting that the DDTs originated from recent application. Pesticide residues in soils were not likely to translocate into vegetable crops, except for metalaxyl. High concentrations of cypermethrins in kohlrabi leaves could be ascribed to foliar deposition. PMID:19757109

Nishina, Takuro; Kien, Chu Ngoc; Noi, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Ha Minh; Kim, Chul-Sa; Tanaka, Sota; Iwasaki, K?z?

2010-10-01

95

Modeling regional variation in riverine fish biodiversity in the Arkansas-White-Red River basin  

SciTech Connect

The patterns of biodiversity in freshwater systems are shaped by biogeography, environmental gradients, and human-induced factors. In this study, we developed empirical models to explain fish species richness in subbasins of the Arkansas White Red River basin as a function of discharge, elevation, climate, land cover, water quality, dams, and longitudinal position. We used information-theoretic criteria to compare generalized linear mixed models and identified well-supported models. Subbasin attributes that were retained as predictors included discharge, elevation, number of downstream dams, percent forest, percent shrubland, nitrate, total phosphorus, and sediment. The random component of our models, which assumed a negative binomial distribution, included spatial correlation within larger river basins and overdispersed residual variance. This study differs from previous biodiversity modeling efforts in several ways. First, obtaining likelihoods for negative binomial mixed models, and thereby avoiding reliance on quasi-likelihoods, has only recently become practical. We found the ranking of models based on these likelihood estimates to be more believable than that produced using quasi-likelihoods. Second, because we had access to a regional-scale watershed model for this river basin, we were able to include model-estimated water quality attributes as predictors. Thus, the resulting models have potential value as tools with which to evaluate the benefits of water quality improvements to fish.

Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-01-01

96

Methods and applications of digital-model simulation of the Red River alluvial aquifer : Shreveport to the mouth of the Black River, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Waterways Project provides for the construction of five locks and dams on the Red River from the Mississippi River to Shreveport, La. The methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey in studying the effects of the navigation pools on the ground-water-flow regime involved digital modeling of steady- and nonsteady-state conditions. The steady-state model, GWFLOW, computes the head response in an aquifer due to various boundary conditions. The nonsteady-state model, SUPERMOCK, was designed to simulate transient stress and response in an alluvial-flow system. In addition to the simulation models several computer programs were developed during the study to aid in the preparation of field data for input to the models and in the calibration of the models. Calibration techniques unique to each of the models were developed for the investigation. (USGS)

Ludwig, A.H.; Terry, J.E.

1980-01-01

97

Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (1oS drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p--0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the duster groups. There were significant differences (p=O.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different C0=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

Goldstein, R.M.

1995-01-01

98

78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a...

2013-03-26

99

78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac...special local regulations during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...entitled ``Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event,...

2013-06-27

100

The mechanism of post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-rift fault activities were often observed in deepwater basins, which have great contributions to oil and gas migration and accumulation. The main causes for post-rift fault activities include tectonic events, mud or salt diapirs, and gravitational collapse. In the South China Sea continental margin, post-rift fault activities are widely distributed, especially in Baiyun sag, one of the largest deepwater sag with its main body located beneath present continental slope. During the post-rift stage, large population of faults kept active for a long time from 32 Ma (T70) till 5.5 Ma (T10). Seismic interpretation, fault analysis and analogue modeling experiments indicate that the post-rift fault activities in Baiyun sag between 32 Ma (T70) and 13.8 Ma (T30) was mainly controlled by gravity pointing to the Main Baiyun sag, which caused the faults extensive on the side facing Main Baiyun sag and the back side compressive. Around 32 Ma (T70), the breakup of the continental margin and the spreading of the South China Sea shed a combined effect of weak compression toward Baiyun sag. The gravity during post-rift stage might be caused by discrepant subsidence and sedimentation between strongly thinned sag center and wing areas. This is supported by positive relationship between sedimentation rate and fault growth index. After 13.8 Ma (T30), fault activity shows negative relationship with sedimentation rate. Compressive uplift and erosion in seismic profiles as well as negative tectonic subsiding rates suggest that the fault activity from 13.8 Ma (T30) to 5.5 Ma (T10) might be controlled by the subductive compression from the Philippine plate in the east.

Sun, Zhen; Xu, Ziying; Sun, Longtao; Pang, Xiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei

2014-08-01

101

Dynamic Emulation Modeling of irrigation water deficit in the Red-Thai Binh River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water deficit (WD) is the factor that most affects agricultural productivity in irrigated land. The optimal management of water resources requires estimating and forecasting its intensity in space and time. In large irrigation systems, the adoption of a physically-based (PB), distributed, dynamic model (e.g.Mike11) is a viable solution, since it can simulate the hydraulic processes that occurs in the system, including the operation of hydraulic structures according with rules based on water demand and water availability. However PB models always have a high dimensional state that prevents their adoption within optimization algorithms, even the most advanced ones. Additionally, the information they produce (the time trajectories of all the variables of the systems) is definitively larger than what is actually required (the trajectories of WDs in pre-specified areas) in the management problem. Thus input/output (I/O) lumped models would be more appropriate, but their calibration is generally prevented by the lack of sufficiently long time series of the output variables (WDs in our case). The solution we explored is to split the process into two steps: the first is the calibration of a PB model (Mike11 in our case study) in a traditional way, using the available time series; the second is the identification of an I/O model from the WD time series generated by the PB model We present a dynamic emulation modelling (DEMo) approach which leads to the identification of an emulation model, namely a simplified, computationally-efficient model built over a sample data-set produced via simulation of the original model (Mike11). The core mechanism of the procedure is a feature-ranking algorithm, based on Extremely Randomized Trees, through which the suitable input variables of the emulation model are automatically selected. The emulation model, in the form of an I/O relationship, is then identified using Artificial Neural Networks. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a real-world case study: the Red-Thai Binh River Delta in Vietnam. It is a large and complex river system, supplied by five unregulated rivers and four large multi-purpose reservoirs, the operating rules of which have to be designed. In order to ascertain the effects of their regulation on the WD in the Delta, a Mike11 model was calibrated and validated. It describes 320 rivers and canals for a total length of 4200 km, 11 irrigation districts and many structures, among which 88 sluice gates and 302 irrigation water intakes (simulated as controlled pumps). Its inputs are the four reservoirs releases, the non-regulated flows of the five rivers, the sea levels at the nine river mouths, the water demand at each one of the irrigation water intakes. The considered outputs are the daily WD in the 11 districts. The dimension of the state vector of the model is of the order of 16,000. From the high dimensional Mike11, a low dimensional (11 dimension) DEMo model was identified that mimics very well (R2=0.95) the WDs as computed by the Mike11 model. The DEMo model will be later on embedded within a large multi-objective optimal control problem to design the operating rules of the four reservoirs.

Dinh, Q.; Cassaro, L.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2013-12-01

102

A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

1981-01-01

103

Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

2001-12-01

104

Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater from the two main aquifers in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Red River Delta, situated in the northern part of Vietnam, nearly its entire population depends solely on groundwater for daily water consumptions. For this reason, groundwater quality assessments must be carefully carried out using hydrogeochemical properties, to ensure effective groundwater resource planning for the Delta’s present and future groundwater use. In this study, the spatial and seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the two main aquifers of the RRD were investigated by analyzing the physicochemical data obtained in 2011 from 31 conjunctive wells in the Delta’s Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) using the Piper diagram and the Gibbs diagram. Results of the data analysis show that the groundwater in both aquifers in the upstream area of the delta is dominated by the [Ca2+-HCO3-] water-type, while the [Na+-Cl-] dominates along the middle-stream and downstream areas. Seasonal changes in the hydrogeochemical facies in both aquifers, comparing the results for the dry and the rainy seasons, were detected in about one third of the sampling wells, which were mainly located at the upstream portion of the Delta. The hydrogeochemical facies of HUA were different from that of PCA by about 45% of the sampling wells in both the dry and the rainy seasons, which were found mostly in the upstream and middle-stream areas.

Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Kawamura, Akira; Tong, Thanh Ngoc; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo; Gilbuena, Romeo

2014-10-01

105

Song Hong (Red River) delta evolution related to millennium-scale Holocene sea-level changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Song Hong (Red River) delta occurs on the northwest coast of the South China Sea. Its evolution in response to Holocene sea-level changes was clarified on the basis of sedimentary facies and 14 radiocarbon dates from the 40 m long Duy Tien core from the delta plain, and using previously reported geological, geomorphological, and archaeological data. The delta prograded into the drowned valley as a result of early Holocene inundation from 9 to 6 cal. kyr BP, as sea-level rise decelerated. The sea-level highstand at +2-3 m from 6 to 4 cal. kyr BP allowed widespread mangrove development on the delta plain and the formation of marine notches in the Ha Long Bay and Ninh Binh areas. During sea-level lowering after 4 cal. kyr BP, the former delta plain emerged as a marine terrace, and the delta changed into the present tide- and wave-influenced delta with accompanying beach ridges. Delta morphology, depositional pattern, and sedimentary facies are closely related to Holocene sea-level changes. In particular, falling sea level at 4 cal. kyr BP had a major impact on the evolution of the Song Hong delta, and is considered to be linked to climate changes.

Tanabe, Susumu; Hori, Kazuaki; Saito, Yoshiki; Haruyama, Shigeko; Vu, Van Phai; Kitamura, Akihisa

2003-11-01

106

The Ailao Shan\\/Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of thickening and strike-slip extrusion in continental collision is debated. Ductile shear in the Ailao Shan\\/Diancang Shan metamorphic belt, along the Red River in Yunnan, China, yields outstanding evidence of the latter process. For > 500 km, mylonites in this narrow northwest-southeast belt show horizontal lineations on steep, northwest-striking foliation planes, and left-lateral kinematic indicators. U-Pb radiometric

P. Tapponnier; R. Lacassin; P. H. Leloup; U. Schärer; Zhong Dalai; Wu Haiwei; Liu Xiaohan; Ji Shaocheng; Zhang Lianshang; Zhong Jiayou

1990-01-01

107

Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE for organic fields was less spatially and temporally variable than conventional, with average daily flux between 0.48 and 1.44 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1. Average daily flux in conventional fields ranged between 0.48 and 3.12 g CO2 equiv. m-2 d-1, with highest values in April and May. While soil moisture in organic fields was significantly greater than conventional, it did not interact with treatment to affect trace gas flux. Instead, the effect of organic on N2O, CO2 and the net GHE was strongly influenced by crop stage, an agronomically meaningful proxy integrating time and plant growth conditions. Most CH4 flux observations were 0. Integrated fluxes for each of the 40 sites over the growing season was averaged by field pair and treatment. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect for average seasonal integrated flux varied between field pairs for CO2 and N2O fluxes, the overall influence of treatment on the net GHE was similar. Overall, soils under organically produced wheat emitted 200 kg CO2 equiv. ha-1 per season less than conventionally produced wheat. We observed 1) the net GHE for similar field sites in the Red River Valley was reduced under organic versus conventional agriculture, 2) N2O flux in organic fields was significantly lower than conventional fields for both field pair sites, and 3) the effect of treatment on CO2 flux was site specific.

Phillips, R. L.

2004-12-01

108

Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface created before or at the beginning of flow regulation. Red cedar establishment and soil property differences are correlated to percent sand in the soil. According to our interpretation of geomorphic surfaces, the sandier soils represent higher energy depositional surfaces, such as islands and pointbars. Thus, these legacy geomorphic surfaces are a determinant of red cedar establishment patterns and soil property patterns. Land managers and other researchers needing to make predictions for other areas can use our model-building process to quickly map and assess impacts of invasion. In addition, our results show how a Bayesian model provides information about feedbacks between environmental parameters that can help determine and target restoration goals.

Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

2013-12-01

109

Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs ( Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs ( Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa ( Babyrousa babyrussa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in African and South East Asian pig species kept in European zoos. Species studied were the warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Faecal samples were collected 1–3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n=9), red river hogs

Eva M. Berger; Kristin Leus; Paul Vercammen; Franz Schwarzenberger

2006-01-01

110

77 FR 13525 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park...on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is intended...165.T05-0114 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing...

2012-03-07

111

77 FR 27118 - Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park, James River, Richmond, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks, Ancarrows Landing Park...Richmond, VA in support of the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks event. This action is necessary...on navigable waters during the Rocketts Red Glare Fireworks show. This action is...

2012-05-09

112

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

113

Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Red River Region, Yunnan Province, China  

E-print Network

(cont.) Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system during growth of the southeast plateau margin. Cosmogenic ²?A1 and ¹?Be basin-wide erosion rate and burial ages indicate a background incision rate of [approximately] 0.05 to 0.10 ...

Schoenbohm, Lindsay M. (Lindsay Marie), 1976-

2004-01-01

114

Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm

115

Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain activity on the west-vergent Sweitzer fault and the east-vergent blind reverse fault. All of the sampled catchments are underlain exclusively by Tehama Sandstone. Moreover, there are no mapped surface traces of faults in the sampled catchments. This minimizes the possibility of changes in lithogic resistance to impact the erosion rates and channel analyses. These analyses, combined with fault geometries derived from published seismic reflection data and structural cross sections, allows us to constrain the throw rates on these faults and thus better evaluate the associated seismic hazard.

Cyr, A. J.

2013-12-01

116

Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh dam (HBD), located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although it is important for flood prevention, electricity production and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from a 50-year data set of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010), and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was simulated using the MIKE11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 9%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average, by 61% at Son Tay near Hanoi (from 119 to 46 × 106 t yr-1). Along the coast, reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh dam. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season (-14% in the Red River at Son Tay) and increased water discharge in the dry season (+12% at the same station). The ratios of water and suspended sediment flows, as compared to the total flows in the nine mouths, increased in the northern and southern estuaries and decreased in the central, main Ba Lat mouth. The increasing volume of dredged sediments in the Haiphong harbour is evidence of the silting up of the northern estuary of Cam-Bach Dang. The effect of tidal pumping on enhanced flow occurring in the dry season and resulting from changed water regulation is discussed as a possible cause of the enhanced siltation of the estuary after Hoa Binh dam impoundment.

Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

2014-10-01

117

Trace metal and metalloid levels in surface water of Marcal River before and after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare and assess the dissolved concentrations of trace elements (As, Zn, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu) in surface water of Marcal River before and after the red mud spill that occurred in Ajka, western Hungary, in October 2010. The caustic sludge flooded the surrounding settlements and polluted the nearby Torna Creek, which flows through the Marcal and Raba rivers into the Danube. A total of 92 surface water samples were collected from the Marcal River in the period of 2007-2012 and analysed for dissolved trace metal(loid)s by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After the spill, the water management authority initially focused on acid dosing of surface waters to lower pH and was effective in lowering both pH and metal(loid) concentrations. Among the dissolved trace metal(loid)s, arsenic and nickel levels were moderately higher in the Marcal River 2 years since the spill compared to that observed in the pre-disaster period. The concentrations of dissolved trace metal(loid)s did not exceed the European water quality standards and the US Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria values (excluding one sample for cadmium). PMID:23975713

Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

2013-11-01

118

75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0174] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit...the establishment of a safety zone. An environmental analysis checklist and a categorical exclusion determination are available...Sec. 165.T09-0174 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race,...

2010-06-02

119

Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, also less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level. Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicated statistically significant differences among bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations at the three gages. Regression equations to estimate bromide, chloride, and sulfate loads were developed for each of the three gages. The largest loads were estimated for a period of relatively large streamflow, June-September 2007, when about 50 percent of the load for the study period occurred at each gage. Adjusted R-squared values were largest for regression equations for the DeKalb gage, ranging from .957 for sulfate to .976 for chloride. Adjusted R-squared values for all regression equations developed to estimate loads of bromide, chloride, and sulfate at the three gages were .899 or larger.

Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

2010-01-01

120

Fault control of channel sandstones in Dakota Formation, southwest Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dakota Formation is an important oil reservoir in the southwestern Powder River basin and adjoining Casper arch. Two fields, Burke Ranch and South Cole Creek, are used as examples to show the depositional environments of the Dakota and to indicate the influence of tectonic control on the distribution of the environments. Burke Ranch field is a stratigraphic trap which

W. Richard Moore

1983-01-01

121

Comments on the development of rifts and transform faults during continental breakup; examples from the Gulf of Aden and northern Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of basins are observed to extend inland from the coasts on both sides of the Gulf of Aden. The basins are orientated at approximately right angles to the spreading direction and intersect the coasts at the meeting of sheared and rifted continental margins. They appear to be grabens, one wall of which is continuous with the half graben of the neighbouring rifted margin. It is suggested that these were once parts of a number of discrete rifts arranged en-echelon along a zone of lithospheric weakness during the early opening of the Gulf of Aden, which became redundant when transform faults formed. The proposed development of rifts and transform faults is similar to that of a spreading centre, transform fault, spreading centre pattern developed in the freezing wax model of Oldenburg and Brune (1975). The Gulf of Suez at the northern end of the Red Sea is interpreted in a similar way since it has a number of features in common with the basins in the continents adjacent to the Gulf of Aden.

Tamsett, Duncan

1984-04-01

122

Influence of growth faults on coastal fluvial systems: Examples from the late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The details of how fluvial systems respond to spatial changes in land-surface subsidence produced by active faulting remain incompletely understood. Here, we examine the degree to which the positioning of individual channels and channel-belts is affected by local maxima in subsidence associated with the hanging walls of growth faults. The channel forms and faults are imaged using a seismic volume covering 1400 km2 of Breton Sound and Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana, USA. We look at the consequences of interactions between channels, channel-belts, and faults in late Miocene to Recent strata. More than fifty individual channels that crossed the traces of active growth faults were examined. Of these channels, only three appear to have been redirected by the faults. There also appeared to be no systematic change in the cross-sectional geometries of channels or channel-belts associated with crossing a fault, though the orientation of the channel-belts appears to be more influenced by faulting than the orientation of individual channels. Seven out of ten mapped channel-belts appear to have been steered by growth faults. We propose that channel belts are more likely to be influenced by faults than individual channels because channel-belts are longer lived features, unlikely to shift their overall position before experiencing a discrete faulting event. In addition, the style of influence in the few cases where an individual channel is affected by a fault is different from that of larger systems. While downstream of a fault channel-belts generally become oriented perpendicular to fault strike, the individual channels are directed along the hanging wall of the fault, running parallel to the fault trace. We relate this to the ratio of the length-scale of fault rollover relative to the channel or channel-belt width. Fluvial-fault interactions with higher values for this ratio are more likely to be carried parallel to the fault trace than systems with lower ratio values.

Armstrong, Christopher; Mohrig, David; Hess, Thomas; George, Terra; Straub, Kyle M.

2014-03-01

123

Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010) and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr-1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr-1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide). The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

Vu, D. V.; Ouillon, S.; Tran, D. T.; La, V. C.

2014-01-01

124

Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch: Formation of a pull-apart basin, Depocenter for Atokan to Lower Des Moines (bend) clastics, Cottle County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch (Tectonic Zone) created a braided series of en echelon faults and folds with associated pop-up structures and pull-apart basins. Local extension, or overstepping, in Southeast Cottle County, Texas, has produced the deepest pull-apart basin along the arch with over 10,000` of structural relief. The emerging Wichita-Amarillo Uplift, to the north, provided an abundant sediment source, which prograded rapidly southward as an alluvial fan-braided river complex. Exposure of basement rocks and lower Paleozoic sediments along the Red River-Matador Arch, also contributed to the basin fill. Syntectonic sedimentation led to the accumulation of over 6000` of Bend (Atoka-lower Des Moines) sediments within the basin. Deposition was dominated initially by alluvial fan to fluvial siliciclastics. As basin subsidence was further amplified by sediment loading, accommodation exceeded sedimentation capturing a large segment of the southward prograding Wichita-Amarillo derived clastic wedge. Encroachment of the late Atoka to lower Des Moines epeiric sea promoted further evolution of depositional environments to fan deltas, marine dominated clastics and, later, localized carbonate development. Type III kerogen rich organic shales produced abundant gas prone source rocks. The extreme depth of the basin combined with the local geothermal gradient provided for significant hydrocarbon generation. By early 1988 new well control helped revise previous stratigraphic correlation demonstrating a rapidly expanding lower Des Moines to Atokan section. The drilling of the Gunn Oil Company-Brothers No. 1 to a total depth of 10,301` in the Mississippian Chappel Limestone, encountered 2025` of Bend sediments, with 279` of gross Bend Conglomerate (162` of net pay). The Brothers No. 1 was potentialled on 11/19/89 with a CAOF of 6.0 MMCFD and filed as the field discovery for the Broken Bone (Bend Conglomerate) field.

Stephens, W.C. Jr.; Gunn, R.D. [Gunn Oil Co., Wichita Falls, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

125

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.

2000-01-01

126

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ˜25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ˜7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10°C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100°C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains.

Wells, Michael L.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Blythe, Ann E.

2000-07-01

127

Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992  

SciTech Connect

The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

Laves, K.S. [Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States). Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

1992-09-11

128

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY SURVEYS WITHIN THE RED RIVER-DEVILS LAKE BASIN-GRIGGS AND NELSON COUNTIES. EPA-REGIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilize funding from the Regional Geographic Initiative Program to conduct a survey of ecological communities within the Red River-Devils Lake Basins. The study will be targeting Griggs and Nelson Counties to identify significant natural communities and to collect and interpret n...

129

The kinematic and cloud-to-ground lightning structure of the 9-10, June 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System  

E-print Network

An investigation of the kinematic and electrical properties of the 9-10 June, 1998 Red River Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as observed by the NOAA P3 Tail Radar and the National Lightning Detection Network, is presented. This system exhibits...

Santarpia, Joshua

2001-01-01

130

Concordant variation in thermal tolerance and allozymes of the red shiner, Notropis lutrensis , inhabiting tailwater sections of the Brazos River, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical thermal maxima (CTM) and genetic variation were compared for red shiners, Notropis lutrensis, from regulated and unregulated sites on the Brazos River in northcentral Texas. Tailwater fish acclimated to 25°C had significantly lower CTM's than those from a site upstream from the dam and unregulated downstream sites. Significantly different intrasite variances were observed, with two- and four-fold larger CTM

Timothy L. King; Earl G. Zimmerman; Thomas L. Beitinger

1985-01-01

131

Adsorption and desorption of arsenic to aquifer sediment on the Red River floodplain at Nam Du, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of arsenic onto aquifer sediment from the Red River floodplain, Vietnam, was determined in a series of batch experiments. Due to water supply pumping, river water infiltrates into the aquifer at the field site and has leached the uppermost aquifer sediments. The leached sediments remain anoxic but contain little reactive arsenic and iron, and are used in our experiments. The adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out by addition or removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase in sediment suspensions under strictly anoxic conditions. Also the effects of HCO3, Fe(II), PO4 and Si on arsenic adsorption were explored. The results show much stronger adsorption of As(V) as compared to As(III), full reversibility for As(III) adsorption and less so for As(V). The presence or absence of HCO3 did not influence arsenic adsorption. Fe(II) enhanced As(V) sorption but did not influence the adsorption of As(III) in any way. During simultaneous adsorption of As(III) and Fe(II), As(III) was found to be fully desorbable while Fe(II) was completely irreversibly adsorbed and clearly the two sorption processes are uncoupled. Phosphate was the only solute that significantly could displace As(III) from the sediment surface. Compiling literature data on arsenic adsorption to aquifer sediment in Vietnam and Bangladesh revealed As(III) isotherms to be almost identical regardless of the nature of the sediment or the site of sampling. In contrast, there was a large variation in As(V) adsorption isotherms between studies. A tentative conclusion is that As(III) and As(V) are not adsorbing onto the same sediment surface sites. The adsorption behavior of arsenic onto aquifer sediments and synthetic Fe-oxides is compared. Particularly, the much stronger adsorption of As(V) than of As(III) onto Red River as well as on most Bangladesh aquifer sediments, indicates that the perception that arsenic, phosphate and other species compete for the same surface sites of iron oxides in sediments with properties similar to those of, for example a synthetic goethite, probably is not correct. A simple two-component Langmuir adsorption model was constructed to quantitatively describe the reactive transport of As(III) and PO4 in the aquifer.

Thi Hoa Mai, Nguyen; Postma, Dieke; Thi Kim Trang, Pham; Jessen, Søren; Hung Viet, Pham; Larsen, Flemming

2014-10-01

132

Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

133

Planktonic rotifer assemblages of the Danube River at Budapest after the red sludge pollution in Hungary.  

PubMed

In the autumn of 2010 an industrial red sludge spill occurred in Hungary. The toxic chemical waste with high alkalinity (pH 13.5) reached the Danube 2 days later, where no change was expected because of the high level of dilution. The planktonic rotifer assemblages of the Danube were investigated at Budapest during the contamination. The median of community density decreased from 500 ind. 100 L(-1) to zero, the species richness from 3.00 to 0.00, Shannon-Weaver diversity from 1.10 to 0.00 after the arrival of the contamination. The rotifer assemblages seemed to have recovered after 3 weeks, but the initial levels of diversity and density were not reached again. PMID:21667236

Schöll, Károly; Szövényi, Gergely

2011-08-01

134

Differential river incision across active normal faults in Grand Canyon: a response to mantle-driven uplift of the western Colorado Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality gravel-constrained incision rates have been calculated in western Grand Canyon in a reach between river mile (RM) 177 and 246 where 100-840 ka basalt flows erupted and cascaded into Grand Canyon and flowed downriver over 120 km. Bedrock incision rates are calculated at numerous locations where dated basalts overly gravel-capped bedrock straths; fault slip is measured via Ar-Ar dating of offset basalts. Marked variations in incision rate take place across the active Hurricane and Toroweap normal faults, with incision rates in the footwall of the faults being subequal to the incision rate in the immediate hanging-wall plus the fault slip rate. However incision rates increase progressively away from the fault due to formation of a hanging-wall anticline. Nine new and updated incision rates based on new 40Ar/39Ar analyses from Grand Canyon’s intra-canyon basalts support and extend earlier conclusions that: 1) incision rate discrepancies across active faults are explained by fault dampening of incision rates, 2) incision rate variations in the fault block between the Toroweap and the Hurricane faults shows a hanging-wall anticline with wavelength < 5 km. 3) large-scale ~100 m/Ma discrepancy in incision between eastern (~175 m/Ma) and western Grand Canyon (~65 m/Ma) across the Hurricane fault may reflect broad mantle-driven epeirogenic surface uplift of the Colorado Plateau. This last hypothesis is supported by profile reconstructions and geodynamic models. Postulated sub-equal incision across the eastern Grand Canyon block, which would support epeirogenic uplift, are being further tested using U-Series dating of high terrace flights at RM 65, 69, 95, and 116. Neogene surface uplift of eastern Grand Canyon and the margins of the Colorado Plateau is consistent with: 1) high elevations along the plateau margins, 2) geoid anomalies, 3) tomographic and magnetotelluric data showing low-velocity conductive mantle under plateau margins, 4) temporal and spatial trends in the isotopic values and geochronology of Neogene basalts from the southwestern USA that indicate that magmatism migrated towards the plateau center and became progressively more asthenospheric through time, 5) the fault dampened differential incision data, and 6) geodynamic models for active upwelling of asthenospheric mantle around the plateau that is likely driving 100-400 m-scale Neogene surface uplift. But details of uplift, for example rolling incision transients suggested by mantle flow models rather than piston uplift, are being tested via improved data on differential incision through time in different reaches. The concept of dampened measured incision rates due to relative uplift/subsidence is applicable to a range of tectonic-geomorphic interactions such as fault-dampened incision, salt-induced collapse, differential epeirogenic uplift, and isostatic response.

Karlstrom, K. E.; Crow, R.

2010-12-01

135

Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

2001-01-01

136

Discussion of tectonic models for Cenozoic strike-slip fault-affected continental margins of mainland SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the roles of Cenozoic strike-slip faults in SE Asia observed in outcrop onshore, with their offshore continuation has produced a variety of structural models (particularly pull-apart vs. oblique extension, escape tectonics vs. slab-pull-driven extension) to explain their relationships to sedimentary basins. Key problems with interpreting the offshore significance of major strike-slip faults are: (1) reconciling conflicting palaeomagnetic data, (2) discriminating extensional, and oblique-extensional fault geometries from strike-slip geometries on 2D seismic reflection data, and (3) estimating strike-slip displacements from seismic reflection data. Focus on basic strike-slip fault geometries such as restraining vs. releasing bends, and strongly splaying geometries approach the gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin, suggest major strike-slip faults probably do not extend far offshore Splays covering areas 10,000's km2 in extent are characteristic of the southern portions of the Sagaing, Mae Ping, Three Pagodas and Ailao Shan-Red River faults, and are indicative of major faults dying out. The areas of the fault tips associated with faults of potentially 100 km+ displacement, scale appropriately with global examples of strike-slip faults on log-log displacement vs. tip area plots. The fault geometries in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin are inappropriate for a sinistral pull-apart geometry, and instead the southern fault strands of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault are interpreted to die out within the NW part of the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin. Hence the fault zone does not transfer displacement onto the South China Seas spreading centre. The strike-slip faults are replaced by more extensional, oblique-extensional fault systems offshore to the south. The Sagaing Fault is also superimposed on an older Paleogene-Early Miocene oblique-extensional rift system. The Sagaing Fault geometry is complex, and one branch of the offshore fault zone transfers displacement onto the Pliocene-Recent Andaman spreading centre, and links with the West Andaman and related faults to form a very large pull-apart basin.

Morley, C. K.

2013-10-01

137

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

Bishop, C.A. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Koster, M.D. [Springborn Labs. (Europe) AG, Seestrasse (Switzerland); Chek, A.A. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Hussell, D.J.T. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, Ontario (Canada); Jock, K. [St. Regis Mohawk Health Service, Hogansburg, NY (United States)

1995-03-01

138

Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles  

SciTech Connect

The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

2012-02-29

139

Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).  

PubMed

Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas. PMID:12462491

Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

2002-09-01

140

Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in African and South East Asian pig species kept in European zoos. Species studied were the warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Faecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n = 9), red river hogs (n = 7) and babirusas (n = 5). Enzyme-immunoassays for faecal progesterone, androgen, and oestrogen metabolites, were tested for their ability to determine follicular and luteal phases. In all three species, oestrous cycles could be monitored with 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane assays. In contrast, oestrogens and androgens were not useful in characterising follicular activity during the oestrous cycle in any species. Faecal 20alpha-OH- and 20-oxo-pregnane values were significantly correlated. Faecal pregnane concentrations revealed species-specific differences. Luteal phase values of 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were considerably higher than 20-oxo-pregnanes; 20alpha-OH-pregnanes were in the range of 3-10 microg/g in warthogs and red river hogs, whereas concentrations were 30-200 microg/g faeces in the babirusa. Regular oestrus cycles had a length of about 35 days in all three species studied. Results indicated a seasonal influence on the occurrence of reproductive cycles in the warthog with anoestrous periods in the European summer. The red river hog was found to be a seasonal and poly oestrous breeder; oestrus cycles started by January and continued until summer. In contrast, the babirusa showed non-seasonal ovarian cyclicity. In pregnant red river hogs, progesterone metabolites were comparable to luteal phase values of the oestrous cycle during the first 3 months of gestation, but did further increase during the last month of pregnancy. Oestrogens and 17-oxo-androstanes were significantly elevated during the second half of gestation. In summary, the reproductive biology of three exotic pig species was studied using non-invasive faecal steroid analysis and these methods were used for comparative investigations of oestrous cycles, pregnancy and seasonality. PMID:15876499

Berger, Eva M; Leus, Kristin; Vercammen, Paul; Schwarzenberger, Franz

2006-01-01

141

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to either surface-water flow or the component of ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The inflow to the watershed, calculated to be 701 gallons per minute, is from precipitation. The calculated outflow from the watershed at or upstream from seismic-line 5 (the downstream-most line in Straight Creek prior to entering the Red River Valley) is 540 gallons per minute of evapotranspiration in the watershed upstream from line 5 (77.0 percent of precipitation), 5 gallons per minute of surface-water flow (0.7 percent of precipitation), 122 gallons per minute of ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith defined by the seismic data (17.4 percent of precipitation), and 34 gallons per minute of ground-water flow through fractured bedrock below the defined seismic line (4.9 percent of precipitation). The ground-water flow through the alluvium and inter-tonguing debris-flow deposits of the Red River Valley was calculated to be 5,227 gallons per minute at seismic-line 7, the first seismic line in the Red River Valley downstream from Straight Creek. The water budget indicates the amount of ground-water flow that enters the Red River alluvium from the debris-flow deposits and regolith in Straight Creek is small (about 2.3 percent; 122 gallons per minute) compared to the volume of flow that moves through the Red River alluvium. The total amount of ground-water flow from Straight Creek (156 gallons per minute; 122 gallons per minute from debris-flow deposits and regolith plus 34 gallons per minute through fractured bedrock) is about 3.0 percent of the ground-water flow calculated at line 7 for the Red River alluvium.

McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

2008-01-01

142

The climate and tectonic implications of Late quaternary fluvial fans and river terraces along northern piedmont fault of Wutai Mountain, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern piedmont fault of Wutai Mountain consists of the northern margin of Fandai basin, the northeasternmost basin of Shan Xi graben system. Three rapid sedimentation periods were discovered along it, which composed of river terraces and fluvial fans (T2, F2; T1, F1, and F0). The radiocarbon dating results (n=17) show that the oldest one occurred 30 ka BP, the second one finished 6 ka ago, and the youngest one lasted from 1.5 ka BP to 0.2kaBP. By comparing with the climate records in loess in northern China, ice-cores along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, etc, we found all three sedimentation processes happened when the climate changed from a relatively wet and warm climate to a cold and dry one, notably, the temperature fluctuated drastically at 30ka. The tectonic activities were thriving simultaneously, The trench excavation revealed the paleo-eathquakes clustered in the past 6ka, denser than that of 20ka.The average slip-rate in the past 6 ka was twice (2.3 mm/yr, 13 m in 6 ka) as large as that at 30 ka (0.9-1.2 mm/yr, 27-36m in 30 ka), satellite image deciphering and field investigation show that there were handful moderate knickpoints (0.7-1.0m) along the river profiles at the end of lower terraces (T1, T2). The intensive tectonic movement would have triggered river incision, rather than aggradations visible as river terraces in the mountain range and fluvial fans at the outlets; however, tectonic movement affected the fan's emplacement, surface gradient and sediments source upstream locally. We conclude that the climate cycles controlled the aggradational periods in the past 30 ka, the intense climate change created surplus sediments for the river, most of them deposited as fans near the outlets because of less precipitation; the tectonic activities affected the fan emplacement and geology structure, making it a premise for fan deposition, the climate controlled sedimentation process could have triggered isostasy effects: the fault activities arose as a response of rapid sedimentation periods in a typical graben system.

Gong, Z.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Ding, R.

2012-12-01

143

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

144

Genetic polymorphisms in AS3MT and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) with the As concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary As profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Concentrations of total As in groundwater were 0.7-502 {mu}g/l. Total As levels in groundwater drastically decreased by using sand filter, indicating that the filter could be effective to remove As from raw groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic As (IAs) in urine and total As in hair of males were higher than those of females. A significant positive correlation between monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/IAs and age in females indicates that older females have higher methylation capacity from IAs to MMA. Body mass index negatively correlated with urinary As concentrations in males. Homozygote for SNPs 4602AA, 35991GG, and 37853GG, which showed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), had higher percentage (%) of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. SNPs 4740 and 12590 had strong LD and associated with urinary %DMA. Although SNPs 6144, 12390, 14215, and 35587 comprised LD cluster, homozygotes in SNPs 12390GG and 35587CC had lower DMA/MMA in urine, suggesting low methylation capacity from MMA to DMA in homo types for these SNPs. SNPs 5913 and 8973 correlated with %MMA and %DMA, respectively. Heterozygote for SNP 14458TC had higher MMA/IAs in urine than TT homozygote, indicating that the heterozygote may have stronger methylation ability of IAs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the association of genetic factors with As metabolism in Vietnamese.

Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo [Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, T3 Building, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2009-04-15

145

Study on finite strain and its relationship with magnetic fabric along Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite strain along Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone has been studied. The axial ratios of strain markers and shear strains vary greatly, arising principally from deformation intensity and from contrasting competencies. Ellipticity of chloritic amygdales in basalt ranges from 6.79 to 10.47 (corresponding shear strain ?xz = 2.22-2.93), and ellipticity of garnets from 1.56 to 2.95 (?xz = 0.45-1.14) in core gneiss. The S-C angle of the sheared rocks varies from 2° to 28° (?sc = 1.35-28.60), mostly in a range 2° to 7°. Optical observation, thermal demagnetization, and hysteresis curves were conducted to determine the nature of minerals and the contribution of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals to magnetic susceptibility. The result shows that ferromagnetic minerals and hornblende dominate the magnetic fabric of samples with high to very high susceptibility, and play an important role in the magnetic fabric of samples with low to intermediate susceptibility. The ferromagnetic minerals are mainly pseudo-single-domain and multidomain Ti-poor magnetite. Most samples have their magnetic lineation lying between the C and S surfaces. In the remaining samples, deviations from this common alignment principally resulted from the magnetic minerals being deflected by porphyroclasts, mineral cleavage, and cracks. The axial ratio correlation is very poor between the magnetic and actual or imaginary strain ellipsoid calculated from the S-C fabric. This poor correlation suggests that the shape of the finite strain ellipsoid cannot be evaluated using the magnetic fabric when the latter is a combined result from multiple minerals, and especially when the shape effect of multidomain titanomagnetite is important.

Zhou, Yong; Wu, Shimin; Qiu, Xuelin; Zhou, Ping

2003-10-01

146

Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.  

PubMed

The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment. PMID:20048292

Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

2010-01-01

147

Segmentation and the coseismic behavior of Basin and Range normal faults: examples from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The range-front normal faults of the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and the Beaverhead and Tendoy Mountains in east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana have well-preserved fault scarps on Quaternary deposits along much of their lengths. Fault-scarp morphology, the age of deposits displaced by the faults, and the morphology of the range fronts provide a basis for dividing the faults into segments that are typically 20-25 km long. The Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead fault zones are 141-151 km long, and each has six segments. The 60-km-long Red Rock fault (the range-front fault of the Tendoy Mountains) has two central segments that have been active in late Quaternary time; these two segments span the central 27 km of the fault. We recognize four characteristics that help to identify segment boundaries: (1) major en e??chelon offsets or pronounced gaps in the continuity of fault scarps; (2) distinct, persistent, along-strike changes in fault-scarp morphology that indicate different ages of faulting; (3) major salients in the range front; and (4) transverse bedrock ridges where the cumulative throw is low compared to other places along the fault zone. Only features whose size is measured on the scale of kilometers are regarded as significant enough to represent a segment boundary that could inhibit or halt a propagating rupture. The ability to identify segments of faults that are likely to behave as independent structural entities will improve seismic-hazard assessment. However, one should not assume that the barriers at segment boundaries will completely stop all propagating ruptures. The topographic expression of mountain ranges is evidence that, at times during their history, all barriers fail. Some barriers apparently create 'leaky' segment boundaries that impede propagating ruptures but do not completely prevent faulting on adjacent segments. ?? 1991.

Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.

1991-01-01

148

Fish-Borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Cultured and Wild-Caught Freshwater Fish from the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nam Dinh province in Red River Delta, Vietnam, is an endemic area for the human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, but little is known about its occurrence in the fish intermediate host in this region. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) species diversity and to estimate the prevalence and infection densities of FZT in three major types of fish: cultured species and self-recruiting species from family ponds and wild-caught species from irrigation canals in Nam Dinh province. A total of 714 wild-caught fish from canals and 829 fish from family ponds were examined for FZT infection. Only a single fish from a pond was infected with Cl. sinensis. The intestinal fluke Haplorchis pumilio was very common and found in more than 50% of fish irrespective of origin. Four other intestinal FZT species were found at low prevalence (<4.0%) except Procerovum varium, which was found in 14.4% of wild-caught fish. There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in FZT prevalence in cultured fish (64.3%) compared with wild-caught fish (68.9%), nor between cultured fish species (65.1%) and self-recruiting species obtained from ponds (58.1%). The prevalence of FZT in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (82.7%), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (76.9%), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) (63.8%) was significantly higher than that in rohu (Labeo rohita) (49.1%) (p?

Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bui, Te Quang; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

2010-01-01

149

Greenhouse gas fluxes and budget for an annual cropping system in the Red River Valley, Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture contributes significantly to national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories but there is considerable control over management decisions and changes in production methods could lead to a significant reduction and possible mitigation of emissions from the sector. For example, conservation tillage practices have been suggested as a method of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), however, many questions remain unanswered regarding the short-term efficacy of the production method and knowledge gaps exist regarding possible interactions with essential nutrient cycles, and the production of non-CO2 GHGs, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Between autumn 2005 and 2009, a micrometeorological flux system was used to determine net CO2 and (N2O exchange from an annual cropping system situated on clay soil in the Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. Four plots (4-ha each) were independently evaluated and planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007; in 2008, two spring wheat plots were monitored. As well, during the non-growing season in 2006-2007 following corn harvest, a second micrometeorological flux system capable of simultaneously measuring stable C isotopologue (12CO2 and 13CO 2) fluxes was operated at the site. Tillage intensity and crop management practices were examined for their influence on GHG emissions. Significant inter-annual variability in CO2 and (N2O fluxes as a function of crop and related management activities was observed. Tillage intensity did not affect GHG emissions from the site. After accounting for harvest removals, the net ecosystem C budgets were 510 (source), 3140 (source) and -480 (sink) kg C/ha/year for the three respective crop years, summing to a three-year loss of 3170 kg C/ha. Stable C isotope flux measurements during the non-growing season following corn harvest indicated that approximately 70 % and 20 -- 30 % of the total respiration flux originated from crop residue C during the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, respectively. The (N2O emissions at the site further exacerbated the net global warming potential of this annual agroecosystem.

Glenn, Aaron James

150

Transport fluxes and emission of greenhouse gases of the Middle Niger River (west Africa): disproprotionate importance of the recent red floods in the Niamey region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Niger River is Africa's third longest river and drains an area of ~2,120,000 km². It encompasses six hydrographic regions and crosses almost all possible ecosystem zones in West Africa. Since few decades, the Middle Niger River presents a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, or red flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. Here, we report initial results of a monitoring campaign whereby 2-weekly samples were collected at Niamey (Niger) [2.01°E 13.57°N] between April 2011 and March 2013 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations, concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and ?13C-POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN and ?15N-PN), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ?13C-DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and ?13C-DIC), concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4 and N2O), as well as major elements, total alkalinity, and oxygen isotope signatures of water (?18O-H2O). This dataset allows us to construct seasonal budgets for particulate and dissolved carbon fluxes, nutrient exports, as well as a first seasonally resolved characterisation of the GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by the Middle Niger River. The red flood, concentrated on 2 months (August-September), contributed to more than 80% of the annual transport fluxes of TSM and POC and to approximately 30% of the annual transport fluxes of DIC and DOC.

Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven; Alhou, Bassirou; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

151

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

152

Water-Quality Data for Water- and Wastewater-Treatment Plants Along the Red River of the North, North Dakota and Minnesota, January through October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From January through October 2006, six sets of water-quality samples were collected at 28 sites, which included inflow and outflow from seven major municipal water-treatment plants (14 sites) and influent and effluent samples from seven major municipal wastewater treatment plants (14 sites) along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota. Samples were collected in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the development of return-flow boundary conditions in a 2006 water-quality model for the Red River of the North. All samples were analyzed for nutrients and major ions. For one set of effluent samples from each of the wastewater-treatment plants, water was analyzed for Eschirichia coli, fecal coliform, 20-day biochemical oxygen demand, 20-day nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. In general, results from the field equipment blank and replicate samples indicate that the overall process of sample collection, processing, and analysis did not introduce substantial contamination and that consistent results were obtained.

Damschen, William C.; Hansel, John A.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

153

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2007-01-01

154

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Rich Pavlovsky

155

Can we follow the neotectonic activity of the Hluboká-fault by reconstructing the evolution of the Vltava river course? - Mapping of fluvial terraces around the Budejovice-basin using historic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bud?jovice Basin in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) is a fault-bounded sedimentary basin with a multiple subsidence history overlying Variscan crystalline basement. Permian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments record repeated reactivations of faults at or close to the basin margin, which may have continued into the Quaternary. The latter is indicated by geomorphological features such as linear topographic scarps, which characterize part of the faults within and at the border of the Bud?jovice Basin. In a current study we assess possible Quaternary displacements along the faults delimiting the basin using geomorphological data, analyses of river planform patterns and correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River, which crosses the basin and its boundary faults. The regionally most important tectonic feature - the Hluboká fault -forms the northeastern margin of the Bud?jovice basin. The fault crosses the course of the river Vltava, a fact that guided our research to take a more precise look at the character and distribution of fluvial sediments in this area. Our main focus is on dating of terrace bodies around the Hluboká fault. According to the scheme used in most European regions, influences by the Pleistocene glacial cycles, the Vltava river terraces were assigned by most scientists to the 4(5) main alpine glacial periods. This dating is not straightforward as terraces are not connected to moraine bodies like in the Alps. The terraces were basically correlated by their altitude above the river and by their lithology (clastic content and grain size composition), but mostly without any numerical age determination. Our studies include several field and laboratory methods, supported by computer analyses of various types of spatial data. Data sources include: (i) modern topographic maps, (ii) geological maps, (iii) georeferenced historic map sheets of the Austrian Second Military Survey (provided by the Geoinformatics Laboratory of the University J. E. Purkyn?, 2005). The georeferenced map sheets of the Second Military Survey provide a very exact base map (Timár et al., 2006) for investigating the location of possible terrace bases. Since the georeferencing accuracy is < 10 m, data from these map sheets can be integrated into the geomorphologic studies providing information about the geomorphologic situation in the study area of the years 1836-1842, i.e., with less anthropogenic impact on geomorphological features than today. These data sources are combined with data from boreholes and thus help us identifying potential terrace bodies and choosing appropriate investigation sites. In the field, morphological, sedimentological and pedological methods are used to obtain relevant data about the sediment stratigraphy. Several laboratory analyses were carried out to gain information on the age of the terraces. We use OSL-dating in combination with the analysis of heavy minerals and clay minerals, as well as grain size analysis. After gathering information about the absolute ages of the terrace bodies upstream and downstream the Hluboká fault, we may be able to declare if the building of terrace staircases was influenced by tectonic activity of the fault or not. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

Homolova, Dana; Lomax, Johanna; Prachar, Ivan; Spacek, Petr; Zamolyi, Andras; Decker, Kurt

2010-05-01

156

Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

157

Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

Emerson, Douglas G.

2005-01-01

158

Fault Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gestures to explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed.

Ormand, Carol

159

Faulted Barn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This barn is faulted through the middle; the moletrack is seen in the foreground with the viewer standing on the fault. From the air one can see metal roof panels of the barn that rotated as the barn was faulted....

160

Pliocene-to-present morphotectonics of the Dien Bien Phu fault in northwest Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north- to northeast-trending Dien Bien Phu fault (DBPF) zone appears to the south of the Red River fault (RRF) zone, sharing the spatial alignment of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault (XXF) and extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China, through northwest Vietnam into Laos. Although the DBPF is one of the most conspicuous active fault systems in Indochina, it is less studied than the RRF and XXF, and its quantified kinematics remain mostly unknown. Our detailed modern fault trace mapping, compiled from topographic maps, stereographic aerial photos, ASTER satellite imageries, and field reconnaissance reveals new information on the fault geometry, the slip magnitude and distribution along the fault, and the relationship between river-channel offset and fault activity. The geometry of the modern DBPF is complex, consisting of single strands and stepovers. Abundant geomorphic expressions along the DBPF illustrate that the modern fault is dominated by sinistral motion and the present left-lateral component of motion is also clearly demonstrated by the existence of numerous rivers offsets. Multiple offsets of geomorphic features along the fault are recognized and reconstructed, and the largest sinistral displacement on the DBPF is ca. 12.5 km based on drainage network restoration. Because sinistral motion likely initiated approximately 5 Ma, the most probable Pliocene-to-present average slip rate on the DBPF is on the order of 2.5 mm/yr. Based on the slip rate, the DBPF could generate an earthquake with a magnitude greater than Mw 7 and a recurrence interval of 500 to 1000 yr. The combined GPS velocity fields observed from northwest Vietnam and south China reveal approximately 2 to 3 mm/yr left-lateral slip across the DBPF, and significant east-west extension exists in the western crustal block of DBPF. Although the boundary fault system of the active crust rotation around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (i.e., XXF) does not cut the RRF, the Pliocene-to-present activity along the DBPF favors the possibility that the tectonic shear has been transmitted across the RRF and taken up on the DBPF. The results of this study suggest that the modern DBPF zone acts as a reactivated fault, with a different slip sense from its previous phase, and plays a role as an eastern boundary of the crustal deformation in northern Indochina.

Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Lâm, Doãn ?ình

2012-11-01

161

Extent and effect of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on reservoir and seal rocks and implications for geomechanical failure at Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A structural diagenesis approach involving the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks is necessary for assessing the short and long term security of sequestered CO2. Current numerical models used to model subsurface CO2 reservoirs do not account for such processes, and typically these use only linear-elastic geomechanical properties, ignoring failure parameters such as fracture toughness. In addition, numerical models normally lack constraints on long-term, geologic time scales. Study of fossil and active CO2 seeps found at Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah are invaluable to assess long-term storage and leakage behavior in natural systems. Observations from the site and geomechanical testing also indicate that fracture systems play a crucial role in leakage, and the extent of fracturing and CO2-related alteration extends from tens to over one-hundred meters. Failure parameters of reservoir and seal rocks under variable environmental conditions, such as fracture toughness should also be quantified as they likely play a role in fracturing and leakage. Subcritical fracture growth may also be involved. Transects across the Little Grand Wash fault show distinct mineralogical and isotopic trends related to alteration by CO2-rich fluids. Calcite is the dominant precipitated mineral, both in reservoir (sandstone) and seal (siltstone & mudrock) lithologies. Precipitated calcite is isotopically distinct and observed in bulk rock isotopic trends. Fracture toughness testing using the short rod method indicates that CO2-related alteration of rocks exposed at the field site has weakened one reservoir lithology by half (0.57 versus 0.27 MPa?m). A full suite of lithologies are being tested and compared with the double torsion test method under ambient air conditions. These same samples are also being tested in environmental conditions more like those encountered in a CO2 sequestration scenario. These data can and should be integrated into more sophisticated numerical models in order to assess their impact on the overall risk analysis of CO2 injection sites and provide more geologically realistic and accurate results.

Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Dewers, T. A.

2013-12-01

162

Improvement of high floods predictability in the Red River of the North basin using combined remote-sensed, gauge-based and assimilated precipitation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red River of the North basin (USA) is considered to be under high risk of flood danger, having experienced serious flooding during the last few years. The region climate can be characterized as cold and, during winter, it exhibits continuous snowcover modified by wind redistribution. High-hazard runoff regularly occurs as a major spring snowmelt event resulting from the relatively rapid release of water from the snowpack on frozen soils. Although in summer/autumn most rainfall occurs from convective storms over small areas and does not generate dangerous floods, the pre-winter state of the soils may radically influence spring maximum flows. Large amount of artificial agricultural tiles and numerous small post-glacial depressions influencing the redistribution of runoff complicates the predictions of high floods. In such conditions any hydrological model would not be successful without proper precipitation input. In this study the simulation of runoff processes for two watersheds in the basin of the Red River of the North, USA, was undertaken using the Hydrograph model developed at the State Hydrological Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia). The Hydrograph is a robust process-based model, where the processes have a physical basis combined with some strategic conceptual simplifications that give it the ability to be applied in the conditions of low information availability. It accounts for the processes of frost and thaw of soils, snow redistribution and depression storage impacts. The assessment of the model parameters was conducted based on the characteristics of soil and vegetation cover. While performing the model runs, the parameters of depression storage and the parameters of different types of flow were manually calibrated to reproduce the observed flow. The model provided satisfactory simulation results in terms not only of river runoff but also variable sates of soil like moisture and temperature over a simulation period 2005 - 2010. For experimental runs precipitation from different sources was used as forcing data to the hydrological model: 1) data of ground meteorological stations; 2) the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products containing several variables: snow water equivalent, snow depth, solid and liquid precipitation; 3) MAPX precipitation data which is mean areal precipitation for a watershed calculated using the radar- and gauge-based information. The results demonstrated that in the conditions of high uncertainty of model parameters combining precipitation information from different sources (the SNODAS precipitation in winter with the MAPX precipitation in summer) significantly improves the model performance and predictability of high floods.

Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

2011-12-01

163

Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

2014-07-01

164

UP Modelling System for large scale hydrology: deriving large-scale physically-based parameters for the Arkansas-Red River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UP modelling system has been applied to the 570,000 km2 Arkansas-Red River Basin (ARRB) as part of the UK NERC Terrestrial initiative in Global Environmental Research (TIGER). The model can be run as a stand-alone basin hydrology model or be linked to existing climate and weather forecasting models. It runs on a grid comprising 1923 UP elements, each 17km by 17km in area, and each containing five water storage compartments: one each for the snowpack, vegetation canopy, surface water, root zone and groundwater. All the main transfers and processes of the terrestrial phase of the hydrological cycle are represented, including river network routing of the runoff from the UP elements. The parameters of the ARRB model are physically-based, being derived either from fine-scale, sub-grid, data on the topography and physical properties of the soils, aquifers and vegetation of the basin, or from the results of fine-scale physically-based simulations. With the approach, the parameters account for the effects of sub-grid variations in moisture status and spatial distribution and are sensitive to changes in the fine-scale property data. This sensitivity is either absent or less directly represented in existing large-scale hydrology models, yet it plays a central role in studies of the impact of changes in climate and land-use. The ARRB model, as described here and in Kilsby et al. (1999), is a first attempt at large-scale physically-based hydrological modelling of the type outlined in the "blueprint" for the UP system (Ewen, 1997), and gives a clear, positive, indication of the nature and quality of what is currently practical with the approach.

Ewen, J.; Sloan, W. T.; Kilsby, C. G.; O'Connell, P. E.

165

Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: implications for the management of environmental flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

2015-01-01

166

Geometry and scaling relations of a population of very small rift-related normal faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exceptionally well exposed normal faults within the Solite Quarry of the Dan River rift basin range in length from a few millimetres to a few metres and are possibly the smallest visible faults studied to date. Displacement is greatest at or near the center of isolated faults and decreases toward the fault tips. Relay structures form between closely overlapping faults.

Roy W. Schlische; Scott S. Young; Rolf V. Ackermann; Anupma Gupta

1996-01-01

167

Petrology and Bulk Chemistry of Modern Bed Load Sediments From Rivers Draining the Eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied river bed load petrology and bulk sediment chemistry of the headwaters of the Changjiang, Huang He and Red rivers in China and Vietnam. These rivers drain the eastern and southeastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau which includes part of the Indian-Eurasian suture zone. The eastern Tibetan Plateau is dominated by marine sedimentary rocks with a few scattered intrusive igneous outcrops, while the suture zone is characterized by a mixture of high-grade metamorphic, ultramafic, granitic, volcanic arc and marine sedimentary rocks. The arithmetic average for Qt: Ft: Rft along the suture zone varies from 56:2:42 along the Red River Fault (RRF) zone to 38:6:56 in the interior of the continent, while sands from rivers draining the plateau average 32:8:60. The sands analyzed in this study are relatively immature compared to most data available from most rivers in the tropics. The average Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for samples from the RRF suture zone (0.62) is similar to that of rivers draining other tropical regions like the Niger, Chao Phraya, Mekong, Ganges, Amazon and Brahmaputra. The CIA values from the RRF zone are also significantly different from the rest of the suture zone (0.36) and the plateau area (0.38). The difference can be attributed to the combined effect of relief and precipitation. The RRF lies in the Red River drainage and receives ˜1820 mm of precipitation annually, while the plateau area averages ˜620 mm annually. In the case of the Red River drainage, the relief combined with higher humidity can increase physical weathering and reduce the residence time of sediment in the river drainage, therefore, continuously replacing the sediment transported out of the drainage by freshly weathered immature materials. In the plateau area, lower precipitation and runoff may limit sediment transport and chemical weathering leading to sediment immaturity.

Borges, J. B.

2003-12-01

168

Fault finder  

DOEpatents

A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

Bunch, Richard H. (1614 NW. 106th St., Vancouver, WA 98665)

1986-01-01

169

Tracing the Geomorphic Signature of Lateral Faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active strike-slip faults are among the most dangerous geologic features on Earth. Unfortunately, it is challenging to estimate their slip rates, seismic hazard, and evolution over a range of timescales. An under-exploited tool in strike-slip fault characterization is quantitative analysis of the geomorphic response to lateral fault motion to extract tectonic information directly from the landscape. Past geomorphic work of this kind has focused almost exclusively on vertical motion, despite the ubiquity of horizontal motion in crustal deformation and mountain building. We seek to address this problem by investigating the landscape response to strike-slip faulting in two ways: 1) examining the geomorphology of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), a suite of parallel strike-slip faults within the actively deforming South Island of New Zealand, and 2) conducting controlled experiments in strike-slip landscape evolution using the CHILD landscape evolution model. The MFS offers an excellent natural experiment site because fault initiation ages and cumulative displacements decrease from north to south, whereas slip rates increase over four fold across a region underlain by a single bedrock unit (Torlesse Greywacke). Comparison of planform and longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the MFS reveals strong disequilibrium within tributaries that drain to active fault strands, and suggests that river capture related to fault activity may be a regular process in strike-slip fault zones. Simple model experiments support this view. Model calculations that include horizontal motion as well as vertical uplift demonstrate river lengthening and shortening due to stream capture in response to shutter ridges sliding in front of stream outlets. These results suggest that systematic variability in fluvial knickpoint location, drainage area, and incision rates along different faults or fault segments may be expected in catchments upstream of strike-slip faults and could act as useful indicators of fault activity.

Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

2012-12-01

170

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reactive-transport processes in the Red River, downstream from the town of Red River in north-central New Mexico, were simulated using the OTEQ reactive-transport model. The simulations were calibrated using physical and chemical data from synoptic studies conducted during low-flow conditions in August 2001 and during March/April 2002. Discharge over the 20-km reach from the town of Red River to the USGS streamflow-gaging station near the town of Questa ranged from 395 to 1,180 L/s during the 2001 tracer and from 234 to 421 L/s during the 2002 tracer. The pH of the Red River ranged from 7.4 to 8.5 during the 2001 tracer and from 7.1 to 8.7 during the 2002 tracer, and seep and tributary samples had pH values of 2.8 to 9.0 during the 2001 tracer and 3.8 to 7.2 during the 2002 tracer. Mass-loading calculations allowed identification of several specific locations where elevated concentrations of potential contaminants entered the Red River . These locations, characterized by features on the north side of the Red River that are known to be sources of low-pH water containing elevated metal and sulfate concentrations, are: the initial 2.4 km of the study reach, including Bitter Creek, the stream section from 6.2 to 7.8 km, encompassing La Bobita well and the Hansen debris fan, Sulphur Gulch, at about 10.5 km, the area near Portal Springs, from 12.2 to 12.6 km, and the largest contributors of mass loading, the 13.7 to 13.9 km stream section near Cabin Springs and the 14.7 to 17.5 km stream section from Shaft Spring to Thunder Bridge, Goathill Gulch, and Capulin Canyon. Speciation and saturation index calculations indicated that although solubility limits the concentration of aluminum above pH 5.0, at pH values above 7 and aluminum concentrations below 0.3 mg/L inorganic speciation and mineral solubility controls no longer dominate and aluminum-organic complexing may occur. The August 2001 reactive-transport simulations included dissolved iron(II) oxidation, constrained using measured concentrations of dissolved iron(II) and dissolved iron(total). Both simulations included precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3 and hydrous ferric oxide as Fe(OH)3, and sorption of copper and zinc to the precipitated hydrous ferric oxide. Simulations revealed that hydrogen, iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc were non-conservative and that mineral precipitation can account for iron and aluminum concentrations. Copper and zinc concentrations can be accounted for by simulating their sorption to hydrous ferric oxide forming in the water column of the Red River , although hydrous manganese oxides also may be important sorption substrates.

Ball, James W.; Runkel, Robert L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

2005-01-01

171

Egypt and Red Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

1982-01-01

172

Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01

173

Tectonics and Landforms: Types of Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers animations depicting the defining motions of five different types of faults. Also included is a data visualization showing the geographic patterns of faults and earthquakes, and a documentary video which discusses a series of great earthquakes that occurred between 1811 - 1812 and includes an animation of how the Mississippi River Valley was created.

Ritter, Michael

174

Geometric Evolution of the Sanyi/Chelungpu Fault and the Effects of Ramps on Fault Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation into the Chelungpu/Sanyi fault in central Taiwan indicates that the geometry changes from a footwall ramp geometry in the Sanyi and southern Chelungpu regions, to a footwall flat, bed-parallel geometry in the northern Chelungpu region. Deformation in fault rocks and stratigraphic offset indicate that in the northern region, where the fault is bed parallel, the Chelungpu fault is young (50-100 ka) whereas in the southern region the fault is ~1 Ma old. The northern-most part of the Chelungpu/Sanyi fault system consists of the Sanyi fault. The Sanyi fault dips ~20° east, north of the Tachia River, and ~50° east south of the Tachia River. The Sanyi fault has a ramp geometry and places east-dipping Miocene and Pliocene siltstone and shale over >1500 m of Quaternary sandstone and conglomerate. The Chelungpu fault northern region makes up the middle section of the Chelungpu/Sanyi fault system, and dips ~50° east but flattens to ~20° at depth. Terraces ~46 ka old in the hanging wall, uplifted 200 m above the correlative terraces in the footwall, attest to rapid slip on the Chelungpu fault. These relations suggest that active faulting has migrated into the hanging wall where it ruptured along fault-parallel, 40-60°, east-dipping bedding planes where the frictional resistance was less. The southern region of the Chelungpu fault is an ~30°, east-dipping, planar fault that places Pliocene Chinsui Shale over >2 km of Quaternary Toukoshan Formation. The northern region of the Chelungpu fault ruptured with the southern region during the 9/21/99 earthquake. Though the lithology, age and ramp geometry are the same in the southern Chelungpu region as in the Sanyi region, the fault did not migrate into its hanging wall in the southern region. This is because the ~30° dip provided the optimum angle for thrust-fault rupture, and therefore the frictional resistance did not overcome the resistance in the hanging wall. This investigation of the Chelungpu/Sanyi fault system indicates that hindward migration of an individual fault can occur simultaneous with foreland-progression of the fold-and-thust belt. The implications of hindward migration into the hanging wall are a different fault geometry and fault width along strike, as observed on the Chelungpu fault.

Heermance, R. V.; Lee, Y.; Hung, J.; Evans, J. P.

2002-12-01

175

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

176

Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring and Regression Analysis to Estimate Constituent Concentrations and Loads in the Red River of the North, Fargo, North Dakota, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to estimate water-quality constituent concentrations in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota. Regression analysis of water-quality data collected in 2003-05 was used to estimate concentrations and loads for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables examined for regression relation were continuously monitored physical properties of water-streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. For the conditions observed in 2003-05, streamflow was a significant explanatory variable for all estimated constituents except dissolved solids. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were not statistically significant explanatory variables for any of the constituents in this study. Specific conductance was a significant explanatory variable for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride. Turbidity was a significant explanatory variable for total phosphorus and suspended sediment. For the nutrients, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, cosine and sine functions of time also were used to explain the seasonality in constituent concentrations. The regression equations were evaluated using common measures of variability, including R2, or the proportion of variability in the estimated constituent explained by the regression equation. R2 values ranged from 0.703 for total nitrogen concentration to 0.990 for dissolved-solids concentration. The regression equations also were evaluated by calculating the median relative percentage difference (RPD) between measured constituent concentration and the constituent concentration estimated by the regression equations. Median RPDs ranged from 1.1 for dissolved solids to 35.2 for total nitrite plus nitrate. Regression equations also were used to estimate daily constituent loads. Load estimates can be used by water-quality managers for comparison of current water-quality conditions to water-quality standards expressed as total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). TMDLs are a measure of the maximum amount of chemical constituents that a water body can receive and still meet established water-quality standards. The peak loads generally occurred in June and July when streamflow also peaked.

Ryberg, Karen R.

2006-01-01

177

Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent for both data sets. Overall, application of the Fargo WASP water-quality model to the 1989 and 1990 data sets resulted in poor agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. This likely is a result of changes in the waste-load composition for the Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment plants as a result of improvements to the wastewater-treatment plants since 1990. The change in waste-load composition probably resulted in a change in decay rates and in dissolved oxygen no longer being substantially depressed downstream from the Moorhead and Fargo wastewater-treatment plants. The Fargo WASP water-quality model is valid for the current (2008) treatment processes at the wastewater-treatment plants.

Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

2008-01-01

178

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual cropping system.

Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

2013-12-01

179

Normal Faults in the Passaic Formation at Haycock Mountain, PA Roy W. Schlische & Martha Oliver Withjack  

E-print Network

120 Normal Faults in the Passaic Formation at Haycock Mountain, PA Roy W. Schlische & Martha Oliver-scale normal faults cuts red mudstone of the middle Passaic Formation (Figure 1). The normal faults strike ~030) undergoes oblique-slip displacement. Figure 1. Sketch of normal-faulted Passaic Formation at Haycock

180

Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program  

SciTech Connect

This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

Stieve, A.

1991-05-15

181

Extirpation of Red Shiner in Direct Tributaries of Lake Texoma (Oklahoma-Texas): A Cautionary Case History from a Fragmented River-Reservoir System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reservoirs on composition of fish assemblages are well documented in and downstream of reservoirs but are less well known upstream, especially in small tributaries. Here we report that a historically very abundant native minnow species (red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis) has been extirpated from several direct tributaries of Lake Texoma, a large impoundment of the Red and Washita

William J. Matthews; Edie Marsh-Matthews

2007-01-01

182

Red clover  

MedlinePLUS

Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

183

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

184

Fault diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

Abbott, Kathy

1990-01-01

185

Seismic and gravity investigations of the shallow (upper 1 km) hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the vicinity of the Whataroa River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic evidence from the vicinity of the plate-bounding Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island suggests that earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occur every 200-400 years, with the last earthquake occurring in AD 1717. No human observations of this event are recorded. Therefore, the Deep Fault Drilling Project 2 (DFDP-2) drill hole, which is planned for 2014 on the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley, provides a critical opportunity to study the behavior of this transpressive plate boundary late in its seismogenic cycle. New seismic and gravity data collected since 2011 have been analyzed to assist with the positioning of the drill hole in this glacial valley that provides rare low-elevation access to the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The WhataDUSIE controlled-source seismic project, led by researchers from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada), provided relatively high-resolution coverage (4-8 m geophone spacing, 25-100 m shot spacing) along a 5-km-long profile across the Alpine Fault in the Whataroa Valley. This work has been supplemented by focused hammer-seismic studies and gravity data collection in the valley. The former targets surface layer properties, whereas the latter targets the depth to the base of the glacially carved paleovalley. In positioning DFDP-2, an understanding of the nature of overburden and valley-fill sediments is critical for drilling design. A velocity model has been developed for the valley based on refraction analysis of the WhataDUSIE and hammer-seismic data combined with a ray-theoretical travel-time tomography (RAYINVR) image of the shallow (uppermost 1 km or so) part of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. The model shows that the glacial valley, which presumably was last scoured by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum, has been filled with 200-350 m of post-glacial sediments and outwash gravels. The hanging-wall rocks into which the valley was cut are presumed to be mylonitized Alpine Schist. Considering uplift rates of 6-10 mm/a on the hanging wall of the fault and a glacial withdrawal date of 10,000 years before present (i.e., 60-100 m of uplift since the ice vacated the valley), the floor of the valley would have been as deep as about 350 m below sea level at the time that the ice withdrew (given the current elevation of ~100 m on the valley floor). Basal sediments in the valley could therefore be either marine (if the valley was open to the ocean) or lacustrine (if the valley was isolated from the open ocean by elevated footwall rocks along the west coast of the South Island). Once the original water body in the valley was filled, sediments would accumulate as outwash gravels above sea level.

Kovacs, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Lay, V.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

186

Fault mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

Segall, P. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

187

Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the frequency of birth defects among children of residents of the Red River Valley (RRV), Minnesota, USA, was significantly higher than in other major agricultural regions of the state during the years 1989-1991, with children born to male pesticide applicators having the highest risk. The present, smaller cross-sectional study of 695 families and 1,532 children, conducted during 1997-1998, provides a more detailed examination of reproductive health outcomes in farm families ascertained from parent-reported birth defects. In the present study, in the first year of life, the birth defect rate was 31.3 births per 1,000, with 83% of the total reported birth defects confirmed by medical records. Inclusion of children identified with birth or developmental disorders within the first 3 years of life and later led to a rate of 47.0 per 1,000 (72 children from 1,532 live births). Conceptions in spring resulted in significantly more children with birth defects than found in any other season (7.6 vs. 3.7%). Twelve families had more than one child with a birth defect (n = 28 children). Forty-two percent of the children from families with recurrent birth defects were conceived in spring, a significantly higher rate than that for any other season. Three families in the kinships defined contributed a first-degree relative other than a sibling with the same or similar birth defect, consistent with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The remaining nine families did not follow a Mendelian inheritance pattern. The sex ratio of children with birth defects born to applicator families shows a male predominance (1.75 to 1) across specific pesticide class use and exposure categories exclusive of fungicides. In the fungicide exposure category, normal female births significantly exceed male births (1.25 to 1). Similarly, the proportion of male to female children with birth defects is significantly lower (0.57 to 1; p = 0.02). Adverse neurologic and neurobehavioral developmental effects clustered among the children born to applicators of the fumigant phosphine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; confidence interval [CI], 1.2-5.1). Use of the herbicide glyphosate yielded an OR of 3.6 (CI, 1.3-9.6) in the neurobehavioral category. Finally, these studies point out that (a) herbicides applied in the spring may be a factor in the birth defects observed and (b) fungicides can be a significant factor in the determination of sex of the children of the families of the RRV. Thus, two distinct classes of pesticides seem to have adverse effects on different reproductive outcomes. Biologically based confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:12060842

Garry, Vincent F; Harkins, Mary E; Erickson, Leanna L; Long-Simpson, Leslie K; Holland, Seth E; Burroughs, Barbara L

2002-01-01

188

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE RED BRIDGE LOOKING NORTH FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE RED BRIDGE LOOKING NORTH FROM FUEL HOLLOW ROAD. - Red Bridge, Spanning Yellow river at abandoned county road, 7.3 miles northeast of Postville, Postville, Allamakee County, IA

189

Red Sea  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

2013-04-16

190

Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

Ward, P.E.

1963-01-01

191

Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

2007-01-01

192

CMOS Bridging Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the performance of two test generation techniques, stuck fault testing and current testing, when applied to CMOS bridging faults. Accurate simulation of such faults mandated the development of several new design automation tools, including an analog-digital fault simulator. The results of this simulation are analyzed. It is shown that stuck fault test generation, while inherently incapable of

Thomas M. Storey; Wojciech Maly

1990-01-01

193

Geometry and scaling relations of a population of very small rift-related normal faults  

E-print Network

Geometry and scaling relations of a population of very small rift-related normal faults Roy W normal faults within the Solite Quarry of the Dan River rift basin range in length from a few millimetres and scaling re- lations of a population of exceptionally well exposed, small (L 1.25 m) normal faults within

194

Fault Separation Gestures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the relationship between fault slip direction and fault separation by varying the geometry of faulted layers, slip direction, and the perspective from which these are viewed. They work in teams to explore these complex geometric relationships via gestures.

Ormand, Carol

195

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during selected samplings. One set of ground-water samples was collected for helium-3/tritium and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) age dating. Several lines of evidence indicate that surface water is the primary input to the Straight Creek ground-water system. Straight Creek streamflow and water levels in wells closest to the apex of the Straight Creek debris fan and closest to Straight Creek itself appear to respond to the same seasonal inputs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in Straight Creek surface water and ground water are similar, and concentrations of most dissolved constituents in most Straight Creek surface-water and shallow (debris-flow and alluvial) aquifer ground-water samples correlate strongly with sulfate (concentrations decrease linearly with sulfate in a downgradient direction). After infiltration of surface water, dilution along the flow path is the dominant mechanism controlling ground-water chemistry. However, concentrations of some constituents can be higher in ground water than can be accounted for by concentrations in Straight Creek surface water, and additional sources of these constituents must therefore be inferred. Constituents for which concentrations in ground water can be high relative to surface water include calcium, magnesium, strontium, silica, sodium, and potassium in ground water from debris-flow and alluvial aquifers and manganese, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium, and potassium in ground water from the bedrock aquifer. All ground water is a calcium sulfate type, often at or near gypsum saturation because of abundant gypsum in the aquifer material developed from co-existing calcite and pyrite mineralization. Calcite dissolution, the major buffering mechanism for bedrock aquifer ground water, also contributes to relatively higher calcium concentrations in some ground water. The main source of the second most abundant cation, magnesium, is probably dissolution of magnesium-rich carbonates or silicates. Strontium may also be

Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

2005-01-01

196

Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

2005-01-01

197

Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

Communications Directorate, Department O.

198

Finding Fault with Faults: A Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe our effort in extending this work beyond the initial software contruction. Our area of focus is determining the rate of fault injection over a sequence of successive builds, first observing that software faults may be seen to fall into two distinct classes some faults are incorporated during the initial coding effort, while others are added in successive software builds.

Munson, John C.; Nikora, Allen P.

1997-01-01

199

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2011-04-14

200

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23

201

Mountain front migration and drainage captures related to fault segment linkage and growth: The Polopos transpressive fault zone (southeastern Betics, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polopos E-W- to ESE-WNW-oriented dextral-reverse fault zone is formed by the North Alhamilla reverse fault and the North and South Gafarillos dextral faults. It is a conjugate fault system of the sinistral NNE-SSW Palomares fault zone, active from the late most Tortonian (?7 Ma) up to the late Pleistocene (?70 ky) in the southeastern Betics. The helicoidal geometry of the fault zone permits to shift SE-directed movement along the South Cabrera reverse fault to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical Gafarillos fault segments, in between. Since the Messinian, fault activity migrated southwards forming the South Gafarillos fault and displacing the active fault-related mountain-front from the north to the south of Sierra de Polopos; whilst recent activity of the North Alhamilla reverse fault migrated westwards. The Polopos fault zone determined the differential uplift between the Sierra Alhamilla and the Tabernas-Sorbas basin promoting the middle Pleistocene capture that occurred in the southern margin of the Sorbas basin. Continued tectonic uplift of the Sierra Alhamilla-Polopos and Cabrera anticlinoria and local subsidence associated to the Palomares fault zone in the Vera basin promoted the headward erosion of the Aguas river drainage that captured the Sorbas basin during the late Pleistocene.

Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Azañón, José Miguel; Pérez-Romero, Joaquín; Villegas, Irene

2013-01-01

202

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Swanson, Sue

203

Transition Fault Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay fault testing is becoming more important as VLSI chips become more complex. Components that are fragments of functions, such as those in gate-array designs, need a general model of a delay fault and a feasible method of generating test patterns and simulating the fault. The authors present such a model, called a transition fault, which when used with parallel-pattern,

John Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom; Barry Rosen; Vijay Iyengar

1987-01-01

204

Red Clover  

MedlinePLUS

... et al. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2007;(4):CD001395. Nelson HD, ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on ...

205

Flight elements: Fault detection and fault management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault management for an intelligent computational system must be developed using a top down integrated engineering approach. An approach proposed includes integrating the overall environment involving sensors and their associated data; design knowledge capture; operations; fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration; testability; causal models including digraph matrix analysis; and overall performance impacts on the hardware and software architecture. Implementation of the concept to achieve a real time intelligent fault detection and management system will be accomplished via the implementation of several objectives, which are: Development of fault tolerant/FDIR requirement and specification from a systems level which will carry through from conceptual design through implementation and mission operations; Implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, and reconfiguration at all system levels providing fault isolation and system integration; Optimize system operations to manage degraded system performance through system integration; and Lower development and operations costs through the implementation of an intelligent real time fault detection and fault management system and an information management system.

Lum, H.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Edge, J. T.; Lawler, D.

1990-01-01

206

Slab break-off influence on the formation of the major intra-continental faulting systems during India-Asia convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing global tomographic images and Asian tectonics reconstruction, allows formulating hypotheses on how deep subduction and indentation tectonics are coupled that we tested by doing numerical models which show the link between slab breakoff event and initiation of strike-slip faults in the upper plate. The long term evolution of Indian lithosphere during the indentation process has been deduced from remnants of slabs in the mantle shown by P-waves global tomography. A complete breakoff occurs at the transition between the Tethys oceanic subduction and the Indian continental one (OCB), then the Indian lithosphere resumes subducting, but with drastic variation of timing from west to east, late subduction far north of the trench to the west, early subduction following by a second breakoff more to the east. The long term evolution of the Asian continental deformation constrains the age and style of the upper plate deformation during the collision. Drastic changes occur in the fault pattern, with successive strike-slip faults crossing the entire Asian continent. The Bangong-Red River initiated early in the collision time, to the south of the collision zone, while the Altyn Tagh fault initiates later in the collision time, to the north of the collision zone. We perform self-consistent three-dimensional numerical models of coupled subducting/upper plates in an ambient mantle. We find that when slab detaches at the OCB, the subduction of the buoyant continent progressively decreases the driving force available, yet transient stresses propagate far into the upper plate interiors, localising along a belt at a high angle with the trench. The large stresses in the upper plate interiors propagate at large distance from the margin with a trend similar to the major lithospheric faults of Asia. The successive breakoff episodes evidenced using global tomography likely provided the conditions for large stress surge in the Asian lithosphere that resulted in the formation of the long-lived major intra-continental faulting systems, first of the Red River and second of the Altyn Tagh. The transient coupling gradients at the trench caused by the breakoff events have generated successive localised stress pulses which provide the conditions for episodic nucleation of lithospheric faults within the Asian continent and their link to deep processes.

capitanio, F. A.; Replumaz, A.

2013-12-01

207

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-08-01

208

Late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luoyunshan piedmont fault is located west of Linfen basin, controlling the western border of the basin. Based on the fault 1:50000 geological mapping, river and gully terraces and piedmont faulted landforms survey, this paper mainly introduces late Quaternary faulted landforms characteristics on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault. Luoyunshan piedmont alluvial-pluvial fans are divided into three stages, named alluvial-pluvial fans D1, D2 and D3. The gullies on the upthrown plate of Luoyunshan piedmont fault has five terraces: T1~T5. Alluvial-pluvial fans D1 and terraces T1 and T2 formed in the early and middle Holocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D2 and terraces T3 formed in the middle-late stage of late Pleistocene. Alluvial-pluvial fans D3 and terraces T4 and T5 formed in the middle-late stage of middle Pleistocene. Faulted landforms characteristics on different parts of the middle segment of the Luo Yunshan piedmont fault are different. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D1 is about 2.9m and 3m respectively in the Xifanggou area and the piedmont of southwest of Yukou village, Jindian town. The dislocation of alluvial-pluvial fans D2 is about 2.5m, 4m, 6m and 7.7m respectively in the southwest of Puzi village, Tumen town, piedmont of west of Yangjiazhuang village, west of Jingcun village and piedmont of southwest of Langquangou, Xiangling town. The faulted landforms on the Tumen-Jiazhu village segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault are obvious. The latest activity times of the fault is Holocene. The latest activity times of Tumen segment and Longci segment of the fault are early Holocene and middle-late Holocene respectively. Since the Middle-Late Pleistocene an activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault is 0.18~0.54mm/yr, and activity showed an increasing trend from north to south. Since Early-Middle Holocene it is 0.4~0.9mm/yr, and fault activities mainly concentrated on the segment from Xifanggou to Yukou village. An increasing trend of the activity rate of the middle segment of Luoyunshan piedmont fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene, it is in good agreement with an increasing trend of the uplift rate of the terraces on the upthrown plate of the fault from the Middle-Late Pleistocene to Holocene and the sedimentation rate of Linfen basin which also has an increasing trend from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene.

Sun, C.; Xie, X.; Xu, J.

2013-12-01

209

Paleoseismicity of the Alpine fault seismic gap, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paleoseismicity of a historic seismic gap on the Alpine fault of New Zealand has been estimated from an analysis of vertical movements along the fault. The average earthquake recurrence interval is based on 14C-dated terraces that record river downcutting across the fault, and earthquake displacements are determined from young scarps along the fault. Large earthquakes with an average recurrence interval of 500 yr, a rupture length of 270 km, a maximum displacement of 9 m, and magnitudes of ˜8 are indicated for the central part of the Alpine fault. In addition to the coseismic movement, displaced and deformed surfaces indicate that some of the movement is by continuous, aseismic slip within hot schists to the southeast of the fault. When the aseismic part is considered, the earthquake throws and recurrence intervals are consistent with the rate of compressional movement between the Indian and Pacific plates.

Adams, John

1980-02-01

210

Evidence of predominatly reverse-slip on Billefjorden fault zone, northern Dickensonland, Spitsbergen  

SciTech Connect

The Billefjorden fault zone is a 0.5 to 1.0 km wide zone of parallel and branching faults trending N4/sup 0/W. The Balliolbreen fault, the principal strand, has reverse separation and displaces Hecla Hoek metamorphic rocks on the east against Devonian Old Red Sandstone on the west. Large displacement is not required to explain the absence of Old Red Sandstone east of the fault because the Old Red Sandstone thins rapidly to the east. Prior to being overlain by Carboniferous rocks, the Balliolbreen fault dipped about 60/sup 0/ and other fault strands dip 39/sup 0/ to 68/sup 0/. Folds in Old red Sandstone are tight and overturned adjacent to the fault zone and become open and upright to the west. Fold axes and thrusts with separations not exceeding a few hundred meters have sinuous patterns and trends ranging from N40/sup 0/E to N45/sup 0/W; they do not intersect the fault zone with consistent trend characteristic of strike-slip faults. The gentle dip of individual fault strands and the pattern of folds and thrusts suggest east-west compression and predominatly reverse-slip. Eight samples of Old Red Sandstone have yielded a paleomagnetic pole of 32/sup 0/N, 160/sup 0/E, similar (within errors) to others determined for Spitsbergen. Comparison with paleopoles in upper Silurian and lower Devonian rocks in Norway indicates either no movement or right-slip of Spitsbergen with respect to Norway. These results do not support earlier suggestions of post-Old Red Sandstone left-slip of 200 to 1000 km on the Billefjorden fault zone.

Lamar, D.L.; Reed, W.E.; Douglass, D.N.

1985-01-01

211

Every Place Has Its Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site covers the four main types of faults (not including growth faults): the normal fault, reverse fault, transcurrent (strike-slip) fault, and thrust fault. Animations show the type of movement for each different type of fault. There is a section on the initial stage of a landform, containing a diagram of a graben and horst system. Also included are photographs of fault scarps along Hebgen Lake, Montana.

212

Secondary Normal Faulting Near the Terminus of a Strike-Slip Fault Segment in the Lake Mead Fault System, SE Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 95 km long Lake Mead Fault System (LMFS), located about 50 km east of Las Vegas and about 100 km west of the relatively undeformed Colorado Plateau, consists of a group of NE/SW-trending Miocene left-lateral strike-slip faults with a total offset of 65-110 km. Previous work suggests that the LMFS acted as a transform zone to accommodate differential extension between the southern Basin and Range to the north and the metamorphic core complexes of the Colorado River extensional corridor to the south. Studies of individual faults of the LMFS have shown that strike-slip faulting was the dominant mode of deformation while normal faulting, pull-apart basins, and push up structures formed as localized secondary structures related to strike-slip faults. This study focuses on the portion of the LMFS west of the Overton Arm of Lake Mead, which consists of the Bitter Spring Valley Fault (BSVF) and the Hamblin Bay Fault (HBF). Both faults have estimated offsets of 20-60 km, but past mapping efforts have been inconsistent with respect to the BSVF trace locations and degree of fault complexity. In order to demonstrate that the apparent complexity of the BSVF is the result of segmentation and secondary normal faults associated with individual segments, we focused field mapping efforts on an apparent segment of the BSVF near Pinto Ridge, located southwest of the Echo Hills and about 5 km NW of the more prominent HBF. We have identified nine normal faults that initiate near the SW tip of a segment of the BSVF and die out to the south before reaching the HBF. The offset on all these faults is a maximum at their northern intersection with the BSVF, then steadily decreases to zero away from the BSVF. These normal faults range from 0.6 km-2.25 km in length and have variable fault trace patterns. The normal fault originating closest to the SW tip of the BSVF segment curves with increasing distance away towards parallelism with the BSVF. The eight other normal faults are all oriented approximately N/S. These secondary faults all intersect the BSVF at angles of 40-60 degrees and the intersection angles typically decrease away from the BSVF segment tip. Linear elastic fracture mechanics predicts that when a mode II fault slips, it causes stress concentrations near the tips of the sliding fault. Furthermore, resultant secondary tensional fracturing is predicted to be oriented at 70.5 degrees to the main fault in the extensional quadrant. This angle can be larger or smaller for mixed mode cases and is also affected by the frictional properties of the fault. Typically, these features are referred to as tailcracks, and have mostly been documented at the cm to m scale as mode I joints. Given strike-slip faults like the BSVF where cumulative slip is on the order of tens of km, large-scale tailcracks can be manifested as normal faults. We thus interpret these normal faults to be tailcracks that formed in a locally perturbed stress field near the SW tip of a segment of the BSVF. We conclude that in the vicinity of Pinto Ridge, the left-lateral BSVF is less complex than has been previously mapped, occurring as a strike-slip fault segment flanked by secondary normal faults near the SW tip.

Marshall, S. T.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2003-12-01

213

Fault Mapping in Haiti  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS geologist Carol Prentice surveying features that have been displaced by young movements on the Enriquillo fault in southwest Haiti.  The January 2010 Haiti earthquake was associated with the Enriquillo fault....

214

Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

Merifield, P. M. (principal investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

1976-01-01

215

Mechanics of discontinuous faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault traces consist of numerous discrete segments, commonly arranged as echelon arrays. In some cases, discontinuities influence the distribution of slip and seismicity along faults. To analyze fault segments, we derive a two-dimensional solution for any number of nonintersecting cracks arbitrarily located in a homogeneous elastic material. The solution includes the elastic interaction between cracks. Crack surfaces are assumed to

P. Segall; D. D. Pollard

1980-01-01

216

Active Faulting in Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to faulting from the Quaternary Period and the Holocene Epoch in the State of Idaho. They will examine a map showing the distribution of these faults and answer questions concerning groundwater circulation and earthquake potential, and determine which geologic province has the most neotectonically active faults (15,000 years or younger).

217

ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

218

Seismic imaging of the Alpine Fault near Inchbonnie, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transpressive Alpine Fault is the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates across the South Island of New Zealand. Earthquakes on the Alpine Fault and related structures pose a serious risk to many urban centers, including the city of Christchurch. Although it is a major feature on satellite images, the Alpine Fault is a difficult target for surface studies along much of its length; it mostly traverses densely forested and mountainous terrain and where it occurs in the lowlands it is usually covered by recent sediments. To investigate the Alpine Fault at a rare accessible location (Inchbonnie), we have acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data along five 380-1200 m long lines. Images produced from these data reveal a glacially overdeepened valley containing a thick sequence of diverse glacigenic sediments that have been disrupted by three en echelon strands of the principal Alpine Fault and several secondary fault strands. Based on their seismic facies, the sedimentary sequence is interpreted to comprise basal lacustrine beds overlain successively by alluvial-colluvial deposits that possibly include the remnants of large landslides, deltaic-fan units, and braided river gravels. Whereas the principal Alpine Fault strands disrupt the entire post-glacial sedimentary section and likely offset basement at depths up to 400 m, most of the secondary faults either merge with the principal fault strands at shallow depths or are surficial features limited to the sedimentary section.

Carpentier, S. F. A.; Green, A. G.; Langridge, R.; Hurter, F.; Kaiser, A.; Horstmeyer, H.; Finnemore, M.

2013-01-01

219

Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1–2 mm) fault-parallel veins.

W. Ashley Griffith; Stefan Nielsen; Giulio Di Toro; Steven A. F. Smith

2010-01-01

220

Trishear for curved faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

Brandenburg, J. P.

2013-08-01

221

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

222

Association of the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summervile with a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system and triple-fault junctions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic-reflection data were integrated with other geophysical, geologic, and seismicity data to better determine the location and nature of buried faults in the Charleston, South Carolina, region. Our results indicate that the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake and seismicity near Summerville are related to local stresses caused by a 12?? bend in the East Coast fault system (ECFS) and two triple-fault junctions. One triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northwest-trending Ashley River fault with the two segments of the ECFS north and south of the bend. The other triple junction is formed by the intersection of the northeast-trending Summerville fault and a newly discovered northwest-trending Berkeley fault with the ECFS about 10 km north of the bend. The Summerville fault is a northwest-dipping border fault of the Triassic-age Jedburg basin that is undergoing reverse-style reactivation. This reverse-style reactivation is unusual because the Summerville fault parallels the regional stress field axis, suggesting that the reactivation is from stresses applied by dextral motion on the ECFS. The southwest-dip and reverse-type motion of the Berkeley fault are interpreted from seismicity data and a seismic-reflection profile in the western part of the study area. Our results also indicate that the East Coast fault system is a Paleozoic basement fault and that its reactivation since early Mesozoic time has fractured through the overlying allochthonous terranes.

Marple, R.; Miller, R.

2006-01-01

223

Fault geometry and cumulative offsets in the central Coast Ranges, California: Evidence for northward increasing slip along the San Gregorio-San Simeon-Hosgri fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of the dip, depth extent, and amount of cumulative displacement along the major faults in the central California Coast Ranges are controversial. We use detailed aeromagnetic data to estimate these parameters for the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and other faults. The recently acquired aeromagnetic data provide an areally consistent data set that crosses the onshore-offshore transition without disruption, which is particularly important for the mostly offshore San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault. Our modeling, constrained by exposed geology and in some cases, drill-hole and seismic-reflection data, indicates that the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and Reliz-Rinconada faults dip steeply throughout the seismogenic crust. Deviations from steep dips may result from local fault interactions, transfer of slip between faults, or overprinting by transpression since the late Miocene. Given that such faults are consistent with predominantly strike-slip displacement, we correlate geophysical anomalies offset by these faults to estimate cumulative displacements. We find a northward increase in right-lateral displacement along the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault that is mimicked by Quaternary slip rates. Although overall slip rates have decreased over the lifetime of the fault, the pattern of slip has not changed. Northward increase in right-lateral displacement is balanced in part by slip added by faults, such as the Reliz-Rinconada, Oceanic–West Huasna, and (speculatively) Santa Ynez River faults to the east.

Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Graymer, R.W.; Colgan, J.P.; Wentworth, C.M.; Stanley, R.G.

2012-01-01

224

Accelerated Fault Simulation and Fault Grading in Combinational Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of fault simulation and fault grading are introduced by a general description of the problem. Based upon the well-known concept of restricting fault simulation to the fanout stems and of combining it with a backward traversal inside the fanout-free regions of the circuit, proposals are presented to further accelerate fault simulation and fault grading. These proposals aim at

Kurt Antreich; Michael H. Schulz

1987-01-01

225

On the Emulation of Software Faults by Software Fault Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the emulation of software faults by fault injection. In a first experiment, a set of real software faults has been compared with faults injected by a SWIFI tool (Xception) to evaluate the accuracy of the injected faults. Results revealed the limitations of Xception (and other SWIFI tools) in the emulation of different classes

Henrique Madeira; Diamantino Costa; Marco Vieira

2000-01-01

226

A Hybrid Fault Event Detection Algorithm Using Fault Recorder Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

When fault occurs in power grid, a lot of alarms and records are generated in substations. These are secondary circuit signals, fault recorder and PMU data. Fault recorder data contains the details of fault evolution, which can be used for diagnosis fault occurrence time, circuit breaker operation events. It is crucial for power grid diagnosis and intelligent alarm functions. However,

Kang Taifeng; Wu Wenchuan; Sun Hongbin; Zhang Boming; Qian Xiao

2010-01-01

227

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

228

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

229

Complex Rift-Parallel, Strike-Slip Faulting in Iceland: Kinematic Analysis of the Gljúfurá Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-S striking Gljúfurá Fault Zone is an anomalous, dextral, strike-slip fault cutting Tertiary basaltic lavas in west-central Iceland. The fault zone is nearly parallel to structures formed at extinct spreading centers that were active from ~15 to 7 Ma ago in this region, suggesting ridge-parallel strike-slip faulting. The fault zone is well exposed in a river gorge for ~2 km along a well-defined regional lineament. The combined damage zone and fault core are about 50 m wide revealing an especially intense and complex style of deformation compared to other Icelandic fault zones. Basaltic lava flows on either side of the fault zone are cut by numerous closely spaced (10s of cm to m) Riedel shear fractures that grade into a fault core of progressively more intensely fractured lava and strongly altered and mineralized fault breccias, cataclasite and fault gouge. Riedel shears are frequently rotated or bend into the main fault zone. Distinctive bands of fault breccia derived from lava flow interiors, flow tops and dike rock are mapped for tens of meters along strike and reach thicknesses of several meters wide. Breccias contain angular basaltic fragments that range from few meters to millimeters. Fault breccias are typically clast supported with a matix of finely comminuted basalt clasts to clay gouge. 'Jigsaw' breccias are supported by a calcite matrix. Discrete faults and shear fractures show dominantly gently plunging slickenlines and abundant kinematic indicators showing dextral>normal oblique slip. Zeolite and calcite veins show multiple episodes of extension. Local left steps in fault zone are marked by extensional duplex structures with vertical separations of tens of meters bounded by major strike-slip fault strands. The overall architecture of the fault zone in interpreted as an exhumed flower structure. Numerous deformed and undeformed basaltic dikes sub-parallel the deformation structures, suggesting synkinematic intrusion. Some dikes deviate from the strike of the fault zone and cut across the deformation fabrics. Although no features could be correlated across the fault zone to constrain the lateral displacement, empirical gouge thickness/displacement scaling relationships suggest at least several kilometers of slip. Previous studies interpreted the Gljúfurá Fault Zone was one of a family of parallel, strike-slip “bookshelf” faults associated with a transform fault zone linking two now-extinct rifts. Unlike the well-known rift-parallel, strike-slip faults of the South Iceland Seismic Zone and the Tjornes Fracture Zone, the Gljúfurá Fault Zone appears to be an isolated structure with substantially larger displacement that is discordant with surrounding basement lineaments. Major strike-slip faults of this kind can provide important clues in the reconstruction of ridge-hot spot interactions in Iceland.

Nanfito, A.; Karson, J. A.

2009-12-01

230

The San Andreas Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the San Andreas Fault in California; specifically what has caused the fault, where it is located, surface features that characterize it, and movement that has occurred. General earthquake information includes an explanation of what earthquakes are, and earthquake magnitude versus intensity. Earthquakes that have occurred along the fault are covered, as well as where the next large one may occur and what can be done about large earthquakes in general.

Schulz, Sandra; Wallace, Robert

231

Defining the mechanical fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simply defined, a fault is a fracture on which slip is localized during an earthquake. However, as the number of studies on fault zones grows, so too does our understanding of the complexity of fault structure and evolution. We examine the structure and evolution of faults related to the Landers and Hector Mine ruptures in the Mojave Desert, within the eastern California shear zone. Following both the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, we used trapped waves to delimit a 100-200 m wide zone of highly damaged rock and found significant velocity and shear modulus reduction within this zone to at least 5 km depth. In addition, we tracked the healing of these fault zones. Our study of both fault zones showed an increase in velocity in the years following the mainshocks. The Hector Mine earthquake shook and re-damaged the Landers fault zone resulting in a temporary reversal of healing. InSAR and shear-wave anisotropy studies complement the refraction wave studies by providing a regionally extensive view of the deformation field. Anisotropy studies show rotation in microcrack orientation along strike of the Hector Mine earthquake and also variable distribution of crack density. Post-seismic InSAR images indicate poroelastic rebound is a major player in the deformation fields following both the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes. Localized zones of post-seismic deformation detected by InSAR correspond to regions of high crack density and velocity reduction observed by anisotropy and trapped wave studies. While we see healing of the fault zones within the first few years after rupture, long-term reduction in the fault-zone rigidity is evident from coseismic InSAR images spanning both the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes. We see strain localized on compliant zones of nearby unbroken faults, i.e., the Pinto Mountain, Calico and Rodman faults, indicating that active fault zones are probably permanently softer than the surrounding more intact rock.

Vidale, J. E.; Li, Y.; Fialko, Y. A.; Cochran, E. S.; Peltzer, G.

2004-05-01

232

Its Not My Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students become familiar with strike-slip faults, normal faults, reverse faults and visualize these geological structures using cardboard or a plank of wood, a stack of books, protractor, and a spring scale. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Shaky Quake. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

233

It's Not Your Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn about tectonic plate movement. They will discover that we can measure the relative motions of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault. Students will be able to compare and contrast movements on either side of the San Andreas Fault, calculate the amount of movement of a tectonic plate over a period of time, and describe the processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes along the fault.

234

Red Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.

235

Finding Red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

236

Fault detection and fault tolerance in robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots are used in inaccessible or hazardous environments in order to alleviate some of the time, cost and risk involved in preparing men to endure these conditions. In order to perform their expected tasks, the robots are often quite complex, thus increasing their potential for failures. If men must be sent into these environments to repair each component failure in the robot, the advantages of using the robot are quickly lost. Fault tolerant robots are needed which can effectively cope with failures and continue their tasks until repairs can be realistically scheduled. Before fault tolerant capabilities can be created, methods of detecting and pinpointing failures must be perfected. This paper develops a basic fault tree analysis of a robot in order to obtain a better understanding of where failures can occur and how they contribute to other failures in the robot. The resulting failure flow chart can also be used to analyze the resiliency of the robot in the presence of specific faults. By simulating robot failures and fault detection schemes, the problems involved in detecting failures for robots are explored in more depth.

Visinsky, Monica; Walker, Ian D.; Cavallaro, Joseph R.

1992-01-01

237

EARTHQUAKE RUPTURES ON ROUGH FAULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural fault surfaces exhibit roughness at all scales, with root-mean-square height fluctuations of order 10??3 to 10??2 times the profile length. We study earthquake rupture propagation on such faults, using strongly rate-weakening fault friction\\u000a and off-fault plasticity. Inelastic deformation bounds stresses to reasonable values and prevents fault opening. Stress perturbations\\u000a induced by slip on rough faults cause irregular rupture propagation

Eric M. Dunham; Jeremy E. Kozdon; David Belanger; Lin Cong

238

Spatiotemporal patterns of fault slip rates across the Central Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns in fault slip rates through time and space are examined across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38 and 39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and 10Be surface exposure dating, mean fault slip rates are defined, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~ 20 ka and ~ 150 ka), rates through time and interactions among multiple faults are examined over 10 4-10 5 year timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~ 150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~ 20 ky and ~ 150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 + 0.3/-0.1 mm year - 1 along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Data permit rates that are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~ 20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~ 20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 + 0.6/-0.3 mm year - 1 at Lundy Canyon site) to the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 ). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin is indicative of a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveals that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection, extension is accommodated within a diffuse zone of normal and oblique faults, with extension rates increasing northward on the Fish Lake Valley fault. Where faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone terminate northward into the Mina Deflection, extension rates increase northward along the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone to ~ 0.7 mm year - 1 in northern Mono Basin. This spatial pattern suggests that extension is transferred from more easterly fault systems, e.g., Fish Lake Valley fault, and localized on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone as the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt faulting is transferred through the Mina Deflection.

Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Finkel, Robert C.

2011-01-01

239

Spatiotemporal Patterns of Fault Slip Rates Across the Central Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine patterns in fault slip rates through time and space across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38-39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and Be-10 surface exposure dating, we define mean fault slip rates, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~20 ka and ~150 ka), we examine rates through time and interactions among multiple faults over 10-100 ky timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~20 ky and ~150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm/yr (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 +0.3/-0.1 mm/yr along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Our data permit that rates are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 +0.6/-0.3 mm/yr at Lundy Canyon site) and the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm/yr). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin reflects a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveal that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection, extension is accommodated within a diffuse zone of normal and oblique faults, with extension rates increasing northward on the Fish Lake Valley fault. Where faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone terminate northward into the Mina Deflection, extension rates increase northward along the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone to ~0.7 mm/yr in northern Mono Basin. This spatial pattern suggests that extension is transferred from faults systems to the east (e.g. Fish Lake Valley fault) and localized on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone as Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt faulting is transferred through the Mina Deflection.

Rood, D. H.; Burbank, D.; Finkel, R. C.

2010-12-01

240

SFT: scalable fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency---requiring

Fabrizio Petrini; Jarek Nieplocha; Vinod Tipparaju

2006-01-01

241

Denali Fault: Gillette Pass  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View north of Denali fault trace at Gillette Pass. this view shows that the surface rupture reoccupies the previous fault scarp. Also the right-lateral offset of these stream gullies has developed since deglaciation in the last 10,000 years or so....

2008-12-15

242

Denali Fault: Gillette Pass  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View northward of mountain near Gillette Pass showing sackung features. Here the mountaintop moved downward like a keystone, producing an uphill-facing scarp. The main Denali fault trace is on the far side of the mountain and a small splay fault is out of view below the photo....

2008-12-15

243

Puente Hills Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puente Hills Fault posses a disaster threat for Los Angeles region. Earthquake simulations on this fault estimate damages over $250 billion. Visualizations created by SDSC using the data computed from earthquake simulations helps one to fathom the propagation of siesmic waves and the areas affected.

244

Fault rocks lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is intended to give students some hands on experience looking at fault rocks with a suite of cataclasites and mylonites I have collected. The focus is on identifying key textural features in both hand sample and thin section and understanding how deformation within a fault zone varies with depth.

Singleton, John

245

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new replication algorithm that is able to tolerate Byzantine faults. We believe that Byzantine- fault-tolerant algorithms will be increasingly important in the future because malicious attacks and software errors are increasingly common and can cause faulty nodes to exhibit arbitrary behavior. Whereas previous algorithms assumed a synchronous system or were too slow to be used in

Miguel Castro; Barbara Liskov

1999-01-01

246

Folds and Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how rock layers are folded and faulted and how to represent these structures in maps and cross sections. They will use playdough to represent layers of rock and make cuts in varying orientations to represent faults and other structures.

247

Denali Fault: Susitna Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Helicopters and satellite phones were integral to the geologic field response. Here, Peter Haeussler is calling a seismologist to pass along the discovery of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault. View is to the north up the Susitna Glacier. The Denali fault trace lies in the background where the two lan...

2008-12-15

248

River restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is

Ellen Wohl; Paul L. Angermeier; Brian Bledsoe; G. Mathias Kondolf; Larry MacDonnell; David M. Merritt; Margaret A. Palmer; N. LeRoy Poff; David Tarboton

2005-01-01

249

Merguerian, Charles; and Sanders, J. E., 1996a, Diversion of the Bronx River in New York City -evidence for postglacial surface faulting?, p. 131-145 in Hanson, G. N., chm., Geology  

E-print Network

-SSW-trending strike-valley lowland and occupies a narrow N- S-trending gorge, here named the Snuff Mill gorge, cut literature contains two concepts about the origin of the Snuff Mill gorge, which is a first-order drainage the Bronx River to cut the Snuff Mill gorge, Kemp admitted that the duration of the ice-blocking episode

Merguerian, Charles

250

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

251

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

252

Structural analysis of compressional and extensional deformation within the Wood River and Milligen Formations, south-central, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvanian to Permian Wood River Formation consists of calcareous and siliciclastic rocks that were deposited unconformably on argillaceous rocks of the Devonian Milligen Formation. The original depositional contact between the two formations is preserved locally; however, the contact was also mapped as a thrust, a normal fault, a reactivated thrust with a normal sense of movement, and as a sheared unconformity with an indeterminate sense of movement. Early reverse movement with northeast tectonic transport along the Milligen-Wood River contact is documented by mesoscopic and microscopic field evidence, including Riedel shears, drag folds, angular relations of cleavage in the fault plane, and oriented thin sections. Faults that separate middle Wood River in the upper plate from upper Wood River in the lower plate are also associated with this early phase of thrusting. Tertiary extensional deformation resulted in high-angle and low-angle normal faulting with some reactivation of Mesozoic thrusts. High-angle fault have normal, dip-slip or normal, obliquie-slip movements. Low-angle normal faults with north-west to southwest tectonic transport cut the Milligen and Wood River Formations, as well as units within the Tertiary Challis Volcanics. The movement sense on the normal faults in documented by drag folds, the angular relation of extension joints relative to the fault plane, shear steps, and oriented thin sections. Faults that separate younger sequences of the Wood River in the upper plate from older sequences in the lower plate are also associated with this phase of normal faulting.

Ratchford, M.E.; Reid, R.R. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

1993-04-01

253

Fly Up the Hudson River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows the western end of Long Island, New York City, the New Jersey shore, and the mouth of the Hudson River. The imagery is Landsat Thematic Mapper data using the shortwave infrared, red, and green channels. Terrain information comes from the USGS Digital Elevation Map data.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

254

Seismic site characterization for the Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpine Fault in New Zealand (South Island) is one of the largest active plate-bounding continental fault zones on earth with earthquakes of magnitude 7.9 occuring every 200-400 years. Due to the surface exposure and the shallow depth of mechanical and chemical transitions it is a globally significant natural laboratory. Within the ICDP Deep-Fault-Drilling-Project Alpine Fault (DFDP-AF; https://wiki.gns.cri.nz/DFDP) a drill hole shall give insight into the geological structure of the fault zone and its evolution to understand the related deformation and earthquake processes. With the help of advanced seismic imaging techniques the shallow structure of the Alpine Fault is imaged to find the most suitable drill site location. A new seismic reflection profile has been acquired in 2011 by the WhataDUSIE project team consisting of partners from the University of Otago (New Zealand), TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) and the University of Alberta (Canada). The reflection profile, located in the Whataroa river valley, has a total length of about 5 km. Up to 643 geophones with spacings between 4-8 m recorded the approximately 100 shot points along the profile line. Single shot gathers as well as preliminary imaging results will be presented. The high-quality data show various indicators of the Alpine Fault such as strong reflections and distorted first-arrival wavefields which are clearly visible already in single shot gathers. With the help of high resolution seismic images we can study the shallow structures of the subsurface thus gaining information about the location and dip of reflectors. Further detailed processing and intensive interpretative work will enable a seismic site characterization providing important information for the selection of the borehole location. Additionally the high resolution seismic images themselves allow a better understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic settings.

Glomb, Vera; Buske, Stefan; Kovacs, Adrienn; Gorman, Andrew

2013-04-01

255

Fault-slip analyses of brittle structures in the Corruvagge valley along the Pärvie fault in North Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a dozen large faults have been subjected to glacially-induced faulting in northern Scandinavia. These faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and they could be of Precambrian age with a long deformation history including repeated periods of reactivations. Based on their size, it has been proposed that these faults have hosted unusually large intraplate earthquakes. These faults are the targets for a scientific drilling project under development for the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the "Drilling into Active Faults in Northern Europe" (Kukkonen et al. 2010). A major issue to be address before submitting the full IDCP proposal regards the question: Did the fault scarps host one large mega-earthquake or has it hosted several smaller events. To address this question, a field study was conducted in the summer of 2011, at three locations along the Pärvie fault in northern Sweden. The Pärvie fault scarp is ~160 km in length and 10-15 m in height, and it is the longest known postglacial fault in the world. It is suggested that the Pärvie fault hosted a mega-earthquake (M?8.2; Arvidsson, 1996) at the end or just after the last ice age, and seismic monitoring reveal that it remains seismically active today (e.g. Lindblom, 2011), with several hundreds of microearthquakes a year (M?3). Brittle structures were first collected in two locations by Riad (1990). Additional data have now been collected at three new locations. The Corruvagge valley is the most impressive site from the recent campaign, where data were collected along a profile that followed a dried-up river valley that cuts the Pärvie fault at approximately a perpendicular angle. This site offers a unique opportunity for a detailed investigation of brittle deformation from the hanging wall to the foot wall. About 1000 kinematic indicators were collected, in at least three different fracture filling minerals. We are currently in the process of evaluating structural fault-slip analyses of brittle structures; (2) chemical identification of minerals; and (3) assess the age of one sample. The anticipated results from the fault-slip analysis is the relative age between structures and together with the paleostress analysis and the absolute dating it will strengthen the chronological order of the different stress fields that has affected the fault through time.

Bäckström, A.; Rantakokko, N.; Ask, M. V. S.

2012-04-01

256

How clays weaken faults.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weakness of upper crustal faults has been variably attributed to (i) low values of normal stress, (ii) elevated pore-fluid pressure, and (iii) low frictional strength. Direct observations on natural faults rocks provide new evidence for the role of frictional properties on fault strength, as illustrated by our recent work on samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drillhole at Parkfield, California. Mudrock samples from fault zones at ~3066 m and ~3296 m measured depth show variably spaced and interconnected networks of displacement surfaces that consist of host rock particles that are abundantly coated by polished films with occasional striations. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study of the surfaces reveal the occurrence of neocrystallized thin-film clay coatings containing illite-smectite (I-S) and chlorite-smectite (C-S) phases. X-ray texture goniometry shows that the crystallographic fabric of these faults rocks is characteristically low, in spite of an abundance of clay phases. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the illitic mix-layered coatings demonstrate recent crystallization and reveal the initiation of an "older" fault strand (~8 Ma) at 3066 m measured depth, and a "younger" fault strand (~4 Ma) at 3296 m measured depth. Today, the younger strand is the site of active creep behavior, reflecting continued activation of these clay-weakened zones. We propose that the majority of slow fault creep is controlled by the high density of thin (< 100nm thick) nano-coatings on fracture surfaces, which become sufficiently smectite-rich and interconnected at low angles to allow slip with minimal breakage of stronger matrix clasts. Displacements are accommodated by localized frictional slip along coated particle surfaces and hydrated smectitic phases, in combination with intracrystalline deformation of the clay lattice, associated with extensive mineral dissolution, mass transfer and continued growth of expandable layers. The localized concentration of smectite in both I-S and C-S minerals, which probably extends to greater depths (<10 km) is responsible for fault weakening, with cataclasis and fluid infiltration creating nucleation sites for neomineralization on displacement surfaces during continued faulting. The role of newly grown, ultrathin, hydrous clay coatings on displacement surfaces in the San Andreas Fault contrasts with previously proposed scenarios of reworked talc/serpentine phases as an explanation for weak faults and creep behavior at these depths.

van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Schleicher, Anja M.; Warr, Laurence N.

2010-05-01

257

A CMOS fault extractor for inductive fault analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductive fault analysis (IFA) method is presented and a description is given of the CMOS fault extraction program FXT. The IFA philosophy is to consider the causes of faults (manufacturing defects) and then simulate these causes to find the faults that are likely to occur in a circuit. FXT automates IFA for a CMOS technology by generating a list

F. Joel Ferguson; John Paul Shen

1988-01-01

258

Fault-Trajectory Approach for Fault Diagnosis on Analog Circuits  

E-print Network

This issue discusses the fault-trajectory approach suitability for fault diagnosis on analog networks. Recent works have shown promising results concerning a method based on this concept for ATPG for diagnosing faults on analog networks. Such method relies on evolutionary techniques, where a generic algorithm (GA) is coded to generate a set of optimum frequencies capable to disclose faults.

Savioli, Carlos Eduardo; Calvano, Jose Vicente; Filho, Antonio Carneiro De Mesquita

2011-01-01

259

ZAMBEZI: a parallel pattern parallel fault sequential circuit fault simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential circuit fault simulators use the multiple bits in a computer data word to accelerate simulation. We introduce, and implement, a new sequential circuit fault simulator, a parallel pattern parallel fault simulator, ZAMBEZI, which simultaneously simulates multiple faults with multiple vectors in one data word. ZAMBEZI is developed by enhancing the control flow, of existing parallel pattern algorithms. For a

Minesh B. Amin; Bapiraju Vinnakota

1996-01-01

260

Transient fault modeling and fault injection simulation  

E-print Network

An accurate transient fault model is presented in this thesis. A 7-term exponential current upset model is derived from the results of a device-level, 3-dimensional, single-event-upset simulation. A curve-fitting algorithm is used to extract...

Yuan, Xuejun

2012-06-07

261

Late Cenozoic faulting in SW Bulgaria: Fault geometry, kinematics and driving stress regimes. Implications for late orogenic processes in the Hellenic hinterland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the geometry and kinematics of the faults exposed in basement rocks along the Strouma River in SW Bulgaria as well as the sequence of faulting events in order to place constraints on the Cenozoic kinematic evolution of this structurally complex domain. In order to decipher the successive stress fields that prevailed during the tectonic history, we additionally carried out an analysis of mesoscale striated faults in terms of paleostress with a novel approach. This approach is based on the P-T axes distribution of the fault-slip data, and separates the fault-slip data into different groups which are characterized by kinematic compatibility, i.e., their P and T axes have similar orientations. From these fault groups, stress tensors are resolved and in case these stress tensors define similar stress regimes (i.e., the orientations of the stress axes and the stress shape ratios are similar) then the fault groups are further unified. The merged fault groups after being filled out with those fault-slip data that have not been incorporated into the above described grouping, but which present similar geometric and kinematic features are used for defining the final stress regimes. In addition, the sequence of faulting events was constrained by available tectonostratigraphic data.

D. Tranos, Markos; Lacombe, Olivier

2014-03-01

262

Fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley, California - Field survey and fault model test -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop hydrologic characterization technology of fault zones, it is desirable to clarify the relationship between the geologic structure and hydrologic properties of fault zones. To this end, we are performing surface-based geologic and trench investigations, geophysical surveys and borehole-based hydrologic investigations along the Wildcat fault in Berkeley,California to investigate the effect of fault zone structure on regional hydrology. The present paper outlines the fault zone structure of the Wildcat fault in Berkeley on the basis of results from trench excavation surveys. The approximately 20 - 25 km long Wildcat fault is located within the Berkeley Hills and extends northwest-southeast from Richmond to Oakland, subparallel to the Hayward fault. The Wildcat fault, which is a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip fault, steps right in a releasing bend at the Berkeley Hills region. A total of five trenches have been excavated across the fault to investigate the deformation structure of the fault zone in the bedrock. Along the Wildcat fault, multiple fault surfaces are branched, bent, paralleled, forming a complicated shear zone. The shear zone is ~ 300 m in width, and the fault surfaces may be classified under the following two groups: 1) Fault surfaces offsetting middle Miocene Claremont Chert on the east against late Miocene Orinda formation and/or San Pablo Group on the west. These NNW-SSE trending fault surfaces dip 50 - 60° to the southwest. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 1 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 60 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show normal right-slip shear sense. 2) Fault surfaces forming a positive flower structure in Claremont Chert. These NW-SE trending fault surfaces are sub-vertical or steeply dipping. Along the fault surfaces, fault gouge of up to 3 cm wide and foliated cataclasite of up to 200 cm wide can be observed. S-C fabrics of the fault gouge and foliated cataclasite show reverse right-slip shear sense. We are performing sandbox experiments to investigate the three-dimensional kinematic evolution of fault systems caused by oblique-slip motion. The geometry of the Wildcat fault in the Berkeley Hills region shows a strong resemblance to our sandbox experimental model. Based on these geological and experimental data, we inferred that the complicated fault systems were dominantly developed within the fault step and the tectonic regime switched from transpression to transtension during the middle to late Miocene along the Wildcat fault.

Ueta, K.; Onishi, C. T.; Karasaki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Hamada, T.; Sasaki, T.; Ito, H.; Tsukuda, K.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, J.; Moriya, T.

2010-12-01

263

Fluid involvement in normal faulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault

Richard H. Sibson

2000-01-01

264

Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

2002-09-01

265

Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative motion between the plates on each side of the East African Rift Valley can be obtained from the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The calculated direction of relative motion agrees well with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the equator.

D. P. McKenzie; D. Davies; P. MOLNAR

1970-01-01

266

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

267

Faults and Folds Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation explores the forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. You will learn how landmasses move, see the resulting deformation, and learn how this deformation relates to plate tectonics.

2002-01-01

268

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our growing reliance on online services accessible on the Internet demands highly-available systemsthat provide correct service without interruptions. Byzantine faults such as software bugs, operatormistakes, and malicious attacks are the major cause of service interruptions. This thesis describesa new replication algorithm, BFT, that can be used to build highly-available systems that tolerateByzantine faults. It shows, for the first time, how

Miguel Castro

2001-01-01

269

The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

2014-06-11

270

Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events.The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE–SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense

João Batista Sena Costa; Ruth Léa Bemerguy; Yociteru Hasui; Maur??cio da Silva Borges

2001-01-01

271

Amazon River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-17

272

Amazon River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that ...

2013-04-17

273

Fault reactivation control on normal fault growth: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies frequently emphasize how fault reactivation is involved in the deformation of the upper crust. However, this phenomenon is generally neglected (except in inversion models) in analogue and numerical models performed to study fault network growth. Using sand/silicon analogue models, we show how pre-existing discontinuities can control the geometry and evolution of a younger fault network. The models show that the reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities and their orientation control: (i) the evolution of the main fault orientation distribution through time, (ii) the geometry of relay fault zones, (iii) the geometry of small scale faulting, and (iv) the geometry and location of fault-controlled basins and depocenters. These results are in good agreement with natural fault networks observed in both the Gulf of Suez and Lake Tanganyika. They demonstrate that heterogeneities such as pre-existing faults should be included in models designed to understand the behavior and the tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins.

Bellahsen, Nicolas; Daniel, Jean Marc

2005-04-01

274

Prudhoe Bay COLVILLE RIVER  

E-print Network

Fairbanks Juneau Tok Nome Circle Barrow Prudhoe Bay TANANA RIVER LOWER YUKON KOYUKUK RIVER COPPER RIVER COLVILLE RIVER SUSITNA RIVER BARROW ALASKA CENTRAL YUKON NORTON SOUND UPPER YUKON RIVER PORCUPINE RIVER UPPER KUSKOKWIM RIVER NUSHAGAK RIVER LOWER KUSKOKWIM RIVER PRUDHOE BAY CANADA KOBUK- SELAWIK

275

The late early Miocene Sabine River  

SciTech Connect

Work on a new late early Miocene vertebrate fossil site, in a paleochannel deposit of the upper Carnahan Bayou Member of the lower Fleming Formation, has revealed unexpected data on the course and nature of the Sabine River of that time. Screen washing for smaller vertebrate remains at the site, just west of the Sabine River in Newton County, central eastern Texas, has resulted in the recovery of early Permian, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleocene/Eocene, late Eocene, and Oligocene/Miocene fossils, in addition to the main early Miocene fauna. The reworked fossils, as well as distinctive mineral grains, show that the late early Miocene Sabine River was connected to the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the Red River, as well as to rivers draining the southern Ouachita Mountains. These rivers must have joined the Texas/Louisiana boundary section of the Sabine River somewhere in northwest Louisiana at that time. This suggests that the Louisiana section of the present Red River pirated the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the river some time after the early Miocene. The preservation of recognizable fossils transported hundreds of miles in a large river itself requires explanation. It is speculated here that the late early Miocene Sabine River incorporated a large amount of the then recently deposited volcanic ash from the Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field. Montmorillonite clay from the altered volcanic ash would have made the river very turbid, which could have allowed coarse sand-sized particles to be carried in the suspended load of the river, rather than in its bed load (where they would have been destroyed by the rolling chert gravel). Additional evidence for such long-distance fossil transport in the late early Miocene rivers of the western Gulf Coastal Plain comes from the abundant Cretaceous fossils of the upper Oakville Formation of southeast Texas and the Siphonina davisi zone of the southeast Texas subsurface.

Manning, E. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1990-09-01

276

Heart River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

277

Seismic Imaging of the Alpine Fault at Whataroa (NZ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reprocessed the Whataroa98 reflection seismic data set which runs along the Whataroa river valley perpendicular to the Alpine Fault at the west coast of the South Island (New Zealand). The central task of this survey was to image the crustal structure in the greater vicinity of the Alpine Fault, which itself is assumed to dip at an angle of about 45 degrees down to depths of at least 15 km. The profile line has a total length of about 25 km with 636 receivers at approximately 40m receiver spacing. So far we used approximately 20 shot records of the survey from both sides of the fault. In a first step we used some of these shot records for a first-arrival tomographic velocity inversion. The resulting velocity model covered the uppermost part and was blended with the available large-scale SIGHT98 velocity model down to 30 km depth. The second step was to pre-stack migrate the single shot gathers. We performed this migration separately for the shots from each side of the fault. As expected we found that the shot records on the hanging wall illuminate the dipping fault from "above" and that the fault system itself is fairly complex consisting of several parallel fault strands with distances of 1-2 km and with (expected) dip angles of about 40-60 degrees. Not quite expected we also found that those shots and receivers at very far distance from the fault allowed us to image the dipping fault from "below" by overturning waves. The comparison of the separate fault strands illuminated from each side shows that their locations are in good agreement and that actually the same fault strands were imaged. It became also clear that the complexity and heterogeneity of the hanging wall is a major issue for imaging from "above" and therefore the imaging from "below" helped us to clarify the structure of the fault system. For this type of imaging it is crucially important to have a good velocity model which is valid for both sides of the fault as well as for different depth levels.

Oelke, A.; Bannister, S. C.; Buske, S.

2011-12-01

278

Neotectonics of the offshore Oak Ridge fault near Ventura, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oak Ridge fault is a large-offset, south-dipping reverse fault that forms the south boundary of the Ventura Basin in southern California. Previous research indicates that the Oak Ridge fault south of the town of Ventura has been inactive since 200-400 ka ago and that the fault tip is buried by ??? 1 km of Quaternary sediment. However, very high-resolution and medium-resolution seismic reflection data presented here show a south-dipping fault, on strike with the Oak Ridge fault, that is truncated at 80 m depth by an unconformity that is probably at the base of late Pleistocene and Holocene sediment. Furthermore, if vertically aligned features in seismic reflection data are eroded remnants of fault scarps, then a subsidiary fault within the Oak Ridge system deforms the shallowest imaged sediment layers. We propose that this subsidiary fault has mainly left-slip offset. These observations of Holocene slip on the Oak Ridge fault system suggest that revision of the earthquake hazard for the densely populated Santa Clara River valley and the Oxnard coastal plain may be needed.

Fisher, M.A.; Greene, H. Gary; Normark, W.R.; Sliter, R.W.

2005-01-01

279

Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah  

SciTech Connect

A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

280

Overlapping Faults, Intrabasin Highs, and the Growth of Normal Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal fault systems bounding extensional basins are typically adjoined by a series of subbasins separated by intrabasin highs. The strata within these basins form syndepositional anticlines and synclines whose axes are transverse to the strike of the main bounding fault. One possible explanation for these intrabasin highs is that they result from persistent along-strike deficits in fault displacement. Such deficits

Mark H. Anders; Roy W. Schlische

1994-01-01

281

Anticlustering of small normal faults around larger faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solite quarry in the Mesozoic Danville rift basin contains normal faults that conform to two spatial and size distributions. Larger master normal faults (20 cm < length[L] < 200 cm) are not numerous and have spanned the mechanical layer. The other faults are numerous, small (˜0.1 cm < L < 20 cm), and exhibit anticlustering with respect to the

Rolf V. Ackermann; Roy W. Schlische

1997-01-01

282

Fault injection experiments using FIAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of several experiments conducted using the fault-injection-based automated testing (FIAT) system are presented. FIAT is capable of emulating a variety of distributed system architectures, and it provides the capabilities to monitor system behavior and inject faults for the purpose of experimental characterization and validation of a system's dependability. The experiments consist of exhaustively injecting three separate fault types into various locations, encompassing both the code and data portions of memory images, of two distinct applications executed with several different data values and sizes. Fault types are variations of memory bit faults. The results show that there are a limited number of system-level fault manifestations. These manifestations follow a normal distribution for each fault type. Error detection latencies are found to be normally distributed. The methodology can be used to predict the system-level fault responses during the system design stage.

Barton, James H.; Czeck, Edward W.; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

1990-01-01

283

Lifeguarding American Red Cross  

E-print Network

Lifeguarding Manual #12;American Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual The following organizations provided review of the materials and/or support American Red Cross Lifeguarding: #12;This manual is part of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding program. By itself, it does not constitute complete and comprehensive

Carter, John

284

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

285

Fault-Scarp Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the evolution of Earth's surface over time, as governed by the balance between constructional (tectonic) processes and destructional (erosional) processes. Introductory materials explain the processes of degradation, including the concepts of weathering-limited versus transport-limited slopes, and diffusion modeling. Using the process of diffusion modeling, students will determine how a slope changes through four 100-year time steps, calculate gradient angles for a fault scarp, and compare parameters calculated for two fault scarps, attempting to determine the age of the scarp created by the older, unknown earthquake. Example problems, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2010-09-27

286

Fault-Scarp Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the evolution of Earth's surface over time, as governed by the balance between constructional (tectonic) processes and destructional (erosional) processes. Introductory materials explain the processes of degradation, including the concepts of weathering-limited versus transport-limited slopes, and diffusion modeling. Using the process of diffusion modeling, students will determine how a slope changes through four 100-year time steps, calculate gradient angles for a fault scarp, and compare parameters calculated for two fault scarps, attempting to determine the age of the scarp created by the older, unknown earthquake. Example problems, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

287

Ius Chasma Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-415, 8 July 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 'text-book example' of an offset in layered rock caused by a fault. The offset is most easily seen near the upper right of the image. The martian crust is faulted, and the planet has probably experienced 'earthquakes' (or, marsquakes) in the past. This scene is located on the floor of Ius Chasma near 7.8oS, 80.6oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2003-01-01

288

Alteration of fault rocks by CO2-bearing fluids with implications for sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonates and sulfates commonly occur as primary (diagenetic) pore cements and secondary fluid-mobilized veins within fault zones. Stable isotope analyses of calcite, formation fluid, and fault zone fluids can help elucidate the carbon sources and the extent of fluid-rock interaction within a particular reservoir. Introduction of CO2 bearing fluids into a reservoir/fault system can profoundly affect the overall fluid chemistry of the reservoir/fault system and may lead to the enhancement or degradation of porosity within the fault zone. The extent of precipitation and/or dissolution of minerals within a fault zone can ultimately influence the sealing properties of a fault. The Colorado Plateau contains a number of large carbon dioxide reservoirs some of which leak and some of which do not. Several normal faults within the Paradox Basin (SE Utah) dissect the Green River anticline giving rise to a series of footwall reservoirs with fault-dependent columns. Numerous CO2-charged springs and geysers are associated with these faults. This study seeks to identify regional sources and subsurface migration of CO2 to these reservoirs and the effect(s) faults have on trap performance. Data provided in this study include mineralogical, elemental, and stable isotope data for fault rocks, host rocks, and carbonate veins that come from two localities along one fault that locally sealed CO2. This fault is just tens of meters away from another normal fault that has leaked CO2-charged waters to the land surface for thousands of years. These analyses have been used to determine the source of carbon isotopes from sedimentary derived carbon and deeply sourced CO2. XRF and XRD data taken from several transects across the normal faults are consistent with mechanical mixing and fluid-assisted mass transfer processes within the fault zone. ?13C range from -6% to +10% (PDB); ?18O values range from +15% to +24% (VSMOW). Geochemical modeling software is used to model the alteration productions of fault rocks from fluids of various chemistries coming from several different reservoirs within an active CO2-charged fault system. These results are compared to data obtained in the field.

Luetkemeyer, P. B.; Kirschner, D. L.; Solum, J. G.; Naruk, S.

2011-12-01

289

Interplay between river discharge and topography of the basin floor in a hyperpycnal lacustrine delta  

E-print Network

delta CORNEL OLARIU*, , JANOK P. BHATTACHARYAà, MATTHEW I. LEYBOURNE§, STEPHEN K. BOSS­ and ROBERT J influences the flow path of hyperpycnal plumes and delta morphology during progradation of the Red River delta in Lake Texoma, USA. The Red River discharge is typically a hyperpycnal plume due to elevated

Stern, Robert J.

290

Examine animations of fault motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for high school students, this Earth science resource provides animations of each of four different fault types: normal, reverse, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Each animation has its own set of movie control buttons, and arrows in each animation indicate the direction of force that causes that particular kind of fault. The introductory paragraph defines the terms fault plane, handing wall, and footwall--features that are labeled at the end of the appropriate animations. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

291

Analyzing Fault/Fracture Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a lab period, students go out in the field to an area that contains at least 2 fault/fracture sets. Students measure orientations of faults and make observations about the relationship between different fault sets. After the field trip, the students compile their field data, plot it on a stereonet and write-up a brief report. In this report students will use their field observations and stereonet patterns to determine whether faults are related or unrelated to each other.

Levine, Jamie

292

Fault diagnosis method for smart substation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a hierarchical model for smart substation fault diagnosis. This fault diagnosis system gets fault information from SCADA and fault information system. The information from SCADA, including network topology and switch state, is modeled based on IEC61970-CIM. The protection information from the fault information system is modelled based on IEC61850, then encapsulated CIM model. When a fault happens,

Zhanjun Gao; Qing Chen; Zhaofei Li

2011-01-01

293

Fault compaction and overpressured faults: results from a 3-D model of a ductile fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of a ductile fault zone is incorporated into a forward 3-D earthquake model to better constrain fault-zone hydraulics. The conceptual framework of the model fault zone was chosen such that two distinct parts are recognized. The fault core, characterized by a relatively low permeability, is composed of a coseismic fault surface embedded in a visco-elastic volume that can creep and compact. The fault core is surrounded by, and mostly sealed from, a high permeability damaged zone. The model fault properties correspond explicitly to those of the coseismic fault core. Porosity and pore pressure evolve to account for the viscous compaction of the fault core, while stresses evolve in response to the applied tectonic loading and to shear creep of the fault itself. A small diffusive leakage is allowed in and out of the fault zone. Coseismically, porosity is created to account for frictional dilatancy. We show in the case of a 3-D fault model with no in-plane flow and constant fluid compressibility, pore pressures do not drop to hydrostatic levels after a seismic rupture, leading to an overpressured weak fault. Since pore pressure plays a key role in the fault behaviour, we investigate coseismic hydraulic property changes. In the full 3-D model, pore pressures vary instantaneously by the poroelastic effect during the propagation of the rupture. Once the stress state stabilizes, pore pressures are incrementally redistributed in the failed patch. We show that the significant effect of pressure-dependent fluid compressibility in the no in-plane flow case becomes a secondary effect when the other spatial dimensions are considered because in-plane flow with a near-lithostatically pressured neighbourhood equilibrates at a pressure much higher than hydrostatic levels, forming persistent high-pressure fluid compartments. If the observed faults are not all overpressured and weak, other mechanisms, not included in this model, must be at work in nature, which need to be investigated. Significant leakage perpendicular to the fault strike (in the case of a young fault), or cracks hydraulically linking the fault core to the damaged zone (for a mature fault) are probable mechanisms for keeping the faults strong and might play a significant role in modulating fault pore pressures. Therefore, fault-normal hydraulic properties of fault zones should be a future focus of field and numerical experiments.

Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

2003-10-01

294

Software Fault Diagnosis Peter Zoeteweij  

E-print Network

Software Fault Diagnosis Peter Zoeteweij , Rui Abreu, and Arjan J.C. van Gemund Embedded Software systems. This tutorial paper aims to give an overview of automated diagnosis applied to software faults existing diagnosis / debugging systems that apply SFL, and other approaches to software fault diagnosis. We

Zoeteweij, Peter

295

Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

2003-10-01

296

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

297

The Red Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gigrin, a family-run sheep farm in Wales with a conservation mindset, offers this Web site devoted to the red kite, a small raptor that humans have attempted to protect longer than for any other bird species in the world. Readers can expect a solid introduction to red kite natural history, and an encouraging example of conservation by private landowners. The main Web page provides a general background information about the red kite, including a short audio clip of a red kite call. The following pages contain photos, detailed descriptions of nesting and feeding habits, and links to other organizations involved in protecting the red kite.

2008-06-13

298

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: \\

L. Piccardi

2001-01-01

299

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2010-02-23

300

Row fault detection system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2008-10-14

301

Row fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2012-02-07

302

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy). European Union of Geophysics Congress, Strasbourg, March 1999. Piccardi L., 2000: Active faulting at Delphi (Greece): seismotectonic remarks and a hypothesis for the geological environment of a myth. Geology, 28, 651-654. Piccardi L., 2001: Seismotectonic Origin of the Monster of Loch Ness. Earth System Processes, Joint Meeting of G.S.A. and G.S.L., Edinburgh, June 2001.

Piccardi, L.

2001-12-01

303

Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in Table 1 are shown in red on the trench logs. All radiocarbon ages are calibrated and given with 2 standard deviation age ranges. Our studies suggest that the Central Range Fault is a Holocene fault capable of producing damaging earthquakes in Trinidad

Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

2009-01-01

304

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

2004-01-01

305

Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

Padilla, Peter A.

1991-01-01

306

Quaternary tectonics in the central Interandean Valley, Ecuador: Fault-propagation folds, transfer faults and the Cotopaxi Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the Quaternary tectonics of the central Interandean Valley (IV, Ecuador), around the active Cotopaxi volcano, by field geological–structural survey, analysis of seismicity, precise levelling of river terraces and numerical modelling. North of the volcano, there are main Quaternary west-dipping reverse faults located along the western side of the valley. At the Cotopaxi foothills, we found NNE-SSW-striking, vertical, right-lateral

Emilia Fiorini; Alessandro Tibaldi

307

Fault diagnosis of analog circuits  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, various fault location techniques in analog networks are described and compared. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in the subject. Four main approaches for fault location are addressed, examined, and illustrated using simple network examples. In particular, we consider the fault dictionary approach, the parameter identification approach, the fault verification approach, and the approximation approach. Theory and algorithms that are associated with these approaches are reviewed and problems of their practical application are identified. Associated with the fault dictionary approach we consider fault dictionary construction techniques, methods of optimum measurement selection, different fault isolation criteria, and efficient fault simulation techniques. Parameter identification techniques that either utilize linear or nonlinear systems of equations to identify all network elements are examined very thoroughly. Under fault verification techniques we discuss node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. For the approximation approach we consider probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods. The artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are also considered. The main features of the techniques considered are summarized in a comparative table. An extensive, but not exhaustive, bibliography is provided.

Bandler, J.W.; Salama, A.E.

1985-08-01

308

Displacement rates on the Toroweap and Hurricane faults: Implications for Quaternary downcutting in the Grand Canyon, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toroweap and Hurricane faults, considered to be the most active in Arizona, cross the Uinkaret volcanic field in the western Grand Canyon. These normal faults are downthrown to the west, and the Colorado River crosses these faults as it flows west in the Grand Canyon. Cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) dates on basalt flows and related landforms are used to calculate vertical displacement rates for these faults. The two faults cross unruptured alluvial fans dated as 3 ka (Toroweap) and 8 ka (Hurricane), and 10 other landforms that range in age from 30 to 400 ka are displaced. Middle and late Quaternary displacement rates of the Toroweap and Hurricane faults are 70 180 and 70 170 m/m.y., respectively. On the basis of these rates, the combined displacement of 580 m on these faults could have occurred in the past 3 to 5 m.y. All 3Hec dates are younger than existing K- Ar dates and are consistent with new 40Ar/39Ar dates and existing thermoluminescence (TL) dates on basalt flows. These different dating techniques may be combined in an analysis of displacement rates. Downcutting rates for the Colorado River in the eastern Grand Canyon (400 m/m.y.) are at least double the downcutting rates west of the faults (70 160 m/m.y.). Faulting probably increased downcutting in the eastern Grand Canyon relative to downcutting in the western Grand Canyon during the late Quaternary.

Fenton, Cassandra R.; Webb, Robert H.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.

2001-11-01

309

Displacement rates on the Toroweap and Hurricane faults: implications for Quaternary downcutting in the Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Toroweap and Hurricane faults, considered to be the most active in Arizona, cross the Uinkaret volcanic field in the western Grand Canyon. These normal faults are downthrown to the west, and the Colorado River crosses these faults as it flows west in the Grand Canyon. Cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) dates on basalt flows and related landforms are used to calculate vertical displacement rates for these faults. The two faults cross unruptured alluvial fans dated as 3 ka (Toroweap) and 8 ka (Hurricane), and 10 other landforms that range in age from 30 to 400 ka are displaced. Middle and late Quaternary displacement rates of the Toroweap and Hurricane faults are 70–180 and 70–170 m/m.y., respectively. On the basis of these rates, the combined displacement of 580 m on these faults could have occurred in the past 3 to 5 m.y. All 3Hec dates are younger than existing K- Ar dates and are consistent with new 40Ar/39Ar dates and existing thermoluminescence (TL) dates on basalt flows. These different dating techniques may be combined in an analysis of displacement rates. Downcutting rates for the Colorado River in the eastern Grand Canyon (400 m/m.y.) are at least double the downcutting rates west of the faults (70–160 m/m.y.). Faulting probably increased downcutting in the eastern Grand Canyon relative to downcutting in the western Grand Canyon during the late Quaternary.

Fenton, Cassandra R.; Webb, Robert H.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.

2001-01-01

310

Mississippi River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

2014-05-15

311

Flooding of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of true- and false-color images shows flooding along the Ob' (large east-west running river) and Irtysh (southern tributary of the Ob') on July 7, 2002. In the false-color image, land surfaces are orange-gold and flood waters are black or dark blue. Fires are marked with red dots in both images. Rivers

2002-01-01

312

Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed the angular unconformity and resulted in deposition of the lower clast-rich colluvium. A thin layer of pre-Mazama (>7600 years B.P.) loess caps the colluvium and post-dates the earthquake. The second earthquake is marked by shearing of the lower colluvium by small faults emanating from the carbonate-cemented breccia layer, and probable folding of the lower colluvium. A thin layer of clast-rich colluvium marks this youngest earthquake, the distal parts of which bury loess containing Mazama tephra. The preserved basalt scarp in the outcrop suggests between 1.8 and 2.8 m of post-flood vertical displacement. Faint straie on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest a reverse oblique mechanism for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ~8.5 Ma basalt dikes (Blakely and others, this meeting).

Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

2013-12-01

313

Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A previously unmapped seismically active fault has been identified in south-central Alaska on the basis of ERTS-1 imagery. It can be traced for at least 120 km. An unmapped fault was found on the northwest flank of Mt. Sanford that is apparently a reverse fault. A large scale, seismically active fracture system has been identified in central Alaska on the basis of MSS imagery. The system consists of two sets of fractures which intersect at an angle of about 55 degrees. The dominant feature of the system is the Minook Creek fault, on which an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 occurred on October 29, 1968. A possible related feature is a 60 km long lineament near the Toklat River north of Mt. McKinley. These areas are all moderately seismically active. Focal mechanism studies of the 1968 earthquake revealed that left-lateral displacement had occurred on the Minook Creek fault due to compressive stress. A similarly oriented direction of compressive stress could be responsible for the entire fracture system.

Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

314

Neotectonics of the Periadriatic Fault System (Eastern and Southern Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Periadriatic Fault System (PFS) is the surface trace of the leading edge of the present Adriatic microplate, which has indented the European lithosphere since at least Miocene time. The PFS is also the tectonic boundary between the Southern Alps with its S-directed fold-and-thrust belt and the rest of the Alps that experienced Cretaceous and Tertiary metamorphism and deformation. In contrast to other Oligo-Miocene faults in the Eastern Alps (Engadine, Brenner and Inntal faults, Friuli-Trieste and the Giudicarie thrust systems) the PFS is seismically silent. In reassessing recent GPS data of Devoti et al. [2008], we find that the northward component of Adriatic motion is accommodated primarily by the Friuli-Trieste and Giudicarie thrust belts. This is manifested by a step-like decrease of the northward-component of Adriatic convergence and a drastic reduction in the seismic activity going from south to north along the Giudicarie belt. Nevertheless, the PFS may still be active, as indicated by an M=4.8 earthquake in 2001 near Merano. Geochronological ages show no evidence for tectonic movements younger than mid-Miocene along the PFS, except along the Giudicarie thrust system where exhumation rates have increased since the Messinian [Martin et al., 1998; Müller et al., 2001]. To investigate the current role of the PFS in accommodating Adriatic indentation, we tried to quantify deformation along the PFS over a time span longer than that accessible through seismic or GPS data, but shorter than that constrained by Rb-Sr or Ar-Ar geochronology. For this purpose, we analysed the geomorphology along the PFS in the Eastern Alps, using surface markers to identify possible offsets (e.g., alluvial fans, river terraces or thalwegs). First analyses of aerial photos and river networks combined with DEMs reveal a clear influence of the PFS on the morphology and on drainage network. For example, river channels along the Gailtal fault have apparent dextral offsets of up to 4 km; the dextral displacement is consistent with that inferred for early Miocene tectonics and consistent with that expected for accommodating the currently measured counter-clockwise rotation and WNW indentation of the Adriatic plate [e.g., Vrabec et al., 2006]. Unfortunately, geomorphological markers with unequivocal offsets are lacking along the Pustertal Fault. We can only speculate that the westernmost part of the PFS (i.e., the Pustertal fault) is either inactive or creeps at much lower rates than the eastern part (the Gailtal fault). If so, the PFS could be interpreted as a stretching fault. This interpretation is consistent with the concentration of seismicity in the "Gurktal block" rather than in the "Tauern window block". References Devoti, R., F. Riguzzi, M. Cuffaro, and C. Doglioni, New GPS constraints on the kinematics of the Apennines subduction, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 273, 163-174, 2008. Martin, S., G. Bigazzi, M. Zattin, G. Viola, and M.L. Balestrieri, Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie fault (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy): new apatite fission-track data, Terra Nova, 10, 217-221, 1998. Müller, W., S.P. Kelley, and I.M. Villa, Dating fault-generated pseudotachylytes: comparison of 40Ar/39Ar stepwise-heating, laser ablation and Rb-Sr microsampling analyses, Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 144, 57-77, 2002. Müller, W., G. Prosser, N.S. Mancktelow, I.M. Villa, S.P. Kelley, G. Viola, and F. Oberli, Geochronological constraints on the evolution of the Periadriatic Fault System (Alps), The International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 623-653, 2001. Vrabec, M., P. Pavlovcic Preseren, and B. Stopar, GPS study (1996-2002) of active deformation along the Periadriatic fault system in northeastern Slovenia: tectonic model, Geologica Carpathica, 57, 57-65, 2006.

Garcia, Sebastian; Handy, Mark R.; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

2010-05-01

315

Red Harvester Ants  

E-print Network

. ? Horned lizards normally inhabit flat, open, dry country with little cover. Urbanization, mowing, shredding, shallow discing and other land use practices can eliminate or reduce the production of weed seeds on which harvester ants feed. Harvester ants... Entomologist, The Texas A&M University System. Red harvester ants Food sources Red harvester ant foragers collect seeds and dead insects and store them in the nests as food for the colony. The ants? mouthparts are designed for chewing. Management Red...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2006-04-24

316

Managing Fault Management Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

McDougal, John M.

2010-01-01

317

This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault  

E-print Network

Abstract This paper compares two fault injection techniques: scan chain implemented fault injection (SCIFI), i.e. fault injection in a physical system using built in test logic, and fault injection in a VHDL software simulation model of a system. The fault injections were used to evaluate the error

Karlsson, Johan

318

Fault tree analysis is widely used in industry for fault diagnosis. The diagnosis of incipient or `soft' faults is  

E-print Network

Fault tree analysis is widely used in industry for fault diagnosis. The diagnosis of incipient in the case of soft faults. This paper presents comprehensive results describing the diagnosis of incipient or `soft' faults is considerably more difficult than that of `hard' faults, which is the case considered

Madden, Michael

319

A Resource Inventory of Selected Outcrops Along the White Clay Fault in Southwestern South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The White Clay Fault, located in southwestern South Dakota, formed after the Laramide orogeny (65mya) that resulted in the uplift of the Black Hills in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. Many of the outcrops along the White Clay Fault are part of the Eocene-Oligocene White River Group (37-26.9 mya), an accumulation of nonmarine sediments composed primarily of tuffaceous mudstones and silty claytones with lesser amounts of kaolinitic sandstones, lacustrine limestones and gypsum. (LaGarry, 1998; LaGarry and LaGarry, 1997). White River Group sediments also consist of volcanic ash from eruptions in the southwestern United States (Larson and Evanoff, 1998). The White Clay Fault lies at the outer boundary of the Black Hills uplift. After the fault formed, the eventual erosion of overlying White River Group materials exposed outcrops of Late Cretaceous Niobrara chalk that formed between 145.5-65.5 mya, at a time when this region was covered by the Western Interior Seaway. The Niobrara Formation consists of chalk and limestone interbedded with marls and shale (Locklear and Sageman, 2008). This poster records a geological and paleontological resource inventory for two selected outcrops that are within a short walking distance of each other along the White Clay Fault. Outcrops on the downside of the fault belongs to the Peanut Peak member of the White River Group, while the outcrops on the upside of the fault belong to the Niobrara Formation; a difference of 60 million years. The selected outcrops are on sensitive land on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation that has never been inventories before due to sovereignty issues. As such, this resource inventory represents one of many initial steps being taken by students and faculty at Oglala Lakota College to determine the geological resources of the Reservation.

Sanovia, L.

2012-12-01

320

Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Yukon-Tanana uplands north and east of Fairbanks appear, on ERTS-1 imagery, to be composed of a number of large-scale (approximately 100 kilometers square) crustal blocks. The boundaries of these blocks appear to be defined by a number of northeast-striking lineaments which form the major river valleys of the area. Principal among these are the valleys of the Salcha River, the Cehan River, and the Chatanika River. These lineaments are all seismically active, and are thus presumed to be faults. This parallel set of lineaments appears to be intersected at various angles by a secondary set of faults trending generally north to south. The larger earthquakes in the area occur at the intersections of the two sets. It appears that seismicity of this part of Alaska may be conceptually represented by the grinding together of rigid blocks, with earthquakes occurring along their common boundaries and at the intersections where three or more blocks come in contact.

Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

321

Fault tolerant control laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

1986-01-01

322

Fault emulation: A new methodology for fault grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a method that uses the field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based emulation system for fault grading. The real-time simulation capability of a hard- ware emulator could significantly improve the performance of fault grading, which is one of the most time-consuming tasks in the circuit design and test process. We employ a serial fault emulation algorithm enhanced

Kwang-ting Cheng; Shi-yu Huang; Wei-jin Dai

1999-01-01

323

Red Snapper Larval Transport in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the advection of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus larvae in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The potential for repopulating the eastern Gulf stock through larval transport from the more populous western stock is addressed. Transport pathways across topographic features that inhibit alongshelf flow (e.g., the Mississippi River delta, DeSoto Canyon, and the Apalachicola peninsula) and interregional larval transport

Donald R. Johnson; Harriet M. Perry; Joanne Lyczkowski-Shultz; David Hanisko

2009-01-01

324

Imaging Faults and Shear Zones Using Receiver Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry of faults at seismogenic depths and their continuation into the ductile zone is of interest for a number of applications ranging from earthquake hazard to modes of lithospheric deformation. Teleseismic passive source imaging of faults and shear zones can be useful particularly where faults are not outlined by local seismicity. Passive seismic signatures of faults may arise from abrupt changes in lithology or foliation orientation in the upper crust, and from mylonitic shear zones at greater depths. Faults and shear zones with less than near-vertical dip lend themselves to detection with teleseismic mode-converted waves (receiver functions) provided that they have either a contrast in isotropic shear velocity ( V s), or a contrast in orientation or strength of anisotropic compressional velocity ( V p). We introduce a detection method for faults and shear zones based on receiver functions. We use synthetic seismograms to demonstrate common features of dipping isotropic interfaces and contrasts in dipping foliation that allows determination of their strike and depth without making further assumptions about the model. We proceed with two applications. We first image a Laramide thrust fault in the western U.S. (the Wind River thrust fault) as a steeply dipping isotropic velocity contrast in the middle crust near the surface trace of the fault; further downdip and across the range, where basin geometry suggests the fault may sole into a subhorizontal shear zone, we identify a candidate shear zone signal from midcrustal depths. The second application is the use of microstructural data from exhumed ductile shear zones in Scotland and in the western Canadian Shield to predict the character of seismic signatures of present-day deep crustal shear zones. Realistic anisotropy in observed shear fabrics generates a signal in receiver functions that is comparable in amplitude to first-order features like the Moho. Observables that can be robustly constrained without significant tradeoffs are foliation strike and the depth of the foliation contrast. We find that an anisotropy of only a few percent in the shear zone is sufficient to generate a strong signal, but that the shear zone width is required to be >2 km for typical frequencies used in receiver function analysis to avoid destructive interference due to the signals from the boundaries of the shear zone.

Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Mahan, Kevin H.

2014-11-01

325

Software Evolution and the Fault Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In developing a software system, we would like to estimate the way in which the fault content changes during its development, as well determine the locations having the highest concentration of faults. In the phases prior to test, however, there may be very little direct information regarding the number and location of faults. This lack of direct information requires developing a fault surrogate from which the number of faults and their location can be estimated. We develop a fault surrogate based on changes in the fault index, a synthetic measure which has been successfully used as a fault surrogate in previous work. We show that changes in the fault index can be used to estimate the rates at which faults are inserted into a system between successive revisions. We can then continuously monitor the total number of faults inserted into a system, the residual fault content, and identify those portions of a system requiring the application of additional fault detection and removal resources.

Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

1999-01-01

326

Virtual River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides two interactive exercises designed to help the user learn about river processes like discharge, flooding and flood frequency. Both exercises require the user to make observations and measurements, do simple calculations, and answer questions.

327

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

328

Polynomially Complete Fault Detection Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at several variations of the single fault detection problem for combinational logic circuits and show that deciding whether single faults are detectable by input-output (I\\/O) experiments is polynomially complete, i.e., there is a polynomial time algorithm to decide if these single faults are detectable if and only if there is a polynomial time algorithm for problems such as

Oscar H. Ibarra; Sartaj Sahni

1975-01-01

329

Fault-tolerant multiprocessor computer  

SciTech Connect

The development and evaluation of fault-tolerant computer architectures and software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) for use in advanced NASA vehicles and potentially in flight-control systms are described in a collection of previously published reports prepared for NASA. Topics addressed include the principles of fault-tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) operation; processor and slave regional designs; FTMP executive, facilities, aceptance-test/diagnostic, applications, and support software; FTM reliability and availability models; SIFT hardware design; and SIFT validation and verification.

Smith, T.B. III; Lala, J.H.; Goldberg, J.; Kautz, W.H.; Melliar-Smith, P.M.; Green, M.W.; Levitt, K.N.; Schwartz, R.L.; Weinstock, C.B.; Palumbo, D.L.

1986-01-01

330

River Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

331

Three-dimensional analyses of slip distributions on normal fault arrays with consequences for fault scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fault arrays consist of echelon segments. Field data on ancient and active faults indicate that such segmented geometries have a pronounced effect on the distribution of fault slip. Outcrop measurements of slip on arrays of fault segments show that: (i) the point of maximum fault slip generally is not located at the centre of a fault segment; (ii) displacement

Emanuel J. M. Willemse; David D. Pollard; Atilla Aydin

1996-01-01

332

Fault Location Orion is the distribution company for the Canterbury region. In 2007, a Ground Fault  

E-print Network

Fault Location Orion is the distribution company for the Canterbury region. In 2007, a Ground Fault faults. This system operates by reducing the fault currents present during a fault, extinguishing and preventing arcing from occurring. Although this is greatly beneficial to the system, the reduction in fault

Hickman, Mark

333

Fault-tolerant Sensor Network based on Fault Evaluation Matrix and Compensation for Intermittent Observation  

E-print Network

Fault-tolerant Sensor Network based on Fault Evaluation Matrix and Compensation for Intermittent Observation Kazuya Kosugi, Shinichiro Tokumoto and Toru Namerikawa Abstract-- This paper deals with a fault for constructing a fault tolerant system. Specifically, we propose a fault-evaluation matrix for the fault

334

Maximum Magnitude in Relation to Mapped Fault Length and Fault Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake hazard zones are highlighted using known fault locations and an estimate of the fault's maximum magnitude earthquake. Magnitude limits are commonly determined from fault geometry, which is dependent on fault length. Over the past 30 years it has become apparent that fault length is often poorly constrained and that a single event can rupture across several individual fault segments.

N. Black; D. Jackson; T. Rockwell

2004-01-01

335

Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

Cobb, Vicki

1998-01-01

336

Red Clover Breeding Progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

337

Fault-tolerant processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fault-tolerant, fiber optic interconnect, or backplane, which serves as a via for data transfer between modules. Fault tolerance algorithms are embedded in the backplane by dividing the backplane into a read bus and a write bus and placing a redundancy management unit (RMU) between the read bus and the write bus so that all data transmitted by the write bus is subjected to the fault tolerance algorithms before the data is passed for distribution to the read bus. The RMU provides both backplane control and fault tolerance.

Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

338

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  

MedlinePLUS

... Abdul Rahman Attar, President of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent, welcomed Mr. Elhadj As Sy, ... Featured video ... of fraudulent web sites which are using the Red Cross Red Crescent emblems to request donations for ...

339

Insight of the reactivated Dien Bien Phu fault, northwest Vietnam: Implication of the kinematics in north Indochina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the most conspicuous fault systems in the Indochina, the NNE-trending Dien Bien Phu fault zone extends over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through the NW Vietnam into Laos and may dextrally displaces the Paleozoic-Triassic granitoids and Song Ma suture, performing a great geological discontinuity. Detailed active fault mapping, compiled from stereographic aerial photos, topographic maps, ASTER satellite imageries, and field reconnaissance, along the Dien Bien Phu fault reveals information about the fault geometry, the magnitude and distribution of displacement along the fault, and the relationship between river offset and activity of fault. The modern Dien Bien Phu fault is complex, including step-overs and branches, and is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip displacement. Numerous multiple offsets along the fault can be detected and reconstructed, and the largest sinistral displacement on the Dien Bien Phu fault is probably ca. 12.5 km. Since sinistral motion is likely to have initiated around 5 Ma, the most reasonable Pliocene to present-day average slip rate on the Dien Bien Phu fault is at an order of 2.5 mm/yr. There are several basins developed along the fault and the strongest evidence for an extensional component of displacement is along the southern part of the fault where the basin developed by a half graben with growing strata. Based on the combined Global Positioning System velocity fields observed from northwest Vietnam and south China, about 2 to 3 mm/yr left-lateral slip is measured across the Dien Bien Phu fault, implying the order of ~10 mm/yr left-lateral slip of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault is transferred southward to Dien Bien Phu fault but with an abrupt decrease in magnitude. Further the western block of Dien Bien Phu fault represents more significant E-W extensional behavior as non-rigid block with internal deformation. Results of this study suggest the modern Dien Bien Phu fault performs as a reactivated fault, yet different slip sense, and acts as an eastern boundary of the crustal deformation in north Indochina. However, the present-day kinematics in north Indochina may be dominated by E-W extension and be accommodated by internal distributed deformation different from the crustal fragment defined by Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault with a clockwise rotating around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Lâm, Doãn.

2010-05-01

340

Strike-slip faulting in the central part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Zagros Orogen, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) is one of the main basement tectonic blocks located close to the northeastern margin of the Zagros Orogenic Belt. New observations in the central part of the zone indicate that the fault pattern is dominated by NW-trending longitudinal faults. The components of movement on the fault planes are interpreted as dextral oblique thrusting and dextral strike-slip. The identified structures along the faults were associated with the strike-slip faults (e.g., Hasan-Robat and Najafabad dextral restraining stepovers) and rotated tectonic blocks (arranged in a 'domino' configuration) near to the Foladshahr and Kolah-Ghazi mountains. Along the longitudinal faults, the dextral offsets of the rock units, streams, alluvial deposits and rivers were measured. The dextral offset values range from 2.4 to 2.7 km, while the estimated offsets based on the geomorphological features are between 50 and 61 m for streams, up to approximately ˜50 m for alluvial deposits and up to 2.2 km for rivers. The dextral strike-slip component on the fault planes occurs along the northern and southern margins of the SSZ, as well as directly within the zone, west and east of the study area. The evidence for strike-slip faulting in the internal part of the zone suggests that the central part of the SSZ probably was horizontally sheared in a manner consistent with a simple shear 'card-deck model'.

Nadimi, Alireza; Konon, Andrzej

2012-07-01

341

Paleomagnetic data from Upper Cretaceous Red Beds, Northwest Vietnam (Song Da Terrane), and Their Bearing on the Extrusion History of Indochina and Deformation Along its Margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northwest Vietnam mainly consists of the Song Da terrane, which is bounded to the east by the NW-oriented Ailao Shan/Red River (ASRR) fault system, interpreted to be the southwest margin of the South China Block, and the NW-oriented Song Ma fault. The northern termination of the Song Da terrane is considered to be where the NE-oriented, right lateral Dien Bien Phu fault intersects the ASRR. Whether the Song Da terrane is part of the extruded Indochina Block, paleomagnetic data from which suggest some 10°+ southward latitudinal displacement, can be evaluated with paleomagnetic data from rocks of the appropriate age. Our paleomagnetic sampling concentrated on the Upper Cretaceous Yen Chau Formation, which unconformably overlies Paleozoic and Triassic sedimentary rocks. The Yen Chau Formation is locally up to about 1300 m thick, and is characterized by medium to thick bedded, coarse to fine-grained sandstones and siltstones, all of which are partially cemented by hematite. Samples were collected from 10 localities using a portable drill, with 6 to 19 sites collected per locality, and 7 to 15 samples collected from each site. This approach allows evaluation of the integrity of the remanence at the locality level, where, presumably, considerable time is recorded in each section. Each locality is a homoclinal road cut exposure, with bedding dips varying from sub-horizontal to moderately overturned. NRM intensities range from about 0.7 mA/m to about 25 mA/m; values which are relatively low in comparison to many red beds. A varied response to alternating field (AF) demagnetization indicates that magnetite carries a considerable (over 50 percent) of the remanence; the finest grained samples of relatively high NRM intensity reveal little response to AF treatment, indicating a dominance by hematite, as also supported by three-component IRM thermal demagnetization. Samples with the highest NRM intensities and the least contribution by magnetite respond favorably to thermal demagnetization, with full remanence unblocking by about 685°C, and yield characteristic magnetization directions of north-northeast to northeast declination and moderate positive inclination (about 30 to 35°). Our preliminary results are comparable to those of Takemoto et al. (2005, EPSL, 229, 273- 285) and we tentatively conclude that there has been no significant latitudinal translation of the Song Da terrane, since the Early Cretaceous, with respect to the South China Block. We continue to explore the possibility of local scale, vertical axis rotation of parts of the Song Da terrane. Extrusion of the Indochina Block, in association with its own style of internal deformation, appears to have been facilitated by displacement along structures west of the Song Ma fault.

Geissman, J. W.; Pho, N.; Burchfiel, B.; Muggleton, S. R.

2008-12-01

342

Stress Triggering of Conjugate Normal Faulting: Late Aftershocks of the 1983 M 7.3 Borah Peak, Idaho Earthquake  

SciTech Connect

The 1984 Devil Canyon sequence was a late aftershock sequence of the 28 October 1983 Ms 7.3 Borah Peak, Idaho, earthquake. The sequence began on 22 August 1984 with the ML 5.8 Devil Canyon earthquake, which nucleated at a depth of 12.8 ± 0.7 km between the surface traces of two normal faults, the Challis segment of the Lost River fault and the Lone Pine fault. Two hundred thirty-seven aftershocks were recorded by a temporary array during a 3-week period. Their focal mechanisms and hypocenter distribution define a cross-sectional "V" pattern whose base corresponds to the ML 5.8 event, whose tips correspond to the exposed fault traces, and whose sides define two planar fault zones oriented N25°W, 75°SW (Challis fault segment) and N39°W, 58°NE (Lone Pine fault). This pattern describes a graben bounded by conjugate normal faults. Temporal aspects of the Devil Canyon sequence provide strong evidence that slip on conjugate normal faults occurs sequentially. Aftershocks occurred primarily along the Challis segment until the occurrence of the 8 September 1984 ML 5.0 earthquake along the Lone Pine fault, after which aftershocks primarily occurred along this fault. These observations are consistent with worldwide seismologic and geologic observations and with physical and numerical models of conjugate normal faulting. Aftershocks of the Devil Canyon sequence occurred immediately northwest of the ML 5.8 Devils Canyon earthquake, which itself was immediately northwest of the Thousand Springs segment of the Lost River fault (the fault that slipped in association with the Ms 7.3 Borah Peak earthquake). Coulomb failure stress analysis indicates that stress increases resulting from both the Borah Peak mainshock and Devil Canyon ML 5.8 earthquake were sufficient to induce failure on the Lone Pine fault. These space–time patterns suggest that conjugate normal faults may transfer stress or accommodate stress changes at the terminations of major normal faults in the Basin and Range Province.

Suzette J. Payne; James Zollweg; David Rodgers

2004-06-01

343

Hierarchical Approach to Fault Diagnosis Master's Thesis  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Approach to Fault Diagnosis Master's Thesis Alexander Feldman November 14, 2004 for listening to my problems of hierarchical fault diagnosis. Thanks to Leo Breebaart, also from Science, Fault Diagnosis, Hierarchy, Partitioning, Structure, Propo- sitional Model, Backtracking #12

van Gemund, Arjan J.C.

344

Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chip-level modeling techniques in the evaluation of fault tolerant systems were researched. A fault tolerant computer was modeled. An efficient approach to functional fault simulation was developed. Simulation software was also developed.

Armstrong, J. R.

1982-01-01

345

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-print Network

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established is SE., although some SW. and NE. exposures exist. The W. part is dominated by Red Butte, a recent. Parts of the Mud Creek canyon are very steep, as are the upper slopes of Red Butte. Rocks are entirely

Standiford, Richard B.

346

Central Asia Active Fault Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

2014-05-01

347

Fault current limiter  

DOEpatents

A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

Darmann, Francis Anthony

2013-10-08

348

Perspective View, Garlock Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 35.25 deg. North lat., 118.05 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking southwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

349

Optimal fault location  

E-print Network

of the coefficients ik are given in Table 2.1. Table 2.1: List of coefficients for equation (57) Fault type 1k 2k 3k 4k 5k a-b-c 1 0 0 0 0 b-c 1 0 -1 0 0 a-b 1 0 0.5 0.866 0 a-c 0.5 0.866 1 0 0 b-c-g 1 0 -1 0 0 a-b-g 0.5 0.866 0 0 1 c-a-g 0.5 0.866 1 0...

Knezev, Maja

2009-05-15

350

Late Quaternary Slip Rates of the Sumatran Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatran Fault accommodates a large portion of the right-lateral, trench-parallel component of relative motion between the northward-subducting India-Australia plates and the overriding Sunda plate. Slip rate estimates for this strike-slip fault have primarily been calculated by dividing the observed horizontal deflection across the fault trace of river valleys incised into voluminous caldera-derived tuffs by the radiometrically-dated eruption age of those tuffs, or by estimating the age of displaced river valleys from the length of the displaced channels [1]. These slip rates exhibited a dramatic northward increase in trench-parallel relative displacement that would have to be accommodated by trench-parallel stretching of the forearc sliver [2]. We present new slip rate estimates for the Sumatran Fault where it traverses the Toba, Maninjau, and Ranau tuffs in northern, central, and southern Sumatra. We re-mapped the deflected drainage networks using high-resolution satellite imagery, digital topography, and field observations. At Toba, the best-fitting slip rate is 13.8 × 0.3 mm/yr, about half the previously published estimate. At Maninjau, the best-fitting slip rate is 14.8 × 0.4 mm/yr, faster than the previous estimates of ~10-11 mm/yr. While a new slip rate for the Ranau area is pending the results of radiometric dating of the incised tuffs, we mapped lateral displacements of river valleys of ~230 m, much smaller than previously estimated displacement of ~2,500 m. The revised Late Pleistocene slip rates at Toba and Maninjau are similar to each other and compare favourably with recent GPS-derived slip-rate estimates for several segments of the Sumatran Fault, suggesting that ~40% of the trench-parallel displacement between the forearc islands and the backarc is accommodated on structures other than the Sumatran Fault [3], and that this situation has persisted for at least the past 50,000 to 74,000 years. [1](Bellier and Sébrier, GRL v.22, 1995) [2] (McCaffrey, Geology v.19, 1992) [3] (Feng et al., in prep.)

Bradley, K.; Sieh, K.; Natawidjaja, D.; Daryono, M. R.

2013-12-01

351

Use of red ochre by early Neandertals  

PubMed Central

The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record). PMID:22308348

Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J.; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E. S.; Mücher, Herman J.

2012-01-01

352

Evidence for Rapid Slip on Extensional Detachment Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental normal faults present significant seismic hazard within densely populated and rapidly-developing regions, yet the slip rates on such structures are generally poorly understood. Most work to date has focused on small, active fault scarps, which offset young sedimentary units, and typically show slip rates of 0-1 mm/yr. The few published studies of very large, old scarps or fault footwalls have suggested slip rates in the range of 3-8 mm/yr (i.e. John and Howard, 1995; Scott et al., 1998; Foster and John, 1999), but these have suffered from large errors. By using a low-closure-temperature thermochronometric system (single crystal (U-Th)/He in apatite), it has been established that a slip rate of 5.3 (+3.7/-1.6) mm/yr, persisting for a period of several millions of years during the mid-Miocene, occurred on the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment; preliminary data suggest that a similarly rapid slip rate also occurred on the nearby Whipple Mts. detachment. This calculated slip rate is very similar to, but more precise than, the rate calculated using apatite fission track ages from the Buckskin Mts. (6.6+/-5.9 mm/yr; Scott et al., 1998). Both the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment and the Whipple Mts. detachment lie within the Colorado River extensional corridor, along the California-Arizona border in the southwestern United States. Slip rates on both faults were determined by plotting (U-Th)/He in apatite cooling ages against distance in the fault slip direction. This approach assumes that each mineral cooling age records the time at which a given piece of rock moved upward through the intersection of a particular near-horizontal isotherm with the dipping fault plane. If that isotherm is stationary, this method allows a slip rate to be determined by recording the time at which each successive piece of rock on the fault plane moved past that same point. Because the (U-Th)/He in apatite method records cooling through a cool, shallow isotherm ( ~75° C), which should move relatively little during extension (c.f. Ketcham, 1996), approximating the isotherm as stationary during extension should result in an underestimate of the slip rate of less than 10%. Proof of such an alarmingly high slip rate raises questions regarding the potential seismic hazard posed by large-offset extensional faults, and the relationship between these rapidly-slipping, large-offset structures and the slower, smaller-offset faults that are more commonly observed as active structures.

Brady, R. J.

2001-12-01

353

Lena River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from June 28, 2002, shows numerous burn scars dotting the northern Siberian landscape along the Lena River. In the true-color image, the burn scars appear dark grayish-brown, while in the false-color image they appear red, as does the bare exposed soil of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range to the east of the north-flowing Lena. A tinge of blue along the mountains in the false-color image means there is some lingering snow or ice, and that the bare soil is due to spring's late arrival there, and not to burn scars. At the top, sea ice still fills the Laptev Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

354

Tectonics of the Red Sea region reassessed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brittle upper level of the continental crust had been rifted with or without ocean opening many times in many places during the geological past and the process is still happening. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory in the early 1960s, the formation of such rifts has been viewed in the context of plate tectonic processes that caused the repeated dispersal of supercontinents. Several researchers focused on the mechanisms of formation of continental rifts because some rifts, like the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, are precursors to ocean basins and many hydrocarbons yet to be located which are either directly or indirectly related to rift structures. The East African Rift System and the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden young oceans have been considered as prime examples of the early stage of continental separation that has long been a testing ground for classical hypotheses of continental drift. The Red Sea separates the once contiguous Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shields and started opening about 25 Ma ago. Geophysics and geochronology of dredged basaltic rocks indicate that sea-floor spreading began at only about 4-5 Ma. Numerous multidisciplinary investigations have been carried out in this region. However, several questions remain unresolved. Examples pertain to the nature of the crust that underlies the shelves, the extent of the ocean floor, the interplay between sea-floor spreading, crustal extension and plutonic activity and mechanisms of rifting. Several mechanisms of rifting have been proposed for the formation of the Red Sea. Examples include extension by prolonged steep normal faulting (horst-graben terrain), early diffuse ductile extension followed by brittle deformation, low-angle lithospheric simple shear, low-angle shear and magmatic expansion, lithospheric thinning by faulting and dike injection, northeastward migration of asymmetric rifting over a fixed mantle plume and the formation of pull-apart basin(s) by transtension. The major differences between the various models center on the relative timing of updoming, rifting and magmatism and whether the rifting was active and driven by a mantle plume or passive and due to lateral extension of the lithosphere leading to reactive effects in the mantle. New geological field data from the western margin of the Southern Red Sea in Eritrea reveal two main stages of NE-SW extension history. The first semi-brittle stage (?30 Ma) was dominantly characterized by top-to-east low-angle detachments. The second brittle stage of extension (since ˜22 Ma) occurred on a new system of dominantly down-to-southwest planar normal faults and dikes with NW-SE strikes. The earlier semi-brittle stage of extension corresponds to the predicted low-angle simple shear zone through the lithosphere and the later gives some support to the models that invoke graben-horst formation along steep normal faults that ultimately soled out to detachments at intermediate crustal level or merge with the Moho.

Ghebreab, Woldai

1998-11-01

355

Optimized Fault Location Final Project Report  

E-print Network

Optimized Fault Location Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Engineering Research Center Optimized Fault Location Concurrent Technologies Corporation Final Project Report

356

Post-Red Supergiants  

E-print Network

The yellow hypergiants are found in a stage between the massive Red Supergiants and the Wolf-Rayet stars. This review addresses current issues concerning the evolution of massive stars, concentrating on the transitional post-Red Supergiant phase. Few yellow hypergiants are known and even fewer show direct evidence for having evolved off the Red Supergiant branch. Indeed, only two such rare objects with clear evidence for having gone through of a previous mass losing phase are known, IRC +10420 and HD 179821. We will review their properties and present recent results employing near-infrared interferometry, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry. Finally, their real-time evolution is discussed.

Rene Oudmaijer; Ben Davies; Willem-Jan de Wit; Mitesh Patel

2008-01-15

357

Quaternary faults of west Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil

E. W. Collins; J. A. Raney

1993-01-01

358

Havana — a fault modeling tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved knowledge on faults and hydrocarbon seal put pressure on geologists and reservoir engineers doing reservoir modeling. All geo-knowledge must be built into the reservoir models to assure that it is taken into account in the decision processes. The need for advanced modeling tools is increasing. This paper describes the development of a fault modeling tool, the methodology behind it

Knut Hollund; Petter Mostad; Bjørn Fredrik Nielsen; Lars Holden; Jon Gjerde; Maria Grazia Contursi; Andrew J. McCann; Chris Townsend; Einar Sverdrup

2002-01-01

359

Seismic Hazard and Fault Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

If mx is the largest earthquake magnitude that can occur on a fault, then what is mp, the largest magnitude that should be expected during the planned lifetime of a particular structure? Most approaches to these questions rely on an estimate of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, obtained by regression (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) of fault length (or area) and

N. M. Black; D. D. Jackson; L. Mualchin

2005-01-01

360

Accelerometer having integral fault null  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved accelerometer is introduced. It comprises a transducer responsive to vibration in machinery which produces an electrical signal related to the magnitude and frequency of the vibration; and a decoding circuit responsive to the transducer signal which produces a first fault signal to produce a second fault signal in which ground shift effects are nullified.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (inventor)

1995-01-01

361

Surface Creep on California Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data from a number of creepmeters in California. A creepmeter is an instrument that monitors the slow surface displacement of an active fault. Its function is not to measure fault slip during earthquakes, but to record the slow aseismic slip between earthquakes.

Bilham, Roger; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado

362

SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5?s; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

2006-04-15

363

Colorado Regional Faults  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01

364

Geologic setting of the Abdur Archaeological Site on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abdur Archaeological Site was defined initially by the discovery and dating (125 +/- ka by Ur/Th) of in situ stone tools within uplifted marine terrace deposits located along the southern Red Sea coast of Eritrea, near the small village of Abdur. These tools represent some of the earliest well-dated evidence for human occupation of coastal marine environments. The site is located on the Buri Peninsula along the eastern shoreline of the Gulf of Zula and covers an area of approximately 7 km by 1 km. Three main stratigraphic units are defined and discussed from oldest to youngest: The Buri Formation is defined herein as a sequence of brackish-freshwater (estuarine) and fluvial-deltaic sediments consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and limestones with ash and pumice beds. Ar-Ar dating of pumice and tephras puts the time of deposition of this unit from about 0.91 to 0.72 Ma (Early-Middle Pleistocene). Several stone tools were discovered in the Buri Formation, indicating early human occupation of a coastal environment during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. The Abdur Volcanic Complex (AVC) is a small basaltic shield complex that forms the highlands along the eastern part of the Abdur Site and extends to the north and south of the area. Basalts from this center were dated from 2.12 to 0.17 Ma, indicating that the volcanic complex has been tectonically and magmatically active prior to, during and after deposition of the Buri Formation. The Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) is the remnant of a shallow marine reef system deposited approximately 125 ka (last glacial highstand, isotope stage 5e) along the margins of the Abdur volcanic highlands. The ARL consists of a basal transgressive lag deposit overlain by extensive buildups of mollusks, echinoderms, bioclastic sands and corals up to 11 m thick. Numerous stone tools in the ARL fall into two tool kits, bifacial hand axes of the Acheulian industry and Middle Stone Age-type (MSA) obsidian flakes and blades. Their distribution suggests that foraging activities of early humans varied with environmental setting. The Buri Formation has been folded and faulted prior to deposition of the ARL, with dips as high as 36° and vertical locally along fault zones. The ARL has been uplifted up to 8-15 m and tilted 1°-5° in a seaward direction. The area is cut by numerous faults, part of a regional NNW-trending fault system. Occurrences of Buri Formation equivalents to the north along the Buri Peninsula as well as in the area southwest of the Alid volcano suggest the area west of the escarpment was a broad lowland characterized by rivers, coastal lakes, and estuaries along the Red Sea coast during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. Reefs equivalent to the ARL covered large parts of the adjacent Buri Peninsula, the north end of Mt. Ghedem across the Gulf of Zula, and the Dahlak Archipelago to the north.

Buffler, Richard T.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Ghebretensae, Berhane N.; Walter, Robert C.; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Berhe, Seife M.; McIntosh, William; Park, Lisa E.

2010-07-01

365

ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, 56, 6, 2013, S0676; doi:10.4401/ag-6218 Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania  

E-print Network

faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces Oswaldo Guzmán1,2,*, Jean-Louis Mugnier2 Institute of Seismology of Albania, Tirana, Albania ABSTRACT Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece) are studied in order to quantify the vertical

366

Slip on faults in the Imperial Valley Triggered by the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Major earthquake as revealed by InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar interferometry (InSAR) reveals surface slip on multiple faults in the Imperial Valley triggered by the 2010 Baja M7.2 earthquake. Co-seismic offsets occurred on the San Andreas, Superstition Hills, Imperial, Elmore Ranch, Wienert, Coyote Creek, Elsinore, Yuha Wells, and several minor faults near the town of Ocotillo at the northern end of the mainshock rupture. We documented right-lateral slip (< 40 mm) on northwest trending faults and left-lateral slip (< 40 mm) on southwest trending faults. Slip occurred on 15-km- and 20-km-long segments of the San Andreas Fault in the Mecca Hills (? 50 mm) and Durmid Hill (? 10 mm) respectively, and 23 km of the Superstition Hills Fault (? 37 mm). Field measurements of slip on the Superstition Hills Fault agree with InSAR and creepmeter measurements to within a few millimeters. Dislocation models of the InSAR data on the Superstition Hills Fault confirm that creep in this sequence, as in previous slip events, is confined to shallow depths (< 3 km). Map of Southern California and Northern Baja California. Black solid lines are major faults. Yellow solid lines are faults with observed offsets. Dashed black lines are National and State borders. White star is the epicenter of the 2010 April 4th El Major earthquake. Red dots are aftershocks within one month after the main rupture with magnitude greater than 5, blue 4-5, and green 3-4. Earthquake data are from the Southern California Earthquake Center. Fault names are abbreviated as follows: ERF, Elmore Ranch fault; SHF, Superstition Hills fault; SMF, Superstition Mountains fault; WF, Wienert fault; YWF, Yuha Wells Fault.

Wei, M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Fialko, Y.; Bilham, R. G.

2010-12-01

367

History of Deformation Along the Meeman-Shelby Fault near Memphis, Tennessee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the New Madrid seismic zone, located in the central US, a conflict exists between the present, historical, and prehistorical seismicity and the apparent low rates of deformation measured at the surface (0-1.4 mm/yr). A hypothesis proposed to resolve this conflict is that deformation may be focused in different areas at different times, and that the present seismicity might not reflect the long-term behavior of the seismogenic faults in the area. One important implication for seismic hazard is that seismogenic faults might exist outside the New Madrid seismic zone, buried beneath the sediments of the Mississippi Embayment. In order to test this hypothesis, a series of high-resolution marine and land seismic reflection surveys along or near the Mississippi River were carried out from 2008 to 2011. The surveys collected continuous high quality data, imaging the regional markers of the unconsolidated sediments in the Mississippi Valley, from the top of the Paleozoic section to the base of the Quaternary alluvium. Here we present 5 new marine and land seismic profiles that reveal a 45 km-long fault located about 10 km west of Memphis, Tennessee, acquired at four different locations along the river and at a position on land between two river crossings. The fault, interpreted as the Meeman-Shelby Fault, strikes N25°E, dips WNW with an angle of ~80°, and exhibits an up-to-the-west sense of motion. Along the fault the top of the Paleozoic rocks are offset ~78 m and the top of Cretaceous and Paleocene unconsolidated sediments are folded ~48 m and ~28 m respectively in a large anticline. The base of the Quaternary alluvium, estimated to be Holocene in age at this location in the alluvial plain, is folded ~28 m on one seismic profile. A dextral strike-slip component with an estimated rake of ~49° was derived from the focal mechanisms of two local earthquake events with epicenter nearby the newly imaged fault. The net slips were computed based on the vertical displacements and the fault dip angle measured from the seismic profiles, and the rake averaged from the focal mechanisms. Calculated slip rates for the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, Eocene, and Quaternary are 0.0027, 0.0025, 0.0025, and 1.6444 mm/yr, respectively. These rates are consistent with those calculated for the presently active faults in the New Madrid seismic zone (i.e. Reelfoot thrust fault), and indicate a persistent activity of the Meeman-Shelby Fault during the Tertiary and an increase during the Quaternary.

Hao, Y.; Magnani, M.; Guo, L.; McIntosh, K. D.

2012-12-01

368

Observer-based fault detection for nuclear reactors  

E-print Network

This is a study of fault detection for nuclear reactor systems. Basic concepts are derived from fundamental theories on system observers. Different types of fault- actuator fault, sensor fault, and system dynamics fault ...

Li, Qing, 1972-

2001-01-01

369

Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery is proving to be exceptionally useful in delineating structural features in Alaska which have never been recognized on the ground. Previously unmapped features such as seismically active faults and major structural lineaments are especially evident. Among the more significant results of this investigation is the discovery of an active strand of the Denali fault. The new fault has a history of scattered activity and was the scene of a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on October 1, 1972. Of greater significance is the disclosure of a large scale conjugate fracture system north of the Alaska Range. This fracture system appears to result from compressive stress radiating outward from around Mt. McKinley. One member of the system was the scene of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in 1968. The potential value of ERTS-1 imagery to land use planning is reflected in the fact that this earthquake occurred within 10 km of the site which was proposed for the Rampart Dam, and the fault on which it occurred passes very near the proposed site for the bridge and oil pipeline crossing of the Yukon River.

Gedney, L. D. (principal investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

1973-01-01

370

Red blood cell production  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

371

River Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a field trip along a local water course students will conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land use and water quality. They will document their findings with mapping and compilation of a river profile and use this initial reconnaissance to raise questions about local land use or river water quality that require investigation. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

372

Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

2012-01-01

373

Fault-tolerance multiprocessor interconnection networks and their fault diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme to provide multistage interconnection networks with fault tolerance is introduced. Multiple paths between any input/output pair are created by connecting switching elements in the same stage together. Because the maximum number of possible alternative paths inherent in a network is exploited, the proposed fault-tolerant network possesses long mean lifetime and demonstrates high bandwidth. This scheme can be applied to notably enhance reliability and performance of any known multistage interconnection networks. To diagnose a fault in a redundant-path interconnection network is far more involved than a regular one. Based on a novel fault model, a diagnostic procedure is developed to effectively detect and locate any single fault existing in the multiple-path network. The fault model is practical and has potential usefulness as a tool for modeling faulty states of larger switching elements (e.g., n x n switching elements with n > 2). To facilitate this procedure, faults are classified into two groups in each of which the necessary test vectors are provided for correctly setting switching elements in the network under diagnosis when the procedure is conducted.

Tzeng, N.F.

1986-01-01

374

Rules of the River.  

E-print Network

DO /~ TA245.7 8-1304 873 ~Ies of the River The Te>River Recreation... Association of Texas, P.O. Box 12734, Austin, Texas 78711, 1979. Sketches by Barbara Moore. -, ? ? ? ? Rules of the River These "Rules of the River" are for you, the river recreationist . River recreation is increasing in Texas. Recent surveys show...

Anonymous,

1980-01-01

375

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

376

2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world  

E-print Network

2012 Special symposium on Red tides Red-tide world Date: October 26 (Friday) 2012 09 on Red tides Time Topic Speaker Organization 8:50-9:10 Registration 9:10-9:20 Welcome 9:20-10:00 Forecasting the New England red tide : Current status, and ongoing efforts Don Anderson Woods Hole Oceanogr. i

Jeong, Hae Jin

377

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1  

E-print Network

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1 Chelungpu faults 2 3 Anne-Marie Boullier 4 active faults with the aim of 11 learning about the geology of the fault

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Late Quaternary slip rate and seismic hazards of the West Klamath Lake fault zone near Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crater Lake caldera is at the north end of the Klamath graben, where this N10??W-trending major Basin and Range structure impinges upon the north-south-trending High Cascades volcanic arc. East-facing normal faults, typically 10-15 km long, form the West Klamath Lake fault zone, which bounds the graben on its west side. The fault zone terminates on the south near the epicentral area of the September 1993 Klamath Falls earthquakes. It continues north past Crater Lake as the Annie Spring fault, which is within ~1 km of the west caldera rim, and Red Cone Spring fault. We have determined a long-term vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr for these two faults using high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on offset lava flows ranging in age from ca. 35 to 300 ka. Holocene offset reported by Hawkins et al. and epicenters of eight MW 2 earthquakes in 1994 and 1995 indicate that the West Klamath Lake fautl zone is active. Empirical relations between earthquake magnitudes and scarp heights or fault lengths suggest that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes as large as MW 7 1/4 . Earthquakes on these or other faults of the zone could trigger landslides and rockfalls from the walls of the caldera, possibly resulting in large waves on Crater Lake.

Bacon, C.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.

1999-01-01

379

Holocene kinematics and slip rate of the Sayan fault (Southern Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sayan fault is located at the boundary between the northernmost mountain belt of Central Asia (the Sayan-Baikal ranges) and the Siberian platform. This outstanding ~ 500 km crustal structure defines an obvious and sharp morphotectonics feature easily recognizable on satellite imagery. Inherited from the Palaeozoic orogenes, the Sayan fault has been working as a left-lateral transform fault during the opening of the Baikal Rift in the Cainozoic time. Despite a very low instrumental seismic activity and few historical earthquakes, Holocene morphotectonics features along the fault attests of its activity and its capacity of producing strong earthquakes. The Sayan fault represents therefore a strong hazard for the city of Irkoutsk, which is located 70 km northwards of its south-eastern tip, and where more than one million people are living. In order to quantify the present kinematics of the fault, to estimate its slip rate and the potential magnitude of earthquakes, we carried out a morphotectonics study within its south-eastern part, between the Baikal Lake and the Irkut River (the only part of the fault relatively accessible, while further west the fault stands in a mountainous area covered with dense forest without any easy access). A reconnaissance trip allowed us finding out a small catchment basin cut by the fault and showing a cumulative offset of several tens of meters. We surveyed the site with a total station to produce a Digital Elevation Model, and we collected samples of the offset surface and the trapped sediments for radiocarbon and OSL dating. In progress analyses should allow us to provide a first estimate of the left-lateral slip rate along the Sayan fault.

Ritz, J.-F.; Larroque, C.; Vassallo, R.; Arzhannikova, A.; Arzhannikov, S.; Jolivet, M.

2012-04-01

380

Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation for Local Leakage Faults  

E-print Network

We provide a rigorous analysis of fault-tolerant quantum computation in the presence of local leakage faults. We show that one can systematically deal with leakage by using appropriate leakage-reduction units such as quantum teleportation. The leakage noise is described by a Hamiltonian and the noise is treated coherently, similar to general non-Markovian noise analyzed in Refs. quant-ph/0402104 and quant-ph/0504218. We describe ways to limit the use of leakage-reduction units while keeping the quantum circuits fault-tolerant and we also discuss how leakage reduction by teleportation is naturally achieved in measurement-based computation.

Panos Aliferis; Barbara M. Terhal

2006-05-26

381

NAME: Indian River Lagoon LOCATION: Brevard and Indian River Counties, Florida  

E-print Network

, and planting red and white mangroves. Invasive species will be removed using the basal bark and cut stump: 47.5 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR(S): Marine Resources Council Florida Department of Transportation (DOT of estuarine habitat in the Indian River Lagoon by removing invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper

US Army Corps of Engineers

382

Initiation of Ridges and Transform Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No clear consensus has emerged to explain initiation of the strikingly regular pattern of ocean ridges and transform faults. The question is important on the continents also, because a less regular pattern of step-overs on faults such as the San Andreas influences the sources of earthquakes. We explore the question by finite element modeling and a study of observational data on ridges and transforms. We focus on the simplest case, where ridges and transforms seem to self-organize at new plate boundaries as soon as new oceanic (magmatic) crust forms. The South Atlantic supplies a clear example. Continental South America and Africa separated along an irregular break, whose general shape is still preserved in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In detail, however, the sea floor magnetic anomalies and satellite gravity show that traces of the ridges and transforms extend to the base of the continental slope, i.e. they formed quickly in the new oceanic crust. The Gulf of California provides another clear example and is notable because of its northward transition into the continental San Andreas fault system. In continental crust, dike segments connected by transform faults provide the clearest analogues of oceanic ridges and transforms. Remarkably, the ridge-transform pattern has been simulated by pulling the crust on molten wax [Oldenburg and Brune, JGR, 80, 1975] and also observed in the crust of a molten lava lake [Duffield, JGR, 77, 1972]. In neither of these models, however, do the spatial and temporal scales permit investigation of the dikes whose repeated emplacement and inflation builds layer 3 of the ocean crust. It is well established that, under a buoyant head of magma, dikes tend to fracture and intrude the crust in planes perpendicular to the least horizontal stress, and they relieve the stress difference as they inflate [e.g. Parsons and Thompson, Science, 253, 1991]. Dikes are commonly used as stress-direction indicators analogous to artificial hydraulic fractures. In a simple 2-D finite-element modeling setup we simulate the initiation of rifting by the dike intrusion and opening of several mis-aligned cracks in a pre-extended elastic basalt-like crust. The design of the model parameterization and the dimensions of the cracks, their mis-alignments and mutual distances resemble beginning rift systems observed in the Gulf of California and the Red Sea. Two major processes are assumed to control the expansion and interaction of the cracks and the subsequent development of transform faults. Tectonic extension and dike inflation widen the cracks and stress concentration causes the tips to propagate. Intruding magma aids the opening by exerting stresses on the crack boundaries. Then stress changes induced by the interacting cracks cause the region between the cracks to break. In our modeling the Coulomb failure criterion controls the development of faults around the cracks. Under plane stress assumptions we study the evolution of the stress regime with time, while varying the spreading rate of the lithosphere, the melt pressure of the intruding magma, the degree of mis-alignment and the distance between the cracks. We propose a process of dike intrusion to explain the orientation of ridges; mis-alignment of dikes propagating from different magma supply centers leads to formation of transforms. The hypothesis is supported by the discovery of magma-poor, ultra-slow spreading ridges that are spreading obliquely and generally lack transforms [Dick, Lin and Schouten, Nature, 426, 2003].

Nyst, M.; Thompson, G. A.; Parsons, T.

2004-12-01

383

A remote sensing study of active folding and faulting in southern Kerman province, S.E. Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological observations reveal a major oblique fold-and-thrust belt in Kerman province, S.E. Iran. The active faults appear to link the Sabzevaran right-lateral strike-slip fault in southeast Iran to other strike-slip faults within the interior of the country and may provide the means of distributing right-lateral shear between the Zagros and Makran mountains over a wider region of central Iran. The Rafsanjan fault is manifest at the Earth's surface as right-lateral strike-slip fault scarps and folding in alluvial sediments. Height changes across the anticlines, and widespread incision of rivers, are likely to result from hanging-wall uplift above thrust faults at depth. Scarps in recent alluvium along the northern margins of the folds suggest that the thrusts reach the surface and are active at the present-day. The observations from Rafsanjan are used to identify similar late Quaternary faulting elsewhere in Kerman province near the towns of Mahan and Rayen. No instrumentally recorded destructive earthquakes have occurred in the study region and only one historical earthquake (Lalehzar, 1923) is recorded. In addition GPS studies show that present-day rates of deformation are low. However, fault structures in southern Kerman province do appear to be active in the late Quaternary and may be capable of producing destructive earthquakes in the future. This study shows how widely available remote sensing data can be used to provide information on the distribution of active faulting across large areas of deformation.

Walker, Richard Thomas

2006-04-01

384

Paraguay River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguay is located at the confluence of a number of globally important ecoregions, namely the upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, the Argentine Mesopotamian Grasslands, the Chaco (Humid and Dry) and the Pantanal. The southward-flowing Paraguay River divides the country into two distin...

385

Knowledge River  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most promising of all diversity initiatives in library and information studies (LIS) is Knowledge River (KR) at the School of Information Resources and Library Science (SIRLS) at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Created and directed by Patricia A. Tarin, the program has already recruited some 42 students into the profession, 20 of…

Berry, John N., III

2004-01-01

386

Raging Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student are introduced to rivers, and to the components of the water cycle. They think about the effects of communities, sidewalks and roads on the natural flow of rainwater. Students also learn about the role of engineering in community planning and protecting our natural resources.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

387

Mississippi River  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Iowa. The Wisconsin River joins the Mississippi just below Prairie du Chien. On March 26, snow can clearly be seen over much of the ... crested in Davenport, Iowa at 680 centimeters, slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993. MISR was built ...

2014-05-15

388

Arc fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01

389

Faulted Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

390

Arc fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

Jha, K.N.

1999-05-18

391

Fault Tolerant State Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

2004-01-01

392

New Paleoseismological Finding on the Yenice Gönen Fault; Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) is one of the major intra-continental transform faults in the Eastern Mediterranean region. It is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone extends more than 1500 km-long forming northern boundary of the Anatolian microplate. East of Marmara Sea it divides into the northern and southern strands running towards the northern Aegean sea. The southern strand of the NAFS is consists of several fault segments, which trend NE-SW in the Biga Peninsula. Yenice-Gönen Fault (YGF) is one of the main fault segment of the NAFS in Biga Peninsula. It is about 70 km long and generated destructive earthquake (Mw=7.2) of 18th March, 1953. In this study, paleoseismological investigations were performed on the YGF. It is composed of fault sections separated from each other by releasing and/or restraining bends or step-overs. The lengths of the fault sections vary from 5 to 19 km. The whole length of the YGF ruptured with maximum dextral slip of 4.0 m measured on the surface rupture nearby Yenice Town. The amount of slips decrees both NE and SW from Yenice town indicating bilateral rupture propagation. There is no clear consistency between the previously suggested epicentre location and the slip distributions. According to the slip observations, the epicentre of the 1953 event locates to the near east of the Yenice. In order to understand paleoseismic history of the YGF, three cross trenches were excavated on the 1953 surface rupture. Two of them are on the distal part of an alluvial fan at Seyvan village and one of them is on the flood plain of the Yenice River at Çak?r village. 1953 surface rupture is characterized by an evident of linear fresh fault scarp around Seyvan. Fault scarps are obvious with an uplifted of 1.2 m southern block. Dextral slip of 2.5 meter associated with the last event was measured along the rupture near the Seyvan trench site. Although active river erosion, the rupture trace can be easily followed in the field at the Çak?r site. According to trench micro-stratigraphy, fault colluvial wedge, upwards termination of the faults and radiometric dating results (14C-AMS), at least five paleoseismic events during the last 7.000 years period were determined from the trench surveys at Seyvan and Çak?r sites.

Kürçer, Ak?n; Özalp, Selim; Özdemir, Ersin; Sönmez, Özgül; Duman, Tamer Y.

2014-05-01

393

Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

2000-07-01

394

Inductive Fault Analysis of MOS Integrated Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive Fault Analysis (IFA) is a systematic Procedure to predict all the faults that are likely to occur in MOS integrated circuit or subcircuit The three major steps of the IFA procedure are: (1) generation of Physical defects using statistical data from the fabrication process; (2) extraction of circuit-level faults caused by these defects; and (3) classification of faults types

John Shen; W. Maly; F. J. Ferguson

1985-01-01

395

Seismic Fault Rheology and Earthquake Dynamics  

E-print Network

5 Seismic Fault Rheology and Earthquake Dynamics JAMES R. RICE1 and MASSIMO COCCO2 1Department Workshop on The Dynamics of Fault Zones, spe- cifically on the subtopic "Rheology of Fault Rocks and Their Surroundings," we addressed critical research issues for understanding the seismic response of fault zones

396

Sequential circuit fault simulation using logic emulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast fault simulation approach based on ordinary logic emulation is proposed. The circuit configured into our system that emulates the faulty circuit's behaviour is synthesized from the good circuit and the given fault list in a novel way. Fault injection is made easy by shifting the content of a fault injection scan chain or by selecting the output of

Shih-arn Hwang; Jin-hua Hong; Cheng-wen Wu

1998-01-01

397

Introduction On the Fault Resilience Metric  

E-print Network

Introduction On the Fault Resilience Metric Simulation Environment Simulation Results and Statistical Analysis Conclusion and Future Work Fault Resilience Analysis for Real-Time Systems George Lima1@ifba.edu.br, cadena@ufba.brFault Resilience Analysis for Real-Time System #12;Introduction On the Fault Resilience

Lipari, Giuseppe

398

Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

1994-01-01

399

Data parallel sequential circuit fault simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential circuit fault simulation is a compute-intensive problem. Parallel simulation is one method to reduce fault simulation time. In this paper, we discuss a novel technique to partition the fault set for the fault parallel simulation of sequential circuits on multiple processors. When applied statically, the technique can scale well for up to thirty two processors on an ethernet. The

Minesh B. Amin; Bapiraju Vinnakota

1996-01-01

400

Making Byzantine Fault Tolerant Systems Tolerate Byzantine Faults  

E-print Network

and Reggio Emilia Abstract This paper argues for a new approach to building Byzan- tine fault tolerant is to advocate a new approach, robust BFT (RBFT), to building BFT sys- tems. Our goal is to change the way BFT

Dahlin, Michael D.

401

The Effects of Fault Counting Methods on Fault Model Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe three other fault-counting techniques and compare the models resulting from the application of two of those methods to the models obtained from the application of our proposed definition.

Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

2004-01-01

402

An Algebra of Fault Tolerance  

E-print Network

Every system of any significant size is created by composition from smaller sub-systems or components. It is thus fruitful to analyze the fault-tolerance of a system as a function of its composition. In this paper, two basic types of system composition are described, and an algebra to describe fault tolerance of composed systems is derived. The set of systems forms monoids under the two composition operators, and a semiring when both are concerned. A partial ordering relation between systems is used to compare their fault-tolerance behaviors.

Shrisha Rao

2009-07-20

403

Fault-Tolerant Quantum Walks  

E-print Network

Quantum walks are expected to serve important modelling and algorithmic applications in many areas of science and mathematics. Although quantum walks have been successfully implemented physically in recent times, no major efforts have been made to combat the error associated with these physical implementations in a fault-tolerant manner. In this paper, we propose a systematic method to implement fault-tolerant quantum walks in discrete time on arbitrarily complex graphs, using quantum states encoded with the Steane code and a set of universal fault tolerant matrix operations.

S. D. Freedman; Y. H. Tong; J. B. Wang

2014-08-06

404

Microfracture analysis of fault growth and wear processes, Punchbowl Fault, San Andreas system, California  

E-print Network

was nearly normal to the fault surface. Two additional microfracture sets are present, one oriented at lowMicrofracture analysis of fault growth and wear processes, Punchbowl Fault, San Andreas system hypotheses for the origin of damage along large-displacement faults by the processes of fault growth and wear

Chester, Frederick M.

405

Fault-Trajectory Approach for Fault Diagnosis on Analog Circuits Carlos Eduardo Savioli,  

E-print Network

Fault-Trajectory Approach for Fault Diagnosis on Analog Circuits Carlos Eduardo Savioli, Claudio C Mesquita@coe.ufrj.br Abstract This issue discusses the fault-trajectory approach suitability for fault on this concept for ATPG for diagnosing faults on analog networks. Such method relies on evolutionary techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Fault Tolerant Control with Additive Compensation for Faults in an Automotive Damper  

E-print Network

Fault Tolerant Control with Additive Compensation for Faults in an Automotive Damper Juan C. Tud: sebastien.varrier@gipsa-lab.fr Abstract--A novel Fault-Tolerant Controller is proposed for an automotive mechanism used to accommodate actuator faults. The compensation mechanism is based on a robust fault

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

An Approach to Fault Modeling and Fault Seeding Using the Program Dependence Graph1  

E-print Network

An Approach to Fault Modeling and Fault Seeding Using the Program Dependence Graph1 Mary Jean harrold@cis.ohio-state.edu ofut@isse.gmu.edu kanu@eng.sun.com Abstract We present a fault-classification scheme and a fault-seeding method that are based on the manifes- tation of faults in the program

Harrold, Mary Jean

408

A Framework for Optimal Fault-Tolerant Control Synthesis: Maximize Pre-Fault while  

E-print Network

1 A Framework for Optimal Fault-Tolerant Control Synthesis: Maximize Pre-Fault while Minimize Post-Fault State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 Abstract--In an earlier work, we introduced a framework for fault existence. In this paper, we introduce the synthesis of an optimal fault- tolerant supervisory controller

Kumar, Ratnesh

409

Fault Detection and Automated Fault Diagnosis for Embedded Integrated Electrical Passives  

E-print Network

Fault Detection and Automated Fault Diagnosis for Embedded Integrated Electrical Passives Heebyung and automated fault diagnosis us- ing pole zero analysis of embedded integrated pas- sive. For pole zero-matching algorithm to detect faults and perform automated diagnosis of catastrophic and parametric faults using

Swaminathan, Madhavan

410

Differential Fault Analysis on SMS4 Using a Single Fault , Bing Sun1  

E-print Network

Differential Fault Analysis on SMS4 Using a Single Fault Ruilin Li1 , Bing Sun1 , Chao Li1 paper, we propose a new DFA attack on SMS4 using a single fault. We show that if a random byte fault structure and an SPN-style round function as that of SMS4. Keywords: Cryptography, Fault attacks

411

Fault length, multi-fault rupture, and relations to earthquakes in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault length is used to estimate the rupture length of future earthquakes. However, fault length is often poorly defined, and rupture often breaks beyond the mapped faults. Furthermore, multiple faults often rupture together in a single earthquake. In this work I quantify how to use fault length to infer future rupture length. I used observations of previous ruptures breaking multiple

Natanya Maureen Black

2008-01-01

412

Holocene tectonics and fault reactivation in the foothills of the north Cascade Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use LiDAR imagery to identify two fault scarps on latest Pleistocene glacial outwash deposits along the North Fork Nooksack River in Whatcom County, Washington (United States). Mapping and paleoseismic investigation of these previously unknown scarps provide constraints on the earthquake history and seismic hazard in the northern Puget Lowland. The Kendall scarp lies along the mapped trace of the Boulder Creek fault, a south-dipping Tertiary normal fault, and the Canyon Creek scarp lies in close proximity to the south-dipping Canyon Creek fault and the south-dipping Glacier Extensional fault. Both scarps are south-side-up, opposite the sense of displacement observed on the nearby bedrock faults. Trenches excavated across these scarps exposed folded and faulted late Quaternary glacial outwash, locally dated between ca. 12 and 13 ka, and Holocene buried soils and scarp colluvium. Reverse and oblique faulting of the soils and colluvial deposits indicates at least two late Holocene earthquakes, while folding of the glacial outwash prior to formation of the post-glacial soil suggests an earlier Holocene earthquake. Abrupt changes in bed thickness across faults in the Canyon Creek excavation suggest a lateral component of slip. Sediments in a wetland adjacent to the Kendall scarp record three pond-forming episodes during the Holocene—we infer that surface ruptures on the Boulder Creek fault during past earthquakes temporarily blocked the stream channel and created an ephemeral lake. The Boulder Creek and Canyon Creek faults formed in the early to mid-Tertiary as normal faults and likely lay dormant until reactivated as reverse faults in a new stress regime. The most recent earthquakes—each likely Mw > 6.3 and dating to ca. 8050–7250 calendar years B.P. (cal yr B.P.), 3190–2980 cal. yr B.P., and 910–740 cal. yr B.P.—demonstrate that reverse faulting in the northern Puget Lowland poses a hazard to urban areas between Seattle (Washington) and Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada).

Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Schermer, Elizabeth; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Hughes, Jonathan; Foit, Franklin F., Jr.; Weaver, Craig S.; Haugerud, Ralph; Hyatt, Tim

2013-01-01

413

Tremor, the curious third wheel of fault motion (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known universe of tectonic fault behavior has gained a new neighborhood in the last few years. Before, faults were considered to either conform to the reasonably well-understood earthquake cycle or else slide steadily. In the earthquake cycle, a fault stays locked for the years while stress is accumulating, then cracks and slides, releasing about 0.1-10 MPa of the stress on the fault. The crack spreads across the fault at roughly the shear wave velocity, kilometers per second. Sliding across the crack occurs at rates on the order of a meter per second. Deeper than the locked portion, faults were assumed to move stealthily and steadily. Disrupting this orderly bipartite universe has been tremor - a prolonged, noise-like, 1-10 Hz rumbling that has been spotted below the locked portion of a variety of faults. In subduction zones, often tremor is coincident with slow and low-stress-drop slip that takes many orders of magnitude longer to complete than garden-variety earthquakes, with the rupture progression estimated in km per day rather than per second. The so-called episodic tremor and slip (ETS) is seen to strike at much more regular intervals than old-fashioned quakes. Speculation and disjoint observations abound. Probably the observations represent just the most easily observed portions of a process that moves with power at all frequencies. The spectrum of tremor radiation is less “red” than that of earthquakes for periods shorter than their duration. Near-lithostatic pore pressure may play an important role in lubricating ETS activity. ETS activity appears generally restricted to only some major faults. Strong passing surface waves from distant great earthquakes trigger pulsations of tremor. Strong nearby earthquakes can cause weeks of stronger than normal tremor. The ebb and flow of diurnal tides cause a rise and fall in tremor amplitude. Tremor can contain earthquake-like short bursts of energy, even dozens of discrete pops, all with the less red spectra that marks tremor. The tremor moments in the Cascadia population follow the frequency scaling laid down by this lecture's namesake, the Gutenberg-Richter distribution, just like normal earthquakes. More practically, tremor is loading dangerous faults, such as near Seattle and Los Angeles, at unsteady rates, perhaps allowing estimations of variable levels of danger. Tremor probably silhouettes where the fault is locked, with alarming implications in some places. We can hope that tremor evolves through the earthquake cycle of the locked zone above in a way revealing the approach of feared events. It is a rare phenomenon that attracts so much inquiry, yet remains so obscure. No doubt, by AGU time, our seismic flashlights will have illuminated a few more juicy tidbits, and with luck bring us closer to the secret of tremor, which still lingers in an unlit corner.

Vidale, J. E.

2009-12-01

414

Geologic and geochemical study of the Picacho gold mine, California: gold in a low-angle normal fault environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Picacho gold deposit, located in southeasternmost California, is a low-grade gold deposit in a nearly flat-lying denudational fault of regional extent and probable Oligocene age. The deposit is hosted by intensely fractured and faulted Mesozoic leucogranite and by chloritic augen gneiss and schist, and is overlain unconformably and in fault contact by unmineralized late Oligocene Quechan volcanic rocks. The deposit is structurally characterized by normal and normal-oblique faults of low to high dip at shallow depths in the mine, merging downward with a synchronous, low-dipping ore-stage extensional fault system (the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault) of probable Oligocene age in deeper portions of the deposit. The fault system was infiltrated during much of its active life by hot, dilute, highly exchanged meteoric water having temperatures of 170°-210° C, salinity <2 wt% NaCl equivalent and calculated ?18Ofluid between -2.6‰ and 5.2‰. This main-stage fluid precipitated quartz, pyrite, and specular hematite, accompanied by silicification and sericitization. Auriferous ore-stage pyrite was precipitated late in the fault evolution probably by mixing of reducing ore fluid with relatively oxidized main-stage fluid during regional Oligocene extension on the Chocolate Mountains/Gatuna Fault. The Picacho deposit is characterized by a gold-arsenic-antimony geochemical signature consistent with bisulfide complexing of gold in reducing fluid, in contrast with typical denudation fault-hosted base-metal-rich deposits associated with high-salinity fluids elsewhere in the southwestern United States. The deposit is overprinted by Miocene normal faults having a wide range of dips. These postore faults are associated with red earthy hematite precipitation, pyrite oxidation, and supergene enrichment of gold.

Losh, Steven; Purvance, Dan; Sherlock, Ross; Jowett, E. Craig

2005-03-01

415

Fault-free performance validation of fault-tolerant multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A validation methodology for testing the performance of fault-tolerant computer systems was developed and applied to the Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) at NASA-Langley's AIRLAB facility. This methodology was claimed to be general enough to apply to any ultrareliable computer system. The goal of this research was to extend the validation methodology and to demonstrate the robustness of the validation methodology by its more extensive application to NASA's Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor System (FTMP) and to the Software Implemented Fault-Tolerance (SIFT) Computer System. Furthermore, the performance of these two multiprocessors was compared by conducting similar experiments. An analysis of the results shows high level language instruction execution times for both SIFT and FTMP were consistent and predictable, with SIFT having greater throughput. At the operating system level, FTMP consumes 60% of the throughput for its real-time dispatcher and 5% on fault-handling tasks. In contrast, SIFT consumes 16% of its throughput for the dispatcher, but consumes 66% in fault-handling software overhead.

Czeck, Edward W.; Feather, Frank E.; Grizzaffi, Ann Marie; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

1987-01-01

416

Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia  

SciTech Connect

Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

Stephenson, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Stieve, A.

1992-03-01

417

Sedimentary petrology and tectonic significance of Tertiary sediments in southern White River Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Up to 20 m of undated Tertiary sediment have been exposed by incision of the White River in southern White River Valley, Nevada. The sediments, deposited in two distinct environments and time periods, range from conglomerate to mudstone. Older sediments comprise alluvial-fan and lacustrine facies deposited in a closed basin. Alluvial-fan grain size and provenance patterns indicate centripetal transport into a topographic low located on the western margin of the valley. Very fine grained sandstone to mudstone basin-center deposits contain pennate diatoms and perhaps other microfossils. The basin-fill deposits are unconformably overlain by stream-terrace conglomerate. Such terraces are found along the White River as far south as Lake Mead and relate to the present southward external drainage. Multiple terrace levels, formed during incision, reflect base-level changes in the Colorado River System. The valley is bounded by normal faults, on the east by the White River fault and west by the Pahroc fault, in apparent contrast to the half-graben form of nearby basins. The alluvial-fan deposits are cut by the Pahroc fault but appear to postdate slip on the White River fault. Facies patterns in the basin fill thus indicate concentration of fine-grained sediment near the fault that was active during deposition. Terrace conglomerates indicate progradation of coarse clastics across the fine basinal deposits after activity on the bounding fault ceased. These relationships support the recent hypothesis that coarse clastic sedimentation in a basin may reflect post-tectonic rather than syntectonic deposition.

Diguiseppi, W.H.

1987-08-01

418

Quaternary deformation and fault structure in the Northern Mississippi Embayment as imaged by near-surface seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) in the central United States constrains the location of present deformation at depth along four main distinct arms, while the surface expression of the ongoing deformation is still unclear. To better constrain the surface deformation in the NMSZ, we integrate existing seismic reflection data with a new ~300 km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profile acquired along the Mississippi River from Cape Girardeau, MO, to Caruthersville, MO. Based on the data, we interpret the Reelfoot Thrust and the New Markham Fault as upward splays of a blind master fault defined by the seismicity and extending at depth farther north. To the south, two faults, the Axial Fault and the Cottonwood Grove Fault, are imaged above the southern arm of the NMSZ. Both fault display deformation of the Paleozoic through the Tertiary sediments, and a relief of ~20-25 m at the base of the Quaternary alluvium, which we interpret as the result of strike-slip motion along a complex fault plane geometry. We propose two alternative interpretations for the relationship between the shallow faults and the seismicity in this area: (1) the faults merge at depth and are presently both active and (2) the faults are distinct at depth and were active during the Quaternary and only the Axial Fault is presently deforming. Geological structures mapped at the surface as part of this study show that Quaternary deformation is accommodated along a fault network that is more complex than the simple four-arm system illuminated by the seismicity, a behavior predicted by analog and computer models.

Guo, Lei; Magnani, Maria Beatrice; McIntosh, Kirk; Waldron, Brian

2014-05-01

419

Fault-diagnosis of some multistage networks  

SciTech Connect

It was shown previously that four tests are required in order to detect single faults and to locate single link stuck faults for a class of multistage interconnection networks. In this paper the authors show that only three tests are actually necessary and sufficient both to detect single faults and to locate single link stuck faults. The test schemes described achieve the least number of tests required for detecting and locating such faults. 2 references.

Tse-yun Feng; I-pieng Kao

1982-01-01

420

Tutorial: Advanced fault tree applications using HARP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Several advanced fault tolerant computer systems are described, and fault tree models for their analysis are presented. HARP (Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor) is a software package developed at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center that is capable of solving the fault tree models presented.

Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Boyd, Mark A.

1993-01-01