Sample records for red sand beds

  1. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  2. Downstream fining in large sand-bed rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy M. Frings

    2008-01-01

    Downstream fining of bed sediments is a well-known phenomenon in gravel-bed rivers, but also occurs in (large) sand-bed rivers. The underlying processes, however, are not necessarily the same, due to the difference in sediment mobility, grain-size distribution width and geographical setting. Downstream fining studies focusing on large sand-bed rivers are scarce, nevertheless. In this paper, the processes that affect downstream

  3. Incipient motion design of sand bed channels affected by bed suction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bimlesh Kumar; Gopu Srinivasulu; Achanta Ramakrishna Rao

    2010-01-01

    Seepage through sand bed channels in a downward direction (suction) reduces the stability of particles and initiates the sand movement. Incipient motion of sand bed channel with seepage cannot be designed by using the conventional approach. Metamodeling techniques, which employ a non-linear pattern analysis between input and output parameters and solely based on the experimental observations, can be used to

  4. METHODS OF REMOTELY REMOVING THE BED FROM A SAND FILTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thornburg

    1958-01-01

    Methcds of remotely removing a sand bed from an isolated sand ; radiochemical filter were developed and tested, including a water eductor method, ; a pressurized vessel method, and a steam jet method. The last method appeared ; most reliable and practical, and special attention was given to determining ; optimum conditions for bed removal using a steam jet. (auth);

  5. Channel bed evolution and sediment transport under declining sand inputs

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    Channel bed evolution and sediment transport under declining sand inputs Karen B. Gran,1,2 David R structure development and sediment transport as sand inputs decline. On the Pasig-Potrero River, we investigated channel recovery following emplacement of sand-rich pyroclastic deposits in the 1991 eruption

  6. Vegetation-driven morphodynamic adjustments of a sand bed

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    of a sand bed. We show that the vegetation patch reduces the sediment transport capacity of the flow and that the topography responds to this by an increase of the bed slope to accommodate the upstream sediment supply with the flow and sediment beds are poorly understood. Vegetation is known to increase flow resistance

  7. Bathymetric evolution of sand bed forms under partially standing waves

    E-print Network

    Landry, Blake Jude

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a large wave flume where the interaction between water waves and a movable sand bed were investigated. Monochromatic and poly- chromatic waves of specified amplitudes and period were generated ...

  8. 20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to remove schmutzdeck (top, dirty sand layer containing particulate contamination, dead microorganisms and debris) for cleaning and or disposal. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady, uniform flow, and other simplifications that are not met in the Colorado River, the results nevertheless support the idea that changes in bed-sand grain size are much more important than changes in bed-sand area in regulating the concentration of suspended sand.

  10. Erosion depth of sand from an immobile gravel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnle, R.; Wren, D.; Langendoen, E.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to improve prediction of the depth of erosion of sand (D50 = 0.3-0.9 mm) from immobile gravel (D50 = 36.1 mm) under steady uniform flows with bed shear stresses from 0.1 to 0.9 of that required to entrain the gravel. This situation, often encountered downstream of dams, has important implications for habitat restoration. Steady uniform flows were imposed on a flume channel containing a mixture of sand and gravel until sediment concentrations in the flow exiting the channel became small. The elevation of sand relative to gravel was measured after each experiment and compared poorly to calculated depths from published relationships whose predictions were based in part on the equivalent grain roughness of the bed. An improved predictive relationship was developed by using the cumulative distribution function of the surface gravel elevations to scale the shear velocity available for transporting sand from the gravel substrate.

  11. Adsorption characteristics on sand and brick beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Selvaraju; S. Pushpavanam

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption can be used to treat wastewater containing low levels of pollutants efficiently. In this work adsorption isotherms are first obtained for phosphates, nitrates, chlorides and detergents from batch experiments. The motivation for the choice of these solutes stems from the fact that they are present in grey water i.e., domestic wastewater. The sorbents used are sand, brick and a

  12. Erosion depth of sand from an immobile gravel bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract This study was conducted to provide information on the depth of erosion of sand (D50 = 0.3, 0.9 mm) from immobile gravel (D50 = 36.1 mm) under steady uniform flows with bed shear stresses from 0.1 to 0.9 of that required to entrain the gravel. This situation, often encountered downstream o...

  13. MODELING LARGE WOOD STRUCTURES IN SAND BED STREAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-stream large wood structures (LWS) are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The LWS improve aquatic habitat quality and protect banks from erosion. While most reports describe the LWS in the Northwest as successful, LWS in one Mississippi sand-bed stream had an unacceptable failure...

  14. Design of Large Wood Structures in Sand-Bed Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large woody structures (LWS) are potentially an efficient and cost effective way to protect streambanks from erosion while enhancing aquatic habitat. While LWS have been successful in some cases in the Pacific Northwest when ballasted with rock, the failure rate in sand-bed streams typical of the mi...

  15. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of vegetation on the system is less understood. Recent laboratory studies have focused on quantifying wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as a natural method to mitigate storm surges. The emergent vegetation, while promising for coastal protection, alters sediment transport rates directly by the physical presence of the plants near the bed and indirectly from reduction in near-bed shear stresses due to attenuated wave energy. The experimental work herein focuses on the area near the deeply submerged vegetated canopy limit (current work has a ratio of mean still water depth to plant height, H/h, = 7.9) to minimize the effect on the surface waves and discern the direct impact vegetation has on sand bed morphodynamics. Experiments were conducted in the large wave tank (49-m long by 1.83-m wide by 1.22-m deep) in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois in which a high reflection wave forcing was used over a uniform sand bed with a 0.25-mm median sediment diameter in which staggered and uniform arrangements of idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) were positioned along the bed (e.g., at predetermined sand bar troughs and over an entire sand bar). The resulting bathymetric evolution from the vegetated case experiments were compared to the base case of no vegetation using two optical methods: a high-resolution laser displacement sensor for three-dimensional surveys and digitized profiles via high-definition panoramic images of the entire test section. The experimental findings illustrate the profound effect that vegetation can impose on bed form evolution whereby the rate of development can be significantly reduced, mitigated, or even completely redirected. These findings suggest that bottom roughness could be controlled with the help of vegetation thus providing a means to reduce wave energy and prevent sediment erosion. Three-dimensional bathymetric scan of a sand bar having superimposed ripples with idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) positioned at the bar toughs.

  16. Effect of Bed Sand Content on the Turbulent Flows Associated with Clusters on an

    E-print Network

    Curran, Joanna C.

    Effect of Bed Sand Content on the Turbulent Flows Associated with Clusters on an Armored Gravel Bed often develops clusters as part of its structure. The influence of sand on armoring and the impact created from four different sediments, which progressively increased from 1­38% sand in the bed sediment

  17. Scaling laws in aeolian sand transport: Erodible versus Non-erodible bed

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Scaling laws in aeolian sand transport: Erodible versus Non-erodible bed A. Valance , T. D. Ho , A via wind-tunnel experiments the role of the boundary conditions at the bed in the aeolian sand sand transport in natural environment. Keywords: Aeolian sand transport, wind tunnel experiment

  18. Effect of Sand Supply on Transport Rates in a Gravel-Bed Channel

    E-print Network

    Curran, Joanna C.

    Effect of Sand Supply on Transport Rates in a Gravel-Bed Channel Joanna C. Curran, A.M.ASCE,1 depth, and gravel feed rate, sand feed rates were varied from 0.16 to 6.1 times that of gravel. The bed slope decreased with increasing sand supply, indicating that the gravel could be transported at the same

  19. Arsenate removal from water using sand--red mud columns.

    PubMed

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Bregnhøj, Henrik; McConchie, David

    2005-08-01

    This study describes experiments in which sorption filters, filled with chemically modified red mud (Bauxsol) or activated Bauxsol (AB) coated sand, are used to remove As(V) (arsenate) from water. Bauxsol-coated sand (BCS) and AB-coated sand (ABCS) are prepared by mixing Bauxsol or AB with wet sand and drying. Samples of the BCS and ABCS are also used in batch experiments to obtain isotherm data. The observed adsorption data fit the Langmuir model well, with adsorption maxima of 3.32 and 1.64 mgg(-1) at pH values of 4.5 and 7.1, respectively for BCS; and of 2.14 mgg(-1) for ABCS at a pH of 7.1. Test results show that higher arsenate adsorption capacities can be achieved for both BCS and ABCS when using the columns compared to results for batch experiments; the difference is greater for BCS. Additional batch tests, carried out for 21 days using BCS to explain the observed discrepancy, show that the equilibrium time previously used in batch experiments was too short because adsorption continued for at least 21 days and reached 87% after 21 days compared to only 35% obtained after 4h. Fixed bed column tests, used to investigate the effects of flow rate and initial arsenate concentration indicate that the process is sensitive to both parameters, with lower flow rates (longer effective residence times in the columns) and initial arsenate concentrations providing better column performance. An examination of the combined effect of potential competing anions (i.e. silicate, phosphate, sulphate and bicarbonate) on the column performance showed that the presence of these anions in tap water slightly decreases arsenate removal. Each breakthrough curve is compared to the Thomas model, and it is found that the model may be applied to estimate the arsenate sorption capacity in columns filled with BCS and ABCS. The data obtained from both batch and column studies indicate that BCS and ABCS filtration could be effectively used to remove arsenate from water, with the latter being more efficient. PMID:15979686

  20. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  1. The sand-deposition impact of artificial gravel beds on the protection of the Mogao Grottoes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo Shuai; Qu, Jian Jun; Li, Xu Zhi; Wang, Wan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Gravel beds can prevent sand-dust emission and weaken sand-dust flux. We used wind-tunnel experiments and field observations on artificial gravel beds above the Mogao Grottoes to quantify their impact. In the report, we identified a significant correlation between gravel roughness and its ability to trap wind-transported sand. The optimal combinations of gravel diameter and coverage were determined. The greatest roughness is achieved when small gravel coverage is 75%, medium 40% and large 45%. We found that initial wind speed and gravel coverage are the key factors controlling the amount of sand trapped by the gravel beds. PMID:24614183

  2. The sand-deposition impact of artificial gravel beds on the protection of the Mogao Grottoes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo Shuai; Qu, Jian Jun; Li, Xu Zhi; Wang, Wan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Gravel beds can prevent sand-dust emission and weaken sand-dust flux. We used wind-tunnel experiments and field observations on artificial gravel beds above the Mogao Grottoes to quantify their impact. In the report, we identified a significant correlation between gravel roughness and its ability to trap wind-transported sand. The optimal combinations of gravel diameter and coverage were determined. The greatest roughness is achieved when small gravel coverage is 75%, medium 40% and large 45%. We found that initial wind speed and gravel coverage are the key factors controlling the amount of sand trapped by the gravel beds. PMID:24614183

  3. Density stratification effects in sand-bed rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the effects of density stratification in sand-bed rivers are studied by the application of a model of vertical velocity and concentration profiles, coupled through the use of a turbulence closure that retains the buoyancy terms. By making the governing equations dimensionless, it is revealed that the slope is the additional dimensionless parameter introduced by inclusion of the buoyancy terms. The primary new finding is that in general density stratification effects tend to be greater in large, low-slope rivers than in their smaller, steeper brethren. Under high flow conditions the total suspended load and size distribution of suspended sediment can be significantly affected by density stratification, and should be accounted for in any general theory of suspended transport. ?? ASCE.

  4. Continental Shelf Research 22 (2002) 19872000 The accumulation and decay of near-bed suspended sand

    E-print Network

    Kirby, James T.

    sand concentration due to waves and wave groups Christopher E. Vincenta, *, Daniel M. Hanesb a School were made of suspended sand and bedform dimensions caused by prototype- scale waves, both regular and in groups, over a mobile sand bed, in a very large wave channel. The changes in wave height at the beginning

  5. Algorithm for resistance to flow and transport in sand-bed channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is developed that relates depth to discharge and determines bed- and suspended-load transport for the entire range of bed forms found in sand-bed channels; equilibrium-state geometry of lower flow regime bedforms is also predicted. A Meyer-Peter-type formulation is used to compute sand transport in the bed-load layer and for computing suspended sand transport, McLean's procedure is adopted. A bed-form classifcation scheme is developed. The algorithm produces overall geometric averages of predicted to observed depth and predicted to observed transport of 1.00. For a verification data set of 855 observations, mostly from rivers and canals, the overall geometric averages of predicted to observed depth and transport are 0.87 and 1.14. -from Author

  6. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Landry; M. H. Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of

  7. Determining design parameters for recovery of aquaculture wastewater using sand beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L Palacios; M. B Timmons

    2001-01-01

    Design information for the use of sand beds to remove suspended solids from wastewater discharged from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was developed. Wastewater from a commercial RAS tilapia farm with 2% total solids and 1.6% total suspended solids (TSS) was applied to sand columns to determine infiltration rates and phosphorus capture. Various hydraulic loading rates and drying periods between application

  8. Turbulent flow and sand transport over a cobble bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The turbulence structure of flow over rough beds and its interaction with fine sediments in the bed are important for efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored...

  9. Particle Motions in a Gas-Fluidized Bed of Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Narayanan; Durian, Douglas J.

    1997-11-01

    We report measurements by diffusing-wave spectroscopy of particle motions in a gas-fluidized bed. The homogenous state of the bed known as the uniformly fluidized state is actually a weak solid in which particles are at rest. The only truly fluid state is an inhomogenous mixture of gas bubbles and of liquid regions in which microscopic particle dynamics are shown to be collisional. The motion of macroscopic bubbles is the source of particle motions in the bed. Measurements of mean free paths, collision rates, and velocity fluctuations (the ``granular temperature'') show that dissipation occurs nonuniformly in the medium.

  10. Electrokinetic injection of ammonium and sulfate ions into sand and kaolinite beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yalcin B. Acar; M. Fazle Rabbi; Elif E. Ozsu

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging in-situ remediation technique that employs a low-level direct current (DC) across an electrode system inserted in soil to extract inorganic\\/organic species. The efficiency of electrokinetic injection of a cation (ammonium) from the anode and an anion (sulfate) from the cathode into a fine-grained sand bed and a kaolinite bed is investigated. Electrodes are placed in

  11. Flow and sand transport over an immobile gravel bed.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dams in the USA and elsewhere have exceeded their design life and are being considered for remediation or removal, which will result in the reintroduction of fine sediments, often into coarse grained armored substrates, downstream of dams. The deposition of sand in the interstices of the grave...

  12. General suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sand-based dairy livestock bedding.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Andreas; Williams, Michele L; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2011-03-01

    Sand bedding material is frequently used in dairy operations to reduce the occurrence of mastitis and enhance cow comfort. One objective of this work was to determine if sand-based bedding also supported the microbiologically based suppression of an introduced bacterial pathogen. Bedding samples were collected in summer, fall, and winter from various locations within a dairy operation and tested for their ability to suppress introduced populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All sources of bedding displayed a heat-sensitive suppressiveness to the pathogen. Differences in suppressiveness were also noted between different samples at room temperature. At just 1 day postinoculation (dpi), the recycled sand bedding catalyzed up to a 1,000-fold reduction in E. coli counts, typically 10-fold greater than the reduction achieved with other substrates, depending on the sampling date. All bedding substrates were able to reduce E. coli populations by over 10,000-fold within 7 to 15 dpi, regardless of sampling date. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to identify bacterial populations potentially associated with the noted suppression of E. coli O157:H7 in sand bedding. Eleven terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were overrepresented in paired comparisons of suppressive and nonsuppressive specimens at multiple sampling points, indicating that they may represent environmentally stable populations of pathogen-suppressing bacteria. Cloning and sequencing of these TRFs indicated that they represent a diverse subset of bacteria, belonging to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes, only a few of which have previously been identified in livestock manure. Such data indicate that microbial suppression may be harnessed to develop new options for mitigating the risk and dispersal of zoonotic bacterial pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:21257815

  13. General Suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Sand-Based Dairy Livestock Bedding? †

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Andreas; Williams, Michele L.; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2011-01-01

    Sand bedding material is frequently used in dairy operations to reduce the occurrence of mastitis and enhance cow comfort. One objective of this work was to determine if sand-based bedding also supported the microbiologically based suppression of an introduced bacterial pathogen. Bedding samples were collected in summer, fall, and winter from various locations within a dairy operation and tested for their ability to suppress introduced populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All sources of bedding displayed a heat-sensitive suppressiveness to the pathogen. Differences in suppressiveness were also noted between different samples at room temperature. At just 1 day postinoculation (dpi), the recycled sand bedding catalyzed up to a 1,000-fold reduction in E. coli counts, typically 10-fold greater than the reduction achieved with other substrates, depending on the sampling date. All bedding substrates were able to reduce E. coli populations by over 10,000-fold within 7 to 15 dpi, regardless of sampling date. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to identify bacterial populations potentially associated with the noted suppression of E. coli O157:H7 in sand bedding. Eleven terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were overrepresented in paired comparisons of suppressive and nonsuppressive specimens at multiple sampling points, indicating that they may represent environmentally stable populations of pathogen-suppressing bacteria. Cloning and sequencing of these TRFs indicated that they represent a diverse subset of bacteria, belonging to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes, only a few of which have previously been identified in livestock manure. Such data indicate that microbial suppression may be harnessed to develop new options for mitigating the risk and dispersal of zoonotic bacterial pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:21257815

  14. Particle motion in gas-fluidized beds of sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Narayanan; Durian, D. J.

    1997-03-01

    A fluidized bed is a granular system driven into motion by means of an upflow of gas through the medium. We use diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), a multiple light scattering technique to study particle motions in beds of smooth, spherical, glass beads. As gas flow is gradually increased, the bed becomes fluid-like in its mechanical response and then starts `boiling' with macroscopic bubbles rising through the bed and large-scale convection setting in. DWS allows us to track mean-squared particle displacements through these regimes. We find that there are no particle motions detectable by DWS in a small regime above the onset of fluidity. Just above the onset of bubbling, we are able to observe long-time diffusive motions of beads. At slightly higher flow rates, we observe ballistic motions of beads which we characterize by a mean free path and an average random velocity. In the bubbling regime, these velocity fluctuations increase monotonically as gas flow is increased beyond the threshold for bubbling.

  15. Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms Jeremy G migrating dunes are examined using data drawn from laboratory experiments. We refer to the superimposed classified as ripples, dunes, or bars. Within the experiments, the sheets formed downstream

  16. Longitudinal variability in hydraulic geometry and substrate characteristics of a Great Plains sand-bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, Katie H.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Perkin, Joshuah S.; Gido, Keith B.

    2014-04-01

    Downstream trends in hydraulic geometry and substrate characteristics were investigated along a 200 km reach of the Ninnescah River in south central Kansas, USA. The Ninnescah River is a large sand-bed, perennial, braided river located in the Central Plains physiographic province and is a tributary of the Arkansas River. Hydraulic geometry characteristics were measured at eleven reaches and included slope, sinuosity, bankfull channel width, and bankfull channel depth. Results indicated that the Ninnescah River followed a predicted trend of decreasing slope and increasing depth and width downstream. There were localized divergences in the central tendency, most notability downstream of a substantial tributary that is impounded and at the end of the surveying reach where the Ninnescah River approaches the Arkansas River. Surface grain-size samples were taken from the top 10 cm of the bed at five points across the wetted cross-section within each of the 11 reaches. Sediment analyses demonstrated a significant trend in downstream fining of surface grain-sizes (D90 and D50) but unlike previous studies of sand-bedded rivers we observed coarsening of substrates downstream of the major tributary confluence. We propose that the overall low discharge from the tributary was the primary reason for coarsening of the bed downstream of the tributary. Results of this study provide valuable baseline information that can provide insight in to how Great Plains sand-bed systems may be conserved, managed, and restored in the future.

  17. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Corbett, R; Harding, R; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp., usually Mycoplasma bovis, are important bovine pathogens that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, and arthritis. The currently documented routes of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. are through contaminated milking equipment and by direct animal contact. The existence of environmental sources for Mycoplasma spp. and their role in transmission and clinical disease is poorly characterized. Mycoplasma spp. (confirmed as M. bovis in 2 of 4 samples tested using PCR) was found in recycled bedding sand originating from a dairy experiencing an outbreak of clinical mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma spp. were subsequently found in bedding sand from 2 other dairies whose bulk-tank milk was mycoplasma-positive. The association between the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and mycoplasma mastitis in cows was further investigated using a pile of recycled sand from dairy 1. Study objectives included the determination of factors associated with the concentration of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and the duration of survival of mycoplasmas in the sand. We also evaluated the efficacy of 2 disinfectants at 2 different concentrations each for the elimination of Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated sand. Mycoplasma spp. survived in the sand pile for 8 mo. The concentration of Mycoplasma spp. within the sand pile was directly related to temperature and precipitation. It was also positively associated with the growth of gram-negative microorganisms, suggesting the possibility of the formation of a biofilm. Ideal temperatures for replication of Mycoplasma spp. occurred between 15 and 20 degrees C. Moisture in the sand and movement of the sand pile also appeared to play a role in replication of mycoplasmas. We found that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine were efficacious in eliminating Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated bedding sand. Recycled bedding sand could be an environmental source of Mycoplasma spp., including M. bovis, infections in dairy cows. Future studies should investigate the contribution of this environmental source to the epidemiology of mycoplasma infections in dairy cattle. PMID:20059918

  18. The Unified Gravel-Sand (TUGS) Model: Simulating Sediment Transport and Gravel/Sand Grain Size Distributions in Gravel-Bedded Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yantao

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents The Unified Gravel-Sand (TUGS) model that simulates the transport, erosion, and deposition of both gravel and sand. TUGS model employs the surface-based bed load equation of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) and links grain size distributions in the bed load, surface layer, and subsurface with the gravel transfer function of Hoey and Ferguson (1994) and Toro-Escobar et al. (1996), a hypothetical sand transfer function, and hypothetical functions for sand entrainment/infiltration from/into the subsurface. The model is capable of exploring the dynamics of grain size distributions, including the fractions of sand in sediment deposits and on the channel bed surface, and is potentially useful in exploring gravel-sand transitions and reservoir sedimentation processes. Simulation of three sets of large-scale flume experiments indicates that the model, with minor adjustment to the Wilcock-Crowe equation, excellently reproduced bed profile and grain size distributions of the sediment deposits, including the fractions of sand within the deposits. Simulation of a flushing flow experiment indicated that the sand entrainment function is potentially capable of simulating the short-term processes such as flushing flow events.

  19. Development of an inclined liquid fluidized bed for tar sand processing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    An inclined liquid fluidized-bed reactor (ILFBR) system has been developed and successfully operated for 24 hours. Modifications to the previously tested ILFBR systems include incorporation of a oil fluidizing zone in the front of the fluid bed, an increase in the angle of the fluid bed to {minus}12{degree} (the minus sign shows that the discharges is below the horizontal level of the inlet), and reduction of the fluidizing gas velocities equal to or below the minimum fluidization velocity. These changes produced a functional bubbling slurry bed for the processing of tar sand. The produced oils and spent sand resemble the products from screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR) tests suggesting that the ILFBR system functioned similar to the SPR systems with the recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE{copyright}) process. With slight modifications in the heater control and placement, the system will be ready for development of operational parameters for the surface processing of tar sand. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: Relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Topping; D. M. Rubin; T. S. Melis

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production

  1. Aeolian Sand Transport in the Planetary Context: Respective Roles of Aerodynamic and Bed-Dilatancy Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Bratton, C.

    1999-01-01

    The traditional view of aeolian sand transport generally estimates flux from the perspective of aerodynamic forces creating the airborne grain population, although it has been recognized that "reptation" causes a significant part of the total airborne flux; reptation involves both ballistic injection of grains into the air stream by the impact of saltating grains as well as the "nudging" of surface grains into a creeping motion. Whilst aerodynamic forces may initiate sand motion, it is proposed here that within a fully-matured grain cloud, flux is actually governed by two thresholds: an aerodynamic threshold, and a bed-dilatancy threshold. It is the latter which controls the reptation population, and its significance increases proportionally with transport energy. Because we only have experience with terrestrial sand transport, extrapolations of aeolian theory to Mars and Venus have adjusted only the aerodynamic factor, taking gravitational forces and atmospheric density as the prime variables in the aerodynamic equations, but neglecting reptation. The basis for our perspective on the importance of reptation and bed dilatancy is a set of experiments that were designed to simulate sand transport across the surface of a martian dune. Using a modified sporting crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism, individual grains of sand were fired at loose sand targets with glancing angles typical of saltation impact; grains were projected at about 80 m/s to simulate velocities commensurate with those predicted for extreme martian aeolian conditions. The sabot impelling method permitted study of individual impacts without the masking effect of bed mobilization encountered in wind-tunnel studies. At these martian impact velocities, grains produced small craters formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. Unexpectedly, the craters were not elongated, despite glancing impact; the craters were very close to circular in planform. High-speed photography showed them to grow in both diameter and depth after the impactor had ricochetted from the crater site. The delayed response of the bed was "explosive" in nature, and created a miniature ejecta curtain spreading upward and outward for many centimeters for impact of 100-300 micron-diameter grains into similar material. Elastic energy deposited in the bed by the impacting grain creates a subsurface stress regime or "quasi-Boussinesq" compression field. Elastic recovery of the bed occurs by dilatancy; shear stresses suddenly convert the grains from closed to open packing, and grains are consequently able to eject themselves forcefully from the impact site. Random jostling of the grains causes radial homogenization of stress vectors and a resulting circular crater. There is a great temptation to draw parallels with cratering produced by meteorite impacts, but a rigorous search for common modelling ground between the two phenomena has not been conducted at this time. For every impact of an aerodynamically energized grain, there are several hundred grains ejected into the wind for the high-energy transport that might occur on Mars. Many of these grains will themselves become subject to the boundary layer's aerodynamic lift forces (their motion will not immediately die and add to the creep population), and these grains will become indistinguishable from those lifted entirely by aerodynamic forces. As each grain impacts the bed, it will eject even more grains into the flow. A cascading effect will take place, but because it must be finite in its growth, damping will occur as the number of grains set in motion causes mid-air collisions that prevent much of the impact energy from reaching the surface of the bed -thus creating a dynamic equilibrium in a high-density saltation cloud. It is apparent that for a given impact energy, the stress field permits a smaller volume of grains to convert to open packing as the size of the bed grains increases, or as the energy of the "percussive" grain decreases

  2. Aeolian Sand Transport in the Planetary Context: Respective Roles of Aerodynamic and Bed-Dilatancy Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Bratton, C.

    1999-09-01

    The traditional view of aeolian sand transport generally estimates flux from the perspective of aerodynamic forces creating the airborne grain population, although it has been recognized that "reptation" causes a significant part of the total airborne flux; reptation involves both ballistic injection of grains into the air stream by the impact of saltating grains as well as the "nudging" of surface grains into a creeping motion. Whilst aerodynamic forces may initiate sand motion, it is proposed here that within a fully-matured grain cloud, flux is actually governed by two thresholds: an aerodynamic threshold, and a bed-dilatancy threshold. It is the latter which controls the reptation population, and its significance increases proportionally with transport energy. Because we only have experience with terrestrial sand transport, extrapolations of aeolian theory to Mars and Venus have adjusted only the aerodynamic factor, taking gravitational forces and atmospheric density as the prime variables in the aerodynamic equations, but neglecting reptation. The basis for our perspective on the importance of reptation and bed dilatancy is a set of experiments that were designed to simulate sand transport across the surface of a martian dune. Using a modified sporting crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism, individual grains of sand were fired at loose sand targets with glancing angles typical of saltation impact; grains were projected at about 80 m/s to simulate velocities commensurate with those predicted for extreme martian aeolian conditions. The sabot impelling method permitted study of individual impacts without the masking effect of bed mobilization encountered in wind-tunnel studies. At these martian impact velocities, grains produced small craters formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. Unexpectedly, the craters were not elongated, despite glancing impact; the craters were very close to circular in planform. High-speed photography showed them to grow in both diameter and depth after the impactor had ricochetted from the crater site. The delayed response of the bed was "explosive" in nature, and created a miniature ejecta curtain spreading upward and outward for many centimeters for impact of 100-300 micron-diameter grains into similar material. Elastic energy deposited in the bed by the impacting grain creates a subsurface stress regime or "quasi-Boussinesq" compression field. Elastic recovery of the bed occurs by dilatancy; shear stresses suddenly convert the grains from closed to open packing, and grains are consequently able to eject themselves forcefully from the impact site. Random jostling of the grains causes radial homogenization of stress vectors and a resulting circular crater. There is a great temptation to draw parallels with cratering produced by meteorite impacts, but a rigorous search for common modelling ground between the two phenomena has not been conducted at this time. For every impact of an aerodynamically energized grain, there are several hundred grains ejected into the wind for the high-energy transport that might occur on Mars. Many of these grains will themselves become subject to the boundary layer's aerodynamic lift forces (their motion will not immediately die and add to the creep population), and these grains will become indistinguishable from those lifted entirely by aerodynamic forces. As each grain impacts the bed, it will eject even more grains into the flow. A cascading effect will take place, but because it must be finite in its growth, damping will occur as the number of grains set in motion causes mid-air collisions that prevent much of the impact energy from reaching the surface of the bed -thus creating a dynamic equilibrium in a high-density saltation cloud. It is apparent that for a given impact energy, the stress field permits a smaller volume of grains to convert to open packing as the size of the bed grains increases, or as the energy of the "percussive" grain decreases

  3. Relationship of Fish Mesohabitat to Flow in a Sand-Bed Southwestern River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon W. Kehmeier; Richard A. Valdez; C. Nicolas Medley; Orrin B. Myers

    2007-01-01

    We quantified the availability and utilization of habitat types by eight small-bodied cyprinid fish species, including the federally threatened Pecos bluntnose shiner Notropis simus pecosensis, in the Pecos River, New Mexico. The Pecos River is a medium-sized, sand-bed river with a highly variable hydrograph and some reaches characterized by historic and recent periods of flow intermittency. Fish habitat was described

  4. Interactions between riparian vegetation and river morphodynamics in a sand-bed meandering stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrick, Sam; Rodriguez, Jose F.

    2014-05-01

    River morphodynamics results from the action of various sediment fluxes associated with different transport mechanisms, and those fluxes are influenced by the presence of riparian vegetation. We present in this study a comprehensive set of flow and sediment measurements required to compute the fluxes in a sand-bed stream with riparian vegetation. We collected data in a reduced-scale, movable-bed laboratory model of a reach that is undergoing rehabilitation using in-stream riparian vegetation. We used light weight sediment in order to ensure similar sediment mobility levels in model and prototype. Laboratory measurements included downstream and transverse velocities, bed shear stresses, bed load transport, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed topography over time with and without riparian vegetation placed along the outer bank of the bend. The results unveiled the importance of secondary circulation as well as converging and diverging flow patterns in shaping the bed topography. Modifications due to the vegetation included a shift of the main flow away from the vegetated outer bank and an overall straightening of the flow in the reach, resulting in an increased deposition near the vegetated bank and a reduced deposition near the inner bank. Our results highlight the need for overall reach assessment of flow and sediment dynamics before revegetation, as its effects go beyond local bank protection. We discuss implications for reach-scale morphodynamic modelling.

  5. Evaluation of an experimental LiDAR for surveying a shallow, braided, sand-bedded river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, P.J.; Wright, C.W.; Nelson, J.M.; Burman, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Reaches of a shallow (<1.0m), braided, sand-bedded river were surveyed in 2002 and 2005 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL) and concurrently with conventional survey-grade, real-time kinematic, global positioning system technology. The laser pulses transmitted by the EAARL instrument and the return backscatter waveforms from exposed sand and submerged sand targets in the river were completely digitized and stored for postflight processing. The vertical mapping accuracy of the EAARL was evaluated by comparing the ellipsoidal heights computed from ranging measurements made using an EAARL terrestrial algorithm to nearby (<0.5m apart) ground-truth ellipsoidal heights. After correcting for apparent systematic bias in the surveys, the root mean square error of these heights with the terrestrial algorithm in the 2002 survey was 0.11m for the 26 measurements taken on exposed sand and 0.18m for the 59 measurements taken on submerged sand. In the 2005 survey, the root mean square error was 0.18m for 92 measurements taken on exposed sand and 0.24m for 434 measurements on submerged sand. In submerged areas the waveforms were complicated by reflections from the surface, water column entrained turbidity, and potentially the riverbed. When applied to these waveforms, especially in depths greater than 0.4m, the terrestrial algorithm calculated the range above the riverbed. A bathymetric algorithm has been developed to approximate the position of the riverbed in these convolved waveforms and preliminary results are encouraging. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  6. True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Boade, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

  7. Validating Experimental Bedform Dynamics on Cohesive Sand-Mud Beds in the Dee Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Jaco H.; Baker, Megan; Hope, Julie; Malarkey, Jonathan; Rocha, Renata

    2014-05-01

    Recent laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that small quantities of cohesive clay, and in particular 'sticky' biological polymers, within a sandy substrate dramatically reduce the development rate of sedimentary bedforms, with major implications for sediment transport rate calculations and process interpretations from the sedimentary record. FURTHER INFORMATION Flow and sediment transport predictions from sedimentary structures found in modern estuaries and within estuarine geological systems are impeded by an almost complete lack of process-based knowledge of the behaviour of natural sediments that consist of mixtures of cohesionless sand and biologically-active cohesive mud. Indeed, existing predictive models are largely based on non-organic cohesionless sands, despite the fact that mud, in pure form or mixed with sand, is the most common sediment on Earth and also the most biologically active interface across a range of Earth-surface environments, including rivers and shallow seas. The multidisciplinary COHBED project uses state-of-the-art laboratory and field technologies to measure the erosional properties of mixed cohesive sediment beds and the formation and stability of sedimentary bedforms on these beds, integrating the key physical and biological processes that govern bed evolution. The development of current ripples on cohesive mixed sediment beds was investigated as a function of physical control on bed cohesion versus biological control on bed cohesion. These investigations included laboratory flume experiments in the Hydrodynamics Laboratory (Bangor University) and field experiments in the Dee estuary (at West Kirby near Liverpool). The flume experiments showed that winnowing of fine-grained cohesive sediment, including biological stabilisers, is an important process affecting the development rate, size and shape of the cohesive bedforms. The ripples developed progressively slower as the kaolin clay fraction in the sandy substrate bed was increased. The same result was obtained for xanthan gum, which is a proxy for biological polymers produced by microphytobenthos. Yet, the xanthan gum was several orders more effective in slowing down ripple development than kaolin clay, suggesting that the cohesive forces for biological polymers are much higher than for clay minerals, and that sedimentological process models should refocus on biostabilisation processes. The first results of the field experiments show that the winnowing of fines from developing ripples and the slowing down of current ripple development in mixed cohesive sediment is mimicked on intertidal flats in the Dee estuary. In particular, these field data revealed that current ripples in cohesive sediment are smaller with more two-dimensional crestlines than in non-cohesive sand. The wider implications of these findings will be discussed. COHBED Project Team (NERC): Alan Davies (Bangor University); Daniel Parsons, Leiping Ye (University of Hull); Jeffrey Peakall (University of Leeds); Dougal Lichtman, Louise O'Boyle, Peter Thorne (NOC Liverpool); Sarah Bass, Andrew Manning, Robert Schindler (University of Plymouth); Rebecca Aspden, Emma Defew, Julie Hope, David Paterson (University of St Andrews)

  8. Upper Pleistocene turbidite sand beds and chaotic silt beds in the channelized, distal, outer-fan lobes of the Mississippi fan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Lee, H.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Kenyon, N.H. (Inst. of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Surrey (United Kingdom))

    1992-08-01

    Cores from a Mississippi outer-fan depositional lobe demonstrate that sublobes at the distal edge contain a complex local network of channelized-turbidite beds of graded sand and debris-flow beds of chaotic silt. Off-lobe basin plains lack siliciclastic coarse-grained beds. The basin-plain mud facies exhibit low acoustic backscatter on SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images, whereas high acoustic backscatter is characteristic of the lobe sand and silt facies. The depth of the first sand-silt layer correlates with relative backscatter intensity and stratigraphic age of the distal sublobes (i.e., shallowest sand = highest backscatter and youngest sublobe). The high proportion (> 50%) of chaotic silt compared to graded sand in the distal, outer-fan sublobes may be related to the unstable, muddy, canyon-wall source areas of the extensive Mississippi delta-fed basin slope. A predominance of chaotic silt in cores or outcrops from outer-fan lobes thus may predict similar settings for ancient fans.

  9. Comparing particle-size distributions in modern and ancient sand-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, E. A.; Lynds, R. M.; Huzurbazar, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Particle-size distributions yield valuable insight into processes controlling sediment supply, transport, and deposition in sedimentary systems. This is especially true in ancient deposits, where effects of changing boundary conditions and autogenic processes may be detected from deposited sediment. In order to improve interpretations in ancient deposits and constrain uncertainty associated with new methods for paleomorphodynamic reconstructions in ancient fluvial systems, we compare particle-size distributions in three active sand-bed rivers in central Nebraska (USA) to grain-size distributions from ancient sandy fluvial deposits. Within the modern rivers studied, particle-size distributions of active-layer, suspended-load, and slackwater deposits show consistent relationships despite some morphological and sediment-supply differences between the rivers. In particular, there is substantial and consistent overlap between bed-material and suspended-load distributions, and the coarsest material found in slackwater deposits is comparable to the coarse fraction of suspended-sediment samples. Proxy bed-load and slackwater-deposit samples from the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic, Utah/Colorado, USA) show overlap similar to that seen in the modern rivers, suggesting that these deposits may be sampled for paleomorphodynamic reconstructions, including paleoslope estimation. We also compare grain-size distributions of channel, floodplain, and proximal-overbank deposits in the Willwood (Paleocene/Eocene, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA), Wasatch (Paleocene/Eocene, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, USA), and Ferris (Cretaceous/Paleocene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming, USA) formations. Grain-size characteristics in these deposits reflect how suspended- and bed-load sediment is distributed across the floodplain during channel avulsion events. In order to constrain uncertainty inherent in such estimates, we evaluate uncertainty associated with sample collection, preparation, analytical particle-size analysis, and statistical characterization in both modern and ancient settings. We consider potential error contributions and evaluate the degree to which this uncertainty might be significant in modern sediment-transport studies and ancient paleomorphodynamic reconstructions.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of walnut shell and tar sand in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Kar, Yakup

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated potential synergistic activities between tar sand and walnut shell during co-pyrolysis. A series of pyrolysis studies were conducted under specific operating conditions in a fixed-bed reactor. The highest yield of bio-oil from the co-pyrolysis was 31.84 wt.%, which represented an increase of 7.88 wt.% compared to the bio-oil yield from the pyrolysis of walnut shell alone. The bio-oils were characterized using various spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis techniques. The results indicated that the synergetic effect increased the co-pyrolysis bio-oil yield and its quality. Consequently, the results indicate that the bio-oils obtained will be suitable for the production of fuels and chemicals as feedstock after required improvements. PMID:21875795

  11. Mathematical model on grain-size distribution in suspension over sand-gravel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Debasish; Ghoshal, Koeli

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the grain-size distribution in suspension over a sand-gravel bed in an open channel turbulent flow is investigated from theoretical point of view. On the basis of diffusion equation, a model on grain-size distribution is developed incorporating the effect of stratification and hindered settling due to increased suspension concentration. The hydrodynamic diffusion related to particle-particle interaction is considered in the computation of reference level and the influence of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability and pick-up probability of the sediment particles are considered in the computation of reference concentration. Due to inclusion of several factors, the proposed model predicts well the grain-size distribution of suspended load when compared with the experimental data and also shows its prediction superiority with respect to other existing models.

  12. A parametric study on the factors affecting the froth floatation of Jordanian tar sand utilizing a fluidized bed floatator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Awni Al-Otoom; Mamdouh Allawzi; Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh; Mohammad Al-Harahsheh; Randa Al-Ghbari; Raeda Al-Ghazo; Husam Al-Saifi

    2009-01-01

    Different parameters affecting the behavior of froth flotation of Jordanian tar sand, obtained from the Dead Sea area, were studied. This study was performed in a modified fluidized bed floatator. The effects of the addition of a flotation agent, NaOH, temperature and flotation time on the beneficiation of bitumen in the froth were investigated. It was found that the beneficiation

  13. Ecological Responses to Hydrogeomorphic Fluctuations in a Sand Bed Prairie River: River Complexity, Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates

    E-print Network

    O'Neill, Brian James

    2010-04-02

    Ecological Responses to Hydrogeomorphic Fluctuations in a Sand Bed Prairie River: River Complexity, Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates By Brian J. O’Neill Submitted to the graduate degree program in Ecology and Evolutionary..., Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates Committee: _____________________________ Chairperson Date Approved_____________________ 3 Abstract Rivers...

  14. Modeling approach to phenol oxidation by a sand-based packed-bed electrode system (SPBEs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhang; Li, Peng; Yan, Qian

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of phenol oxidation using pure electrolysis (PEs) and sand-based packed-bed electrode systems (SPBEs) was performed under conditions of phenol concentration 800 mg L(-1), initial pH 6.5, current density 100 A m(-2) and sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)) 3.0% (w/w) on IrO(2)-Ta(2)O(5)/Ti anode. The results show quartz sand, a non-conducting material is incapable of expanding the electrode area and the phenol oxidation in SPBEs commences only at the electrode surface. From the theoretical description of the mass transport coefficient and chemical oxygen demand (COD), we confirm that the enhancement of the COD removal efficiency, current and space-time yields in SPBEs is due to the improvement of mass transport properties. The proposed SPBEs shows superiority to the PEs on saving energy at the same applied voltage, however, when operated under the same applied current density the energy consumption of the former would be much higher than that of the latter because of the rise of the applied cell voltage. PMID:22699349

  15. Development and design of a fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration for use in recirculating aquaculture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration, was developed and designed for utilization in recirculating aquaculture system, specifically the soft-shell crab and soft-shell crawfish industries. These filters were selected and designed because of their ability to withstand clogging and still maintain high levels of water quality for aquaculture production. The effectiveness of sand grain size was used to evaluate fluidized bed filter performance with filter loadings ranging from 16 to 1285 pounds of crawfish per cubic foot of filter sand. A coarse sand grain size was recommended as a filter media because of it's ability to shear excessive biofilm growth from the and, thus prohibiting clogging from occurring within the filter bed. The fluidized bed/upflow sand filter combination was evaluated in terms of nitrification and oxygen consumption when used with a recirculating crab shedding system. The filter combination's carrying capacity (700 crabs per cubic foot of sand media) exceeded that observed with the submerged rock filter by more than 20 times and was largely explained by the filter's solids removal ability which significantly reduced the filter's oxygen loading rate (OLR). Nitrification rates with the filter combination were extremely high as total ammonia and nitrite levels remained below 1.0 mg-N/l. Verification of a volumetric loading criteria (150 pounds per cubic foot) for this filter combination was further established with performance data obtained from a commercial soft-shell crawfish facility. Water quality monitoring results indicated that the filters maintained total ammonia and nitrite levels below 1.0 mg-N/l under typical operating conditions. Shock loading, pH control, and over-feeding, rather than filter capacity, dominated water quality fluctuations, thereby indicating that the loading criteria was sufficient for commercial operation.

  16. The use of fluidized sand bed as an innovative technique for heat treating aluminum based castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Khaled

    The current study was carried out to arrive at a better understanding of the influences of the fluidized sand bed heat treatment on the tensile properties and quality indices of A356.2 and B319.2 casting alloys. For the purposes of validating the use of fluidized sand bed furnaces in industrial applications for heat treatment of 356 and 319 castings, the tensile properties and the quality indices of these alloys were correlated with the most common metallurgical parameters, such as strontium modification, grain refining, solutionizing time, aging parameters and quenching media. Traditional heat treatment technology, employing circulating air convection furnaces, was used to establish a relevant comparison with fluidized sand beds for the heat treatment of the alloys investigated, employing T6 continuous aging cycles or multi-temperature aging cycles. Quality charts were used to predict and/or select the best heat treatment conditions and techniques to be applied in industry in order to obtain the optimum properties required for particular engineering applications. The results revealed that the strength values achieved in T6-tempered 319 and 356 alloys are more responsive to fluidized bed (FB) heat treatment than to conventional convection furnace (CF) treatment for solution treatment times of up to 8 hours. Beyond this solution time, no noticeable difference in properties is observed with the two techniques. A significant increase in strength is observed in the FB heat-treated samples after short aging times of 0.5 and 1 hour, the trend continuing up to 5 hours. The 319 alloys show signs of overaging after 8 hours of aging using a conventional furnace, whereas with a fluidized bed, overaging occurs after 12 hours. Analysis of the tensile properties in terms of quality index charts showed that both modified and non-modified 319 and 356 alloys display the same, or better, quality, after only a 2-hr treatment in an FB compared to 10 hours when using a CF. The quality values of the 356 alloys are more responsive to the FB technique than 319 alloys through long aging times of up to 5 hours. The 319 alloys heat-treated in an FB, however, show better quality values after 0.5 hour of aging and for solution treatment times of up to 5 hours than those treated using a CF. With regard to the quality charts of 319 alloys, heat-treated samples show that increasing the aging time up to peak-strength, i.e. 8 and 12 hours in a CF and an FB, respectively, results in increasing in the alloy strength with a decrease in the quality values, for each of the solution heat treatment times used. The statistical analysis of the results reveals that modification and heating rate of the heat treatment technique have the greatest positive effects on the quality values of the 356 alloys. The use of a fluidized sand bed for the direct quenching-aging treatment of A356.2 and B319.2 casting alloys yields greater UTS and YS values compared to conventional furnace quenched alloys. The strength values of T6 tempered A356 and B319 alloys are greater when quenched in water compared to those quenched in an FB or CF. For the same aging conditions (170°C/4h), the fluidized bed quenched-aged 319 and 356 alloys show nearly the same or better strength values than those quenched in water and then aged in a CF or an FB. Based on the quality charts developed for alloys subjected to different quenching media, higher quality index values are obtained by water-quenched T6-tempered A356 alloys, and conventional furnace quenched-aged T6-tempered B319 alloys, respectively. The modification factor has the most significant effect on the quality results of the alloys investigated, for all heat treatment cycles, as compared to other metallurgical parameters. The results of alloys subjected to multi-temperature aging cycles reveal that the strength results obtained after the T6 continuous aging treatment of A356 alloys are not improved by means of multi-temperature aging cycles, indicating therefore that the optimum properties are obtained using a T6 aging treatment. The optimu

  17. New England Shellfish Beds Reopen After Toxic Red Algae Recedes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annie Schleicher

    This PBS article describes red tide, a phenomenon caused by phytoplankton in coastal waters. The site includes brief summaries of the causes and impacts of red tide, both on health and the tourism industry. A link to a PDF version of the article is provided.

  18. Scaling of Sediment Dynamics in a Reach-Scale Laboratory Model of a Sand-Bed Stream with Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrick, S.; Rodriguez, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    A movable bed physical model was designed in a laboratory flume to simulate both bed and suspended load transport in a mildly sinuous sand-bed stream. Model simulations investigated the impact of different vegetation arrangements along the outer bank to evaluate rehabilitation options. Preserving similitude in the 1:16 laboratory model was very important. In this presentation the scaling approach, as well as the successes and challenges of the strategy are outlined. Firstly a near-bankfull flow event was chosen for laboratory simulation. In nature, bankfull events at the field site deposit new in-channel features but cause only small amounts of bank erosion. Thus the fixed banks in the model were not a drastic simplification. Next, and as in other studies, the flow velocity and turbulence measurements were collected in separate fixed bed experiments. The scaling of flow in these experiments was simply maintained by matching the Froude number and roughness levels. The subsequent movable bed experiments were then conducted under similar hydrodynamic conditions. In nature, the sand-bed stream is fairly typical; in high flows most sediment transport occurs in suspension and migrating dunes cover the bed. To achieve similar dynamics in the model equivalent values of the dimensionless bed shear stress and the particle Reynolds number were important. Close values of the two dimensionless numbers were achieved with lightweight sediments (R=0.3) including coal and apricot pips with a particle size distribution similar to that of the field site. Overall the moveable bed experiments were able to replicate the dominant sediment dynamics present in the stream during a bankfull flow and yielded relevant information for the analysis of the effects of riparian vegetation. There was a potential conflict in the strategy, in that grain roughness was exaggerated with respect to nature. The advantage of this strategy is that although grain roughness is exaggerated, the similarity of bedforms and resulting drag can return similar levels of roughness to those in the field site.

  19. RETRACTED: The influence of sand bed temperature on lift-off and falling parameters in windblown sand flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Tian-Li; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yi-Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy) This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. This article also contains significant similarity with parts of text, written by the same author(s), that have appeared in Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of sand diameter and wind velocity on sand particle lift-off and incident angles in the windblown sand flux, Sedimentary Geology, Volume 290, 15 May 2013, Pages 149-156. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of wind velocity and sand grain diameter on the falling velocities of sand particles, Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux, Acta Mechanica Sinica, April 2013, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles, The European Physical Journal E, May 2013, 36:50. The "slicing" of research that would form one meaningful paper into several different papers represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  20. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIGGING BEHAVIOR TO MORTALITY OF RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT WORKERS, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA BUREN, IN FIPRONIL TREATED SAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of fipronil treated sand on digging behavior and mortalities of red imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was examined in the laboratory. No-choice digging bioassays where fipronil treated sand was the only available digging substrate, were conducted on two colonies at fip...

  1. The mobility and distribution of heavy metals during the formation of first cycle red beds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Bloch, S.; Walker, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the heavy metal content in a Holocene-Pliocene red bed sequence near San Felipe in N Baja California, Mexico, has yielded new information on the mobility and distribution of these metals during ageing of iron oxyhydroxides from the amorphous to the crystalline state. Whole-rock samples (27) and a series of successive leachates were analysed for V, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn by ICP spectrometry and for U by a delayed neutron technique. These data are supported by a variety of other mineralogical and petrographical observations. The results indicate that the metal content of the samples is predominantly inherited from the constituent detrital minerals. Reddening of the whole-rock samples does not promote major open-system migration of the heavy metals; rather, contained metals redistribute themselves on an intergranular scale, moving from detrital mineral hosts to the secondary iron oxides. The amount of secondary iron oxides and the fraction of whole-rock metals associated with these oxides increase during red-bed development. In addition, the abundance of well- crystallized iron oxides increases during this period. Differences in the leaching efficiency for various metals are related to differences in metal site distribution and intergranular permeability. Inferred conditions for rapid vs limited removal of metals from red beds are summarized. It is suggested that developed red beds which are well flushed by suitable pore fluids may be sources of significant quantities of heavy metals. -J.E.S.

  2. The red bed controversy revisited: shape analysis of Colorado Plateau units suggests long magnetization times

    E-print Network

    Housen, Bernie

    is acquired in clastic sedimentary rocks merits further study. D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights(es) of acquisition of remanent mag- netization in sedimentary rocks, particularly red beds (for examples of opposing in the sedimentary rocks they studied was a relatively rapid detrital process, and thus that remanence

  3. Iron oxide mineralogy in late Miocene red beds from La Gloria, Spain: rock-magnetic,

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Iron oxide mineralogy in late Miocene red beds from La Gloria, Spain: rock-magnetic, voltammetric techniques that are designed for the analysis of magnetic iron oxides are very sensitive. The same applies by rock-magnetic techniques (IRM component analysis) and by two less traditional methods: visible

  4. Contrasting red bed diagenesis: the southern and northern margin of the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöner, Robert; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    We compare the diagenetic evolution of deeply buried Rotliegend (Permian) red bed sandstones at the southern and northern margin of the Central European Basin (CEB) in Germany. Main target is to evaluate the influence of maturation products from hydrocarbon (HC) source rocks during red bed diagenesis. At the southern margin of the CEB, thick coal-bearing Carboniferous source rocks are omnipresent beneath the Rotliegend. They contain dominantly gas-prone terrigenous organic material and some oil source rocks. Hydrocarbons were generated from Late Carboniferous onwards throughout most of basin subsidence. At the northern margin of the CEB, source rocks are almost absent due to deep erosion of Carboniferous rocks and a low TOC of local Lower Carboniferous relics. Early diagenetic processes are comparable at both basin margins. Significant differences in burial diagenetic evolution are spatially correlated to the occurrence of hydrocarbon source rocks. Burial diagenesis at the southern margin of the CEB is characterized especially by bleaching of red beds, major dissolution events, pervasive illite formation, impregnation of pore surfaces with bitumen, and formation of late Fe-rich cements. Almost none of these features were detected at the northern basin margin. Instead, relatively early cements are preserved down to maximum burial depths. This suggests that major diagenetic mineral reactions in deeply buried red bed sandstones are controlled by the presence or absence of maturing hydrocarbon source rocks.

  5. Red algal beds increase the condition of nekto-benthic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordines, Francesc; Bauzá, Marco; Sbert, Miquel; Roca, Pilar; Gianotti, Magdalena; Massutí, Enric

    2015-01-01

    The present study analysed the effect of three different benthic habitats, the maërl, Peyssonnelia red algal beds and sandy bottoms, on the condition of two nekto-benthic fish species: Serranus cabrilla and Trigloporus lastoviza. Sampling was conducted during the MEDITS 2010 and 2011 surveys around the Balearic Islands. The condition of the spawning females of both species was determined by using i) biochemical measurements of proteins and lipids in the muscle, liver and gonads, and ii) weight at length relationships based on eviscerated, liver, and gonad weights. Moreover, based on the total weight at length relationship, the mean somatic condition (SC) of the sexually inactive individuals of S. cabrilla and males of T. lastoviza was calculated. Lipid reserves were higher in the livers of S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza from the maërl beds. Additionally, S. cabrilla showed higher lipid reserves in the gonads both in the maërl and Peyssonnelia beds. The mean weights of the liver and gonads at a given individual length revealed the same pattern as the lipids, whereas the mean eviscerated weight was higher in the maërl beds but only for S. cabrilla. A positive correlation was detected between the SC and the biomass of the algal species characterizing the maërl beds for both S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza. The high habitat quality of the red algal beds off the Balearic Islands increased the condition of nekto-benthic fish. In oligotrophic areas, such as the archipelago, these 'oases' could help fish to maintain healthy populations.

  6. Palaeogeography of Late Triassic red-beds in Singapore and the Indosinian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Grahame; Prave, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    A red-bed facies of the Upper Triassic Jurong Formation has been logged on Sentosa Island, Singapore. An overall coarsening and thickening-upward pattern is well developed. The lower part of the section is dominated by purple-red, massive to finely laminated illite-smectite-kaolin-rich mudstones containing thin, discontinuous lenses of fine sandstone marked by low-angle lamination and small ripples. One dinosaur-like foot print has been discovered in a loose block of red mudstone. It is concluded that this is a lacustrine sequence and it is proposed to name the lake, Lake Sentosa. The upper part of the sequence consists of flat-laminated to trough cross-bedded medium-grained sandstone and granule to cobble conglomerates alternating with purple-red mudstone. The mudstone-sandstone packages are arranged in decametre-scale coarsening-upward cycles. The channelling and decimetre-scale cross-bedding characterising the sandstone and conglomeratic beds is evidence for deposition by flashy fluvial flood processes, possibly feeding into the lake as a fresh water delta. One possible dinosaur trackway in granule size conglomerate has been located. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages vary from 2.7 Ba to 209 Ma with significant populations at ˜245 Ma and 220 Ma. These ages throw light on the timing of the Indosinian Orogeny. The molasse red-beds of the Jurong Formation were deposited in a half graben formed in the hangingwall of the Bukit Timah Fault when central Peninsular Malaysia went into extension following the climax of the Indosinian Orogeny in the Late Triassic.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect

    Mufti, Nandang, E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Atma, T., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Fuad, A., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia); Sutadji, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (?-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment ?-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment ?-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of ?-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  8. Spatial patterns of scour and fill in dryland sand bed streams 1843

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial patterns of scour and fill in two dryland ephemeral stream channels with sandy bed material have been measured with dense arrays of scour chains. Although the depth and areal extent of bed activity increased with discharge, active bed reworking at particular locations within the reaches res...

  9. Soft-hydrothermal processing of red cedar bedding reduces its induction of cytochrome P450 in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Okano, S; Yoshinari, K; Miyamoto, T; Yamazoe, Y; Shinya, K; Ioku, K; Kasai, N

    2009-04-01

    Red cedar-derived bedding materials cause changes in cytochrome P450-dependent microsomal enzyme systems in laboratory animals. We examined the effect of essential oil of red cedar (EORC), as well as the effect of bedding from which it had been removed, on the hepatic expression cytochrome P450s in mice. EORC was obtained from liquid extracts of red cedar bedding by a soft-hydrothermal process and was administered orally to mice. Between days 1 and 2 after administration, hepatic P450s were significantly induced as follows: CYP3As, 7.1x; CYP1As, 1.6x; CYP2E1, 1.5x; CYP2Cs, 1.6x. A housing study of mice indicated that red cedar bedding increased the levels of these P450s in mouse liver, whereas mice housed in cedar bedding from which EORC had been removed (ST-cedar bedding) showed significantly lower levels of P450s, especially CYP3As, CYP1As and CYP2E1. Soft-hydrothermal processing partially removed many components of EORC. In particular, several volatile sesquiterpenes, naphthalene-derived aromatics and 4,4-dimethyl-13alpha-androst-5-ene were decreased in the ST-cedar bedding, suggesting that these may be responsible for P450 induction. This study demonstrated that the removal of these volatile compounds by soft-hydrothermal processing can decrease the hepatic P450-inducing effect of red cedar bedding. PMID:19116287

  10. Chute Formation and Iterative Adjustment in Large, Sand-Bed Meandering Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, M. C.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A.

    2011-12-01

    The meandering-braided continuum is a planform manifestation of excess available river energy; a balance between the energy of flow (commonly quantified as unit steam power or shear stress), and dynamic resistance due to bed material calibre and bank strength. Single-thread meandering rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by low excess available river energy, while braided rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by high excess available river energy. Planform patterns that are transitional between single-thread meandering and braided occur where chute channel formation is prolific. In this presentation we will elucidate the morphodynamic implications of chute formation for sinuosity and planform pattern in large, sand-bed meandering rivers. We draw on the results of recent research that applied binary logistic regression analysis to determine the possibility of predicting chute initiation based on attributes of meander bend character and dynamics (Grenfell et al., accepted, ESP&L). Regression models developed for the Strickland River, Papua New Guinea (54 bends), the lower Paraguay River, Paraguay/Argentina (45 bends), and the Beni River, Bolivia (114 bends), revealed that the probability of chute initiation at a meander bend is a function of the bend extension rate (the rate at which a bend elongates). Image analyses of all rivers and field observations from the Strickland suggest that the majority of chute channels form during scroll-slough development. Rapid extension is shown to favour chute initiation by breaking the continuity of point bar deposition and vegetation encroachment at the inner bank, resulting in widely-spaced scrolls with intervening sloughs that are positively aligned with primary over-bar flow. The rivers plot in order of increasing chute activity on an empirical meandering-braided pattern continuum (Kleinhans and van den Berg, 2011, ESP&L 36) defined by potential specific stream power (?pv) and bedload calibre (D50). Increasing stream power is considered to result in higher bend extension rates, with implications for chute initiation, but we demonstrate that the probability of chute stability decreases with increasing sediment load (Qs/Q). We extend our empirical results with additional spatial analyses of chute initiation and infill on the Strickland, Paraguay, and Beni Rivers, and the Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea, and explore the physical basis of chute stability with Delft 3D simulations, based on surveyed channel bathymetry from the Strickland. Results demonstrate that chute formation exerts negative feedback on bend extension (and channel sinuosity and slope) if the chute diverts sufficient flow from the mainstem, or leads to bend cutoff. This interplay between rapid extension, preferential chute initiation at rapidly extending bends, and subsequent feedback effects is framed within the theory of 'iterative adjustment' (Nanson and Huang, 2008, ESP&L 33), providing a conceptual framework for understanding self organisation in rivers subject to chute formation and chute cutoff. We suggest that this conceptual framework provides an alternative but allied theory to 'self-organised criticality', which has been used to explain the role of neck cutoff in some meandering rivers.

  11. Treatment of wastewater from red and tropical fruit wine production by zeolite anaerobic fluidized bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Montalvo; L. Guerrero; R. Borja; I. Cortés; E. Sánchez; M. F. Colmenarejo

    2008-01-01

    A study of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters derived from red (RWWW) and tropical fruit wine (TFWWW) production was carried out in four laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors with natural zeolite as bacterial support. These reactors operated at mesophilic temperature (35°C). Reactors R1 and R2 contained Chilean natural zeolite, while reactors R3 and R4 used Cuban natural zeolite as microorganism support.

  12. Evaluating the potential for remote bathymetric mapping of a turbid, sand-bed river: 1. Field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legleiter, C.J.; Kinzel, P.J.; Overstreet, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing offers an efficient means of mapping bathymetry in river systems, but this approach has been applied primarily to clear-flowing, gravel bed streams. This study used field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling to assess the feasibility of spectrally based depth retrieval in a sand-bed river with a higher suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and greater water turbidity. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring the amount of downwelling radiant energy at different depths and calculating a diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd. Attenuation was strongest in blue and near-infrared bands due to scattering by suspended sediment and absorption by water, respectively. Even for red wavelengths with the lowest values of Kd, only a small fraction of the incident light propagated to the bed, restricting the range of depths amenable to remote sensing. Spectra recorded above the water surface were used to establish a strong, linear relationship (R2 = 0.949) between flow depth and a simple band ratio; even under moderately turbid conditions, depth remained the primary control on reflectance. Constraints on depth retrieval were examined via numerical modeling of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and water column. SSC and sensor radiometric resolution limited both the maximum detectable depth and the precision of image-derived depth estimates. Thus, although field spectra indicated that the bathymetry of turbid channels could be remotely mapped, model results implied that depth retrieval in sediment-laden rivers would be limited to shallow depths (on the order of 0.5 m) and subject to a significant degree of uncertainty. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Evaluating the potential for remote bathymetric mapping of a turbid, sand-bed river: 1. field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legleiter, Carl J.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing offers an efficient means of mapping bathymetry in river systems, but this approach has been applied primarily to clear-flowing, gravel bed streams. This study used field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling to assess the feasibility of spectrally based depth retrieval in a sand-bed river with a higher suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and greater water turbidity. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring the amount of downwelling radiant energy at different depths and calculating a diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd. Attenuation was strongest in blue and near-infrared bands due to scattering by suspended sediment and absorption by water, respectively. Even for red wavelengths with the lowest values of Kd, only a small fraction of the incident light propagated to the bed, restricting the range of depths amenable to remote sensing. Spectra recorded above the water surface were used to establish a strong, linear relationship (R2 = 0.949) between flow depth and a simple band ratio; even under moderately turbid conditions, depth remained the primary control on reflectance. Constraints on depth retrieval were examined via numerical modeling of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and water column. SSC and sensor radiometric resolution limited both the maximum detectable depth and the precision of image-derived depth estimates. Thus, although field spectra indicated that the bathymetry of turbid channels could be remotely mapped, model results implied that depth retrieval in sediment-laden rivers would be limited to shallow depths (on the order of 0.5 m) and subject to a significant degree of uncertainty.

  14. Effect of sand and sawdust bedding materials on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Jeffrey T; Kauffman, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Farm management practices that reduce the prevalence of food-borne pathogens in live animals are predicted to enhance food safety. To ascertain the potential role of livestock bedding in the ecology and epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on farms, the survival of this pathogen in used-sand and used-sawdust dairy cow bedding was determined. Additionally, a longitudinal study of mature dairy cattle housed on 20 commercial dairy farms was conducted to compare the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle bedded on sand to that in cattle bedded on sawdust. E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations in used-sawdust bedding than in used-sand bedding. The overall average herd level prevalence (3.1 versus 1.4%) and the number of sample days yielding any tests of feces positive for E. coli O157:H7 (22 of 60 days versus 13 of 60 days) were higher in sawdust-bedded herds. The choice of bedding material used to house mature dairy cows may impact the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on dairy farms. PMID:15640205

  15. Effect of Sand and Sawdust Bedding Materials on the Fecal Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Kauffman, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Farm management practices that reduce the prevalence of food-borne pathogens in live animals are predicted to enhance food safety. To ascertain the potential role of livestock bedding in the ecology and epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on farms, the survival of this pathogen in used-sand and used-sawdust dairy cow bedding was determined. Additionally, a longitudinal study of mature dairy cattle housed on 20 commercial dairy farms was conducted to compare the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle bedded on sand to that in cattle bedded on sawdust. E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations in used-sawdust bedding than in used-sand bedding. The overall average herd level prevalence (3.1 versus 1.4%) and the number of sample days yielding any tests of feces positive for E. coli O157:H7 (22 of 60 days versus 13 of 60 days) were higher in sawdust-bedded herds. The choice of bedding material used to house mature dairy cows may impact the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on dairy farms. PMID:15640205

  16. Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs): Different time scales and models of origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiumian; Scott, Robert W.; Cai, Yuanfeng; Wang, Chengshan; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela C.

    2012-12-01

    The Cretaceous oceanic red bed (CORB) is a newly opened window on global oceanic and climate changes during the Cretaceous greenhouse world. As a result of the International Geoscience Programmes 463, 494 and 555 (2002-2010), CORBs have been documented in many places by numerous publications. The principle goal of this paper is to summarize scientific advances on CORBs including chronostratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy, elemental and isotopic geochemistry, and their relationship to oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography. We propose a new geochemical classification of the CORBs using CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2 values, which lithologically refer to marly, clayey, and cherty CORBs respectively. Detailed mineralogical studies indicate that hematite, goethite and Mn2 +-bearing calcite are the minerals imparting the red color of CORBs. Hematite clusters of several to tens of nanometers in the calcite structure are the main cause of the red coloring of limestones, and the Mn2 +-bearing calcite gives additional red color. Goethite was thought to form originally with hematite, and was subsequently transformed to hematite during late diagenesis. Chronostratigraphic data allow the distinction of two groups of CORBs by their durations. Short-term CORBs are generally less than 1 myr in duration, and seem to be on the scale of Milankovitch cycles. During the deposition of Cretaceous reddish intervals from ODP cores 1049 and 1050, low primary productivity and relatively high surface temperature resulted in low organic carbon flux into the sediments which reduced oxygen demand and produced oxidizing early diagenetic conditions. In such an oxic environment, iron oxides formed imparting the reddish color. The long-term CORBs' depositional events lasted longer than 4 myr, and may be a possible consequence of the OAEs. Enhanced amounts of organic carbon and pyrite burial during and after the OAEs would have resulted in a large and abrupt fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration, which probably induced significant global climatic cooling during and after the OAEs. Global cooling would have enhanced formation of cold deep water, increasing its oxidizing capacity due to the greater content of dissolved oxygen and would promote formation of oceanic red beds. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that CORBs were deposited under highly oxic, oligotrophic conditions probably at a low sedimentation rate. The Cretaceous red and white limestones from Italy have similar compositions of terrestrial input-sensitive elements (Al, Ti, K, Mg, Rb, Zr), higher contents of Fe2O3, and depleted redox-sensitive elements (V, Cr, Ni, and U) and micronutrient elements Cu, Zn, indicating similar provenance sources but red limestones were deposited under more oxic conditions at the sediment-water interface than white limestones. The Cretaceous red shales such as those from the North Atlantic and Tibet have similar mineralogy and geochemistry as the Late Cenozoic red clays in the Pacific Ocean and the environment where both are formed was well-oxidizing at a very low sedimentation rate. We compiled seventeen published stratigraphic examples of Phanerozoic oceanic red beds including the Late Cenozoic red clays in the Pacific. Different hypotheses explain the origin of red pigmentation of limestones and shales including (1) detrital origin of iron derived from continental weathering; (2)iron-bacterial mediation at the time of sedimentation; and (3) iron oxidation in oligotrophic, highly oxic environment. Additional research on Phanerozoic oceanic red beds is needed in order to better document their origin and palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic significance.

  17. Cretaceous black shale and the oceanic red beds: Process and mechanisms of oceanic anoxic events and oxic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenguo Zhang; Nianqiao Fang; Lianfeng Gao; Baoling Gui; Muhua Cui

    2008-01-01

    The Cretaceous is an important period in which many geological events occurred, especially the OAEs (oceanic anoxic events)\\u000a which are characterized by black shale, and the oxic process characterized by CORBs (Cretaceous oceanic red beds). In this\\u000a paper, the causative mechanism behind the formation of black shale and the oceanic red beds are described in detail. This\\u000a may explain how

  18. Effects of sand addition on turbulent flow over an immobile gravel bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The factors controlling the complex interaction of a coarse stream bed with flow and sediment are difficult to measure. However, planning for reservoir flushing or dam removal requires knowledge of these interactions. In both cases, impounded sediments are introduced to channel beds that have had ...

  19. Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed (sand) filters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, S.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Fisher, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Septic tank systems are an important source of NO3- to many aquifers, yet characterization of N mass balance and isotope systematics following septic tank effluent discharge into unsaturated sediments has received limited attention. In this study, samples of septic tank effluent before and after transport through single-pass packed-bed filters (sand filters) were evaluated to elucidate mass balance and isotope effects associated with septic tank effluent discharge to unsaturated sediments. Chemical and isotopic data from five newly installed pairs and ten established pairs of septic tanks and packed-bed filters serving single homes in Oregon indicate that aqueous solute concentrations are affected by variations in recharge (precipitation, evapotranspiration), NH4+ sorption (primarily in immature systems), nitrification, and gaseous N loss via NH3 volatilization and(or) N2 or N2O release during nitrification/denitrification. Substantial NH4+ sorption capacity was also observed in laboratory columns with synthetic effluent. Septic tank effluent ??15N-NH4+ values were almost constant and averaged + 4.9??? ?? 0.4??? (1 ??). In contrast, ??15N values of NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters were variable (+ 0.8 to + 14.4???) and averaged + 7.2??? ?? 2.6???. Net N loss in the two networks of packed-bed filters was indicated by average 10-30% decreases in Cl--normalized N concentrations and 2-3??? increases in ??15N, consistent with fractionation accompanying gaseous N losses and corroborating established links between septic tank effluent and NO3- in a local, shallow aquifer. Values of ??18O-NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters ranged from - 10.2 to - 2.3??? (mean - 6.4??? ?? 1.8???), and were intermediate between a 2/3 H2O-O + 1/3 O2-O conceptualization and a 100% H2O-O conceptualization of ??18O-NO3- generation during nitrification.

  20. Paleokarstic phenomena of the Lower Ordovician red bed sequences of the Arbuckle group, southern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, J.L. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Oil and gas production has been reported recently from paleokarstic Arbuckle reservoirs in the Ardmore and Arkoma basin. The West Spring Creek and the Kindblade formations apparently exhibit karstic features. The most extensive surface exposure of these formations is on the southern flank of the Arbuckle anticline along Interstate 35 north of Ardmore, Oklahoma. The lithology is predominantly limestone, ranging from argillaceous mudstone to oolitic and/or bioclastic grainstones. However, minor amounts of sandstone were also observed.These lithologies are characteristic of various peritidal facies. Of particular interest in this outcrop are three distinct red bed zones. Although the zones are part of the repetitive shallowing-upward cycles that characterize the West Spring Creek Formation, ample evidence suggests the red beds represent subaerial exposure surfaces where karstification took place. Many of the thin bedded, rubbly mudstones and wackestones actually represent varieties of breccia commonly associated with karst. Collapse and crackle breccia are most commonly observed. Small solution channels and other vugs are usually completely occluded by calcite cement. However, solution cavities or vugs with diameters larger than 10 cm (3.9 in.) are lined with drusy calcite. Hematite-impregnated sediment occurs as thinly laminated infilling of solution vugs and cavities and also acts as a cementing agent of collapse breccias. Preliminary evidence suggests that karstification processes were active during Arbuckle deposition.

  1. Physics-based modeling of large braided sand-bed rivers: Bar pattern formation, dynamics, and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurman, Filip; Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2013-12-01

    Braided rivers have complicated and dynamic bar patterns, which are challenging to fully understand and to predict both qualitatively and quantitatively. Linear theory ignores nonlinear processes that dominate fully developed bars, whereas natural river patterns are determined by the combined effects of boundary conditions, initial conditions such as planimetric forcing by fixed banks and the physical processes. Here we determine the capability of a state-of-the-art physics-based morphological model to reproduce morphology and dynamics characteristic of braided rivers and determine the model sensitivity to generally used constitutive relations for flow and sediment transport. We use the 2-D depth-averaged morphodynamic model Delft3D, which includes the necessary spiral flow and bed slope effects on morphology. We present idealized scenarios with the smallest possible number of enforced details in the planform and boundary conditions in order to allow free development of bars driven by the physical processes in the model. We analyze bar and channel shapes and dynamics quantified by a number of complementary metrics and compare these with imagery, field data captured in empirical relations, flume experiments, and predictions by linear analyses. The results show that the chosen set of boundary conditions and physics in the numerical model is sufficient to produce many morphological characteristics and dynamics of a braided river but insufficient for long-term modeling. Initially, braiding intensity with low-amplitude bars is high in agreement with linear analysis. In a second stage when bars merge, split, and increase amplitude up to the water surface, the shape, size, and dynamics of individual bars compare well to those in natural rivers. However, long-term modeling results in a reduction of bar and channel dynamics and formation of exaggerated bar height and length. This suggests that additional processes, such as physics-based bank erosion, or enforced fluctuations in boundary conditions, such as spatial-temporal discharge variation, are necessary for the simulation of a dynamic equilibrium river. The most important outcome is that the modeled pattern of bars and channels is highly sensitive to the constitutive relation for bed slope effects that is used in many morphological models. Regardless of this sensitivity and present model limitations of many models, this study shows that physics-based modeling of sand-bed braided improves our understanding and prediction of morphological patterns and dynamics in sand-bed braided rivers.

  2. Stream power criterion and design of sand bed channels at incipient motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achanta Ramakrishna Rao; Gopu Sreenivasulu

    2009-01-01

    The critical stream power criterion may be used to describe the incipient motion of cohesionless particles of plane sediment beds. The governing equation relating “critical stream power” to “shear Reynolds number” is developed by using the present experimental data as well as the data from several other sources. Simultaneously, a resistance equation, relating the “particle Reynolds number to the “shear

  3. Turbulence structure and sand transport over gravel and cobble beds in laboratory flumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the turbulence generated by flow over rough beds has become increasingly important in support of efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored in r...

  4. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and radionuclide retention and leaching from a Joel sand amended with red mud\\/gypsum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. McPharlin; R. C. Jeffery; L. F. Toussaint; M. Cooper

    1994-01-01

    The leaching of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and radionuclides (Th, Ra, Ra, and K) from Joel sands amended with red mud\\/gypsum (RMG) at 9 rates (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 t\\/ha) was measured using columns. Intense leaching conditions (34 mm\\/day for 12 days) and a high rate of applied P (320 kg\\/ha as superphosphate) and

  5. Effect of accelerating and decelerating flows on incipient motion in sand bed streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Emadzadeh; Yee Meng Chiew; Hossein Afzalimehr

    2010-01-01

    The effect of flow acceleration and deceleration on velocity, von Kármán constant, Reynolds and normal stress distributions under incipient motion were experimentally investigated in this study using eight positive and negative bed slopes (±0.7%, ±0.9%, ±1.25% and ±1.5%) and three uniform sediments with median grain sizes d50=1.8, 1.3 and 0.8mm. By using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), the instantaneous velocities

  6. Responses of red-osier dogwood to oil sands tailings treated with gypsum or alum.

    PubMed

    Redfield, E; Croser, C; Zwiazek, J J; MacKinnon, M D; Qualizza, C

    2003-01-01

    The application of composite or consolidated tailings (CT) technology provides Alberta's oil sands industry with a means of reducing the volume of the fines fraction in extraction tailings and allows for faster reclamation and revegetation of mining sites. This study examined the effects of coagulant aids (gypsum and alum), used in the production of CT, on the ion content, growth, and survival of greenhouse-grown red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L. subsp. sericea). Seedlings were planted in gypsum-CT and alum-CT substrates, and compared with those planted in reclamation material (salvaged peat and till). The seedlings were bottom-watered with one of the following: (i) Hoagland mineral solution prepared in deionized water (Epstein, 1972); (ii) Hoagland solution in gypsum-based CT release water; or (iii) Hoagland solution in alum-based CT release water. Pore water of CT substrates and CT release waters had similar chemical characteristics, including salinity levels. However, plants in CT substrates had higher concentrations of ions (particularly Na and B), reduced growth, and higher mortality than plants in reclamation material and treated with CT waters. The presence of H2S indicated low-oxygen conditions in the CT substrates, while in the reclamation materials with CT release water treatments, no evidence of sulfides was observed. Low-oxygen conditions in the CT substrate treatments may have interfered with plant exclusion mechanisms for Na and B. Therefore, substrate properties may modify responses of reclamation plants to pore water chemistry due to the effects on oxygen availability to roots. PMID:12809301

  7. Detection and Population Estimation for Small-Bodied Fishes in a Sand-Bed River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. Widmer; Laura L. Burckhardt; Jon W. Kehmeier; Eric J. Gonzales; C. Nicolas Medley; Richard A. Valdez

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-pass removal by use of small-mesh seines within enclosed areas was performed to estimate numbers of nine small-bodied fish species at 17 sites in the Pecos River, New Mexico, during October 2007. Site-level population estimates were most precise for age-0 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis (coefficient of variation [CV, calculated as SE\\/mean] = 0.02–0.06) and least precise for age-1 and older

  8. Responses of Red-Osier Dogwood to Oil Sands Tailings Treated with Gypsum or Alum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Redfield; C. Croser; J. J. Zwiazek; M. D. MacKinnon; C. Qualizza

    2003-01-01

    or composite tailings (CT), are currently being inves- tigated. The application of composite or consolidated tailings (CT) technol- In the CT process, the fines and sand fractions are ogy provides Alberta's oil sands industry with a means of reducing treated with a coagulant aid to produce a nonsegregating the volume of the fines fraction in extraction tailings and allows mixture

  9. Possible evidence of a venom apparatus in a Middle Jurassic Sphenodontian from the Huizachal red beds of Tamaulipas, México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor-Hugo Reynoso

    2005-01-01

    A new sphenodontid is described from the Middle Jurassic red beds in Huizachal Canyon, Tamaulipas, northern Mexico. The new taxon is characterized by the presence of two fang-like acrodont teeth at the anterior end of the lower jaw similar to those of the upper Jurassic sphenodontian Theretairus antiquus from the Morrison Formation. However, the new sphenodontian has a single well

  10. Hydrology and bedload transport relationships for sand-bed streams in the Ngarradj Creek catchment, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryRainfall, discharge and bedload were measured at three gauging stations (East Tributary, Upper Swift Creek and Swift Creek) in the Ngarradj Creek catchment at Jabiluka, Northern Territory, Australia. Hand-held, pressure difference, Helley-Smith bedload samplers were used to measure bedload fluxes for the 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 wet seasons. Rainfall is strongly seasonal over the Ngarradj Creek catchment, being concentrated in the wet season between November and April. Mean annual point rainfall between 1998 and 2007 for the water year, September to August, inclusive varied over the Ngarradj Creek catchment from 1731 ± 98 mm (SE) to 1754 ± 116 mm. Between 190 and 440 mm of rainfall are required before streamflow commences in December in most years. Streamflow persists until at least April. Mean annual runoff, as a percentage of mean annual rainfall, decreases slightly with increasing catchment area. Bedload ratings were calculated for four data sets. Significant bedload ratings were defined as those that were not only statistically significant (? ? 0.05) but also explained at least 0.60 of the variance in bedload flux. For the three stations, twenty-three bedload ratings complied with the above criteria. Sixteen equations were accepted for East Tributary, four bedload ratings were accepted for Upper Swift Creek and three bedload ratings were accepted for Swift Creek. Significant bedload ratings were established between bedload flux and discharge, unit bedload flux and discharge, transport rate of unsuspended bedload by immersed weight per unit width and time and both unit and excess unit stream power, and finally, adjusted submersed bedload weight and both unit and excess unit stream power for raw and log10-transformed data. 'Censored data sets' were compiled for Upper Swift Creek and Swift Creek to include only bedload fluxes measured when there was no apparent scour or fill so that there were no changes in sand supply from the catchment (i.e. equilibrium conditions). Bedload sediments are similar at all sites. There is little difference in grain size statistics between wet season bedload and dry season bed material. The differences which were significant suggest that most of the bed material is transported as bedload during the wet season. Size selective transport occurs at all three gauging stations with bedload being better sorted than bed material and the coarsest fraction (Cobble gravel) is mobile only during extreme events.

  11. New paleomagnetic data from carboniferous volcanics and red beds from central New Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Maurice K.; Singh, A.; Fyffe, L.

    1985-02-01

    It has long been argued, on the basis of paleomagnetic data derived from Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian lithological units from eastern North America that a sinistral megashear of Carboniferous age parallels and lies within the faults delimiting the Appalachian-Caledonian chains. Recent paleomagnetic studies in the northern Appalachians have cast doubt on the models of a Carboniferous offset. The geologic evidence suggests that only a small amount of dextral (and not sinistral) strike slip has occurred on faults which are parallel with pre-Acadian paleogeographic realms. The purpose of this paleomagnetic study is to test the validity of the proposed left-lateral motion at one of the sites of its presumed passage in central New Brunswick. Six sites (80 oriented specimens) in Carboniferous red beds and volcanics were collected on both sides of the Fredericton Fault and other parallel faults. After AF and thermal cleaning, the mean direction of magnetization is 158° + 38° the fold test is indecisive. The corresponding paleopole is 135°E, 21°N and the paleolatitude 20°S. The paleopole positions and paleolatitudes are not significantly different on either side of the Fredericton fault and no left-lateral motion was detected by paleomagnetic means. As no such motion was detected in south-central New Brunswick and Newfoundland, it is possible but unlikely that it took place in northern New Brunswick and in the western Gaspé Peninsula. This contribution is useful in discussing possible motions of Acadia.

  12. Strength and failure characteristics of Jurassic Red-Bed sandstone under cyclic wetting-drying conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Jiang, Qinghui; Zhou, Chuangbing; Liu, Xinting

    2014-08-01

    Due to cyclic fluctuations of reservoir water levels, bank slopes in drawdown areas are subjected to wetting-drying cycles. In order to reasonably evaluate the stabilities of sandstone slopes in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, it is a primary premise to obtain the strength and failure characteristics of the sandstones undergoing wetting-drying cycles. In this paper, the conventional triaxial compression tests, ultrasonic velocity and porosity measurements and microstructural observations were conducted on Jurassic Red-Bed sandstone (JRS) specimens undergoing wetting-drying cycles. The results from the triaxial experiments indicate that the peak strengths of the JRS are dramatically reduced after the first wetting-drying cycle, and then remain approximately constant with increasing number of wetting-drying cycles. The failure modes of the JRS samples undergoing different wetting-drying cycles are all brittle failures under low confining pressures ( ? 15 MPa). The decrease in P-wave velocity and increase in porosity with increasing number of wetting-drying cycles reveals the raise of damage level of the sandstone specimens, which is the main reason for the decline of peak strength. Detailed microstructural analysis has shown obvious argillization phenomena after undergoing wetting-drying cycles, which weakens the cements between grains in the sandstone and increases the damage of the sandstone.

  13. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: scouting red beds for uncommon features with geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Sebastián-Martínez, Eduardo; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2005-04-01

    The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' has undergone a second geological field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real time in the field. In this second field trial, the computer vision system of the Cyborg Astrobiologist was tested at seven different tripod positions, on three different geological structures. The first geological structure was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red areas and an absence of these iron impurities in white areas. The white areas in these `red beds' have turned white because the iron has been removed. The iron removal from the sandstone can proceed once the iron has been chemically reduced, perhaps by a biological agent. In one instance the computer vision system found several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure was another outcrop some 600 m to the east, with white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, at the bottom of the outcrop. The computer vision system found these white, textured mineral deposits to be interesting. We acquired samples of the mineral deposits for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. This laboratory analysis of the crust identifies a double layer, consisting of an internal millimetre-size layering of calcite and an external centimetre-size efflorescence of gypsum. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick palaeosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants. The computer vision system also found certain areas of these root structures to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the interest points determined afterwards by a human geologist shows that the Cyborg Astrobiologist concurred with the human geologist 68% of the time (true-positive rate), with a 32% false-positive rate and a 32% false-negative rate. The performance of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's computer vision system was by no means perfect, so there is plenty of room for improvement. However, these tests validate the image-segmentation and uncommon-mapping technique that we first employed at a different geological site (Rivas Vaciamadrid) with somewhat different properties for the imagery.

  14. The Tayiba Red Beds: Transitional marine-continental deposits in the precursor Suez Rift, Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaat, A. A.; Imam, M. M.

    1999-04-01

    The Tayiba Red Beds, exposed in the Abu Zenima area, west-central Sinai, have been intensively studied for their clay mineralogy and charophytes assemblages. Three surface sections exposed at Wadi El-Tayiba and Wadi Nukhul were studied. The Tayiba Formation uncomformably overlies the Middle Eocene Khaboba Formation at Wadi Nukhul and the Late Eocene Tanka Formation at Wadi El-Tayiba and commonly underlies the Early Miocene Nukhul Formation with unconformable relationships. The Tayiba Formation at Wadi Nukhul consists predominantly of continental coarse clastic sediments represented by polymictic conglomerates, alternating with red to pinkish mudstone, ferruginous sandstone and varicoloured mottled siltstone with plant remains. At Wadi El-Tayiba, the Tayiba Formation is represented by marine, yellow mudstone and red siltstone, alternating with greyish and reddish-yellow argillaceous to sandy limestone, highly fossiliferous with reworked Nummulites spp. and molluscan shell fragments. The mineralogical composition of the studied clay size fraction showed that most samples are dominated by illite, together with smectite, kaolinite and illite/smectite mixed layers. The relative proportion of these constituents shows wide variation. Smectite is more abundant than other constituents at Wadi El-Tayiba. The high content of smectite is usually accompanied by a terrigenous influx in the form of kaolinite and illite, reflecting deposition in an inner neritic shallow marine environment. The sediments of Wadi Nukhul are characterised by an appreciable proportion of illite, together with an illite/smectite mixed layer and minor amounts of kaolinite, suggesting deposition in fluviatile environments. The detailed investigation of charophytes (green algae) in the investigated sections showed that Wadi El-Tayiba is nearly barren of these microflorae, except for some benthic foraminifera from a shallow marine environment. In contrast, Wadi Nukhul yielded a high frequency and great diversity of charophytes, where 15 species have been identified, described and illustrated for the first time. The utilisation of the ranges of these species allowed the subdivision of the section into three charophyte zones, which are correlated with other zones recorded in Europe, as well as the standard mammal levels in the world. These biozones strongly assign the Tayiba Formation to the Late Eocene to Late Oligocene (Late Priabonian to Chattian). A depositional model was suggested for the Tayiba Formation in west-central Sinai.

  15. Upper Cretaceous oceanic red bed foraminifera from the southern Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoyama, Eiichi; Kaminski, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages of Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs), which are geographically widespread and whose deposition reflects oligotrophic and well-oxygenated deep-water environments, have been described from the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Tethys. No detailed taxonomic study was, however, published on foraminifera from CORBs in the Norwegian Sea, though their existence was previously mentioned. This study, thus, investigates assemblages from a red sediment interval of the uppermost Santonian-middle Campanian Nise Formation in well 6306/5-1 drilled in the southern Norwegian Sea for taxonomy and their palaeoenvironmental implications based on morphogroup analysis. The assemblages are relatively highly diversified and composed of 61 deep-water agglutinated taxa without any calcareous forms. Biostratigraphically important Upper Cretaceous species, such as Caudammina gigantea and Uvigerinammina jankoi, are not recorded. The common occurrence of tubular forms, high diversity and the absence of small species of Upper Cretaceous abyssal fauna suggest a bathyal setting for the depositional environment of the CORBs in the Norwegian Sea. The absence of calcareous components indicates that they were deposited near or below the regional calcium carbonate compensation depth. The fauna from the red sediment interval shows similarity to both the mesotrophic flysch-type biofacies, for example in the presence of robust tubular forms and rzehakinids, and the CORB assemblages previously described in the abundant occurrence of infauna in environments with low flux of organic matter. This intermediate characteristics of the Norwegian CORB fauna is probably related to a shallower bathyal setting and higher flux of organic matter to the seafloor due to the proximity to land in a narrow proto-Norwegian Sea than abyssal and truly oligotrophic depositional environments of other CORBs. As sedimentation of CORBs can be regarded as the primary type of background hemipelagic sedimentation in deep-sea conditions, the CORB assemblages of this study may represent a background deep-sea foraminiferal assemblage of the Norwegian Sea, which was tectonically active during the Late Cretaceous and in which a thick unit of Upper Cretaceous turbidites was deposited.

  16. Peat carrier increases inoculation success with Frankia on red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) in fumigated nursery beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Martin; Y. Tanaka; D. D. Myrold

    1991-01-01

    Inoculation trials were set up in fumigated nursery beds for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) bare-root seedling production. Frankia inoculum was applied either as nodule homogenate or as pure culture (strain ArI5). The plots were laid out in 4 blocks of 8 treatments consisting of: control, nodule suspension, and three levels each of cell suspension and cells applied with a

  17. Depositional mechanisms controlling formation of coarse fluvial conglomerates in the lower triassic continental red beds of middle europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Mader

    Coarse fluvial conglomerates containing numerous cobbles and boulders occur in various formations within the Lower Triassic continental red beds of Middle Europe. The rudites mainly originate as longitudinal gravel bars in highly-braided river systems with narrowly-spaced and straight to slightly sinuous channels. The high-energy stream sedimentation and the frequent and rapid lateral shifting of the watercourses control origin, distribution and

  18. Sand particle dislodgement in windblown sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Tian-Li; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    The incipient motion of sand particle from sand bed plays a very important role in the prediction of windblown sand. In this paper, we proposed a new method for predicting the incipient motion of sand particle based on wind speed fluctuation as follows, when the wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, if the total impulse on sand particle is larger than the critical impulse, incipient motion of sand particle would take place, otherwise if not. Furthermore, from the analysis of entrainment in the rolling and lifting modes, we come to the following conclusion. When the average wind speed is smaller than the critical wind speed, if the average wind speed is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particle, one will underestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed, if the instantaneous wind speed is used to judge incipient motion of sand particle, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed; When the average wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, either the average or the instantaneous wind speeds is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particles, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed.

  19. Treatment of wastewater from red and tropical fruit wine production by zeolite anaerobic fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, S; Guerrero, L; Borja, R; Cortés, I; Sánchez, E; Colmenarejo, M F

    2008-06-01

    A study of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters derived from red (RWWW) and tropical fruit wine (TFWWW) production was carried out in four laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors with natural zeolite as bacterial support. These reactors operated at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Reactors R1 and R2 contained Chilean natural zeolite, while reactors R3 and R4 used Cuban natural zeolite as microorganism support. In addition, reactors R1 and R3 processed RWWW, while reactors R2 and R4 used TFWWW as substrate. The biomass concentration attached to zeolites in the four reactors studied was found to be in the range of 44-46 g volatile solids (VS)/L after 90 days of operation time. Both types of zeolites can be used indistinctly in the fluidized bed reactors achieving more than 80%-86% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals for organic loading rates (OLR) of up to at least 20 g COD/L d. pH values remained within the optimal range for anaerobic microorganisms for OLR values of up to 20 and 22 g COD/L d for RWWW and TFWWW, respectively. Toxicity and inhibition levels were observed at an OLR of 20 g COD/L d in reactors R1 and R3 while processing RWWW, whereas the aforementioned inhibitory phenomena were not observed at an OLR of 24 g COD/L d in R2 and R4, treating TFWWW as a consequence of the lower phenolic compound content present in this substrate. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) levels were always lower in reactors processing TFWWW (R2 and R4) and these values (< 400 mg/L, as acetic acid) were lower than the suggested limits for digester failure. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was twice as high in reactors R2 and R4 than in R1 and R3 after 120 days of operation when all reactors operated at an OLR of 20 g COD/L d. PMID:18576225

  20. Mediative adjustment of river dynamics: The role of chute channels in tropical sand-bed meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, M. C.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines processes of chute channel formation in four tropical sand-bed meandering rivers; the Strickland and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea, the Beni in Bolivia, and the lower Paraguay on the Paraguay/Argentina border. Empirical planform analyses highlight an association between meander bend widening and chute initiation that is consistent with recent physics-based modelling work. GIS analyses indicate that bend widening may be driven by a variety of mechanisms, including scour and cutbank bench formation at sharply-curving bends, point bar erosion due to cutbank impingement against cohesive terrace material, rapid cutbank erosion at rapidly extending bends, and spontaneous mid-channel bar formation. Chute channel initiation is observed to be predominantly associated with two of these widening mechanisms; i) an imbalance between cutbank erosion and point bar deposition associated with rapid bend extension, and ii) bank erosion forced by spontaneous mid-channel bar development. The work extends previous empirical analyses, which highlighted the role of bend extension (elongation) in driving chute initiation, with the observation that the frequency of chute initiation increases once bend extension rates and/or widening ratios exceed a reach-scale threshold. A temporal pattern of increased chute initiation frequency on the Ok Tedi, in response to channel steepening and mid-channel bar development following the addition of mine tailings, mirrors the inter- and intra-reach spatial patterns of chute initiation frequency on the Paraguay, Strickland and Beni Rivers, where increased stream power and sediment load are associated with increased bend extension and chute initiation rates. The process of chute formation is shown to be rate-dependent, and the threshold values of bend extension and widening ratio for chute initiation are shown to scale with measures of river energy, reminiscent of slope-ratio thresholds in river avulsion. Furthermore, Delft3D simulations suggest that chute formation can exert negative feedback on shear stress and bank erosion in the adjacent mainstem bifurcate, such that the process of chute formation may also be rate-limiting. Chute formation is activated iteratively in space and time in response to changes in river energy (and sediment load), predominantly affecting sites of rapid channel elongation, and thereby mediating the river response.

  1. Zinc forms in compost and red mud-amended bauxite residue sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitdeshwari Thiyagarajan; Richard W. Bell; Jonathan D. Anderson; Ian Phillips

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Re-vegetation is the preferred long-term practice for managing Alcoa’s bauxite-processing residue storage areas. Residue sand\\u000a is the primary growth medium for rehabilitation; however, it is largely nutrient deficient. Although addition of organic and\\u000a inorganic amendments can provide short-term supply of plant-available nutrients, but quickly exhausted, thus long-term deficiencies\\u000a are often observed. The rapid transformation of added zinc into non-available pools

  2. Tectonic significance of porosity and permeability regimes in the red beds formations of the South Georgia Rift Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akintunde, Olusoga M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.

    2014-09-01

    A simple, new porosity/permeability-depth profile was developed from available laboratory measurements on Triassic sedimentary red beds (sandstone) from parts of the South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin in order to investigate the feasibility for long-term CO2 storage. The study locations were: Sumter, Berkeley, Dunbarton, Clubhouse Crossroad-3 (CC-3) and Norris Lightsey wells. As expected, both porosity and permeability show changes with depth at the regional scale that was much greater than at local scale. The significant changes in porosity and permeability with depth suggest a highly compacted, deformed basin, and potentially, a history of uplift and erosion. The permeability is generally low both at shallow (less than 1826 ft/556.56 m) and deeper depths (greater than 1826 ft/556.56 m). Both porosity and permeability follow the normal trend, decreasing linearly with depth for most parts of the study locations with the exception of the Norris Lightsey well. A petrophysical study on a suite of well logs penetrating the Norris Lightsey red beds at depths sampled by the core-derived laboratory measurements shows an abnormal shift (by 50%) in the acoustic travel time and/or in the sonic-derived P-wave velocity that indicates possible faulting or fracturing at depth. The departure of the Norris Lightsey's porosities and permeabilities from the normal compaction trend may be a consequence of the existence of a fault/fracture controlled abnormal pressure condition at depth. The linear and non-linear behaviors of the porosity/permeability distribution throughout the basin imply the composition of the SGR red beds, and by extension analog/similar Triassic-Jurassic formations within the Eastern North American Margin have been altered by compaction, uplift, erosion and possible faulting that have shaped the evolution of these Triassic formations following the major phase of rifting.

  3. Water purification using sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Wotton

    2002-01-01

    Slow sand filters are used to purify drinking water. Each filter consists of a large tank containing a bed of sand through which water passes at typical rates of 0.1–0.3 m h-1. Water is cleaned by physico–chemical and biological processes occurring at the air–water interface, within the bulk water, over the surface of the sand, and within the bed of

  4. The influence of microbial mats on the formation of sand volcanoes and mounds in the Red Sea coastal plain, south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taj, Rushdi J.; Aref, Mahmoud A. M.; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Extensive areas covered by microbial mats have been found in the upper intertidal flats and supratidal pools in the Red Sea coastal plain of south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Numerous microbially controlled sediment-surface morphologies are evident, such as flat cohesive mats that commonly pass into mats with wrinkles, reticulates, and tufts, together with erosion pockets and mat chips. These microbial mats form cohesive surface layers that lead to biostabilization of the sediment surface. Fluidization of the underlying sediments is due to tidal influences and pressurized gas escape from decay and photosynthesis of microbial mats and causes deformation and rupture of the cohesive surface mat layer via vertical and sub-vertical pipes. Extrusion of fluidized sediments and water through these pipes leads to redeposition of sediment grains above the surface mat layer to form sand volcanoes and mounds. Most of the sand volcanoes present in the intertidal flats and supratidal pools show a symmetrical morphology, whereas in tidal channels asymmetrical forms are more common. Extrusion of underlying sediments through several adjacent vents leads to coalescence of sand volcanoes to form sand mounds. In this study sand volcanoes are also compared with other cone-like features from the Red Sea, such as gas domes and crab mounds. This comparison should help in differentiating similar cone-like features associated with microbial mats in the rock record.

  5. Influence of hydraulic conditions over dunes on the distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates in a large sand bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsler, Mario L.; Blettler, MartíN. C. M.; Ezcurra de Drago, InéS.

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to relate the flow structure over mobile dunes recorded on the channel bed of the Paraná River (Argentina) with the spatial distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates. The following main conclusions have been obtained: (1) the dunes found in the active channel could be considered as hydraulic biotopes at a mesohabitat scale: the bed forms in the thalweg region are subjected to higher shear stresses with low benthic densities; (2) differences in benthic densities were also recorded at within-dunes microhabitat scales: the largest densities were found in the dune troughs where small bed shear stresses occur and minimum densities on the low stoss side of dunes where turbulent agitation near the bottom strongly disturb the bed particles; (3) superimposed dunes on larger dunes may be considered as another microhabitat of still smaller dimensions. Summarizing, multiscale approaches are needed if a comprehensive understanding linking hydrodynamics and morphodynamics processes with benthic ecology is intended.

  6. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and radionuclide retention and leaching from a Joel sand amended with red mud/gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    McPharlin, L.R. (Dept. of Agriculture Western Australia, South Perth (Australia)); Jeffery, R.C. (Chemistry Centre, East Perth (Australia)); Toussaint, L.F. (Western Australia Dept. of Health, Nedlands (Australia)); Cooper, M. (Australian Radiation Labs., Yallambie, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-01-01

    The leaching of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and radionuclides [sup 232]Th, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, and [sup 40]K from Joel sands amended with red mud/gypsum (RMG) at 9 rates (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 t/ha) was measured using columns. Intense leaching conditions (34 mm/day for 12 days) and a high rate of applied P (320 kg/ha as superphosphate) and N (680 kg/ha as ammonium nitrate) were used to simulate extremes of irrigated vegetable production on the Swan Coastal Plain. Addition of the highest rate of RMG (256 t/ha) reduced leaching of fertiliser P and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) by 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with 0 t/ha after 12 days. At 64 t RMG/ha P leaching was reduced 50% compared with 0 t/ha. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching was not affected by addition of RMG. Reduced leaching of NH4-N was attributed to an increase in cation exchange capacity of the soil with the addition of RMG. Bicarbonate-extractable P in the soil increased with rate of RMG to >50 [mu]g P/g soil at 256 t/ha. This indicates that soil testing of residual P could be used to reduce P inputs to vegetable crops after soils were amended with RMG. This would further reduce the impact of vegetable production on the water systems of the Swan Coastal Plain and extend the period of effectiveness of RMG amended soils. The increase in [sup 232]Th specific activity in Joel sand amended with RMG was well below statutory limits even at the highest rate. Neither [sup 40]K nor [sup 226]Ra were detectable in RMG amended sands up to 256 t RMG/ha. There was no evidence of leaching of [sup 226]Ra or [sup 228]Ra at any rate of RMG. These results suggest that the use of RMG amendment on commercial horticultural properties on the Swan Coastal Plain could be feasible. 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Laboratory measurements to determine the grain size distribution of a sand-gravel bed surface and substrate: image analysis and CT scanner analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, C.; Blom, A.; Uijttewaal, W.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in the grain size distribution are crucial to describe sediment transport and the related grain size selective processes. Two complimentary laboratory techniques are presented to determine such variations of the grain size distribution of the bed surface and substrate: (1) particle coloring in combination with photogrammetric analysis, and (2) core sampling combined with three-dimensional imaging. The two techniques will be used in later flume experiments that are aimed at studying the response of the river bed to nonsteady boundary conditions. In these flume experiments, the bed surface and substrate grain size distribution needs to be measured using reliable and preferentially rapid techniques. The techniques were evaluated conducting an experiment that partially reproduced the conditions of the later flume experiments. Three nonoverlapping grain size fractions (i.e. within the range of coarse sand to fine gravel) were used and they were painted in different colors. Various mixtures of the three grain size fractions were composed of various color combinations. Patches of the mixtures were installed in a pool. Images were taken of the bed surface and the images were analyzed using an algorithm based on color segmentation. The algorithm provides values of the surface fraction of the bed covered by a certain color (i.e. a size fraction). The influence of water depth on the results of the image analysis was studied. To this end pictures were taken without water and for three water depths. The image analysis results shows that the technique can be used effectively for images of the bed in a flume filled with water. This is beneficiary in applying the technique in the later flume experiments. The second technique comprises core sampling in combination with three-dimensional imaging. Samples taken with tube cores were fixed with wallpaper glue and analyzed using a micro computed tomography scanner (micro CT scanner). The scans provide a three-dimensional image of the sample from which the variation of the grain size distribution over the vertical is derived. The wallpaper glue fixing the sample deals well with wet sediment and does not affect the effectiveness of the x-rays of the CT scanner. The chosen viscosity of the glue makes it adequately infiltrate into the pores of the sample. The core sampling technique combined with the micro CT scanner analysis appears to be suitable to analyze the vertical variation of the grain size distribution in the bed.

  8. Study on Uplift Behaviour of Plate Anchors under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading in Geo-grid Reinforced Sand Bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Ravichandran; K. Ilamparuthi; M. Mohammed Toufeeq

    To date, most anchor studies have been concerned with the uplift problem on submerged bed in unreinforced conditions under monotonic pull. In many instances, embedded anchors in offshore environment are subjected to dynamic loadings caused by winds, waves, ocean current, tides and cyclonic storms in addition to sustained pulls. However, the importance of reinforcement in submergence has received very little

  9. Multiscale bed form interactions and their implications for the abruptness and stability of the downwind dune field margin at White Sands, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-11-01

    The downwind margin of White Sands dune field is an abrupt transition from mobile aeolian dunes to a dune-free vegetated surface. This margin is also relatively stable; over the past 60 years it has migrated several times more slowly than the slowest dunes within the dune field, resulting in a zone of dune coalescence, aggradation, and, along most of the margin, development of a dune complex (i.e., dunes superimposed on draas). Repeat terrestrial laser scanning surveys conducted over a 3 month period demonstrate that sediment fluxes within the dune complex decrease on approach to the margin. Computational fluid dynamics modeling indicates that this decrease is due, in part, to a decrease in mean turbulent bed shear stress on the lee side of the dune complex as a result of flow line divergence or sheltering of the lee-side dunes by the stoss side of the dune complex. Conservation of mass demands that this decrease in bed shear stress causes aggradation. We speculate that aggradation on the lee side of the dune complex further enhances the sheltering effect in a positive feedback, contributing to the growth and/or maintenance of the dune complex and a relatively abrupt and stable dune field margin. Our model and data add to a growing body of evidence that aeolian dune field patterns are influenced by feedbacks that occur at scales larger than individual dunes.

  10. Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

    Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

  11. Fluidization Characteristics of Sand and Chopped Switchgrass Sand Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Patil; T. J. Bowser; D. D. Bellmer; R. L. Huhnke

    A laboratory, fluidized-bed gasifier is being researched as a means to gasify feedstocks in a process to produce ethanol from biomass. Fluidization characteristics of the bed, especially minimum (Umf) and complete (Ucf) fluidization velocities, were measured because they are critical to the operation of the gasifier. Fluidization properties of sand and chopped switchgrass- sand mixtures of different particle sizes and

  12. [The red blood system in men during long-term head-down bed rest].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Levina, A A; Kozinets, G I

    2005-01-01

    Red blood was analyzed in six 25 to 40 yr. old male volunteers in a 120-d head-down bedrest (HDBR) study. The hematological investigation included morphological analyses (erythrocyte count and hemoglobin), and determination of iron turnover, erythrocyte IgA, IgG and IgM, metabolism, lipids and phospholipids, and lipid peroxidation rate (LPO). At the beginning of HDBR (day 7), the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content were found increased w/o any visible changes in the other parameters. Further exposure to HDBR (days 50-100) resulted in modification of intracellular metabolism in erythrocytes, increases in serum iron, and serum and erythrocyte ferritin. On HDBR days 50 and 100, and post-HDBR day 9, cholesterol was increased, LPO intensified and antioxidant activities inhibited, which suggested destabilization of the cell membrane. Hematological shifts in the bedrested volunteers were of the type and pattern similar to those in cosmonauts who fulfilled extended space missions. PMID:16536028

  13. Impact of ozonation pre-treatment of oil sands process-affected water on the operational performance of a GAC-fluidized bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Dong, Tao; McPhedran, Kerry N; Sheng, Zhiya; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using biodegradation has the potential to be an environmentally sound approach for tailings water reclamation. This process is both economical and efficient, however, the recalcitrance of some OSPW constituents, such as naphthenic acids (NAs), require the pre-treatment of raw OSPW to improve its biodegradability. This study evaluated the treatment of OSPW using ozonation followed by fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) using granular activated carbon (GAC). Different organic and hydraulic loading rates were applied to investigate the performance of the bioreactor over 120 days. It was shown that ozonation improved the adsorption capacity of GAC for OSPW and improved biodegradation by reducing NAs cyclicity. Bioreactor treatment efficiencies were dependent on the organic loading rate (OLR), and to a lesser degree, the hydraulic loading rate (HLR). The combined ozonation, GAC adsorption, and biodegradation process removed 62 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88 % of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and 99.9 % of NAs under optimized operational conditions. Compared with a planktonic bacterial community in raw and ozonated OSPW, more diverse microbial communities were found in biofilms colonized on the surface of GAC after 120 days, with various carbon degraders found in the bioreactor including Burkholderia multivorans, Polaromonas jejuensis and Roseomonas sp. PMID:25104220

  14. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and hydraulics were observed as a function of sediment feed and vegetation density and architecture.

  16. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  17. Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Bellamy; David W. Hendricks; Gary S. Logsdon

    1985-01-01

    Biological activity within the sand bed had the strongest influence on removal efficiency of total coliform bacteria by slow sand filtration, as determined by six pilot filters (shown above). Temperature, sand bed depth, and sand size also had strong influence. La actividad biológica dentro de la cama de arena ejerce la influencia más grande en la eficiencia de la extracción

  18. technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Szmolyan, Peter

    technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential

  19. Phosphorus adsorption maximum of sands for use as media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds as measured by the Langmuir isotherm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Del Bubba; C. A. Arias; H. Brix

    2003-01-01

    The P-adsorption capacities of 13 Danish sands were studied by short-term isotherm batch experiments and related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the sands. The maximum P-adsorption capacities (Q) and P-binding energy constants (b) were calculated using the Langmuir-isotherm model. The Freundlich model was also used, but it was not useful for the description of adsorption phenomena per se since it

  20. The paleoclimatic and geochronologic utility of coring red beds and evaporites: a case study from the RKB core (Permian, Kansas, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Benison, Kathleen C.; Foster, Tyler M.; Zambito, Jay; Soreghan, Michael J.

    2014-08-01

    Drill core is critical for robust and high-resolution reconstructions of Earth's climate record, as well demonstrated from both marine successions and modern long-lived lake systems. Deep-time climate reconstructions increasingly require core-based data, but some facies, notably red beds and evaporites, have garnered less attention for both paleoclimatic and geochronologic analyses. Here, we highlight studies from the Rebecca K. Bounds (RKB) core, a nearly continuous, >1.6 km drill core extending from the Cretaceous to the Mississippian, recovered from the US Midcontinent by Amoco Production Company in 1988, and serendipitously made available for academic research. Recent research conducted on this core illustrates the potential to recover high-resolution data for geochronologic and climatic reconstructions from both the fine-grained red bed strata, which largely represent paleo-loess deposits, and associated evaporite strata. In this case, availability of core was instrumental for (1) accessing a continuous vertical section that establishes unambiguous superposition key to both magnetostratigraphic and paleoclimatic analyses, and (2) providing pristine sample material from friable, soluble, and/or lithofacies and mineralogical species otherwise poorly preserved in surface exposures. The potential for high-resolution paleoclimatic reconstruction from coring of deep-time loess strata in particular remains severely underutilized.

  1. Regeneration of sand waves after dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. F. Knaapen; S. J. M. H. Hulscher

    2002-01-01

    Sand waves are large bed waves on the seabed, being a few metres high and lying hundreds of metres apart. In some cases, these sand waves occur in navigation channels. If these sand waves reduce the water depth to an unacceptable level and hinder navigation, they need to be dredged. It has been observed in the Bisanseto Channel in Japan

  2. Adsorption of Cu, Ag, and other metals on Fe-oxides as a control on elemental composition of stratiform and red bed copper deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.W.; Bianchi, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    In low-temperature red bed and stratiform Cu deposits like Zambia-Zaire, Kupferschiefer, and Redstone, Cu is accompanied by various combinations of Ag, Co, Pb and Zn, and appears to be emplaced during diagenesis. Red bed sediments near deposits in Pennsylvania and beneath the Redstone deposit are strongly depleted in Cu but show little change in Pb, Zn, Ni and Co. Formation of cuprous chloride complexes under slightly reducing conditions allow solubility of Cu, but these solutions also transport Pb, Zn, Ni and Co. The effect of adsorption by Fe-oxides in the red beds as a control on metal ratios has been tested by experiments on 0.5 ppm Cu, Ag, Pb, Zn, Ni and Co with 0.8 g/1 goethite at 25/sup 0/C in 1 M NaCl. Under oxidized conditions (air),the pH values above which more than 50% of the metals are adsorbed are: Cu 5.0, Pb 5.5, Zn 6.5, Co 7.5, Ni 7.8, and Ag > 9. For more reduced conditions near the Fe/sup 2 +/-goethite boundary, the 50% adsorption values for Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Ag are decreased by 0.5 to 1 pH unit, perhaps because of competition with Fe/sup 2 +/, but Cu (as CuCl/sub 2//sup -/ and CuCl/sub 3//sup 2 -/) shows adsorption of only about 20% at pH 5, 25% at pH 6, 35% at pH 7, and 100% at pH 8. At 50/sup 0/C, adsorption at pH 5 and 6 is about 10% and 20%, respectively, for Cu. By changes in Eh, pH, temperature, and molality of Cl and other species such as SO/sub 4/, CO/sub 3/, Ca, and Mg, it appears that various combinations of metals can be mobilized or left immobile. The time of mobilization and nature of Fe-oxide may also be critical.

  3. SAND REPORT SAND2002xxxx

    E-print Network

    Newman, Alantha

    SAND REPORT SAND2002­xxxx Unlimited Release August 2002 Discrete Optimization Models for Protein://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm DEPARTMENTOF ENERGY . . UNITED STATES OF AMERICA #12; SAND2002-xxxx Unlimited Release Printed August 2002

  4. Technical note: Whole-pen assessments of nutrient excretion and digestibility from dairy replacement heifers housed in sand-bedded freestalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to describe and test refined procedures for quantifying excreta produced from whole pens of dairy heifers. Previous research efforts attempting to make whole-pen measurements of excreta output have been complicated by the use of organic bedding, which requires cumbersome analytic...

  5. Mystery Sand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesn’t get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  6. Identifying beach sand sources and pathways in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System through the integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Hein, J. R.; McGann, M. L.; Mizell, K.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Takesue, R. K.; Wong, F. L.; Woodrow, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach sized-sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry, to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region. Cross-validating geochemical analyses, numerical modeling, physical process measurements, and proxy-based techniques (e.g., bedform asymmetry, grain size morphometrics) is proved an effective technique for confidently defining sources, pathways, and sinks of sand in complex coastal-estuarine systems. The consensus results highlight the regional impact of a sharp reduction in the primary sediment source, the Sierras, to the San Francisco Bay Coastal System over the last century in driving erosion of the bay floor, ebb-tidal delta, and the outer coast south of the Golden Gate.A) Calculated transport directions based on the integration of the provenance techniques. B) Number of techniques applied for each grid cell to determine the final transport directions.

  7. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  8. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-10-13

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  9. Why are ripples absent in coarse sands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, J.; Barros, J.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    Current ripples are perhaps the most abundant and common bedform and sedimentary structure in contemporary and ancient sediments, with their stability field being dependent on the applied bed shear stress and grain size. The ripple stability field begins to narrow in medium sand with ripples ceasing to exist in sands coarser than c. 0.7mm diameter. Leeder (1980) proposed that the absence of ripples in coarse sands is linked to the influence of increasing grain roughness that strengthens vertical mixing of fluid near the bed, and thereby disrupts flow separation over bed defects from which ripples normally propagate. In this paper, we use a novel thin (5mm wide) flume to investigate the dynamics of bedforms developed in a very coarse sand and use PIV to detail the dynamics of flow associated with the initial bedforms developed in this sand. We highlight the irregular wavelength, height and migration characteristics of these bedforms and contrast this with ripples developed in a medium sand. Furthermore, we utilize the near-bed PIV data to examine vertical flow velocities and the possible role of hyporheic flow upwelling in the bedform leeside. Such hyporheic flow, induced by pressure gradients established around the bedform, can lead to significant modifications to the leeside flow separation zone that may be contribute to the absence of current ripples in coarse sands. Reference Leeder, M.R. 1980 On the stability of lower stage plane beds and the absence of ripples in coarse sands, J. Geol. Soc. London, 137, 423-30.

  10. Sand Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hilary Christensen

    The objective of this project is to use a sample of sand from a give are to tell its geologic history. Each student is given a 50 mL tube of sand labeled with the latitude and longitude of where it was found. They must then use this information along with analysis of the sand itself to tell the story of its formation.

  11. Discovering Sand and Sand Paintings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-30

    This activity blends social studies and art with math and science. First, students will explore the visible characteristics of sand, and then they will make Navajo-style sand paintings with paper, glue, and colored sand. In the process, they will hone the

  12. Paleomagnetism of the Middle-Late Jurassic to Cretaceous red beds from the Peninsular Thailand: Implications for collision tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Itaru; Surinkum, Adichat; Wada, Yutaka; Fujihara, Makoto; Yokoyama, Masao; Zaman, Haider; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2011-02-01

    Jurassic to Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at 33 sites from the Khlong Min and Lam Thap formations of the Trang Syncline (7.6°N, 99.6°E), the Peninsular Thailand. Rock magnetic experiments generally revealed hematite as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates remanent components with unblocking temperatures of 620-690 °C. An easterly deflected declination ( D = 31.1°, I = 12.2°, ?95 = 13.9°, N = 9, in stratigraphic coordinates) is observed as pre-folding remanent magnetization from North Trang Syncline, whereas westerly deflected declination ( D = 342.8°, I = 22.3°, ?95 = 12.7°, N = 13 in geographic coordinates) appears in the post-folding remanent magnetization from West Trang Syncline. These observations suggest an occurrence of two opposite tectonic rotations in the Trang area, which as a part of Thai-Malay Peninsula received clockwise rotation after Jurassic together with Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks. Between the Late Cretaceous and Middle Miocene, this area as a part of southern Sundaland Block experienced up to 24.5° ± 11.5° counter-clockwise rotation with respect to South China Block. This post-Cretaceous tectonic rotation in Trang area is considered as a part of large scale counter-clockwise rotation experienced by the southern Sundaland Block (including the Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and south Sulawesi areas) as a result of Australian Plate collision with southeast Asia. Within the framework of Sundaland Block, the northern boundary of counter-clockwise rotated zone lies between the Trang area and the Khorat Basin.

  13. The age of the Chuangde Formation in Kangmar, southern Tibet of China: Implications for the origin of Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs) in the northern Tethyan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guobiao; Jiang, Ganqing; Wan, Xiaoqiao

    2011-03-01

    The Chuangde Formation in the northern Tethyan Himalaya consists of the Upper Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs). Due to the structural complexity and poor fossil preservation, the age of this unit remains an issue. In one interpretation, the age of the Chuangde Formation in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya is significantly older than in the western Tethyan Himalaya, suggesting that the formation of CORBs in the Late Cretaceous Tethys ocean may have been triggered by the ocean circulation pattern change in response to the changes associated with the collision between Indian and Asian plates. New foraminiferal biostratigraphic data from a well-preserved and fossil-rich section in Kangmar, southern Tibet, China, reveal that the Chuangde Formation in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya has an age from Early Campanian to Maastrichtian. Fossil assemblages from this section allow its correlation with other CORB-bearing sections and argue against the age discrepancy of CORBs between the eastern and western parts of the northern Tethyan Himalaya. Biostratigraphic correlation and paleogeographic reconstruction indicates that the CORBs in the Tethyan Himalaya are restricted to the slope and basinal environments but they are entirely missing in the shelf environments including the shelf margin. The similar thicknesses (and therefore potentially similar sedimentation rates) of time-equivalent units between shelf and slope/basinal sections argues against the formation of CORBs in the Tethyan Himalaya by transportation of terrigenous iron into a sediment-starved ocean. The lack of CORBs in shelf environments and the widespread occurrence CORBs in slope/basinal environments suggest that the CORBs were likely formed by oxidation of reduced iron in the upper ocean water column close to the chemocline rather than in oxic bottom waters.

  14. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of xenotime and monazite from the Spar Lake red bed-associated Cu-Ag deposit, western Montana: Implications for ore genesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Evans, Karl V.; Mazdab, Frank K.; Pillers, Renee M.; Fanning, C. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Xenotime occurs as epitaxial overgrowths on detrital zircons in the Mesoproterozoic Revett Formation (Belt Supergroup) at the Spar Lake red bed-associated Cu-Ag deposit, western Montana. The deposit formed during diagenesis of Revett strata, where oxidizing metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids encountered a reducing zone. Samples for geochronology were collected from several mineral zones. Xenotime overgrowths (1–30 ?m wide) were found in polished thin sections from five ore and near-ore zones (chalcocite-chlorite, bornite-calcite, galena-calcite, chalcopyrite-ankerite, and pyrite-calcite), but not in more distant zones across the region. Thirty-two in situ SHRIMP U-Pb analyses on xenotime overgrowths yield a weighted average of 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1409 ± 8 Ma, interpreted as the time of mineralization. This age is about 40 to 60 m.y. after deposition of the Revett Formation. Six other xenotime overgrowths formed during a younger event at 1304 ± 19 Ma. Several isolated grains of xenotime have 207Pb/206Pb ages in the range of 1.67 to 1.51 Ga, and thus are considered detrital in origin. Trace element data can distinguish Spar Lake xenotimes of different origins. Based on in situ SHRIMP analysis, detrital xenotime has heavy rare earth elements-enriched patterns similar to those of igneous xenotime, whereas xenotime overgrowths of inferred hydrothermal origin have hump-shaped (i.e., middle rare earth elements-enriched) patterns. The two ages of hydrothermal xenotime can be distinguished by slightly different rare earth elements patterns. In addition, 1409 Ma xenotime overgrowths have higher Eu and Gd contents than the 1304 Ma overgrowths. Most xenotime overgrowths from the Spar Lake deposit have elevated As concentrations, further suggesting a genetic relationship between the xenotime formation and Cu-Ag mineralization.

  15. Sand Dunes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Enright, Rachel

    Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

  16. THE SIMULATION OF WIND-BLOWN SAND MOVEMENT AND PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION OF LIFT-OFF VELOCITIES OF SAND GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately describing the probability density function (PDF) of lift-off or initial velocities of wind-blown sand ejecting from a sand bed is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of wind-blown sand movement. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of developing the PDF of lift-off veloc...

  17. Prediction of Bed Load Transport on Small Gravel-Bed Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates and size distributions of bed load were calculated using 3 transport relations and compared to data collected on three streams with sand-gravel beds in the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed in north central Mississippi, USA. Bed load transport rates were greatly over predicted by two of th...

  18. Numerical modeling of bed armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torok, Gergely; Baranya, Sandor; Ruther, Nils

    2013-04-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is introduced which is capable of reproducing the bed armoring process in rivers resulted by nonuniform bed material. The numerical flow model solves the 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-? turbulence model. The bed shear stress field is calculated over the study domain which serves as input data for the sediment transport model. The sediment transport model of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) has been implemented to solve the sorting of mixed-size sediments. In this model the effect of the sand content of the bed material on gravel transport rate is taken into account which contributes to a more appropriate description of sediment transport than in previous transport models. First, we carry out a model testing against the laboratory data of Yen and Lee (1995). The effects of different flood waves are investigated in a 180° channel bend with mixed-size sediments. We show a good agreement between measured and calculated bed changes, moreover, the horizontal distribution of median sediment sizes are also acceptably reproduced. Second, a simple numerical test channel is set up with a rectangular cross section and one single groyne. A bed material of two fractions (sand and gravel) is defined. The typical phases of the bed armoring phenomenon is studied modeling the bed material sorting mechanism during long-term bed forming steady-state conditions as well as the sudden reaction of the river bed to a flood event. We show that the calculated bed changes and the temporal changes of bed material composition indicate both the development and the break-up of the bed armor. The results suggest that the introduced numerical model is capable of simulating river morphodynamics of complex hydrological and sediment conditions and can be a suitable tool for river engineering studies where bed armoring plays an important role.

  19. Anomalous sand deposit associated with evidence of late Holocene uplift near Bremerton, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. E.; Maxcia, C.; Gerardi, F.; Bourgeois, J.

    2007-12-01

    The origins of a puzzling sand unit at the head of Sinclair Inlet likely include a Puget Sound tsunami and its return flow but may also include sand volcanoes, debris flows, or both.. The inlet, a branch of Puget Sound 22 km west of Seattle, contains at its head an intertidal mudflat that is fringed by partly urbanized tidal marshes and alder swamps. Cores and pits in these remnant wetlands reveal an abrupt upward change from tidal flats to freshwater forest that probably resulted from uplift during the Seattle fault earthquake of A.D. 900-930 or during slip of similar age on the Tacoma fault. The puzzling sand unit formed at or about the time of this uplift. The unit consists of silty fine sand commonly 1 m in thickess. It has a sharp contact with shelly mudflat deposits below and a sharp to gradational contact with overlying peat. The lower part of this peat contains the growth-position roots of western red cedar (Thuja placata), and the upper part forms the soil of modern salt marshes. We found the sand unit, 1.1 m thick in areas, along 0.5 km of the upper inlet's shoreline, beneath modern tidal marshes and alder swamps. The unit contains at least three parts: a basal subunit that fines upward from medium and coarse sand to fine sand and silt; a thin (less than 1 cm thick) clay bed, commonly with flame structures; and a capping subunit up to 50 cm thick that is dominated by silty fine to medium sand but which also contains pebbles derived from rock and glacial outwash. Preliminary diatom analysis shows the unit contains diatoms from a brackish environment. A possibly related sand unit lies 0.8 km inland, up the valley of Gorst Creek. Its thickness is in the range 0.2-1.0 m as observed thus far in creek banks and in pits at a nearby park. Unlike the sand that borders the inlet, it contains trough cross-bedding. We are investigating the relationship between this deposit and the silty sand deposit in the tide flats. Preliminary diatom analysis did not find any diatoms in this deposit.

  20. Sand Dunes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This outdoor activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how the amount of moisture in a sand dune relates to the number of plants growing there. Groups of learners will scout at least two locations in a sandy area, count the number and types of plants in contact with a 10 meter line, and then sample the moisture in the top 30 cm of sand in each location, graphing their results to analyze their data. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Sand Dunes.

  1. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  3. Seismites in continental sand sea deposits of the Late Cretaceous Caiuá Desert, Bauru Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; de Castro, Alice Bonatto; Basilici, Giorgio

    2007-07-01

    Two large-scale sediment deformation structures, minor fold occurrences in cross-bedded sand dune deposits and complex convolute folds, are observed in red sandstones, in a zone about 1.5 km long in floodway cuts at the Sérgio Motta/Porto Primavera dam, São Paulo state, Brazil. The most important structures are confined to planar zones, up to 10 m thick, in undeformed dune foreset strata were they can be traced laterally for about 50-60 m. The sandstones are part of the Rio Paraná Formation, Caiuá Group, which accumulated in a great sand sea of about 100,000 km 2. The Caiuá Desert developed during the Late Cretaceous in the southern part of the Bauru Basin, an intracontinental subsiding area in the central-southern part of the South-American Platform. The basin was filled by a sandy sequence about 300 m thick. The sand sea deposits correspond to the Caiuá Group and comprise: a) deposits of dry sand sheets (Santo Anastácio Formation), b) deposits of medium-sized dunes and humid interdunes of the sand sea peripheral zones (Goio Erê Formation), and c) deposits of large-sized complex aeolian dunes and draas, that correspond to the central part of the inland sand sea (Rio Paraná Formation). The deformations in the sediments are attributed to the effects of fluidization, liquefaction and shear stress, which are interpreted as being earthquake-induced structures, mainly because: (1) the deformed horizons are confined between undeformed cross-bedded strata, (2) the complex convolute folds sometimes include nappe-like structures that overlie foreset facies, (3) during the Bauru Basin infilling there was tectonic activity associated with alkaline volcanism on the borders of the basin and related silicification in the central-southern part. The main silicification zones are aligned to regional lineaments that cross the area near the large-scale sedimentary deformation structures.

  4. SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING ON SAND BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dewatering of water and wastewater treatment sludges was examined through mathematical modeling and experimental work. The various components of the research include: (1) chemical analyses of water treatment sludges, (2) drainage and drying studies of sludges, (3) a mathematical ...

  5. Sand Babies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    In this math lesson, learners explore and investigate measurement using standard and non-standard units. First, learners round their birth weight to the nearest pound and construct a bar graph displaying the weights of the entire group. Next, learners measure and place enough sand into a plastic bag to equal their birth weight. With construction paper, crayons and markers, they draw a head, arms, and legs and turn the bags into sand babies. At centers, learners also investigate other types of measurements using non-standard plastic links to measure parts of their body and square tiles to measure the area of a footprint.

  6. SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410

    E-print Network

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Chemiresistor Microsensors://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2003-3410 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Chemiresistor Microsensors

  7. SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799

    E-print Network

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Field Demonstrations://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2003-0799 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Field Demonstrations

  8. Beach Sand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about weathering, erosion, deposition, and landforms. It is designed to determine if students recognize that sand on a beach may have come from distant mountains and landforms as a result of the weathering of rock, subsequent erosion, and deposition.

  9. Sonic sands.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    Many desert sand dunes emit a loud sound with a characteristic tremolo around a well-defined frequency whenever sand is avalanching on their slip face. This phenomenon, called the 'song of dunes', has been successfully reproduced in the lab, on a smaller scale. In all cases, the spontaneous acoustic emission in air is due to a vibration of the sand, itself excited by a granular shear flow. This review presents a complete characterization of the phenomenon-frequency, amplitude, source shape, vibration modes, instability threshold-based on recent studies. The most prominent characteristics of acoustic propagation in weakly compressed granular media are then presented. Finally, this review describes the different mechanisms proposed to explain booming avalanches. Measurements performed to test these theories against data allow one to contrast explanations that must be rejected-sound resonating in a surface layer of the dune, for instance-with those that still need to be confirmed to reach a scientific consensus-amplification of guided elastic waves by friction, in particular. PMID:22790349

  10. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem. PMID:25577850

  11. A Comparison between Passive Regenerative and Active Fluidized Bed Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, M.; Schwaiger, K.; Holzleithner, F.; Eisl, R.

    2012-11-01

    Active Fluidized Bed Thermal Energy Storage (sandTES) offers a promising alternative to the current state of the art thermal energy storages (TES), such as active TES based on molten salt or passive TES (Regenerators) realised as a porous packing of ceramics. The characteristic of a sandTES system applying sand in an active TES using a fluidized bed heat exchanger (HEX) is explained. The exergetic performance of a sandTES is compared to a passive Regenerator.

  12. sand mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kova?evi?, Lazar; Terek, Pal; Mileti?, Aleksandar; Kakaš, Damir

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface (IHTC) was estimated by an iterative algorithm based on the function specification method. An Al-9 wt% Si alloy plate casting was made in a sand mold prepared by CO2 process. Thermal history obtained from the experiment was used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Acquired transient IHTC values are then given in function of the casting surface temperature at the interface. By comparing the obtained results with previous findings, the influence of grain fineness number and consequently of mold roughness on maximum IHTC values is revealed.

  13. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  14. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  15. Formation of Two-Dimensional Sand Ripples under Laminar Shear Flow Vincent Langlois and Alexandre Valance

    E-print Network

    Formation of Two-Dimensional Sand Ripples under Laminar Shear Flow Vincent Langlois and Alexandre 20 June 2005) The process of ripple formation on a two-dimensional sand bed sheared by a viscous fluid is investigated theoretically. The sand transport is described taking into account both the local

  16. Physica D 195 (2004) 207228 Blown by wind: nonlinear dynamics of aeolian sand ripples

    E-print Network

    Balmforth, Neil

    Physica D 195 (2004) 207­228 Blown by wind: nonlinear dynamics of aeolian sand ripples Hezi Yizhaqa continuum model is considered that describes the dynamics of two-dimensional aeolian sand ripples analysis using this model shows that a flat sand bed exposed to the action of wind is linearly unstable

  17. Intertidal sand body migration along a megatidal coast, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Intertidal sand body migration along a megatidal coast, Kachemak Bay, Alaska Peter N. Adams,1 the timing and magnitude of alongshore migration of intertidal sand bed forms over a cobble substrate during a 22-month observation period. Two separate sediment packages (sand bodies) of 1­2 m amplitude and $200

  18. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Parasites - Bed Bugs Parasites Home Share Compartir Bed Bugs FAQs On this Page What are bed bugs? ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  19. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium radioisotopes in 9 of the 12 samples (75 percent). The concentration of radium-224 exceeded that of radium-226 in five of the six (83 percent) samples when both were quantifiable. The radium concentration distribution differed by aquifer, with the highest Ra-228 concentrations present in the Englishtown aquifer system and the highest Ra-226 concentrations present in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Radium-224 generally contributed a considerable amount of gross alpha-particle activity to water produced from all the sampled aquifers, but was not the dominant radionuclide as it is in water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, nor were concentrations greater than 1 pCi/L of radium-224 widespread. Gross alpha-particle activity was found to exceed the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L in one sample (16 pCi/L) from the Vincentown aquifer. A greater part of the gross alpha-particle activity in water from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer resulted from the decay of Ra-226 than did the gross alpha-particle activity in the other sampled aquifers; this relation is consistent with the concentration distribution of the Ra-226 itself. Concentrations of radium-224 correlate strongly with those of both radium-226 and radium-228 (Spearman correlation coefficients, r, +0.86 and +0.66, respectively). The greatest concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were present in the most acidic ground water. All radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 concentrations greater than 2.5 pCi/L were present in ground-water samples with a pH less than 5.0. The presence of combined radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations greater than 5 pCi/L in samples from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Englishtown aquifer system was not nearly as common as in samples from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, likely because of the slightly higher pH of water from these aquifers relative to that of Kirkwood-Cohansey aqu

  20. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    PubMed

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  1. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  3. SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112

    E-print Network

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-0112 Unlimited Release Printed January 2003 Cold War Context Statement Sandia://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2003-0112 Unlimited Release Printed January 2003 Cold War Context Statement

  4. SAND REPORT SAND2002-4135

    E-print Network

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2002-4135 Unlimited Release Printed December 2002 FY02 Field Evaluations of an In://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2002-4135 Unlimited Release Printed December 2002 FY02 Field Evaluations

  5. The performance of pumice as a filter bed material under rapid filtration conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burhanettin Farizoglu; Alper Nuhoglu; Ergun Yildiz; Bulent Keskinler

    2003-01-01

    Deep bed sand filters are used extensively in drinking water and wastewater treatment. In this study, sand and pumice were used as a filtration media under rapid filtration conditions and performance results for both were compared. Turbidity removal performance and head losses were investigated as functions of filtration rate, bed depth and particle size. Under the same experimental conditions such

  6. Evolution of radiative sand ridge field of the South Yellow Sea and its sedimentary characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Wang; Dakui Zhu; Kunyuan You; Shaoming Pan; Xiaodong Zhu; Xinqing Zou; Yongzhan Zhang

    1999-01-01

    A sand ridge field of 22 470 km2 consists of fine sands and silts originally from the old Changjiang River sediment during the late Pleistocene period. Late\\u000a Holocene sand stratum with its well-preserved larmnary bedding of more clay particles reflects the influence from the Yellow\\u000a River. There are three genetic types of morphology of sand ridge field as follows: (i)

  7. Paleomagnetism of a lateritic paleoweathering horizon and overlying Paleoproterozoic red beds from South Africa: Implications for the Kaapvaal apparent polar wander path and a confirmation of atmospheric oxygen enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. A. D.; Beukes, N. J.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Olifantshoek Group in southern Africa contains Paleoproterozoic red beds that are exceptionally well preserved, lying unconformably atop a regionally extensive lateritic paleoweathering profile. We studied the basal unit of this succession, known as the Gamagara or Mapedi Formation, and the lateritized substrate (so-called "Drakenstein" or "Wolhaarkop" paleosol) on which it developed. Two ancient magnetic components are observed. One (INT), usually with a distributed unblocking spectrum between 300° and 600°C but occasionally persisting to >675°C, is directed shallowly southward or northward. A mesoscale fold test at South Sishen Mine indicates that this component was acquired during deformation; similarity of the direction to previous results suggests that it was acquired at ˜1240 Ma, during early Namaqua orogenesis. Combining our INT results with existing data from the Namaqua eastern zone (NEZ), we calculate the NEZ pole at (44.9°N, 021.5°E, K = 23.2, A95 = 12.8°, Q = 5). The most stable component from our data set (HIG), always persisting as a nonzero endpoint to demagnetization at >665°-680°C, is observed in 32 samples from South Sishen and Beeshoek Mines. Directed moderately east-downward (Sishen) or west-upward (Beeshoek), this component predates the mesoscale fold at Sishen. More importantly, a conglomerate test at Beeshoek indicates that HIG was acquired prior to Paleoproterozoic deposition of the Gamagara/Mapedi Formation. The concordance between directions from the paleoweathering zone and immediately overlying red beds indicates that HIG is a primary magnetic remanence for the basal Gamagara/Mapedi (BGM) Formation. The dual-polarity BGM paleomagnetic pole (02.2°N, 081.9°E, dp = 7.2°, dm = 11.5°, Q = 6) lies neatly between previous Kaapvaal poles with ages of ˜2220 (Ongeluk lavas) and 2060 Ma (Bushveld complex). Our data thus support recent correlations of the Gamagara/Mapedi Formation with pre-Bushveld sediments of the Pretoria Group. A pre-Bushveld age for BGM is also consistent with its substantial distance from a new, albeit less reliable, paleomagnetic pole from the ˜1930-Ma Hartley lavas, higher within the Olifantshoek succession (12.5°N, 332.8°E, K = 18.6, A95 = 16.0°, Q = 3). Our conglomerate test at Beeshoek confirms previous allegations that the intense hematitization observed in the Drakenstein-Wolhaarkop paleosol occurred during Paleoproterozoic weathering under a highly oxygenated atmosphere.

  8. Creating Sand Dunes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the formation and movement of sand dunes. Students will simulate the effects of wind using a hair dryer on bare sand, then add stones and grass to observe how the effects are changed. They should be able to explain how sand dunes are formed, what circumstances effect the movement or formation of sand dunes, and relate this information to soil conservation.

  9. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  10. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  11. Sand Castle Saturation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity about saturation (page 1 of PDF), learners will build a series of sand castle towers using a 16 oz cup. Learners begin with completely dry sand and then add a ¼ cup of water to the sand for each successive tower, each time measuring the height and width of the resulting sand mound until they make a tower that maintains the shape of the cup. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Sand Dunes.

  12. Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

  13. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye acid red 18: comparison of using two types of packing media.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    Two integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) were operated to evaluate decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Volcanic pumice stones and a type of plastic media made of polyethylene were used as packing media in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Decolorization of AR18 in both reactors followed first-order kinetic with respect to dye concentration. More than 63.7% and 71.3% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate (1N-4S), as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, performance of FB-SBBR2 in terms of COD removal as well as biodegradation of 1N-4S was significantly higher than that of FB-SBBR1. Spherical and rod shaped bacteria were the dominant species of bacteria in the biofilm grown on the pumice stones surfaces, while, the biofilm grown on surfaces of the polyethylene media had a fluffy structure. PMID:23138064

  14. Bed Sediment Characteristics in the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmundo C. Drago; Mario L. Amsler

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a granulometric characterization of the Paraná and Paraguay rivers bed sediments. Samples obtained along 2,900 km of the thalweg of those rivers form the basis of this study. The main results and other features of the study are as follows: a) the bed sediment of both rivers is composed mainly of medium to fine well-sorted sands, with

  15. Sand waves, bars, and wind-blown sands of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela and Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Perez-Hernandez, David

    1989-01-01

    During March 1982, a reconnaissance study was carried out along a reach of the Rio Orinoco between Puerto Ayacucho and Ciudad Bolivar. This was the low-flow season. Samples of bed material and suspended sediments were collected, sonic records of the bed were obtained at several locations, and the exposed bars and sand waves were studied at four locations. Sounding records were obtained at two of these locations during June and November when flow covered the bars, and additional studies were made on the ground at some of these same sites during March 1983. The bed of the river is mostly sand with small quantities, about 5 percent by weight on average, of gravel. Suspended- sediment concentrations were low, ranging between 20 milligrams per liter above Rio Apure to almost 40 milligrams per liter below its confluence with the Rio Orinoco. The annual sediment load is estimated to be 240x10 6 megagrams per year. During the dry season, 35 percent or more of the bed is exposed in the form of large bars composed of many sand waves. Trade winds blow upriver and there is substantial upriver transport of river sediments by the wind. If the bars contain very coarse sands and fine gravel, deflation forms a lag deposit that armors the bar surface and prevents further erosion. Theoretical calculations show that the lower limit for the fraction of the bed that needs to be covered with nonmoving particles to prevent further erosion and the smallest size of the armor particles depend only on wind speed. Calculations of bed-material transport were made for a typical wide and narrow section of the river; the annual load, excluding the wash load, is about 30 x 10 6 megagrams per year. A new definition for wash load is proposed; it is material that can be suspended as soon as its motion is initiated. For the Rio Orinoco, this is material finer than 0.1 millimeters.

  16. Wet Sand flows better than dry sand

    E-print Network

    Jorge E. Fiscina; Christian Wagner

    2007-11-19

    We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of dry sand. For the dissipative flow we propose a non-equilibrium state equation for granular fluids.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  18. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition, provenance and tectonic history of the sand dunes. Geochemical analysis indicated that most of sand dunes are quartz arenite type, except in the Red sea, basement related central Saudi Arabia and Najran areas, the sand dunes are sub-arkoses, sub-litharenite and litharenite. The concentration of major,trace and rare elements showed active continental margins as a tectonic setting of Red sea, basement related Najran and central Arabia sand dune. In contrast, passive continental margins for the other locations. The distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements showed similarity in chemical composition between basement related sand dunes in Red sea, Najran and central Arabia.

  19. Paleoenvironment and depositional environment of Miocene Olcese Sand, Bakersfield, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.C.

    1986-04-01

    The Olcese Sand near Bakersfield, California, contains evidence of a range of paleoenvironments including nonmarine, estuarine, and outer shelf depositional settings. Foraminifera from surface and subsurface samples place the Olcese in the Saucesian and Relizian of the California benthic stages. A pumice bed in the Olcese has been dated by fission track methods at 15.5 Ma. The Olcese Sand interfingers with the underlying Freeman Silt and the overlying Round Mountain Silt. In the type area, in Round Mountain oil field, the Olcese is 300-360 m thick. The Olcese is subdivided into three environmental facies. In the Knob Hill Quadrangle, the lower Olcese consists of (1) thinly bedded to blocky white tuffaceous silt and sand, or (2) planar cross-bedded fine to coarse-grained sand with pumice pebbles lining the bedding surfaces. Fossil mollusks and skate teeth indicate a shallow marine environment for the lower Olcese. Although the Olcese is predominantly a marine unit, the middle Olcese is nonmarine, with lenses of marine deposition. The middle Olcese is well exposed in the Knob Hill, Oil Center, and Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangles, and is characterized by fine to coarse sand with occasional gravel lenses, strong cross-bedding, and a blue-gray color. The upper Olcese is a very fine to medium-grained, marine sand that fines upward into a sandy siltstone southward toward the Kern River. Foraminifera and mollusks from outcrops in the Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangle indicate outer shelf to estuarine environments for the upper Olcese. The varying environments in the Olcese Sand reflect slight but frequent fluctuations in water depth and can be used to interpret the basin-margin history.

  20. Mineral Sands Down Under

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

  1. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND927005

    E-print Network

    CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND92­7005 Unlimited Release UC­261 Fatigue of Fiberglass Wind Turbine Blade . #12;Distribution CategoryUC-261 SAND92-7005 UnlimitedRelease PrintedAugust 1992 FATIGUE OF FIBERGLASS

  2. Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

  3. Lamination and laminated rhythmites in water-laid sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Erich Reineck; Friedrich Wunderlich

    1998-01-01

    Laminated sand and laminated rhythmites are produced by a variety of physical processes and are hence known from several specific\\u000a environments in association with a variety of structures and textures.\\u000a \\u000a Laminated sands associated with plane bed phases of the upper flow regime are mostly produced in shallow water environments\\u000a like rivers, ephemeral streams, tidal flats, channels and gullies, but have

  4. ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA R. W. Rust1, L. !\\1. Hanks collected from Sand !\\1ountain and Blow Sand Mountains, Nevada. Four species are considered new to science and none are considered endemic to ei ther dune area. Sand Mountain and Blow Sand Mountains were visited 19

  5. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     ... (MISR) captured these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the ... available at JPL March 10, 2004 - Dust and sand sweep the northeast region. project:  MISR ...

  6. Exploring Products: Nano Sand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  7. The Unified Gravel-Sand (TUGS) Model: Simulating the Transport of Gravel-Sand Mixtures in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.

    2006-12-01

    TUGS Model was developed by employing the surface-based bedload equation of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) and linking grain size distributions in the bedload, surface layer, and subsurface sediment deposit with the gravel transfer function of Hoey and Ferguson (1994) and Toro-Escobar et al. (1996), and a hypothetical sand transfer function. The unmodified model was applied to simulate the sedimentation process in Marmot Reservoir, Sandy River, Oregon and produced similar stratified sediment deposit as observed through coring exercises. The model was also examined with three runs of large-scale flume experiments conducted at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) by Seal et al. (1995). With a very minor modification to Wilcock and Crowe (2003) equation, the model excellently reproduced the longitudinal profiles, gravel grain size distributions and sand fractions in the deposits for all the three SAFL runs. Following its examination, TUGS model was applied to simulate the sediment transport dynamics in the Sandy River, Oregon under a few hypothetical scenarios, focusing on the dynamics of sand fractions in gravel-bedded channel deposits. Results of the exploratory runs on the Sandy River indicate that (a) surface and subsurface sand fractions generally increase in the downstream direction, similar to observed in the field; (b) sand fraction in the deposit is positively correlated with sand supply as expected; (c) extremely high sand supply under similar gravel supply and hydrologic conditions can transform the river into predominantly sand-bedded; (d) increased discharge under the same sand and gravel supply conditions results in decreased sand fraction in the deposit as expected; and (e) there can be significant increase in surface and subsurface sand fractions in the backwater zones near the mouth of the river as expected.

  8. Field assessment of alternative bed-load transport estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, G.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of near-bed sediment velocities with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) is an emerging approach for quantifying bed-load sediment fluxes in rivers. Previous investigations of the technique have relied on conventional physical bed-load sampling to provide reference transport information with which to validate the ADCP measurements. However, physical samples are subject to substantial errors, especially under field conditions in which surrogate methods are most needed. Comparisons between ADCP bed velocity measurements with bed-load transport rates estimated from bed-form migration rates in the lower Missouri River show a strong correlation between the two surrogate measures over a wide range of mild to moderately intense sediment transporting conditions. The correlation between the ADCP measurements and physical bed-load samples is comparatively poor, suggesting that physical bed-load sampling is ineffective for ground-truthing alternative techniques in large sand-bed rivers. Bed velocities measured in this study became more variable with increasing bed-form wavelength at higher shear stresses. Under these conditions, bed-form dimensions greatly exceed the region of the bed ensonified by the ADCP, and the magnitude of the acoustic measurements depends on instrument location with respect to bed-form crests and troughs. Alternative algorithms for estimating bed-load transport from paired longitudinal profiles of bed topography were evaluated. An algorithm based on the routing of local erosion and deposition volumes that eliminates the need to identify individual bed forms was found to give results similar to those of more conventional dune-tracking methods. This method is particularly useful in cases where complex bed-form morphology makes delineation of individual bed forms difficult. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  9. Aeolian Sand Transport with Collisional Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James T.; Pasini, Jose Miguel; Valance, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian transport is an important mechanism for the transport of sand on Earth and on Mars. Dust and sand storms are common occurrences on Mars and windblown sand is responsible for many of the observed surface features, such as dune fields. A better understanding of Aeolian transport could also lead to improvements in pneumatic conveying of materials to be mined for life support on the surface of the Moon and Mars. The usual view of aeolian sand transport is that for mild winds, saltation is the dominant mechanism, with particles in the bed being dislodged by the impact of other saltating particles, but without in-flight collisions. As the wind becomes stronger, turbulent suspension keeps the particles in the air, allowing much longer trajectories, with the corresponding increase in transport rate. We show here that an important regime exists between these two extremes: for strong winds, but before turbulent suspension becomes dominant, there is a regime in which in-flight collisions dominate over turbulence as a suspension mechanism, yielding transport rates much higher than those for saltation. The theory presented is based on granular kinetic theory, and includes both turbulent suspension and particle-particle collisions. The wind strengths for which the calculated transport rates are relevant are beyond the published strengths of current wind tunnel experiments, so these theoretical results are an invitation to do experiments in the strong-wind regime. In order to make a connection between the regime of saltation and the regime of collisional suspension, it is necessary to better understand the interaction between the bed and the particles that collide with it. This interaction depends on the agitation of the particles of the bed. In mild winds, collisions with the bed are relatively infrequent and the local disturbance associated with a collision can relax before the next nearby collision. However, as the wind speed increases, collision become more frequent and the agitation need not decay completely. In the regime of collisional suspension, the particles near the surface of the bed are assumed to be in a state of constant agitation. We indicate the conditions at the bed corresponding to the limits of saltation and collisional suspension and outline experiments, simulations, and modeling that have been undertaken to bridge these limits.

  10. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 ?m) and the other from a desert (d = 100 ?m), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (? = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  11. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    PubMed

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively. PMID:25236498

  12. Drying of solids in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, C.S.; Thomas, P.P.; Varma, Y.B.G. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying is advantageously adopted in industrial practice for drying of granular solids such as grains, fertilizers, chemicals, and minerals either for long shelf life or to facilitate further processing or handling. Solids are dried in batch and in continuous fluidized beds corresponding to cross-flow and countercurrent flow of phases covering a wide range in drying conditions. Materials that essentially dry with constant drying rate and then give a falling drying rate approximately linear with respect to solids moisture content (sand) as well as those with an extensive falling rate period with the subsequent falling rate being a curve with respect to the moisture content (mustard, ragi, poppy seeds) are chosen for the study. The performance of the continuous fluidized bed driers is compared with that of batch fluidized bed driers; the performance is predicted using batch kinetics, the residence time distribution of solids, and the contact efficiency between the phases.

  13. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  14. LONG TERM RECHARGE OF TRICKLING FILTER EFFLUENT INTO SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid infiltration of trickling filter effluent onto natural delta sand beds at the Lake George Village Sewage Treatment Plant has been shown to produce the equivalent of tertiary treatment to the domestic wastewater since 1939 with no indication of exhaustion of the purifica...

  15. Sand Sea Wonders: Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the geology of The Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve. Active links allow students to explore the geologic timeline, geologic cross section in animation, and the wind regime. A reversing dune is shown in animation and other dunes such as star, parabolic, barchan, and transverse are discussed. Another section illustrates sand recycling by seasonal streams. A sand deposits map shows topography, dunes watershed, old national monument boundary, roads, and surface water and a section called 'How Much Sand' quantifies the description. Artwork on this site includes both adult and 'Hands on the Land' student artwork while photography depicts dunes, landscape, animals, plants, and human history.

  16. Processing of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.O.

    1984-01-03

    The present invention relates to an improved process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands comprising first heating the raw tar sands with steam at a temperature sufficient to visbreak a portion of the bitumen without significant thermal cracking thereby producing a vaporous distillate product mixed with steam and lowering the viscosity and specific gravity of the residual bitumen on the heat treated tar sands. The distillate product and steam are cooled and condensed and mixed the heat treated tar sands containing residual beneficiated bitumen to form a slurry. Bitumen is then recovered from the slurry by a hot-water separation process.

  17. Motion of Waves in Shallow Water. Interaction between Waves and Sand Bottoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bagnold; Geoffrey Taylor

    1946-01-01

    The loss of energy of a travelling water wave, due to the mechanism of the formation of sand ripples and water vortices on a sandy bed, becomes of practical importance when models are used to predict full-scale foreshore movements. On the assumption that the bottom-water oscillation is nearly simply harmonic, the mechanism was studied by oscillating a section of bed

  18. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants

    E-print Network

    or signs of disease before bringing them into the greenhouse. Isolate or discard contaminated plants1 Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants Spring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring Greenhouse Bedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding Plants Purdue University Authors: Raymond A

  20. Aeolian sand transport: Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, A.; Ould Eld Moctar, A.; Dupont, P.; Cantat, I.; Jenkins, J.

    2010-05-01

    Experiments on aeolian sand transport were carried out in a wind tunnel at the University of Aarhus in Denmark for a wide range of wind speeds. The saltating particles were analyzed using imaging techniques (PIV and PTV). Vertical profiles of particle concentration and velocity were extracted. The particle concentration was found to decrease exponentially with the height above the bed and the characteristic decay height was independent of the wind speed (Creyssels et al., 2009). In contrast with the logarithmic profile of the wind speed, the particle velocity was found to vary linearly with the height. In addition, the particle slip velocity is finite and invariant with the wind speed. These results are shown to be closely related to the features of the splash function that characterizes the impact of the saltating particles onto a sand bed. A numerical simulation was developed that explicitly incorporates low velocity moments of the splash function in a calculation of the boundary conditions that apply at the bed (Creyssels et al., 2009). The overall features of the experimental measurements are well reproduced by the simulation. Reference: M. Creyssels, P. Dupont, A. Ould el Moctar, A. Valance, I. Cantat, J. T. Jenkins, J. M. Pasini and K. R. Rasmussen, J. Fluid Mech. 625, 47 (2009).

  1. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: Self-assembled sand towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Moreau, F.; Vandewalle, N.; Dorbolo, S.

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W.

  2. Dune-associated sand fluxes at the nearshore termination of a banner sand bank (Helwick Sands, Bristol Channel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thierry; Mitchell, Neil C.

    2014-03-01

    Sand dunes typically migrate in opposing directions along the two sides of sand banks, reflecting a circulation driven by tidal current asymmetry, but it has been less clear how this pattern is distorted where banks intersect the coastline. The nearshore end of Helwick Sands, a banner bank in the Bristol Channel, was surveyed three times over three years, twice with a high-resolution multibeam echo-sounder. In both multibeam surveys, an unusual geometry was found over the crest of the bank, whereby dunes connect continuously with the dunes on the flanks, despite the flank dunes migrating in opposite directions. The crestal dunes thus appear to realign rapidly. We suggest that this morphological behaviour arises here because of vigorous wave-driven transport and because surface waves propagate almost exactly parallel to the crestal dunes. Sand transported parallel to the crestal dunes ensures that efficient reconnection occurs with dunes migrating along the flanks, particularly at low tide when wave currents are more strongly felt at the bed.

  3. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  4. Fuels from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L.M.

    1986-03-01

    A general discussion of the tar sand resource in the US in presented. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with the development of synfuels are discussed. Predictions are made concerning the development of the tar sands resource in the US and Canada during the next 15 years.

  5. Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations

    E-print Network

    Kemp, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A commercial foundry has been established which makes extensive use of fluid beds in the production of heat treated alloy steel castings. The castings are cooled immediately after solidification by fluidizing the mold sand in which they were cast...

  6. Tar sands` asphaltic mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Akinrogunde, E.A. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained from the laboratory investigation aimed at determining the possibility of making asphaltic mixes of acceptable quality for road surfacing, from raw tar sands (as they occur in nature). The tar sand samples consist mainly of fine sand, water, and bitumen. Five different types of asphaltic mixes were produced from tar sands and superheated aggregates. On the basis of Marshall and indirect tensile (Brazilian) tests carried out on the produced asphaltic mixes, the investigation revealed that raw tar sands are good material for the production of asphaltic mixes. The results of the investigation also suggest that for a given mix set, there may be correlation between maximum value of Marshall stability and maximum indirect tensile strength.

  7. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid; Al-Juboury, Ali

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

  8. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

  9. Circulating Fluid Bed Combustor

    E-print Network

    Fraley, L. D.; Do, L. N.; Hsiao, K. H.

    1982-01-01

    The circulating bed combustor represents an alternative concept of burning coal in fluid bed technology, which offers distinct advantages over both the current conventional fluidized bed combustion system and the pulverized coal boilers equipped...

  10. Red Tide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Centers for Disease Control

    This CDC web page includes links to PDF or html formatted files containing information about Karenia brevis, a phytoplankton responsible for toxic red tide events. Links include information about red tide, what the CDC is doing about red tide, links to other red tide related sites, and publications about red tide.

  11. Collapsing granular beds: The role of interstitial air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Tess; Gjaltema, Christa; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-05-01

    A prefluidized sand bed consisting of fine particles compactifies when it is subjected to a shock. We observe that the response depends on both the shock strength and the ambient pressure, where, counterintuitively, at high ambient pressure the compaction is larger, which we connect to a decrease of the static friction inside the bed. We find that the interstitial air is trapped inside the bed during and long after compaction. We deduce this from measuring the pressure changes above and below the bed: The top pressure decreases abruptly, on the time scale of the compaction, whereas that below the bed slowly rises to a maximum. Subsequently, both gently relax to ambient values. We formulate a one-dimensional diffusion model that uses only the change in bed height and the ambient pressure as an input, and we show that it leads to a fully quantitative understanding of the measured pressure variations.

  12. Red clover

    MedlinePLUS

    Red clover is a plant. The flower tops are used to make medicine. Red clover is used for many conditions, but so ... lowering cholesterol or controlling hot flashes in women. Red clover is used for cancer prevention, indigestion, high ...

  13. Red Clover

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Clover Common Names: red clover, cow clover, meadow clover, wild clover Latin ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about red clover—common names, what the science says, potential ...

  14. Biomass gasification with air in a fluidized bed: Effect of the in-bed use of dolomite under different operation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Gil; Miguel A. Caballero; J. A. Martin; María-Pilar Aznar; José Corella

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a biomass gasifier, fluidized-bed type, is improved by in-bed use of calcined dolomite. Tar contents in the raw flue gas below 1 g\\/m{sub n}³ are obtained by using a bed with a percentage between 15 and 30 wt% of dolomite (the rest being silica sand). The work is carried out at small pilot-plant scale (10 kg of

  15. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  16. Barnacle-dominated limestone with giant cross-beds in a non-tropical, tide-swept, Pliocene forearc seaway, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Peter J. J.; Harmsen, Fraka J.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Boyle, Susan F.

    1988-11-01

    Pliocene, non-tropical, widespread and locally thick (up to 100 m) limestones occur in Hawke's Bay, eastern North Island, where they are intimately associated with very thick ( > 5 km), terrigenous-dominated, Neogene sequences that formed in a tectonically active convergent margin setting. The non-tropical character of the limestones is shown unequivocally by (1) the complete dominance of skeletal calcarenites and calcirudites, (2) the occurrence of oyster banks as the only in situ organic structures, (3) the dominance of barnacles, epifaunal molluscs, bryozoans, echinoderms, foraminifers, brachiopods and calcareous red algae as skeletal components, and (4) the preponderance of calcite over aragonite in the mineralogy of the skeletal grains and cements. The abundance of barnacle fragments in the limestones, and the related exclusive occurrence of only one major organic association, a barnacle-(epifaunal) bivalve-bryozoan assemblage, is striking and unusual given the extent of the limestones. Pecten and oyster valves acted as substrates for barnacle attachment, and their growth was promoted by strong tidal paleocurrents that swept the depositional setting: a long (450 km), narrow (30-50 km) forearc basin seaway, which formed between an actively deforming subduction complex to the east and an uplifting structural ridge to the west. Synsedimentary deformation promoted limestone formation on the margins of the seaway by creating current-swept, clastic-free submarine ridges that acted as the sites of carbonate production. Tidal flows dispersed the carbonate constituents and organised them into a wide spectrum of tide-influenced, cross-bedded and horizontal structures. Most spectacular are occurrences of giant tabular cross-beds, with sets 10-40 m thick and foreset dips of 7-36°, some interpreted as the deposits of major sand bars on carbonate deltas marginal to the mouths of saddles traversing the rising antiforms, and others analogous to modern linear sand ridges. The small- to large-scale planar and trough cross-beds, and the horizontal and lenticular beds that are invariably associated with the giant cross-beds and dominate most sections, represent mainly the deposits of sand waves and sand sheets at inner- to mid-shelf depths in the seaway.

  17. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  18. Evaluation of low-cost potting mixes for bedding plants and vegetable seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Thomas; M. R. Oates; M. I. Spurway

    1980-01-01

    Low-cost potting mixes containing sawdust, Nitrolime, and Floranid were evaluated as possible growing media for bedding plants and vegetable seedlings. Plants of all varieties grown in peat\\/sand media consistently performed better than those grown in peat\\/sand\\/sawdust. Nitrogen immobilisation in the sawdust-based medium was probably the reason for the reduced growth. The peat\\/sand\\/Osmocote combination was significantly better than any other medium\\/fertiliser

  19. Sand, Plants and Pants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-04

    In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger material’s properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

  20. The Flow of Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yersel, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration of the flow of sand through an orifice at the bottom of a sandbox. Advocates the experiment's use with dimensional analysis for students in an introductory physics course. (WRM)

  1. Hydraulic Fracturing Sand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

  2. Sand boils without earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Clark, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

  3. Sand on the Move

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Institute (USGS), gives a brief description of how sand dunes form. It describes how dunes will develop over time by repeating the processes of erosion, transportation, and deposition.

  4. Magic Sand Movie

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This document from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) is intended to be used with the other materials in the "magic sand" series of classroom lessons, which are available here. This resource is a 4 minute video demonstrating the magic sand experiment. In this experiment, students "will explore how the properties of a substance at the molecular level affects the way that it reacts and behaves."

  5. Sand Grain Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a magnifier to carefully examine samples of sand from different locations. They record their observations regarding the different grain characteristics to formulate their own explanations of where the sand came from, why the grains are jagged or smooth, and how they may have been sorted. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

  6. Offshore sand for reinforced concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. S. Dias; G. A. P. S. N. Seneviratne; S. M. A. Nanayakkara

    2008-01-01

    A figure of 0.075% by weight of sand was arrived at as a safe limit for allowable Cl? ion content in offshore sand for OPC based reinforced concrete. A 2m high sand column was fabricated for checking the effects of natural drainage and simulated rain on the chloride levels in offshore sand, and the action of even 80mm of rain

  7. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  8. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  9. Effect of Bedding Material on Flies, and Behavior and Innate Immunity of Calves Reared in Hutches.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy calf hutches are often bedded with straw (STR), but sand (SND) and wood shavings (SHV) are becoming more common. The objective was to compare 3 beddings for presence of flies and measures of innate immunity and behavior of calves. Hutches were blocked by location and each of 3 hutches in a blo...

  10. Effect of Bedding Material on Performance, Health, and Hide Contamination of Calves Reared in Hutches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy calf hutches are often bedded with straw (STR), but sand (SND) and wood shavings (SHV) are becoming more common. This study compared 3 different beddings for growth and health of calves and microbial presence on their hides. Hutches were blocked by location and each of 3 hutches in a block w...

  11. Sedimentology and depositional environment of the Touchet Beds, Walla Walla River Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1980-06-01

    The study provides more detailed information, quantitative as well as qualitative, on the sedimentary structure, grain size distribution, and mineralogy in the Touchet Beds. In addition, an attempt is made to reconstruct the environment of deposition based on the sedimentological data. The Touchet Beds are restricted to the slack-water environments of the Columbia Plateau where water accumulated in backflooded valleys associated with Pleistocene catastrophic flooding. Grain size analysis reveals Touchet Beds, also referred to as rhythmites, to be fine-skewed, leptokurtic, graded mixtures of silt and sand. Lower beds in Touchet Bed cyclic sequences often contain coarser flood gravel and sand. Sorting within rhythmites generally decreases upward with the grain size. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the foreign non-basalt fraction in Touchet Beds was transported from areas north and east of the Columbia Plateau, consistent with the inferred flood directions.

  12. RBF modeling of Incipient Motion of Plane Sand Bed Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gopu Sreenivasulu; Bimlesh Kumar; Achanta Ramakrishna Rao

    2008-01-01

    To define or predict incipient motion in an alluvial channel, most of the investigators use a standard or modified form of Shields' diagram. Shields' diagram does give a process to determine the incipient motion parameters but an iterative one. To design properly (without iteration), one should have another equation for resistance. Absence of a universal resistance equation also magnifies the

  13. Sand-box experiment to investigate incremental and finite strain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Graham Andrews, California State University at Bakersfield

    100 level students, in groups of 3-6, are provided with small sand-boxes fitted with a single moving end. Each box is filled with different colored layers of sand, grit, and ploymer grains to simulate bedding. Students progressivley shorten the layered section and record various parameters at each stage. Students then plot this data graphically and report back on the evolution of the structure (usually a fold), including it's geometry, scale, orientation, etc. This exercise is designed to encourage patient, careful analogue experimentation and data-recording; a successful exercise is assessed by detailed records and integration of different parameters towards a narrative of the deformation.

  14. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Origin of hysteresis in bed form response to unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2013-03-01

    Field and laboratory studies indicate that changes in riverbed morphology often lag changes in water discharge. This lagged response produces hysteresis in the relationship between water discharge and bed form geometry. To understand these phenomena, we performed flume experiments to observe the response of a sand bed to step increases and decreases in water discharge. For an abrupt rise in discharge, we observed that bed forms grew rapidly by collision and merger of bed forms migrating with different celerities. Growth rate slowed as bed forms approached equilibrium with the higher discharge regime. After an abrupt discharge drop, bed form decay occurred through formation of smaller secondary bed forms, in equilibrium with the lower discharge, which cannibalized the original, relict features. We present a simple model framework to quantitatively predict time scales of bed form adjustment to flow changes, based on equilibrium bed form heights, lengths, and celerities at low and high flows. For rising discharge, the model assumes that all bed form collisions result in irreversible merger, due to a dispersion of initial celerities. For falling discharge, we derive a diffusion model for the decay of relict high-stage features. Our models predict the form and time scale of experimental bed form adjustments. Additional experiments applying slow and fast triangular flood waves show that bed form hysteresis occurs only when the time scale of flow change is faster than the modeled (and measured) bed form adjustment time. We show that our predicted adjustment time scales can also be used to predict the occurrence of bed form hysteresis in natural floods.

  16. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples

    E-print Network

    Orencio Duran; Philippe Claudin; Bruno Andreotti

    2014-11-07

    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement towards the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by mid-air collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport.

  17. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples.

    PubMed

    Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873

  18. Sediment flux in the gravel-sand transition of the Fraser River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Venditti, J. G.; Allison, M. A.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment transport conditions in the gravel-sand transition of the Fraser River, Canada, are examined using field data collected during the falling limb of a spring freshet in June 2007. The gravel-sand transition in the Fraser River is abrupt, defined by a 12 km reach where supply-limited bedforms migrate over a gravelly bed before evolving to channel-spanning dunes that mark the beginning of the sandy reach. Field measurements were obtained at a flow of ~9,000 m3 s1, immediately following a high peak flow of 11,800 m3 s1. Suspended sand concentrations were measured over the supply-limited bedforms, as well as farther downstream in the sand-bedded reach using a point-integrated water sampler. The data indicate that sand concentrations are 2-4X greater in the sand-bed reach, suggesting that local bed composition strongly influences sand concentration of the overlying water column. Suspended sand flux, calculated by coupling flow velocities (acquired using an acoustic Doppler profiler) with measured sediment concentrations, is also spatially variable, increasing by nearly a factor of two from the transitional reach to the sand-bed reach (47,000 T/day to 87,000 T/day). Bedform sediment flux, calculated using multibeam data that defines dune size and translation rate, increases by four-fold from the area of supply-limited bedforms to the downstream sand reach (1500 T/day to 6200 T/day). Field measurements and numerical models are combined to explore the transport conditions associated with this gravel-sand transition. Bedload transport formulae are used to estimate values of skin-friction stress from measured bedform transport rates. The Rouse concentration profile for suspended sediment is fit to river data in order to estimate the transporting shear velocities. We find that the skin-friction stress is relatively uniform over the transitional reach (0.4-1.6 N m-2), indicating that the spatial imbalance in both suspended and bedload sand flux is likely associated with sediment hysteresis, whereby sands are effectively “mined” or removed from the gravel reach during the rising limb and peak of the freshet hydrograph and transported downstream.

  19. A sand budget for Marble Canyon, Arizona: implications for long-term monitoring of sand storage change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey research is providing important insights into how best to monitor changes in the amount of tributary-derived sand stored on the bed of the Colorado River and in eddies in Marble Canyon, Arizona. Before the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams upstream, sandbars in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons were replenished each year by sediment-rich floods. Sand input into the Colorado River is crucial to protecting endangered native fish, animals, and plants and cultural and recreational resources along the river in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park.

  20. Biomass gasification: Produced gas upgrading by in-bed use of dolomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Olivares; María P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero; Javier Gil; E. Frances; José Corella

    1997-01-01

    When some calcined dolomite (OCa·OMg) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. In-bed dolomite changes the product distribution at the gasifier exit because of in-situ catalytic reactions promoted by the calcined dolomite. Gasifying with steam-Oâ mixtures

  1. Petrographic, stratigraphic, and structural study of the Smackover gray sand (Jurassic) in north Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Miciotto, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-producing gray sand, a dark gray to black, very fine-grained sand, occurs as 3 sand tongues in the lower member of the Smackover Formation in the subsurface of Bossier, Webster, Claiborne, and Lincoln parishes, Louisiana. A Flaser-bedded silty shale facies indicates deposition on a mid-tidal flat environment. Smackover deposition during the Jurassic in the study area was located on the gently dipping slope between a broad coastal shelf to the north and a basin to the south. The gray sand was deposited over the Norphlet formation and Louann salt before flowage and swelling of the Louann salt began. Uplift and swelling of the Louann salt later in the Jurassic created growing anticlines; sediment slumped off the structural highs of the growing salt anticlines into basinal muds and silts. The Smackover gray sand continues to challenge exploration geologists because of the lateral pinch out of its sand tongues. 11 references.

  2. Effects of stratification in a fluidized bed bioreactor during treatment of metalworking wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Schreyer, H.B.; Coughlin, R.W. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-04-20

    During wastewater treatment, biofilm-coated sand particles stratified in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB); particles coated by thicker biofilm segregated toward the top of the bed. Stratification was so well developed that at least two co-existing regions of significantly different mean biofilm thickness were visually distinct within the operating FBB. The observed stratification is attributed to differences in forces of drag, buoyancy, shear, and collisional impact, as well as differences of collision rate within the different regions. Particles with thick biofilm near the top of the bed consumed substrate at significantly lower rates per unit biomass than particles with thin biofilm near the bottom of the bed, thereby suggesting that substrate mass-transfer resistance through biofilm may limit biodegradation rates in the upper portion of the FBB. Large agglomerates of biomass floc and sand, which formed at the top of the fluidized bed, and sand particles with thick biofilm were susceptible to washout from the FBB, causing operational and treatment instability. Radial injection of supplemental liquid feed near the top of the bed increased shear and mixing, thereby preventing formation and washout of agglomerates and thickly coated sand particles. Supplemental liquid injection caused the mean specific biomass loading on the sand to increase and also increased the total biomass inventory in the FBB. Rates of biodegradation in the FBB appeared to be limited by penetration of substrates into the biofilm and absorption of oxygen from air into the wastewater.

  3. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    SciTech Connect

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  4. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Sound-Producing Sand Avalanches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bretz, Michael

    This site presents an analysis of the theories and experiments done so far on sound-producing (e.g., roaring, booming) sand avalanches. Several reference articles are cited, and a link to the summary of an article, "Booming Sand", in Scientific American volume 277, number 3, is provided. An on site version of another article, "Sound Producing Sand Avalanches", in Contemporary Physics, volume 38, number 5, is also presented in three different formats: PDF, HTML, and Postscript Preprint.The other main features of this site are sound recordings of booming sand, compressed squeaking sand, and croaking sand, as well as, and images and micrographs of booming dunes.

  6. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  7. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

  8. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePLUS

    Red birthmarks are skin markings created by blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. They ... There are two main categories of birthmarks. Red birthmarks are made ... vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas in which ...

  9. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  10. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Generation of tidal bedding in a circular flume experiment: formation process and preservation potential of mud drapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Sato; Keisuke Taniguchi; Tomohiro Takagawa; Fujio Masuda

    2011-01-01

    Flume experiments aimed to produce flaser bedding were conducted using fine sand and clay in a circular flume. The formation\\u000a process of mud drapes during the slack-water stage was revealed in detail. When the tidal current declines, a uniform mobile\\u000a mud layer initially settles from suspension and drapes the entire rippled sand bed (type A mud). When the remaining flow

  12. Sand Hill Rd. Junipero Serra

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    Alpine 280 101 Campus Drive Sand Hill Rd. University Palm StockFarm Junipero Serra Page Mill Oregon Floor, South Wing right next to Peet's Coffee. Directions from 280 North or South - Exit Sand Hill Rd

  13. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  14. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  15. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  16. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast ... the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium erythraeum , found in the sea turn reddish-brown when ...

  17. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this concentration. Opportunities for improvement with the fluidized bed include improving reproducibility among replicates, increasing mass recovery, improving the lid gasket seal.

  18. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  19. A Multiphase First Order Model for Non-Equilibrium Sand Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation

    E-print Network

    Preziosi, Luigi; Bruno, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three phenomena are involved in sand movement: erosion, wind transport, and sedimentation. This paper presents a comprehensive easy-to-use multiphase model that include all three aspects with a particular attention to situations in which erosion due to wind shear and sedimentation due to gravity are not in equilibrium. The interest is related to the fact that these are the situations leading to a change of profile of the sand bed.

  20. Heavy Oil and Oil (Tar) Sands in North America: An Overview & Summary of Contributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances J. Hein

    2006-01-01

    As conventional oil and gas reservoirs become depleted other unconventional energy sources have to be recovered and produced.\\u000a Four of the major unconventional resources that are strategic for North American interests are heavy oil, oil sands, oil shales,\\u000a and coal-bed methane. Recent interest and activity in Canada’s vast oil sands are progressing rapidly as soaring oil prices\\u000a are fueling a

  1. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Introduction Sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus,

    E-print Network

    67(4) 9 Introduction Sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus, is a common nearshore pleuronectid flat- fish in the northeast Pacific Ocean.Also known as fringe sole, spotted flounder, or sand flounder catches (Kramer et al., 1995). Commercial landings of sand sole in California, Oregon, and Wash- ington

  3. Thermal Recovery From Tar Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Carrigy

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the progress made in developing improved technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands, it is logical to assume that as the world's supply of light and heavy oil is depleted, production of synthetic oil from the bitumen resources in tar sands will accelerate. As most of the known deposits of tar sands were discovered by

  4. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS. The study using sand columns has allowed simultaneous comparison, on the same profile, of biomass content twice as long as the flooding period. The sand depth will depend on the plant's overall water quality

  5. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  6. Bitumen recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Hupka, J.

    1984-09-11

    A process for recovering bitumen from tar sands wherein the tar sands are pretreated with a diluent, such as kerosene in the preferred embodiment, to lower the viscosity of the bitumen such that it is in the range of about 5 to about 20 poise at the digestion temperature. The tar sands are then digested at a temperature in the range of about 45/sup 0/ C. to about 60/sup 0/ C. and at a pH of about 7.8 to about 8.6. The tar sands are then transferred to a flotation cell where the bitumen-rich concentrate is separated from the sand.

  7. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  8. The last glacial stratigraphic sequence, depositional environment and climatic fluctuations from the aeolian sand dune in Hongguang, Pengze, Jiangxi (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Liu; Xihao, Wu; Shaoquan, Li; Mingshu, Zhang

    The Hongguang sand hill is located along the south bank of the Yangtze River in Pengze County, Jiangxi Province, China, rising more than 50 m above the ground. It consists of aeolian sand beds interbedded with 11 relatively thin palaeosols. The aeolian sand beds include dune-deposited cross-stratified sand beds and interdune-deposited horizontally-stratified sand beds, both being well sorted. The 11 palaeosols are numbered as Z 1 to Z 11 from bottom to top in chronological order. Among them, 10 palaeosols (Z 2 to Z 11) are dark brown soils while Z 1 includes black to very dark grey lenses of peaty soil, which change laterally into dark brown soil. A hierarchy of bounding surfaces, as summarized by Kocurek (1988), can be recognized in the sand hill — including super surfaces (namely palaeosols), first- and third-order bounding surfaces. The formation of palaeosols represents hiatuses between aeolian sand depositions and suggests a climatic change from arid to more humid conditions. 14C dates show that the sequence from Z 1 to Z 7 was formed between about 26,000 and 20,000 BP, indicating that each cycle from the aeolian sands to palaeosol, that is, each arid-to-humid climatic shift, spent an average term of about 1000 a. Analysis of sedimentary features of the sand hill shows that the aeolian sand grains were mainly from the Palaeo-Yangtze River, which was probably an intermittent river during the dune development. Discussion is also made on the possible palaeoclimatic linkage between the Hongguang area and the North Atlantic region during the last glaciation.

  9. Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscle Informal Science Education Network

    2014-06-18

    This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

  10. Moving sand dunes

    E-print Network

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  11. Sand Sieve Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, John

    John R. Anderson of Georgia Perimeter College has authored this lab experiment on grain size sorting in which students learn about performing a sieve analysis of sand and produce various graphs to represent the data collected. Included are equations for making the graphs and basic information on the importance of sieve analysis and the four useful statistical measurements used to make the graphs. This is a great resource to either the creation or enhancement of an instructors curriculum on this topic.

  12. Simulation on hydraulic scale model of sand and silt transport in the lower Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S. [Hydropower and River Engineering, Le Beausset (France); Laukhuff, R.L. Jr. [Louisiana Hydroelectric, Vidalia, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Since many years river sediment transport of sand and silt has been successfully reproduced on scale models by using light density materials. Compared to geometric distortion of the model scales where the secondary currents are not correctly reproduced, the sediment density distortion enables a more precise simulation of total sediment transport process (bed load and suspended load). The paper discussed among other model studies carried out with light density material the model study of the old River Control outflow channel improvement and bank stabilization studies using a 1 to 100 scale physical model. Some of the aspects of the channel bed and bank evolution could not have been simulated if the model bed material behaved always as bed load. Because in a river or channel carrying sand and silt, depending on the flow turbulence the same material at times my represent the bed load and at another time the suspended load. On a scale model only certain type of light density material is capable of such representation. Various model studies to date enables us to confirm that, 1 to 100 scale model using treated sawdust of given grain size distribution and specific weight, reproduces correctly the river sand and silt transport in the Old River Control area of the Lower Mississippi River. The paper also discusses the use of a midget echosounder system for quick and precise hydroelectric survey of the model bed and bank morphology variations and evaluation of scour and deposit volumes after running a given flood hydrograph.

  13. Combustion of hydrogen in a bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.; Bulewicz, E.M.; Zukowski, W. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31 - 155 Krakow (Poland); Kandefer, S.; Pilawska, M. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31 - 155 Krakow (Poland); Hayhurst, A.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    The combustion of hydrogen in a hot, bubbling bed of quartz sand fluidized by air has been studied for the first time, by injecting hydrogen just above the distributor, via six horizontal fine tubes of Cr/Ni. Overall the fluidizing gas was oxygen-rich, with the composition varying from nearly stoichiometric to very lean mixtures. With the bed initially fluidized at room temperature, combustion (after ignition by a pilot flame) occurs in a premixed flame sitting on top of the bed. When the sand warms up, combustion becomes explosive in bubbles leaving the bed, exactly as with a hydrocarbon as fuel. However, in contrast to hydrocarbons, it is clear that when the bed reaches 500-600 C, heat is produced both above the top of the bed (because of H{sub 2} bypassing the bed) and very low down in the bed. In fact, with hydrogen as fuel, the location of where bubbles ignite descends abruptly to low in the sand; furthermore, the descent occurs at {proportional_to}500 C, which is {proportional_to}100 K below the ignition temperature predicted by well-established kinetic models. However, the kinetic models do reproduce the observations, if it is assumed that the Cr/Ni hypodermic tubes, through which the fuel was injected, exert a catalytic effect, producing free H atoms, which then give rise to HO{sub 2} radicals. In this situation, kinetic modeling indicates that bubbles ignite when they become sufficiently large and few enough to have a lifetime (i.e. the interval between their collisions) longer than the ignition delay for the temperature of the sand. The amounts of NO found in the off-gases were at a maximum (24 ppm), when the bed was at {proportional_to}500 C for {lambda}=[O{sub 2}]/[O{sub 2}]{sub stoich}=1.05. The variations of [NO] with [air]/[H{sub 2}] and also temperature indicate that NO is produced, at least partly, via the intermediate N{sub 2}H. In addition, the air-afterglow emission of green light (from NO+O{yields}NO{sub 2}+h{nu}) was observed in the freeboard, indicating the presence there of both NO and free atoms of oxygen for 1.05<{lambda}<1.1. (author)

  14. Bed form initiation from a flat sand bed Jeremy G. Venditti1,2

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    -shaped forms that migrate independently of the initial pattern. The chevrons eventually align to form incipient by Anderson [1953], perturbation theory involves the linearization of the equations of motion of both fluid

  15. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  16. Multiple dust sources in the Sahara Desert: The importance of sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, Onn; Schepanski, Kerstin; Amit, Rivka; Gillespie, Alan R.; Enzel, Yehouda

    2012-07-01

    We determine the current sources of dust in the Sahara Desert using quantitative correlation between the number of days with dust storms (NDS), derived from remote-sensing data of high temporal resolution, with the distribution of the soil types and geomorphic units. During 2006-8 the source of over 90% of the NDS was found to be sand dunes, leptosols, calcisols, arenosols, and rock debris. In contrast to previous studies, only few dust storms originated from playas and dry lake beds. Land erodibility was estimated by regressing the NDS to the number of days with high-speed wind events, and was found to be high for sand dunes. Clay and fine-silt grains and aggregates are scarce in sand dunes, which most likely produce dust particles through aeolian abrasion of sand grains. Thus, saltating sand grains impacting clay aggregates on playa surfaces cannot be the sole process for generating dust in the Sahara.

  17. Map showing high-purity silica sand of Middle Ordovician age in the Midwestern states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith B.

    1979-01-01

    Certain quartz sands of Middle Ordovician age in the Midwestern States are well known for their purity and are exploited for a wide variety of industrial uses. The principal Middle Ordovician formations containing high-purity sands are the St. Peter Sandstone which crops out extensively from Minnesota to Arkansas; the Everton Formation principally of Arkansas; and the Oil Creek, McLish, and Tulip Creek Formations (all of the Simpson Group) of Oklahoma. The St. Peter and sandy beds in the other formations are commonly called "sandstones," but a more appropriate term is "sands" for in most fresh exposures they are completely uncemented or very weakly cemented. On exposure to air, uncemented sands usually become "case hardened" where evaporating ground water precipitates mineral matter at the surface; but this is a surficial effect. This report summarizes the available information on the extent of exposures, range of grain size, and chemical composition of the Middle Ordovician sands.

  18. CADMIUM EFFECTS ON THE NITROGEN FIXATION SYSTEM OF RED ALDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red alder (Alnus rubra) was grown in sand culture in the greenhouse to obtain data on the effects of cadmium (Cd) on a symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation system which contributes to the fertility of forest soils. Treatment of red alder seedlings for 11 weeks with 0.545 to 136 microm...

  19. Magnetization carriers and remagnetization of bedded chert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Hori, Rie S.; Kodama, Kazuto

    2011-05-01

    Bedded chert is the only sediment type representative of the Paleozoic to early Mesozoic pelagic marine environment. Because of their association with ophiolites and island arc rocks, presence of datable microfossils and paleohorizontal reference provided by well-developed bedding surfaces, bedded chert sequences are often targeted for paleomagnetic tectonic studies. However, processes of magnetization acquisition in biosiliceous sediments, and consequently, the significance of their magnetic record, are not well understood. Our rock magnetic study of a Triassic-Jurassic radiolarian chert sequence, the Mino Terrane, Central Japan, shows that the ferrimagnetic assemblage of the gray chert units is of detrital origin, while the red chert's assemblage is dominated by authigenic phases - pigmentary hematite and biogenic magnetite - which contribute to the natural remanent magnetization. The presence of magnetofossils places red oxic chert in the category of prospective environmental archives. Magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria were apparently able to tolerate elevated concentrations of dissolved silica as well as a steep redox gradient in sedimentary pore-waters during the deposition of red chert layers. A strong uniaxial anisotropy due to chain-alignment of the biogenic magnetite grains likely contributes to the acquisition of anomalously stable partial thermoviscous magnetization by chert even at low metamorphic temperatures.

  20. Model of Fluidized Bed Containing Reacting Solids and Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Lathouwers, Danny

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for describing the thermofluid dynamics of a dense, chemically reacting mixture of solid particles and gases. As used here, "dense" signifies having a large volume fraction of particles, as for example in a bubbling fluidized bed. The model is intended especially for application to fluidized beds that contain mixtures of carrier gases, biomass undergoing pyrolysis, and sand. So far, the design of fluidized beds and other gas/solid industrial processing equipment has been based on empirical correlations derived from laboratory- and pilot-scale units. The present mathematical model is a product of continuing efforts to develop a computational capability for optimizing the designs of fluidized beds and related equipment on the basis of first principles. Such a capability could eliminate the need for expensive, time-consuming predesign testing.

  1. Red Rock Crab in Puget Sound

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Red Rock Crab (Romaleon antennarium) captured in a beach seine during a 2012 Bainbridge Island larval forage fish survey.  This survey focused on the abundance, habitat use, and food habits of larval forage fish (surf smelt and sand lance) and was conducted by scientists from...

  2. Operation Characteristics in a Fluidized Bed Gasifier with Triple-beds and Dual Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Asai, Minoru; Suzuki, Yoshizo

    A new type of circulating fluidized bed gasifier was proposed. The main features of this proposed gasifier are the adoption of a triple-beds structure (comprising pyrolyzer, gasifier, and combustor), the separation of a circulation path for tar-absorbing material and that for the fuel and silica sand. Independent circulation systems are employed for the fuel system and for the tar-absorbing particles, and the pyrolyzer and gasifier each have a two-stage fluidized bed: the lower stage is for the fuel system and the upper stage is for the tar-absorbing system. The two circulation systems each have an independent combustor. This new gasifier is called “a fluidized bed gasifier with triple-beds and dual circulation”. The objectives of this work are to clarify the operation characteristics by using a laboratory-scale cold model. As a result, the stable circulation of the particle in upper and lower stages was able to be verified. Additionally, a wide range of the particle circulation rate, which contains the target value, was obtained. The particle circulation rate can be arranged by pressure drop of riser.

  3. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  4. Plume persistence caused by back diffusion from thin clay layers in a sand aquifer following TCE source-zone hydraulic isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth L. Parker; Steven W. Chapman; Martin A. Guilbeault

    2008-01-01

    This paper concludes that back diffusion from one or a few thin clayey beds in a sand aquifer can cause contaminant persistence above MCLs in a sand aquifer long after the source zone initially causing the plume is isolated or removed. This conclusion is based on an intensive case study of a TCE contaminated site in Florida, with the processes

  5. Bed and Breakfast Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Yon Lee; Johnny Sue Reynolds; Lisa R. Kennon

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of marketing strategies and the perceived success of these strategies by bed and breakfast owners\\/operators. In order to identify marketing strategies involved in operating bed and breakfasts, a descriptive study was conducted. The sampling frame included the 1,140 bed and breakfast owners\\/operators listed in the Texas Hotel Occupancy Tax Accounts

  6. Role of Vision and Mechanoreception in Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages. PMID:25748041

  7. Role of Vision and Mechanoreception in Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. Behavior.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages. PMID:25748041

  8. Instabilities in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Sankaran

    This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of the origin and hierarchy of organized flow structures in fluidized beds, distinction between bubbling and nonbubbling systems, and stages of bubble evolution. Experimental data and theory suggest that, at high particle concentrations, the particle-phase pressure arising from flow-induced velocity fluctuations decreases with increasing concentration of particles. This, in turn, implies that nonhydrodynamic stresses must be present to impart stability to a uniformly fluidized bed at very high particle concentrations. There is ample evidence to support an argument that, in commonly encountered gas-fluidized beds, yield stresses associated with enduring particle networks are present in the window of stable bed expansion, where the particles are essentially immobile until bubbling commences. However, some recent data on gas-fluidized beds of agglomerates of cohesive particles suggest that there exists a window of bed expansion where the bed does manifest a smooth appearance to the naked eye and the particles are mobile; at higher gas velocities the bed bubbles visibly. The mechanics of such beds remain to be fully explained.

  9. Red Tides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Communications Directorate, Department of Fisheries and Oceans

    This comprehensive website answers questions such as: what is red tide, where are they found, why do they occur, how do they affect marine organisms, how do they affect humans, how are shellfish tested for the toxin, and what is being done to remediate the red tide problem. The site features color pictures and black and white maps.

  10. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

  11. Imperial Sand Dunes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bureau of Land Management presents the current news, projects, and the geologic and cultural history of the Imperial Sand Dunes at this website. Users can easily search through an abundance of remarkable images of dunes as well as other Californian landscapes. The website offers links to the current rules, regulations, and management plans. Individuals, who will be traveling to the area, can find the weather forecast, an events calendar, and information on volunteering. Visitors can locate archives of Federal Register Notices as well as news releases.

  12. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  13. Channel Morphology Response to Selective Wood Removals in a Sand-Laden Wisconsin Trout Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua D. Dumke; Thomas R. Hrabik; Valerie J. Brady; Karen B. Gran; Ronald R. Regal; Michael J. Seider

    2010-01-01

    Large sand bed loads in trout stream headwaters can limit salmonid spawning habitat and reproductive success. This phenomenon has been observed in many northern Wisconsin watersheds, where historic logging practices are the likely source of the sediment loading. Presently, sediment transport is limited by abundant woody debris, causing channels to aggrade and bury gravels. We evaluated the impacts of a

  14. Water Research 38 (2004) 4760 Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreactors

    E-print Network

    2003; accepted 12 September 2003 Abstract The treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater; Fixed-bed reactor; Groundwater; Perchlorate; Sand 1. Introduction The large-scale contamination of many spectrometry/mass spectrometry [5,6]. New technologies are needed in water treatment plants to remove

  15. Sand fly control in Kenya with residual pesticide application on HESCO barriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US military operations in hot-arid regions still face significant impacts from mosquito and sand fly vectors of diseases. Personal protective measures (PPM) such as DEET or treated bed nets and clothing can reduce contact with disease vectors and nuisance insects; however, irregular use of PPM coupl...

  16. Sand Bedforms and Sand Suspension on the Grays Harbor Ebb-Tidal Delta, Washington, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Sherwood, C. R.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2001-12-01

    Changes in sand bedforms and near-bed suspended-sand concentrations were observed for a range of wave and current forcing during an interval of beach accretion at Ocean Shores, near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington. The measurements were made just outside the breaker zone (9-m water depth) on the inner portion of the ebb-tidal delta in May and June, 2001, in conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey sediment-transport experiment. A snapshot of bottom topography was obtained every two hours using sector scanning and profiling rotary sidescan sonars, providing direct measurements of physical bed roughness and spatial variations of roughness over an area within a 3-4 m radius of the instruments. Hourly burst measurements of pressure and current velocity were used to estimate directional wave statistics and bottom shear stress. Suspended sediment was observed with both optical backscatter and acoustic backscatter instruments. Suspended-sand concentration measurement systems were cross-calibrated, and the size-dependent differences in instrument response were used to infer changes in size distribution of suspended sediment. The bedform sizes and patterns generally follow the sequence of bedforms described by Clifton (H. E. Clifton, 1976, "Wave-formed sedimentary structures: a conceptual model" pp. 126-148 in Beach and Nearshore Sedimentation, SEPM Spec. Pub. 24, edited by R. A. Davis, Jr. and R. L. Ethington) for bedforms in the nearshore, but there are differences associated with overall beach slope and the depth of these observations. Correlations among bedforms, shear stresses, and suspended-sand concentrations provide insight into the mechanisms of sand suspension on the shoreface and inner shelf that can be used to improve sediment resuspension and transport models.

  17. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  18. Submarine sand volcanos: experiments and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, P.; Ngoma, J.; Delenne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fluid overpressure at the bottom of a soil layer may generate fracturation in preferential paths for a cohesive material. But the case of sandy soils is rather different: a significant internal flow is allowed within the material and can potentially induce hydro-mechanical instabilities whose most common example is fluidization. Many works have been devoted to fluidization but very few have the issue of initiation and development of a fluidized zone inside a granular bed, prior entire fluidization of the medium. In this contribution, we report experimental results and numerical simulations on a model system of immersed sand volcanos generated by a localized upward spring of liquid, injected at constant flow-rate at the bottom of a granular layer. Such a localized state of fluidization is relevant for some industrial processes (spouted bed, maintenance of navigable waterways,…) and for several geological issues (kimberlite volcano conduits, fluid venting, oil recovery in sandy soil, More precisely, what is presented here is a comparison between experiments, carried out by direct visualization throughout the medium, and numerical simulations, based on DEM modelling of the grains coupled to resolution of NS equations in the liquid phase (LBM). There is a very good agreement between the experimental phenomenology and the simulation results. When the flow-rate is increased, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not extend to the top of the layer, and finally fluidization over the entire height of layer that creates a fluidized chimney. A very strong hysteretic effect is present here with an extended range of stability for fluidized cavities when flow-rate is decreased back. This can be interpreted in terms force chains and arches. The influences of grain diameter, layer height and injection width are studied and interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh [1]. Finally, growing rate of the fluidized zone and possible coupling between two distinct injection orifices are also discussed.

  19. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  20. Modeling a dynamically varying mixed sediment bed with erosion, deposition, bioturbation, consolidation, and armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Lawrence P.

    2008-10-01

    Erosion and deposition of bottom sediments reflect a continual, dynamic adjustment between the fluid forces applied to a sediment bed and the condition of the bed itself. Erosion of fine and mixed sediment beds depends on their composition, their vertical structure, their disturbance/recovery history, and the biota that inhabit them. This paper presents a new one-dimensional (1D), multi-layer sediment bed model for simulating erosion and deposition of fine and mixed sediments subject to consolidation, armoring, and bioturbation. The distinguishing characteristics of this model are a greatly simplified first-order relaxation treatment for consolidation, a mud erosion formulation that adapts to both Type I and II erosion behavior and is based directly on observations, a continuous deposition formulation for mud that can mimic exclusive erosion and deposition behavior, and straightforward inclusion of bioturbation effects. Very good agreement with two laboratory data sets on consolidation effects is achieved by adjusting only the first-order consolidation rate r c. Full model simulations of three idealized cases based on upper Chesapeake Bay, USA observations are presented. In the mud only case, fluid stresses match mud critical stresses at maximum erosion. A consolidation lag results in higher suspended sediment concentrations after erosional events. Erosion occurs only during accelerating currents and deposition does not occur until just before slack water. In the mixed mud and sand case without bioturbation, distinct layers of high and low sand content form and mud suspension is strongly limited by sand armoring. In the mixed mud and sand case with bioturbation, suspended mud concentrations are greater than or equal to either of the other cases. Low surface critical stresses are mixed down into the bed, constrained by the tendency to return towards equilibrium. Sand layers and the potential for armoring of the bed develop briefly, but mix rapidly. This model offers a relatively simple and robust tool for simulating the complex interactions that can affect muddy and mixed sediment bed erodibility.

  1. Transient response of sand bedforms to changes in flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Lowland rivers commonly experience discharge variability spanning more than an order of magnitude, producing correspondingly large changes in bed morphology. However, field and lab studies indicate that bedform geometries lag changes in flow, producing hysteretic relationships between bed morphology, roughness, and water discharge. The ability of bedforms to maintain equilibrium with hydrodynamic flow variability thus depends on the timescale of transient bedform adjustment to flow. Here, we present results of flume experiments carried out at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, in which we continuously tracked adjustment of sand bedform morphologies to abrupt changes in water discharge. We show how the timescale of bedform adjustment is driven by three primary factors: 1. directionality of adjustment, 2. preexisting bedform geometry, and 3. sediment flux. Directionality of adjustment (rising versus falling water discharge) determines whether bedforms grow quickly by irreversible merger (rising flows) or shrink slowly through secondary bedform cannibalization of relict larger bedforms (falling flows). Preexisting bedform geometry (height and length) determines the amount of bed deformation required for adjustment to new equilibrium, and sediment flux determines the rate at which this change is affected. These three factors all favor faster adjustment of bedforms to rising flows. We experimentally demonstrate this bedform adjustment hysteresis through a variety of increasing and decreasing discharge changes, across both sand ripple and dune regimes. Finally, we propose and validate a simple conceptual model for estimating the adjustment timescale based on sediment flux and equilibrium bedform geometry.

  2. Sediment transport and mixing depth on a coral reef sand apron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Concejo, Ana; Harris, Daniel L.; Power, Hannah E.; Shannon, Amelia M.; Webster, Jody M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of sediment transport on a subtidal sand apron located on a coral reef environment. In this environment 100% of the sediment is carbonate bioclasts generated in situ. The sand apron is located on the back reef and only affected by waves during high tides. It is commonly accepted in the literature that sand aprons are features that prograde lagoonwards and that most of the progradation occurs during high-energy events. Measurements of water depths, waves, currents and near bed suspended sediment concentrations (all at 10 Hz) on the sand apron were undertaken over a nine day intensive field campaign over both spring and neap tides; waves and tides were also measured in the lagoon. The topography and bathymetry of the sand apron were measured and mixing depth was obtained on three transects using depth of disturbance rods. We found that sediment transport on sand aprons is not solely restricted to high-energy events but occurs on a daily basis during spring tides. The main factor controlling the sediment transport was the water depth above the bed, with depths of 2-2.3 m allowing waves to promote the most sediment transport. This corresponds to a depth over the reef crest of 1.6-1.9 m. The second most important control was waves; transport was observed when Hs on the apron was 0.1 m or greater. In contrast, current magnitude was not a controlling mechanism for sediment entrainment but did affect sediment transport. The morphology of the sand apron was shown to affect the direction of currents with the currents also expected to influence the morphology of the sand apron. The currents measured during this field campaign were aligned with a shallow channel in the sand apron. Mixing depths were small (< 2.5 cm) yet they were larger than the values predicted by empirical formulae for gentle siliciclastic ocean beaches.

  3. CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kamiuto; Ermalina; K. Ihara

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds consisting of MS-13X or MS-4A were determined from breakthrough curves for various CO2-N2 mixtures, and the fitness of the Dubinin-Astakhov equation (Dubinin MM, Astakhov VA. Description of adsorption equilibria of vapors on zeolite over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. In: Flanigen M, Sand LB, editors. Molecular sieves zeolite II. Washington:

  4. CO 2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kamiuto; Ermalina; K. Ihara

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds consisting of MS-13X or MS-4A were determined from breakthrough curves for various CO2–N2 mixtures, and the fitness of the Dubinin–Astakhov equation (Dubinin MM, Astakhov VA. Description of adsorption equilibria of vapors on zeolite over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. In: Flanigen M, Sand LB, editors. Molecular sieves zeolite II. Washington:

  5. Carbonate eolianites, quartz sands, and Quaternary sea-level cycles, Western Australia: A chronostratigraphic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Hearty; Michael J. O’Leary

    2008-01-01

    Marine and eolian carbonate deposits, grouped under the name “Tamala Limestone”, have been investigated along thousands of kilometers of coastal Western Australia (WA). Relative-age diagenetic features of carbonate sand dunes or “eolianites” indicate that coastal ridges decrease in age seaward, reflecting coastal accretion during successive sea-level stands. Yellow- to red-stained quartz sands are associated with eolianites as pits, lenses, extensive

  6. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the upper Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.; McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thalweg disposal experiments have been conducted at three sites on the upper Mississippi River. During normal channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye prior to disposal as a pile in the thalweg. In postdisposal surveys surficial bottom sediment samples were collected in the disposal area and in the thalweg and border areas downstream to determine the movement of the dredged sand relative to environmentally sensitive river habitats. The experiments were initiated in successive years, and the tagged sand has been tracked for 1 to 3 years, depending on the site. Although the downstream movement of the dredged sand was not the same at each site, the general pattern of behavior was similar. Downstream movement was confined primarily to the main channel and occurred in response to periods of high river discharge. There was no statistically significant evidence of dredged sand dispersing out of the main channel into nearby border areas or sloughs. The distributions of dyed sand in cores from one site suggest that the dredged sand has been incorporated into natural bed forms. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Hospital red bag waste: an assessment and management recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marrack

    1988-01-01

    Chlorinated plastics (PVC) accounted for 9.4 percent of the weight of red bag, supposedly infectious, waste from two community 150- and 98-bed hospitals. The hydrochloric acid, dioxins and furans generated during the burning of this red bag waste are important air pollutants. In this waste, PVC provides much of the organic chloride for the dioxins and furans generated. Their concentrations

  8. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  9. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  10. Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR INVESTIGATING PHYSICAL MODELS OF FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. CATCHEN; D. E. HUGHES; A. K. KULKARNI; K. M. ROSS; W. R. AMMERMAN

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the application of neutron radiography to the study of a two-phase medium, and the resulting technique can be extended to the study of two-phase flow in a fluidized bed. Neutron radiography allows the nonintrusive visualization of a sand\\/air bed enclosed in aluminum walls. This capability exceeds what others have been able to observe using

  12. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    E-print Network

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  13. Tanning Bed Perception Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mcquinn, Donna; Lohse, Christine; Hassani, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was intended to investigate the perception of tanning bed use among college students. Design: A 15-question survey was given to young adults regarding tanning perceptions. Setting: Rochester Community College in Rochester, Minnesota. Participants: Forty-four respondents between 18 and 51 years of age. Measurements: Data was collected via a self-reported questionnaire. Results: In this study, 50 percent of participants were not educated on the risks of melanoma, and 68 percent were not interested in receiving information on melanoma and completing a follow-up survey. More specifically, 63 percent versus 89 percent of participants with no tanning bed versus some tanning bed use did not want information regarding melanoma, respectively. This study also shows that more tanning bed users believe tanning helps prevent burning than non-tanning bed users. Fifty-seven percent of the 35 participants who had never used a tanning bed thought that they never prevent sunburn, while only 11 percent of the nine participants who had used a tanning bed in the past thought that they never prevent sunburn, which was statistically significant.

  14. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Unchanging Desert Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhiraju, S.; Banerjee, B.; Buddhiraju, K.; Shah, V.

    2013-12-01

    Deserts are one of the major landforms on earth. They occupy nearly 20% of the total land area but are relatively less studied. With the rise in human population, desert regions are being gradually occupied for settlement posing a management challenge to the concerned authorities. Unrestrained erosion is generally a feature of bare dunes. Stabilized dunes, on the other hand, do not undergo major changes in textures, and can thus facilitate the growth of vegetation. Keeping in view of the above factors, better mapping and monitoring of deserts and particularly of sand dunes is needed. Mapping dunes using field instruments is very arduous and they generate relatively sparse data. In this communication, we present a method of clustering and monitoring sand dunes through imagery captured by remote sensing sensors. Initially Radon spectrum of an area is obtained by decomposition of the image into various projections sampled at finer angular directions. Statistical features such as mode, entropy and standard deviation of Radon spectrum are used in delineation and clustering of regions with different dune orientations. These clustered boundaries are used to detect if there are any changes occurring in the dune regions. In the experiment's, remote sensing data covering various dune regions of the world are observed for possible changes in dune orientations. In all the cases, it is seen that there are no major changes in desert dune orientations. While these findings have implications for understanding of dune geomorphology and changes occurring in dune directions, they also highlight the importance of a wider study of dunes and their evolution both at regional and global scales. Results for Dataset 1 & Dataset 2 Results for Dataset 3

  16. Modeling bed material transport through colonial-age mill dam impoundments, northern Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two hundred -year old colonial mill dam impoundments of the White Clay and Red Clay Creeks in northern Delaware are barely 20% 'filled' with sediment. Field evidence suggests that gravel-sized bed material supplied from upstream is able to pass through these impoundments, implying that the impoundment morphology has reached an equilibrium morphology controlled by the prevailing hydraulic regime. We assess this hypothesis using backwater modeling to compute local boundary shear stresses and the Wilcock-Crowe sediment transport equation to determine bed material transport rates in a representative impoundment with a ~ 2 m high dam and a 1.5 km-long impoundment. While previous conceptual models suggest that cobbles could only be transported through impoundments during catastrophic storm events or after impoundments had completely filled, our analysis demonstrates that transport rates of cobbles during the 2 year flow are significant. Even smaller discharges can be effective: the 0.5 year discharge moves coarse-grained bed material (11.2 - 32 mm) at moderate rates outside the impoundment and at low rates within the impoundment, suggesting net accumulation. Larger flows (5-25 year) transport material at similar rates both outside and within the impoundment. Averaged over time, this regime would keep the bed of the stream in quasi-equilibrium, with lower flows filling the impoundment and higher flows removing the accumulated sediment. This behavior is reminiscent of the response and recovery cycle described for quasi-equilibrium stream channels, suggesting that these impounded channels behave as graded streams with a reduced slope rather than as stagnant quasi-lacustrine systems incapable of transporting the sediment supplied from upstream. The current morphology (only 20% filled by sand and gravel) may not have existed in the past. Cores from floodplains adjacent to the impoundments reveal deposits of laminated mud suggesting a former fine-grained impoundment fill that has subsequently been eroded. Changes in land use and spillway operation have likely altered the discharge regime, sediment supply, and hydraulics of the impoundment, creating a different impoundment morphology. Our study suggests that the morphology of impoundment streams adjusts through time to achieve a quasi-equilibrium morphology controlled by the prevailing sediment supply and hydraulic regime.

  17. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    PubMed

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ?45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. PMID:25446789

  18. Comment on "Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes"

    E-print Network

    B. Andreotti; L. Bonneau; E. Clement

    2007-10-30

    We show here that the standard physical model used by Vriend et al. to analyse seismograph data, namely a non-dispersive bulk propagation, does not apply to the surface layer of sand dunes. According to several experimental, theoretical and field results, the only possible propagation of sound waves in a dry sand bed under gravity is through an infinite, yet discrete, number of dispersive surface modes. Besides, we present a series of evidences, most of which have already been published in the literature, that the frequency of booming avalanches is not controlled by any resonance as argued in this article. In particular, plotting the data provided by Vriend et al. as a table, it turns out that they do not present any correlation between the booming frequency and their estimate of the resonant frequency.

  19. Measuring bed load discharge in rivers: bedload-surrogate monitoring workshop Minneapolis, Minnesota, 11-14 April 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The International Bedload-Surrogate Monitoring Workshop (http://www.nced.umn.edu/BRIC_2007.html), organized by the Bedload Research International Cooperative (BRIC; www.bedloadresearch.org), was held to assess and abet progress in continuous, semiautomated, or fully automated (surrogate) technologies for monitoring bed load discharge in gravel-, sand-, and mixed gravel-sand-bedded rivers. Direct bed load measurements, particularly at medium and high flows, during which most bed load occurs, tend to be time-consuming, expensive, and potentially hazardous. Surrogate technologies developed largely over the past decade and used at a number of research sites around the world show considerable promise toward providing relatively dense, robust, and quantifiably reliable bed load data sets. However, information on the efficacy of selected technologies for use in monitoring programs is needed, as is identification of the ways and means for bringing the most promising and practical of the technologies to fruition.

  20. Near-shore sand thickness and stratigraphy mapping with a submerged GPR antenna system; southeast Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Sauck, W.A.; Seng, D.L. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one shore perpendicular profiles, spaced at nominal 5 km intervals, have been surveyed with a bottom-sled mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) antenna system between Benton Harbor, MI, and Gary, IN. Either a commercial 500 MHz or a custom 145 MHz antenna were used. The bottom sled also carried an upward looking SONAR transducer to give concurrent water depth, and was towed from the beach out to water depths of 6 meters or more, usually ending about 500 meters from shore. Bedding structures and details are clearly visible on the GPR sections within the sand bars and sand blankets. Bottom morphology and the nature of the sand bodies change markedly from the NE to the SW limits of the survey area. At the NE profiles there are multiple, pronounced (or high amplitude) offshore bars, with the substrate (glacial clay, shale, or silty sand) exposed or nearly exposed between bars. Internal structure is generally foreset or cross bedding in the bars. Sand was thin or missing immediately to the Sw of several other jetty structures in addition to the one at St. Joseph. In general the sand bars became much less pronounced to the SW, and internal structures were dominated by parallel bedding and subtle angular unconformities. Near St. Joseph, the exposed substrate is almost certainly being eroded, even to water depths as great as 6 meters. Thus, the equilibrium bottom profile continues to deepen shoreward, causing the continued threat of bluff erosion in spite of annual beach nourishment efforts at this site.

  1. Moving-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  2. Surviving Bed Rest

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for your health and the health of your baby, you'll be restricted to bed rest. Even ... procedure indicate a medical complication or if your baby's growth is determined to be poor. Common pregnancy ...

  3. Aeolian processes over gravel beds: Field wind tunnel simulation and its application atop the Mogao Grottoes, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weimin; Tan, Lihai; Zhang, Guobin; Qiu, Fei; Zhan, Hongtao

    2014-12-01

    The aeolian processes of erosion, transport and deposition are threatening the Mogao Grottoes, a world culture heritage site. A field wind tunnel experiment was conducted atop the Mogao Grottoes using weighing sensors to quantify aeolian processes over protective gravel beds. Results reveal that aeolian erosion and deposition over gravel beds are basically influenced by gravel coverage and wind speed. Erosion is a main aeolian process over gravel beds and its strength level is mainly determined by gravel coverage: strong (<30%), medium (30-50%) and slight (>50%). Aeolian deposition only occurs when gravel coverage is equal to or greater than 30% and wind speeds are between 8 and 12 m s-1, and this process continues until the occurrence of the equilibrium coverage. In addition, the change in conditions of external sand supply affects the transition between aeolian deposition and erosion over gravel beds, and the quantity of sand transport at the height of 0-24 mm is an important indicator of aeolian deposition and erosion over gravel beds. Our results also demonstrate that making the best use of wind regime atop the Mogao Grottoes and constructing an artificial gobi surface in staggered arrays, with 30% coverage and 30-mm-high gravels and in 40 mm spacing can trap westerly invading sand flow and enable the stronger easterly wind to return the deposited sand on the gravel surface back to the Mingsha Mountain so as to minimize the damage of the blown sand flux to the Mogao Grottoes.

  4. Erosion of a granular bed driven by laminar fluid flow

    E-print Network

    A. E. Lobkovsky; A. V. Orpe; R. Molloy; A. Kudrolli; D. H. Rothman

    2008-05-01

    Motivated by examples of erosive incision of channels in sand, we investigate the motion of individual grains in a granular bed driven by a laminar fluid to give us new insights into the relationship between hydrodynamic stress and surface granular flow. A closed cell of rectangular cross-section is partially filled with glass beads and a constant fluid flux $Q$ flows through the cell. The refractive indices of the fluid and the glass beads are matched and the cell is illuminated with a laser sheet, allowing us to image individual beads. The bed erodes to a rest height $h_r$ which depends on $Q$. The Shields threshold criterion assumes that the non-dimensional ratio $\\theta$ of the viscous stress on the bed to the hydrostatic pressure difference across a grain is sufficient to predict the granular flux. Furthermore, the Shields criterion states that the granular flux is non-zero only for $\\theta >\\theta_c$. We find that the Shields criterion describes the observed relationship $h_r \\propto Q^{1/2}$ when the bed height is offset by approximately half a grain diameter. Introducing this offset in the estimation of $\\theta$ yields a collapse of the measured Einstein number $q^*$ to a power-law function of $\\theta - \\theta_c$ with exponent $1.75 \\pm 0.25$. The dynamics of the bed height relaxation are well described by the power law relationship between the granular flux and the bed stress.

  5. Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the volume of the balloon. These sandbox experiments can be compared to natural calderas and help us understand their internal structure. The second experiment helps us understand how magma behaves during collapse. For this experiment we allowed dense cylindrical blocks to sink into syrup solutions filled with poppy seeds. We mix the syrup with warm water to reduce its viscosity. A series of sinking experiments can be done at different viscosities to investigate different regimes of fluid flow. A key parameter used to the character of the flow of magma is the Reynolds number, the ratio between inertial and viscous forces. The experiments show how the Reynolds number of the magma affects the speed and the style that the block sinks, and also how the magma behaves in the chamber. Fast subsidence in low viscosity fluid (high Reynolds numbers) produces seed vortices in the syrup, indicating mixing. This experiment helps us understand the interplay between eruption and collapse and why mixed magma frequently erupts from calderas. These two simple experiments not only demonstrate caldera formation, but also can be used to get quantative information about the processes governing caldera formation.

  6. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  7. Electromechanics of packed granular beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    Strong, electrical, interparticle forces are induced by applied electric fields within packed beds of dielectric particles. Proposed applications utilizing electropacked beds (EPBs) or electrofluidized beds (EFBs) include air filtration and gas clean-up, fine particle separation, commercial drying and coating processes, heat and mass transfer, and bulk bed control. A new distributed circuit model of the electrical interparticle force is presented

  8. Particulate fuel bed tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, F. L.; Powell, J. R.; Savino, J. M.

    Gas-cooled reactors using packed beds of small-diameter, coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. To test the thermal-hydraulic performance of the particulate reactor fuel under simulated reactor conditions, a bed of 800-micrometer diameter particles was heated by its electrical resistance current and cooled by flowing helium gas. The specific resistance of the bed composed of pyrocarbon-coated particles was measured at several temperatures, and found to be 0.09 ohm-cm at 1273 K and 0.06 ohm-cm at 1600 K. The maximum bed power density reached was 1500 W/cu cm at 1500 K. The pressure drop followed the packed-bed correlation, typically 100,000 Pa/cm. The various frit materials used to contain the bed were also tested to 2000 K in helium and hydrogen to determine their properties and reactions with the fuel. Rhenium metal, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide appeared to be the best candidate materials, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost mass and strength.

  9. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  10. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  11. Biomass gasification with air in a fluidized bed: Effect of the in-bed use of dolomite under different operation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, J.; Caballero, M.A.; Martin, J.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Corella, J.

    1999-11-01

    The performance of a biomass gasifier, fluidized-bed type, is improved by in-bed use of calcined dolomite. Tar contents in the raw flue gas below 1 g/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained by using a bed with a percentage between 15 and 30 wt% of dolomite (the rest being silica sand). The work is carried out at small pilot-plant scale (10 kg of biomass/h) with equivalence ratios (ER) between 0.20 and 0.35 and temperatures of 800--840 C in the gasifier bed. To replace the eroded and elutriated dolomite (from the gasifier bed), an amount of dolomite (0.40--0.63 mm) is continuously fed, mixed with the biomass at 3 wt%. When the results obtained with in-bed dolomite are compared to the ones gained in a gasifier bed without dolomite, change of the following variables is reported: gas composition and its corresponding heating value, gas and char yields, apparent thermal efficiency, and tar contents. Once the usefulness of the in-bed use of dolomite is established, three main operation variables (ER and temperature of the gasifier bed and freeboard) are studied in the improved gasifier. Carryover of solids from the gasifier also increases when calcined dolomite is used because of its softness. Elutriation rate constants are calculated for several operational parameters.

  12. Sound-producing sand avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtz, Paul; Bretz, Michael; Nori, Franco

    1997-05-01

    Sound-producing sand grains constitute one of nature's more puzzling and least understood physical phenomena. They occur naturally in two distinct types: booming and squeaking sands. Although both varieties of sand produce unexpectedly pure acoustic emissions when sheared, they differ in their frequency range and duration of emission, as well as the environment in which they tend to be found. Large-scale slumping events on dry booming dunes can produce acoustic emissions that can be heard up to 10 km away and which resemble hums, moans, drums, thunder, foghorns or the drone of low-flying propeller aircraft. These analogies emphasize the uniqueness of the phenomenon and the clarity of the produced sound. Although reports of these sands have existed in the literature for over one thousand years, a satisfactory explanation for either type of acoustic emission is still unavailable.

  13. Red Clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  14. Formation of aeolian ripples and sand sorting

    E-print Network

    Edgar Manukyan; Leonid Prigozhin

    2008-12-09

    We present a continuous model capable of demonstrating some salient features of aeolian sand ripples: the realistic asymmetric ripple shape, coarsening of ripple field at the nonlinear stage of ripple growth, saturation of ripple growth for homogeneous sand, typical size segregation of sand and formation of armoring layers of coarse particles on ripple crests and windward slopes if sand is inhomogeneous.

  15. Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu

    E-print Network

    Bridson, Robert

    Animating Sand as a Fluid by Yongning Zhu B.Sc., Peking University, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED;Abstract My thesis presents a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes of sand, we abstract away the individual grains and think of the sand

  16. Continuum saltation model for sand dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Sauermann; Klaus Kroy; Hans J. Herrmann

    2001-01-01

    We derive a phenomenological continuum saltation model for aeolian sand transport that can serve as an efficient tool for geomorphological applications. The coupled differential equations for the average density and velocity of sand in the saltation layer reproduce both the known equilibrium relations for the sand flux and the time evolution of the sand flux as predicted by microscopic saltation

  17. EVALUATION OF ANAEROBIC, EXPANDED-BED CONTRACTORS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anaerobic expanded-bed contactors for treating dilute municipal wastes were evaluated. A 334-liter diatomaceous earth, a 334 liter granular activated carbon, a set of two 66-liter sand, and two 3-liter diatomaceous earth reactor systems were used. For the most part the feed w...

  18. Bursting phenomenon and incipient motion of solid particles in bed-load transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sechet; B. Le Guennec

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation aiming at understanding the interaction between near-wall coherent structures (or burst) and bedload transport in an open channel flow. This experiment associates Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements of the instantaneous velocity near the wall with real time measurement of sand particle trajectories on the smooth bed of a hydraulic flume.

  19. Drying Beds. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    Provided in this lesson is introductory material on sand and surfaced sludge drying beds. Typical construction and operation, proper maintenance, and safety procedures are considered. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a description of the lesson, estimated presentation time,…

  20. Controls on the composition of fluvial sands from a tropical weathering environment: sands of the Orinoco River drainage basin, Venezuela and Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, M.J.; Stallard, R.F.; Lundberg, N.

    1991-01-01

    On the alluvial plains of the western Llanos, storage of orogenically derived sediment allows time for substantial chemical weathering. Through reworking of the alluvial sequences, freshly eroded sediment is exchanged for older, compositionally more mature material. The chemically weathered component increases as rivers cross the Llanos, resulting in an increase in overall compositional maturity of bed-load sand away from the orogenic terranes. -from Authors

  1. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  2. Dust and Sand Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 November 2003

    The bright and dark tones observed in this THEMIS image of part of an unnamed impact crater (85 km in diameter) near the larger impact crater Schiaparelli are due to variable amounts of bright dust and dark sand covering the surface. Wind Shadows observed around small impact craters at the top of the image and small grooves and ripple-like marks observed throughout the scene illustrate dynamic and continued aeolian processes on Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 10.9 East (349.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. The Bed & Breakfast Channel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With this site, founders Eric and Liz Goldreyer provide travelers with "comprehensive, user-friendly, up-to-date information on bed and breakfasts and inns" via the Internet. The primary focus is on providing access to bed and breakfast listings in North America (over 20,000), although there is also a growing collection of listings from around the world. In the Quick Search, users may search for accommodations by city, state or country. Users who don't have a specific destination in mind, can browse geographically with the World Search. Basic entries include the name, address, and phone number, as well as a link to a city map. Bed and breakfast owners may include additional information, photos, or a link to their own web site, for a fee.

  4. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  5. Sewage plume in a sand and gravel aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.

    1984-01-01

    Secondarily treated domestic sewage has been disposed of on surface sand beds at the sewage treatment facility at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts, since 1936. Infiltration of the sewage through the sand beds into the underlying unconfined sand and gravel aquifer has resulted in a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water that is 2,500 to 3,500 feet wide, 75 feet thick, and more than 11,000 feet long. The plume extends south and southwest of the sand beds in the same direction as the regional flow of ground water, and is overlain by 20 to 50 feet of ground water derived from precipitation that recharges the aquifer. The bottom of the plume generally coincides with the contact between the permeable sand and gravel and underlying finer grained sediments. The distributions in the aquifer of specific conductance, temperature, boron, chloride, sodium, phosphorus, nitrogen (total of all species), ammonia, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and detergents are used to delineate the plume. In ground water outside the plume, the detergent concentration is less than 0.1 milligrams per liter as MBAS (methylene blue active substances), the ammonia-nitrogen concentration is less than 0.1 milligrams per liter, the boron concentration is less than 50 micrograms per liter, and specific conductance is less than 80 mircromhos per centimeter. In the center of the plume, detergent concentrations as high as 2.6 milligrams per liter as MBAS, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations as high as 20 milligrams per liter, boron concentrations as high as 400 micrograms per liter, and specific conductance as high as 405 micromhos per centimeter were measured. Chloride, sodium, and boron are transported by the southward-flowing ground water without significant retardation, and seem to be diluted only by hydrodynamic dispersion. The movement of phosphorus is greatly restricted by sorption. Phosphorus concentrations do not exceed 0.05 milligrams per liter farther than 2,500 feet from the sand beds. Detergent concentrations in the plume are highest between 3,000 and 10,000 feet from the sand beds and reflect the introduction of nonbiodegradable detergents in 1946 and the conversion to biodegradable detergents in 1964. The center of the plume as far as 5,000 feet from the sand beds contains nitrogen as ammonia, but no nitrate and no dissolved oxygen. Ammonia is gradually oxidized to nitrate between 5,000 and 8,000 feet from the sand beds, and at distances greater than 8,000 feet oxidation of ammonia is essentially complete. Ammonia also is oxidized to nitrate along the top and sides of the plume within 5,000 of the beds where the contaminated ground water mixes with uncontaminated ground water that contains up to 11 milligrams per liter dissolved oxygen.

  6. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  7. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  8. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  9. Bed bug deterrence.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; Goodman, Mark H; Potter, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph) signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121. PMID:20828375

  10. Bed bug deterrence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph) signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121 PMID:20828375

  11. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  12. Nail bed onychomatricoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor originating from the nail matrix, and, in rare conditions, from the ventral aspect of the proximal nailfold. Here we report a rare case of a 51-year-old man presenting with melanonychia mainly involving the distal nail plate. Histopathologic examination showed typical findings of onychomatricoma mainly involving the nail bed, while the nail matrix was largely uninvolved. We also identified fungal infection in a focal area of the distal nail plate. Our findings indicate that onychomatricoma can develop in the surrounding epithelial tissue of the nail unit, including the nail bed, and suggest that fungal infection may represent a secondary phenomenon of onychomatricoma. PMID:25039855

  13. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  14. Sand transport in the lower Mississippi River does not yield to dams: Applications for building deltaic land in Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Viparelli, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Mississippi Delta is presently undergoing a catastrophic drowning, whereby 5000 km2 of low-lying wetlands have converted to open water. This land loss is primarily the result of: a) relative sea-level rise, occurring due to the combined effect of rapid subsidence associated with subsurface fluids extraction and eustatic rise; b) leveeing and damming of the river and its tributaries, which restricts sediment delivery to and dispersal within the delta; and c) severe excavation of the delta for navigation channels. It has been argued that continued net land loss of the Mississippi Delta is inevitable due to declining measured total (sand and mud) suspended sediment loads over the past 6 decades. However, recent research has documented that the key to delta growth is deposition of sand, which accounts for ~50-70% of modern and ancient (up to 9 m.a.) Mississippi Delta deposits, but comprises only ~20% of the sampled portion of the total load. Here we present new analysis of existing data to show that sand transport has not diminished since dam construction. Furthermore, we produce a numerical model based on the mass balance of bed material loads over the lower 1600 km of the Mississippi River to show that mining of sand from the channel bed continues to replenish downstream sand loads. For example, our model results indicate that it requires approximately 240 years for a reduced sand load to reach the delta apex. Furthermore, our calculations indicate that sand load at the delta apex is reduced by a noticeable amount (17%) only after about 600 years. We also show how channel bed elevations are predicted to change over the lower 1600 km of the river channel due to channel mining. Channel-bed degradation is greatest at the upstream end of the study reach and decreases downstream. After 300 years the wave of significant degradation has just passed ~800 km downstream, or roughly half of our model domain. These results are in contrast to the measurements which concern the reduction of total suspended sediment load, and here we provide a reasonable hypothesis to help explain: sand possesses a much slower time scale of movement through a sand-bed river compared to mud, because sand exchanges with the bed, building dunes and bars that migrate gradually downstream, whereas the mud travels the length of the system in suspension as washload. This produces orders-of-magnitude difference in transport timescales between mud -- which accounts for ~80% of the total suspended sediment load of the Mississippi River -- and sand (bedload and suspended load). Combined with the abundance and availability of sand to be mined within the main channel, the river effectively buffers the reduction of sand load arising due to main-channel dams. Thus the bed of the lower Mississippi River downstream will provide a stable supply of sand to the delta for the foreseeable future.

  15. Bed composition generation for morphodynamic modeling: Case study of San Pablo Bay in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Wegen, M.; Dastgheib, A.; Jaffe, B.E.; Roelvink, D.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of process-based morphodynamic models are often constrained by limited availability of data on bed composition, which may have a considerable impact on the modeled morphodynamic development. One may even distinguish a period of "morphodynamic spin-up" in which the model generates the bed level according to some ill-defined initial bed composition rather than describing the realistic behavior of the system. The present paper proposes a methodology to generate bed composition of multiple sand and/or mud fractions that can act as the initial condition for the process-based numerical model Delft3D. The bed composition generation (BCG) run does not include bed level changes, but does permit the redistribution of multiple sediment fractions over the modeled domain. The model applies the concept of an active layer that may differ in sediment composition above an underlayer with fixed composition. In the case of a BCG run, the bed level is kept constant, whereas the bed composition can change. The approach is applied to San Pablo Bay in California, USA. Model results show that the BCG run reallocates sand and mud fractions over the model domain. Initially, a major sediment reallocation takes place, but development rates decrease in the longer term. Runs that take the outcome of a BCG run as a starting point lead to more gradual morphodynamic development. Sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the morphological factor, the active layer thickness, and wind waves. An important but difficult to characterize criterion for a successful application of a BCG run is that it should not lead to a bed composition that fixes the bed so that it dominates the "natural" morphodynamic development of the system. Future research will focus on a decadal morphodynamic hindcast and comparison with measured bathymetries in San Pablo Bay so that the proposed methodology can be tested and optimized. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  16. Bed composition generation for morphodynamic modeling: case study of San Pablo Bay in California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wegen, Mick; Dastgheib, Ali; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Roelvink, Dano

    2011-03-01

    Applications of process-based morphodynamic models are often constrained by limited availability of data on bed composition, which may have a considerable impact on the modeled morphodynamic development. One may even distinguish a period of "morphodynamic spin-up" in which the model generates the bed level according to some ill-defined initial bed composition rather than describing the realistic behavior of the system. The present paper proposes a methodology to generate bed composition of multiple sand and/or mud fractions that can act as the initial condition for the process-based numerical model Delft3D. The bed composition generation (BCG) run does not include bed level changes, but does permit the redistribution of multiple sediment fractions over the modeled domain. The model applies the concept of an active layer that may differ in sediment composition above an underlayer with fixed composition. In the case of a BCG run, the bed level is kept constant, whereas the bed composition can change. The approach is applied to San Pablo Bay in California, USA. Model results show that the BCG run reallocates sand and mud fractions over the model domain. Initially, a major sediment reallocation takes place, but development rates decrease in the longer term. Runs that take the outcome of a BCG run as a starting point lead to more gradual morphodynamic development. Sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the morphological factor, the active layer thickness, and wind waves. An important but difficult to characterize criterion for a successful application of a BCG run is that it should not lead to a bed composition that fixes the bed so that it dominates the "natural" morphodynamic development of the system. Future research will focus on a decadal morphodynamic hindcast and comparison with measured bathymetries in San Pablo Bay so that the proposed methodology can be tested and optimized.

  17. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the finished product. The 12 percent biobased content must be of a qualifying biobased feedstock. Cotton, wool, linen, and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of bedding, bed linens, and...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the finished product. The 12 percent biobased content must be of a qualifying biobased feedstock. Cotton, wool, linen, and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of bedding, bed linens, and...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the finished product. The 12 percent biobased content must be of a qualifying biobased feedstock. Cotton, wool, linen, and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of bedding, bed linens, and...

  20. Effects of gasifying conditions and bed materials on fluidized bed steam gasification of wood biomass.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Horio, Masayuki; Tangsathitkulchai, Chaiyot

    2009-02-01

    The effect of steam gasification conditions on products properties was investigated in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor, using larch wood as the starting material. For bed material effect, calcined limestone and calcined waste concrete gave high content of H(2) and CO(2), while silica sand provided the high content of CO. At 650 degrees C, calcined limestone proved to be most effective for tar adsorption and showed high ability to adsorb CO(2) in bed. At 750 degrees C it could not capture CO(2) but still gave the highest cold gas efficiency (% LHV) of 79.61%. Steam gasification gave higher amount of gas product and higher H(2)/CO ratio than those obtained with N(2) pyrolysis. The combined use of calcined limestone and calcined waste concrete with equal proportion contributed relatively the same gas composition, gas yield and cold gas efficiency as those of calcined limestone, but showed less attrition, sintering, and agglomeration propensities similar to the use of calcined waste concrete alone. PMID:18793834

  1. Direct combustion of olive cake using fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisha, Y.H.; Hamdan, M.A.; Qalalweh, H.S. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Faculty of Engineering and Technology

    1999-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor of 0.146 m diameter and 1 m length was fabricated from stainless steel to burn olive cake. Initially, and in order to obtain fluidization, the system was operated under cold conditions using a sand with particle size in the range of 500 to 710 microns. The continuous combustion experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, such that the effects of bed temperature, olive cake feed rate, fluidization velocity, and particle size on combustion efficiency and flue gas composition were investigated. It was found that the combustion efficiency decreases with the bed temperature, fluidization velocity, and the feed rate, while it increases with the particle size used. Further, the gas products analysis carried out using a gas chromatography analyzer have shown a nonmeasured amount of SO{sub 2}, and small amounts of CO. Finally, the temperature distribution along the bed indicated that the temperature throughout the bed is fairly uniform, demonstrating a good mixing of reactants, which is important for efficient combustion.

  2. Stochastic analysis of particle movement over a dune bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Baum K.; Jobson, Harvey E.

    1977-01-01

    Stochastic models are available that can be used to predict the transport and dispersion of bed-material sediment particles in an alluvial channel. These models are based on the proposition that the movement of a single bed-material sediment particle consists of a series of steps of random length separated by rest periods of random duration and, therefore, application of the models requires a knowledge of the probability distributions of the step lengths, the rest periods, the elevation of particle deposition, and the elevation of particle erosion. The procedure was tested by determining distributions from bed profiles formed in a large laboratory flume with a coarse sand as the bed material. The elevation of particle deposition and the elevation of particle erosion can be considered to be identically distributed, and their distribution can be described by either a ' truncated Gaussian ' or a ' triangular ' density function. The conditional probability distribution of the rest period given the elevation of particle deposition closely followed the two-parameter gamma distribution. The conditional probability distribution of the step length given the elevation of particle erosion and the elevation of particle deposition also closely followed the two-parameter gamma density function. For a given flow, the scale and shape parameters describing the gamma probability distributions can be expressed as functions of bed-elevation. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. A comparative study of sand and natural zeolite as filtering media in tertiary treatment of wastewaters from tourist areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Reyes; E. Sánchez; A. Pellón; R. Borja; M. F. Colmenarejo; Z. Milán; M. Cruz

    1997-01-01

    Anaerobic effluents from a fixed bed reactor treating sewage water from tourist areas were treated by two high rate filters at laboratory scale one packed with sand and the other with natural zeolite with the aim of obtaining final effluents with quality for irrigation of land or disposal in tourist zones. The ranges of particle sizes for the two filtering

  4. Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake and reserve capacity to perform physical work.

  5. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-01-01

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in

  6. ELECTRIFIED BED EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a prototype electrified bed (EFB) particulate collection device. The 500 cfm unit, which uses mechanical and electrical mechanisms for collection, was installed at an asphalt roofing plant during the tests. Fractional efficiency was de...

  7. EXPANDED BED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year pilot-scale research investigation at the EPA Lebanon Pilot Plant was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a unique biological secondary treatment process, designated the Expanded Bed Biological Treatment Process (EBBT). The EBBT process is a three-phase (oxygen/...

  8. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  9. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-print Network

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  10. Geology on a Sand Budget

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacqueline Kane

    2004-09-01

    Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

  11. Sand Impact Tests of a Half-Scale Crew Module Boilerplate Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is being designed primarily for water landings, a further investigation of launch abort scenarios reveals the possibility of an onshore landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). To gather data for correlation against simulations of beach landing impacts, a series of sand impact tests were conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Both vertical drop tests and swing tests with combined vertical and horizontal velocity were performed onto beds of common construction-grade sand using a geometrically scaled crew module boilerplate test article. The tests were simulated using the explicit, nonlinear, transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material models for the sand utilized in the simulations were based on tests of sand specimens. Although the LSDYNA models provided reasonable predictions for peak accelerations, they were not always able to track the response through the duration of the impact. Further improvements to the material model used for the sand were identified based on results from the sand specimen tests.

  12. Sedimentary structures and textures of Rio Orinoco channel sands, Venezuela and Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin Dinwiddie

    1989-01-01

    Most sedimentary structures represented in sand bodies of the Rio Orinoco are tabular-planar cross-strata which, together with some wedge-planar cross-strata, are the products of sand-wave deposition. Locally, in areas of river meander where point bars characteristically form, trough structures forming festoon patterns are numerous. At a few localities, sets of nearly horizontal strata occur between tabular-planar sets and are interpreted to be the deposits of very fast currents of the upper flow regime; elsewhere, uncommon lenses and beds of silt, clay, or organic matter consisting of leaves and twigs, seem to be the result of quiet-water settling through gravity. By far the most common grain size represented in the tabular-planar and wedge-planar cross-strata of the sandwave deposits is medium sand (? - ? millimeter) as determined by screen analyses. Many samples, however, also contain moderate quantities of coarse or very coarse sand. Eolian dunes on top of the sand-wave deposits are dominantly fine grained. The river channel sands were determined to be largely moderately well sorted, although in some places they were mostly well sorted, and in others, mostly moderately sorted.

  13. Genesis of a till/sand breccia (Pleistocene, Note? Valley near Atanazyn, central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarska-Jamro?y, Ma?gorzata; Zieli?ski, Tomasz

    2011-05-01

    The study area in Atanazyn in Note? Valley, NW Poland, is located on the surface of terrace III in Toru?-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley. Terrace III is correlated with the Pomeranian Phase and the Oldest Dryas, during which most of the fluvio-periglacial sedimentation in the Note? Valley took place. Four units are distinguished in the terrace: (1) horizontally stratified, ripple-drift cross-laminated and massive sand (unit Sh, Src, Sm) deposited in a shallow, sand-bed channel with a low-energy current; (2) a unique till/sand breccia formed by disintegration of a lodgement till due to drying out and frost activity under periglacial conditions, which was fluvially transported over a short distance; (3) a massive gravelly diamicton (DGm) representing a subaerial, cohesive debris flow; and (4) sand with low-angle cross-stratification (Sl) forming a coversand layer over the terrace. The presence of the till/sand breccia, which is unique for Quaternary sediments, sheds new light on the depositional conditions in ice-marginal valleys. The till/sand breccia lithofacies can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion for fluvio-periglacial conditions in ice-marginal valleys.

  14. Comparisons of housing, bedding, and cooling options for dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-04-01

    Housing, bedding, and summer cooling were management options evaluated. Holstein calves (42±2 kg of body weight) initially 2 to 5 d of age were managed in southwest Ohio in poly hutches or wire mesh pens in a curtain-sided nursery with no supplemental heat. Calves were fed milk replacer (27% crude protein, 17% fat fed at 0.657 kg of dry matter per calf daily), starter (20% crude protein dry matter, textured, fed free-choice), and water (free-choice). Measurements were for 56 d. In trial 1, 28 calves per treatment were bedded with straw and housed in either hutches or nursery pens. This trial was conducted from September to March; the average temperature was 8°C and ranged from -17 to 31°C. In trial 2a, 16 calves per treatment were managed in nursery pens bedded with straw, in nursery pens bedded with sand, or in hutches bedded with sand. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 21°C and ranged from 7 to 33°C. In trial 2b, 26 calves per treatment were housed in nursery pens and bedded with straw. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 22°C and ranged from 8 to 34°C. One treatment was cooled with fans between 0800 and 1700 h and the other was not. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in a completely randomized block design by trial, with calf as the experimental unit. In trial 3, air in the nursery and calf hutches used above was sampled 35 d apart for calves aged 5 and 40 d. Air in individual hutches on 2 commercial farms was sampled for 5- and 40-d-old calves for 2 hutch types. Air in the multi-calf hutches was sampled for calves of 75 and 110 d of age. Bacterial concentrations of air samples were analyzed (log10) as odds ratios by Proc Logistic in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); differences were declared at P<0.05. In trial 1, weight gain of calves in nursery pens was 6% greater and feed efficiency was 4% greater than that of calves in hutches. In trial 2a, weight gain and starter intake of calves in the nursery with straw bedding were greater and scouring was less than that in calves bedded with sand in the nursery or hutches. The relative humidity was greater in the hutches than in the nursery pens. In trial 2b, weight gain, feed efficiency, and hip width change were greater and breaths per minute were less for calves cooled with fans compared with calves that were not cooled. In trial 3, airborne bacteria concentrations were greater in the hutches than in the nursery pens. Straw bedding (vs. sand), nursery pens (vs. hutches), and summer daytime cooling with fans improved calf weight gain. PMID:21427006

  15. Petroleum geochemistry of the Midyan and Jaizan basins of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Cole; Mahdi A. Abu-Ali; Edwin L. Coiling; Henry I. Halpern; William J. Carrigan; G. Richard Savage; Reggie J. Scolaro; Saleh H. AI-Sharidi

    1995-01-01

    During the 1960s, petroleum exploration activities in the offshore Red Sea areas of Saudi Arabia tested gas and condensate reservoired in the Miocene sands immediately below the Mansiyah evaporites in the offshore Midyan basin. Recent onshore exploration activity in the Red Sea has resulted in the discovery of accumulations of oil, gas and condensate in the Lower Miocene Maqna Group

  16. MONITORING WYOMING'S RED DESERT WATERSHEDS USING VERY-LARGE SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wyoming's Red Desert is "One of America's most extraordinary empty places. ... thousands of square miles spread out across sage (brush)-covered hills, sand dunes and canyons" (Frank Clifford, Los Angeles Times). To the BLM, the Red Desert is 15 million acres of public rangeland to be assessed, monit...

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report: A Survey · · UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA 2 #12;SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report

  18. Loose sand habitat at the Mojave desert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student. Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-06

    Loose sand soil lacks moisture but contains adequate moisture and nutrients for drought tolerant plants. Loose sand soil is insufficient for animals to find or make shelter. Organisms find shade and shelter under the large shrubs.

  19. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-print Network

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  20. A thick Tethyan multi-bed tsunami deposit preserving a dinosaur megatracksite within a coastal lagoon (Barremian, eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, Rocío; Liesa, Carlos L.; Castanera, Diego; Soria, Ana R.; Rodríguez-López, Juan P.; Canudo, José I.

    2014-11-01

    A Thick multiple-bed tsunami deposit consisting of sandstones and conglomerates has been discovered and investigated in the Camarillas Formation (~ 130.6-128.4 Ma, Barremian age) in eastern Spain. The tsunami deposit is interbedded within red mudstones deposited in mud flats of a back-barrier system. It crops out along 7 km in length and at its base a great number of dinosaur tracks assigned to sauropods, ornithopods and theropods have been preserved as natural casts; then constituting an exceptional regional megatracksite associated with tsunami deposits. On the basis of sedimentological features and the lateral and vertical architecture of the involved lithofacies, up to five couplets of inflow-backflow deposits, formed by a tsunami wave train, have been recognized overlying the tracks. Although sedimentation mainly took place during backflow currents, inflows led to the removal of sand from a fronting barrier island and the rip-up of lagoonal carbonate and clay pebbles, depositing them in the protected back-barrier lagoon. Its unusually great thickness is interpreted, among others, as being the result of the filling of the previous low topography of the back-barrier lagoon.

  1. White Sands solar test facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Hays

    1978-01-01

    The White Sands solar test facility includes a heliostat, attenuator, concentrator and test and control chamber. A total of 356 flat-plate mirrors mounted on a steel frame 1.2 by 11 m comprises the heliostat, which moves in azimuth + or - 60 deg and from zero to 90 deg in elevation. The concentrator is composed of 180 spherical mirrors mounted

  2. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves the interaction between the sun, wind, and earth. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the s...

  3. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  4. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  5. Intramural Sports Sand Volleyball League

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Intramural Sports Sand Volleyball League Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events Summer 2014 Potential Division Offerings Men's (Tuesdays) Women's (Tuesdays) Co-Rec (Wednesdays) Sports-F Current OSU Students or Faculty/Staff/Affiliates with a Recreational Sports Membership are eligible

  6. Registration of 'Centennial' Sand Bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Centennial’ sand bluestem (PI 670042, Andropogon hallii Hack.) is a synthetic variety selected for greater percentage seed germination and percentage seedling establishment under field conditions. Centennial was tested under the experimental designation of ‘AB-Medium Syn-2’. Two cycles of recurren...

  7. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The Effect of Sand on Strength of Mixtures of Bentonite-Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad C. Pakbaz; Navid Khayat

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of sand on strength of compacted samples of bentonite sand mixtures. Samples of bentonite with 10,30,50,70, and 80 percent by weight of sand at standard proctor optimum water content were compacted and tested to measure confined and unconfined strength. Unconfined strength of mixtures increased with percentage of sand until

  9. The Effect of Sand on Strength of Mixtures of Bentonite-Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad C. Pakbaz; Navid Khayat

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of sand on strength of compacted samples of bentonite sand mixtures. Samples of bentonite with 10,30,50,70, and 80 percent by weight of sand at standard proctor optimum water content were compacted and tested to measure confined and unconfined strength. Unconfined strength of mixtures increased with percentage of sand until

  10. Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA Stephen Moysey, Marek Zreda and Jim Goeke The large-scale mobility of sand dunes in continental dune of these landforms. Traditional methods for dating sand dunes, e.g. stratigraphic and radiocarbon dating

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BENTHIC ORGANIC MATTER AND MACROINVERTEBRATES IN SAND SUBSTRATES

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BENTHIC ORGANIC MATTER AND MACROINVERTEBRATES IN SAND SUBSTRATES OF NORTHERN #12;RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BENTHIC ORGANIC MATTER AND MACROINVERTEBRATES IN SAND SUBSTRATES OF NORTHERN studied in sand habitats, despite the abundance of sand in many streams. These relationships were

  12. Erosion of mud\\/sand mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Mitchener; Hilde Torfs

    1996-01-01

    The prediction of sediment erosion is an important issue in coastal engineering projects. There are methods for predicting the erosion of cohesive sediment (mud) and non-cohesive sediment (sand), but there are presently no relationships for mixed sediments. However, natural sediments rarely consist of only mud or sand and the erosional properties of combined mud and sand sediments are required so

  13. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu University of British Columbia Robert Bridson University of British Columbia Figure 1: The Stanford bunny is simulated as water and as sand. Abstract We present a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes

  15. Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand

    E-print Network

    Claudin, Philippe

    Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand By M. E. Cates1 , J. P. Wittmer1 , J a conical sandpile, created by pouring sand from a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows) is required for systems with two-dimensional symmetry, such as a wedge of sand; for a three

  16. ccsd00003208, Basic properties for sand automata

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00003208, version 1 ­ 4 Nov 2004 Basic properties for sand automata J. Cervelle #3; E injectivity and surjectivity for sand automata. Moreover, we begin the exploration of the dynamical behavior of sand automata proving that the property of nilpotency is undecidable. We believe that the proof

  17. EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND

    E-print Network

    m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l SAND ON AOTTATIC ANIMALS By Walter A. Chipman and Paul S. Gaits off. Fishery Research Biologists CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

  18. Sand reinforced with shredded waste tires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Foose; Craig H. Benson; Peter J. Bosscher

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using shredded waste tires to reinforce sand. Direct shear tests were conducted on mixtures of dry sand and shredded waste tires. The following factors were studied to evaluate their influence on shear strength: normal stress, sand matrix unit weight, shred content, shred length, and shred orientation. From results of

  19. Finding Red

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners systematically investigate which combination of four solutions produces a deep red color. The four solutions are iron(III) chloride, ammonium thiocyanate, tannic acid, and oxalic acid. Background information explains that it is the iron ions in solution combining with ions from the other solutions to create the different colors. After learners discover the different colors, they are encouraged to add a third solution to see if the color can be changed, an example of how chemical equilibrium can be shifted. This activity may take a bit more time with younger learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended and can be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

  20. Red Files

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Red Files, a four-part documentary series from PBS, utilizes previously unavailable archival sources and interviews to present a fascinating look at the Soviet Union and its Cold War rivalry with the US. This attractive companion site offers a number of resources related to each of the four episodes: Secret Victories of the KGB, Soviet Sports Wars, Secret Soviet Moon Mission, and Soviet Propaganda. For each installment, users will find a story synopsis, the Producer's script, theme music, updates on related events, human interest stories, complete interview transcripts, video clips, a reference section, access to related sections of Russian Archives Online, maps, a timeline, lesson plans, and more. Additional offerings include a collection of links mentioned in the series and an internal search engine. This site joins an already strong tradition at PBS of creating sites that are actual companions to the program, offering new and expanded content for interested users.

  1. Stream/aquifer interactions at Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado: influences on interdunal wetland disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, Frederic C.; Cooper, David J.; Sanford, William E.

    2003-02-01

    Between 1937 and 1995 a complex of more than 100 interdunal wetlands disappeared from Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado. We investigated three hypotheses that could explain wetland disappearance: (1) dune movement during a severe drought in the 1950s buried the wetlands, (2) agriculture related ground water pumping lowered the regional water table, and (3) changes in local hydrologic processes led to wetland loss. We used regional stream flow records, ground water level measurements, natural stable isotope analyses, soil stratigraphy, buried seed banks, and ground water modeling to address these hypotheses. Hydrologic data and stable isotope analyses illustrated the interaction between Sand Creek, a nearby stream, and the unconfined aquifer in the area where wetlands occurred. When the intermittent Sand Creek flows, seepage through its bed creates a large ground water mound under the creek. The seasonal development and dispersion of this mound propagates pressure waves through the aquifer that influence ground water levels up to 2 km from Sand Creek. Our data suggest the primary factors contributing to wetland disappearance were recent climatic fluctuations and incision of the Sand Creek channel. Below average stream flow between 1950 and 1980 reduced the duration of Sand Creek flow across the dune complex, minimizing ground water mound development. Consequently, the water table in the unconfined aquifer dropped ˜1.0 m and interdunal wetlands dried up. Twentieth Century incision of Sand Creek's channel reduced ground water mound height ˜2.5 m, decreasing seasonal water table fluctuations at interdunal wetlands and contributing to the overall water table decline. Long-term wet and dry cycles affect the water table elevation more than channel incision, leading us to conclude that many interdunal wetlands are ephemeral features. Wetland area is maximized during consecutive years of above average Sand Creek discharge and minimized as the water table drops during dry periods.

  2. Sediment Transport and Bed Material Grain Size Distributions along the Upper Colorado River, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, S. L.; Grimsley, K. J.; Rubin, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The Upper Colorado River in Rocky Mountain National Park is dynamically adjusting to approximately 35,000 m3 of sediment introduced by a debris flow in May 2003. Bed material and sediment transport measurements since 2003 indicate that the debris flow source material is the dominant control on grain size distributions of bed material and bedload in transport. Hydrothermally altered Tertiary welded rhyolite tuff within moraines on hillslopes comprised the bulk of debris flow material initially and this material has since been remobilized and sorted by fluvial processes, forming extensive alluvium along the Colorado River. Oxidation of the ~5% pyrite in the tuff causes volume changes and in-situ disintegration of the alluvium, creating abundant sand- and gravel-sized material. At temporary gaging stations installed downstream from the main debris flow fan, measured water discharge spans a threefold range and bedload a six order-of-magnitude range in transport rate. Maximum bedload transport exceeds 1000 g/s at the highest measured discharge (3.5 m3/s) when the proportion of sand was >80%. Fractional bedload transport is related to proximity to the fan source, bed slope, and discharge, with 4-16 mm gravel mobilized closer to the source at higher bed slopes and discharges. The high sand content within transported bedload is in contrast to bed material grain size distributions which, during low flow, contain less than 15% sand and a D50 that has varied from fine to very coarse gravel. The bed D50 declined by two size classes at gaging stations in 2011 due to extensive aggradation as a result of the highest discharge in 60 years of record. Understanding the river's response to the sand and gravel input, as well as the fate of the hydrothermally altered material, will facilitate decisions on the appropriate mixed-size sediment transport model to predict size sorting and transient channel adjustments to plan for restoration along the Upper Colorado River.

  3. Behavior of Windblown Sand on Mars: Results from Single-Particle Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Sagan, C.

    1999-09-01

    Experiments are investigating the behavior of individual sand grains in the high-energy martian aeolian regime. Energy partitioning during impact of a saltating grain determines grain longevity, but it also influences the way in which the bed becomes mobilized by reptation. When single grains of sand are fired into loose beds, the bed can absorb up to 90% of the impact energy by momentum transfer to other grains; it has been discovered that the impacting grains cause circular craters even at low impact angles. Hundreds of grains can be splashed by a single high-velocity (100 m/s) impact causing more bed disturbance through reptation than previously thought. The research is supported by NASA's PG&G Program. Because the martian aeolian environment in both high energy and of long duration, the most mobile fractions of windblown sand should have eradicated themselves by attrition, unless sand supply has kept pace with destruction. It is therefore important to understand the rate of grain attrition in order to make sense of the existence of vast dune fields on Mars. Attrition, has been addressed in other studies, but precise data for a single saltating grain striking a loose bed of sand have not been acquired -- the quintessential case to be understood for dunes on Mars. To acquire these data, we are employing a compound crossbow which has the bolt-firing mechanism replaced with a pneumatically-automated sabot system. The sabot can launch individual grains of sand of any size between several millimeters and about 50 microns, at velocities up to 100m/s. This is around the maximum velocity expected for saltating grains on Mars. The sabot sled is equipped with photoelectric sensors for measuring shot velocity. Baffling of the grain's exit orifice has enabled projection of single grains without significant aerodynamic effects from the sabot. Grains are fired into loose beds of sand at about 15 degrees from the horizontal (typical saltation trajectory at impact) while being filmed on high-speed video. High-intensity pulse illumination for the grains is triggered by the solenoid-operated bow trigger. A 45 degree mirror over the impact site provides simultaneous horizontal and vertical images of the impact on each video frame. UV fluorescence is enabling grain and grain-fragment recovery. At 100 m/s, grains of all sizes shatter into many fragments when the sand is replaced with a solid target. Kinetic energy of the grains at this velocity exceeds the critical energy for catastrophic failure of minerals. Although probably exceptional as a grain speed, it suggests that conditions on Mars might elevate materials into an attrition regime not encountered on other planets; individual grains blown across rock pavements on Mars will have short lifespans. When experimental grains impact loose (dune) sand, much, if not most of the kinetic energy is converted into momentum of other grains. Using high-speed filming, the energy involved in splashing grains at the impact site can be derived from the size of the crater, the speed of the splashed grains, and the rebound speed of the impactor. The amount of energy partitioned into material failure (as opposed to momentum) is too small a fraction of the total to be calculated under these circumstances. This does not necessarily mean that little damage occurs to the grains (the full extent of the damage has yet to be determined) because only a small fraction of the impact energy is required for inducing brittle fracture. Damage is orders of magnitude less than during impact against solid surfaces.

  4. Behavior of Windblown Sand on Mars: Results from Single-Particle Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Sagan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments are investigating the behavior of individual sand grains in the high-energy martian aeolian regime. Energy partitioning during impact of a saltating grain determines grain longevity, but it also influences the way in which the bed becomes mobilized by reptation. When single grains of sand are fired into loose beds, the bed can absorb up to 90% of the impact energy by momentum transfer to other grains; it has been discovered that the impacting grains cause circular craters even at low impact angles. Hundreds of grains can be splashed by a single high-velocity (100 m/s) impact causing more bed disturbance through reptation than previously thought. The research is supported by NASA's PG&G Program. Because the martian aeolian environment in both high energy and of long duration, the most mobile fractions of windblown sand should have eradicated themselves by attrition, unless sand supply has kept pace with destruction. It is therefore important to understand the rate of grain attrition in order to make sense of the existence of vast dune fields on Mars. Attrition, has been addressed in other studies, but precise data for a single saltating grain striking a loose bed of sand have not been acquired -- the quintessential case to be understood for dunes on Mars. To acquire these data, we are employing a compound crossbow which has the bolt-firing mechanism replaced with a pneumatically-automated sabot system. The sabot can launch individual grains of sand of any size between several millimeters and about 50 microns, at velocities up to 100m/s. This is around the maximum velocity expected for saltating grains on Mars. The sabot sled is equipped with photoelectric sensors for measuring shot velocity. Baffling of the grain's exit orifice has enabled projection of single grains without significant aerodynamic effects from the sabot. Grains are fired into loose beds of sand at about 15 degrees from the horizontal (typical saltation trajectory at impact) while being filmed on high-speed video. High-intensity pulse illumination for the grains is triggered by the solenoid-operated bow trigger. A 45 degree mirror over the impact site provides simultaneous horizontal and vertical images of the impact on each video frame. UV fluorescence is enabling grain and grain-fragment recovery. At 100 m/s, grains of all sizes shatter into many fragments when the sand is replaced with a solid target. Kinetic energy of the grains at this velocity exceeds the critical energy for catastrophic failure of minerals. Although probably exceptional as a grain speed, it suggests that conditions on Mars might elevate materials into an attrition regime not encountered on other planets; individual grains blown across rock pavements on Mars will have short lifespans. When experimental grains impact loose (dune) sand, much, if not most of the kinetic energy is converted into momentum of other grains. Using high-speed filming, the energy involved in splashing grains at the impact site can be derived from the size of the crater, the speed of the splashed grains, and the rebound speed of the impactor. The amount of energy partitioned into material failure (as opposed to momentum) is too small a fraction of the total to be calculated under these circumstances. This does not necessarily mean that little damage occurs to the grains (the full extent of the damage has yet to be determined) because only a small fraction of the impact energy is required for inducing brittle fracture. Damage is orders of magnitude less than during impact against solid surfaces.

  5. Sorghum genotype differences to leaf “red?speckling”; induced by phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. C. Furlani; R. B. Clark; C. Y. Sullivan; J. W. Maranville

    1986-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plants grown in nutrient solutions, sand, and soil under greenhouse or growth chamber conditions developed a lower leaf “red?speckling”; which was induced by phosphorus (P). As P in solution increased, the intensity of the “red?speckling”; increased. Although the severity of “red?speckling”; was not directly related to leaf P concentration, leaves with more severe symptoms had

  6. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  7. Design of immobilised dextransucrase for fluidised bed application.

    PubMed

    Berensmeier, S; Ergezinger, M; Bohnet, M; Buchholz, K

    2004-11-01

    Immobilisation of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F in alginate is optimised for applications in a fluidised bed reactor with high concentrated sugar solutions, in order to allow a continuous formation of defined oligosaccharides as prebiotic isomalto-oligosaccharides. Efficient design of fluidised bed immobilised biocatalyst in high density solutions requires particles with elevated density, high effectiveness and both thermal and mechanical stability. Inert silica flour/sand (Mikrosil 300) as supplement turned out to be best suited for increasing the density up to 1400 kg m(-3) of the alginate beads and generating a stable expanded bed without diffusional restrictions. Kinetic investigations demonstrate that low effectiveness of immobilised enzyme due to close association to dextranpolymers (dextran content of enzyme preparation >90%) is compensated by reducing the particle size and/or by decreasing the dextran content. A low dextran content (5%) is sufficient to immobilise and stabilise the enzyme, thus diffusional limitation is reduced essentially while operational stability is maintained. Fluidisation behaviour and bed expansion proved to be appropriate for the intended application. Both calculated and measured expansion coefficients showed good agreement for different conditions. PMID:15522435

  8. Combustion of oil palm solid wastes in fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, A.H. [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering; Sopian, K. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). College of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The palm oil industry of Malaysia is the largest in the world producing about 55% of the world production. The industry has approximately 270 mills throughout the country with processing sizes ranging from 10 tonnes/hour to 120 tonnes/hour. All mills produce solid wastes, about 50% of the fresh fruit bunches in terms of weight. The solid wastes produced are in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells. These wastes have high energy value, ranging from 14 to 18 MJ/kg. The industry is currently self-sufficient in terms of energy. Fibers and shell wastes are being used as boiler fuel to raise steam for electrical power production and process steam. However, the combustion technology currently being employed is obsolete with low efficiency and polluting. A fluidized bed combustor pilot plant is designed and constructed at Combustion Research Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The combustor is made up of 600 mm {times} 900 mm rectangular bed filled with sand up to 400 mm height, static. A bank of heat transfer tubes is imbedded in the bed, designed to absorb 50% of heat released by the fuel in the bed. The remaining heat is transferred in tubes placed on the wall of the freeboard area. Experimental studies were carried out in the pilot plant using palm oil solid wastes. The combustion temperatures were maintained in the range 800--900 C. The performance of the combustor was evaluated in terms of combustion and boiler efficiencies and flue gas emissions monitored.

  9. Conduits to Catchments: Deformation Band Faults in Arid and Semi-Arid Vadose Zone Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigda, J. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Conca, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Where fault movement intercepts sandy sediments, deformational processes create narrow, tabular zones of reduced pore and grain sizes, called deformation band faults, which possess markedly different hydraulic properties than the parent sands. These faults are commonly found where tectonic extension and erosion have combined to create basins containing variably lithified, heterolithic sediments, which in turn form thick vadose and saturated zones. Under arid or semi-arid conditions the unsaturated property differences between these faults and their poorly lithified parent sands appear to be large enough that the faults can potentially act as paths for preferential flow and transport, or as liquid phase catchments, depending on the conditions. We measured the unsaturated hydraulic properties of three small-displacement normal faults and adjacent sands found in the Bosque del Apache Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico, USA using UFA centrifuge systems. Fits to commonly used unsaturated property models revealed consistent differences between sands and faults. Analytical one-dimensional models of steady infiltration, exfiltration, and solute transport confirm that faults can become paths for preferential flow and transport. Under dry conditions and observed fault spatial densities, faulted sands can infiltrate and exfiltrate orders of magnitude more liquid phase water than unfaulted sands. Solute residence times are two to four orders of magnitude shorter through faulted than unfaulted sand beds and diagenetic alteration is far more likely to occur in faults than sands because faults are predicted to transmit as many as 10 4 pore volumes in the time needed to transmit a single pore volume through the sand. Numerical modeling of steady two dimensional downwards flow near a dipping fault suggests that, under relatively wet conditions, faults with sufficiently low dip angles can intercept enough water to form sizeable zones of increased water content in the hanging wall. These wetter zones can act as fast paths for subsequent water or solute pulses. Deformation band faults can thus act as catchments under relatively wet vadose zone conditions and as conduits under much drier conditions. In either case, faults can significantly increase water and solute transport through sandy beds in arid and semi-arid vadose zones.

  10. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

    Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

  11. Cross-bedded limestone facies on San Salvador Island, Bahamas: New perspective on eolian calcarenites

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. (Mississippi State Univ. (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Limestones of eolian origin have been known from worldwide tropical regins since the early 1900s. On San Salvador Island, most of the exposed bed rock is Holocene and Pleistocene eolian calcarenite made of skeletal, peloidal, and oolitic fine to medium sand. The Pleistocene Grotto Beach Formation is composed of 50-90% ooids. An eolian interpretation for this interval is supported by paleosols, subaerial crusts, vadose cement, terrestrial fossils, karst features, associated reef and beach deposits, grainfall, sandflow, and climbing ripple strata, and shore-parallel sand bodies. Whole dune-forms are locally preserved; they were stabilized or frozen in place by early cementation and/or vegetation.

  12. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  13. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  14. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  15. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  16. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  20. Conidial quality of the biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans produced by solid-state cultivation in a packed-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Jones; F. J. Weber; J. Oostra; A. Rinzema; A. Mead; J. M. Whipps

    2004-01-01

    Conidial germination and novel sand- and soil-based sclerotial parasitism assays were used to test the quality of conidial inoculum of the biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans IVT1 produced in different packed bed reactor runs. The fermenter airflow rate was either kept constant, resulting in a transient increase in temperature at the top of the fermenter above 30°C (above the maximum for

  1. May 2009, Volume 31, Number 2 New Mexico GeoloGy 31 Newly discovered pumice beds in axial-flu-

    E-print Network

    Dunbar, Nelia W.

    May 2009, Volume 31, Number 2 New Mexico GeoloGy 31 Abstract Newly discovered pumice beds in axial. The Lucero pumice in the Doña Ana Mountains is 1­1.5 m thick and consists of granule- and pebble-sized pumice intercalated with fluvial sand, whereas the Mud Springs pumice along the southeastern flank of the Mud Springs

  2. EXPERIMENTAL AND ENGINEERING SUPPORT FOR THE CAFB (CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED) DEMONSTRATION: RESIDUE DISPOSAL/UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the disposal and utilization of spent sulfur sorbent from the Chemically Active Fluid-bed (CAFB) process. Lignite ash with a minimum of 10% CaO can be used as a replacement for sand or medium aggregate or as a partial replacement fo...

  3. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  5. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Carroll, David W. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Wallace E. (Los Alamos, NM); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  6. Sand size versus beachface slope — An explanation based on the Constructal Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. Heitor; Gama, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between beachface slope and sand grain size has been established based on multiple observations of beach characteristics in many parts of the world. We show that this observational result may be understood in the light of the Constructal Law (Bejan, 1997). A model of wave run-up and run-down along the beachface (swash) was developed to account for superficial flows together with flows through the porous sand bed of average porosity 0.35, the permeability of which may be related to grain diameter and sphericity (0.9 for sand grains) through the Kozeny-Carmán equation. Then, by using the Constructal Law, we minimized the time for completing a swash cycle, under fixed wave height and sand grain diameter. As the result, a relationship involving sand grain size, beachface slope and open ocean wave height has been obtained, and then discussed and validated against experimental data. In addition, this relationship has also been used to illuminate beachface dynamic processes, namely the reshaping of sandy beachfaces in response to changes in wave height. Though the model used in this work may be improved further, the results appear to show, as with other natural systems, that beachface morphing in time may be understood based on a unifying principle — the Constructal Law.

  7. Contribution of the colmation layer to the elimination of coliphages by slow sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Dizer, H; Grützmacher, G; Bartel, H; Wiese, H B; Szewzyk, R; López-Pila, J M

    2004-01-01

    River bank or slow sand filtration is a major procedure for processing surface water to drinking water in central europe. In order to model the performance of river bank and slow sand filtration plants, we are studying the different mechanisms by which the elimination of pathogens is realized. An important question concerning the mode of action of slow sand filters and river bank filtration units is the role of the colmation layer or "schmutzdecke" on the elimination of human pathogens. The schmutzdecke is an organic layer which develops at the surface of the sand filter short after the onset of operation. We have inoculated a pilot plant for slow sand filtration with coliphages and determined their rate of breakthrough and their final elimination. In the first experiment, with a colmation layer still missing, the breakthrough of the coliphages in the 80 cm mighty sandy bed amounted to ca. 40 %. In contrast, less than 1 % of coliphages escaped from the filter as the same experiment was repeated two months later, when a substantial colmation layer had developed. Our preliminary conclusions are that the colmation layer is extremely efficient in eliminating of viruses. PMID:15344793

  8. Sand as a stable and sustainable resource for nourishing the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Viparelli, Enrica

    2014-05-01

    The Mississippi River delta is undergoing a catastrophic drowning, whereby 5,000 km2 of low-lying wetlands have converted to open water over at least the past eight decades, as a result of many anthropogenic and natural factors. Continued net land loss has been thought inevitable due to a decline in the load of total suspended sediment--both sand and mud--carried by the river. However, sand--which accounts for ~50-70% of modern and ancient Mississippi delta deposits but comprises only ~20% of the sampled portion of the total load--could be more important than mud for subaerial delta growth. Historically, half of the Mississippi River sediment load is supplied by the Missouri River. Here we analyse suspended sediment load data from two locations downstream from the lowest Missouri River dam to show that the measured sand load in the lower 1,100 km of the Mississippi River has not significantly diminished since dam construction. A one-dimensional numerical model of river morphodynamics predicts that the sand load feeding the delta will decrease only gradually over the next several centuries, with an estimated decline from current values of no more than about 17% within the coming six centuries. We conclude that the lower Mississippi River channel holds a significant reservoir of sand that is available to replenish diminished loads via bed scour and substantially mitigate land loss.

  9. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  10. Reevaluation of Stevens sand potential - Maricopa depocenter, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, M.M.; Parks, S.L. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    During the upper Miocene in the Southern San Joaquin basin surrounding highlands contributed coarse material to a deep marine basin dominated by fine grained silicious bioclastic deposition. these coarse deposits became reservoirs isolated within the silicious Antelope Shale Member of the Monterey Formation. In the southern Maricopa depocenter these Stevens sands are productive at Yowlumne, Landslide, Aqueduct, Rio Viejo, San Emidio Nose, Paloma, and Midway-Sunset fields, and are major exploration targets in surrounding areas. In the ARCO Fee lands area of the southern Maricopa depocenter, Stevens sands occur as rapidly thickening lens-shaped bodies that formed as channel, levee, and lobe deposits of deep-marine fan systems. These fans were fed from a southerly source, with apparent transport in a north-northwesterly direction. Sands deflect gently around present-day structural highs indicating that growth of structures influenced depositional patterns. Correlations reveal two major fan depositional intervals bounded by regional N, O, and P chert markers. Each interval contains numerous individual fan deposits, with many lobes and channels recognizable on three-dimensional seismic data. In addition to these basinal sand plays presently being evaluated, ARCO is pursuing a relatively new trend on Fee lands along the southern basin margin, where correlation to mountain data reveals Stevens sands trend into the steeply dipping beds of the mountain front. This area, the upturned Stevens,' has large reserve potential and producing analogies at Metson, Leutholtz, Los Lobos, and Pleito Ranch fields.

  11. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Determining the depositional environment of a braided channel sand using Formation MicroScanner images, North Vacuum field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, D.E. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US Inc., Midland, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Paleoenvironmental reconstruction analysis characterize the Atoka sands of the North Vacuum field, Lea County, New Mexico, as being deposited in a braided fluvial system. The channels trend from northwest to southeast. In the past the only sure way of identifying the depositional environment of a sand was by cutting a whole core. With the addition of the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images, now one can interpret the depositional environment with greater confidence and without the cost of a shale core. The depositional environment was determined for Atokan sands by using the FMS in two wells. The results were verified by whole core and FMS in one well. The FMS data interpreted on Schlumberger's Sun workstation indicated that the sand was deposited in a braided channel system. The following sequence was observed: (1) erosion of the underlying shale, (2) then coarse-grained sands were deposited in a downflow direction until the eroded channel was filled, (3) then the sands were laterally accreted perpendicular to flow direction producing the thickest sand bodies, and (4) the final stage occurred during sea level transgression when fine-grained sand and shale lenses capped the massive sands with depositional current bedding in a landward direction indicating fluvial-marine influences. The conclusions based on the FMS images were supported by a whole core interpretation of a complete sandstone sequence in one well. Several additional locations have been chosen in the channel trend based on this model.

  13. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  14. Blood volume responses of men and women to bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, S. M.; Turner, C.; Steinmann, L.; Driscoll, T.; Alfrey, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews a series of studies that indicate that estrogens play an important role in blood volume regulation. The first study illustrates that the plasma volume (PV) of ambulatory women fluctuates during the menstrual cycle, increasing during periods of elevated estrogens. In the second study, it was shown that exogenous and endogenous elevations in blood estrogens attenuate the decrease in PV during bed rest. In the third study, the hypothesis was tested that women, who naturally have a higher blood estrogen content compared with men, will have a smaller loss of PV during bed rest. Ten men and ten women underwent a 13-day, 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Plasma volume and red cell mass (RCM) were measured before and after bed rest using 125I and 51Cr labeling, respectively. Before bed rest, the men and women had similar blood volume (BV) and PV (mL/kg body weight), but the women had a smaller (P < .01) RCM (22.2 +/- 0.9 versus 26.2 +/- 0.8 mL/kg, mean +/- SE). During bed rest, the decrease in RCM (mL/kg) was similar in men and women. However, the decrease in BV was greater in men (8.0 +/- 0.8 mL/kg versus 5.8 +/- 0.8 mL/kg), because of a greater reduction in PV (6.3 +/- 0.6 mL/kg versus 4.1 +/- 0.6 mL/kg). Because the decline in BV has been proposed to contribute to the cardiovascular deconditioning after bed rest, it is possible that women may experience less cardiac and circulatory strain on reambulation.

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-0383P

    E-print Network

    and funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program. Specifically/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) as part of the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program

  16. BEd(PE)/BEd(PE)(Hons) College of Education

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    13 BEd(PE)/BEd(PE)(Hons) College of Education Bachelor of Education (Physical Education) / Bachelor of Education (Physical Education) with Honours #12;Disclaimer All the information in this booklet was correct at the time of printing. #12;3 The Bachelor of Education (Physical Education) and Bachelor of Education

  17. Sand transport measurements in Chioggia inlet, Venice lagoon: Theory versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro, Monique M.; Amos, Carl L.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Thompson, Charlotte E. L.; Are, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of recent measurements of sand transport made in Chioggia inlet as part of an extensive monitoring programme in the Venetian inlets. Measurements were made in order: (1) to define a relationship between sand transport magnitude and tidal flow; (2) to derive the thresholds for sand transport; (3) to identify the dominant modes of transport; (4) to evaluate the concentration profiles of sand within the benthic boundary layer; (5) to compare bedload transport observations with model predictions using existent bedload formulae; and (6) to produce yearly estimates of bedload transport across the inlet. The vertical distribution of sand in the water column was sampled using modified Helley-Smith bedload samplers at three sites. Transport was found to vary according to the flow and bed grain size, with considerable temporal and spatial variability. A difference of up to three orders of magnitude in transport was observed through the inlet, with higher transport rates measured on the seaward part. The dominant mode of transport in the central inlet was suspension, while bedload was dominant in the mouths. The measured profiles of sand concentration varied with the tidal stage and seabed grain size according to the Rouse parameter ( R). R was high at the inlet mouths (1< R<2), indicative of a well-developed bedload layer. The inverse movability number ( W s/ U*) was also higher at these sites and appeared to be grain size dependant. Formulae for bedload transport were tested against field data; stochastic methods such as Einstein-Brown, Engelund-Hansen and Van Rijn produce the best fits. The coupled model SHYFEM-Sedtrans05 appears to simulate well observed transport for most conditions of flow. Long-term bedload predictions indicate a dominant export of sand, with a yearly average of 4500 m 3.

  18. Intertidal sand body migration along a megatidal coast, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.N.; Ruggiero, P.; Schoch, G.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2007-01-01

    Using a digital video-based Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in south central Alaska, we document the timing and magnitude of alongshore migration of intertidal sand bed forms over a cobble substrate during a 22-month observation period. Two separate sediment packages (sand bodies) of 1-2 m amplitude and ???200 m wavelength, consisting of well-sorted sand, were observed to travel along shore at annually averaged rates of 278 m/yr (0.76 m/d) and 250 m/ yr (0.68 m/d), respectively. Strong seasonality in migration rates was shown by the contrast of rapid winter and slow summer transport. Though set in a megatidal environment, data indicate that sand body migration is driven by eastward propagating wind waves as opposed to net westward directed tidal currents. Greatest weekly averaged rates of movement, exceeding 6 m/d, coincided with wave heights exceeding 2 m suggesting a correlation of wave height and sand body migration. Because Kachemak Bay is partially enclosed, waves responsible for sediment entrainment and transport are locally generated by winds that blow across lower Cook Inlet from the southwest, the direction of greatest fetch. Our estimates of sand body migration translate to a littoral transport rate between 4,400-6,300 m3/yr. Assuming an enclosed littoral cell, minimal riverine sediment contributions, and a sea cliff sedimentary fraction of 0.05, we estimate long-term local sea cliff retreat rates of 9-14 cm/yr. Applying a numerical model of wave energy dissipation to the temporally variable beach morphology suggests that sand bodies are responsible for enhancing wave energy dissipation by ???13% offering protection from sea cliff retreat. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Large-eddy simulation of coupled turbulence, free surface, and sand wave evolution in an open channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosronejad, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and validate a coupled 3D numerical model for carrying out three-phase large-eddy simulations of turbulence, free-surface, and sand waves-bed morphodynamics under live bed conditions. We employ the Fluid-Structure Interaction Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (FSI-CURVIB) method of Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res., 2011). The LES is implemented in the context of the CURVIB method using wall modeling (Kang and Sotiropoulos, Adv. in Water Res., 2011). Free-surface motion is simulated by coupling the CURVIB method with a two-phase level set approach as in Kang and Sotiropoulos (Adv. in Water Res., 2012). The mobile channel bed is discretized with an unstructured triangular grid and treated as the sharp-interface immersed boundary embedded in a background curvilinear mesh. Transport of bed load and suspended load sediments are combined in the non-equilibrium form of the Exner-Poyla for the bed surface elevation, which evolves due to the spatio-temporally varying bed shear stress field induced by the turbulent flow. Simulations are carried out for the rectangular flume experiments of Venditti et al. (2005). It is shown that the model can accurately capture sand-wave initiation, growth, and migration processes observed in the experiment. The simulated bed-forms are found to have amplitude and wave length scales of ~5 cm and ~30 cm, respectively. The effects of free-surface on bed-form dynamics is also quantified by comparing the three-phase simulation results with two-phase simulations using a fixed rigid-lid as the water surface.

  20. Visual accumulation tube for size analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.C.; Christensen, R.P.

    1956-01-01

    The visual-accumulation-tube method was developed primarily for making size analyses of the sand fractions of suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Because the fundamental property governing the motion of a sediment particle in a fluid is believed to be its fall velocity. the analysis is designed to determine the fall-velocity-frequency distribution of the individual particles of the sample. The analysis is based on a stratified sedimentation system in which the sample is introduced at the top of a transparent settling tube containing distilled water. The procedure involves the direct visual tracing of the height of sediment accumulation in a contracted section at the bottom of the tube. A pen records the height on a moving chart. The method is simple and fast, provides a continuous and permanent record, gives highly reproducible results, and accurately determines the fall-velocity characteristics of the sample. The apparatus, procedure, results, and accuracy of the visual-accumulation-tube method for determining the sedimentation-size distribution of sands are presented in this paper.

  1. An evaluation of the Rouse theory for sand transport in the Oka estuary, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ragum, A.; Monge-Ganuzas, M.; Amos, C. L.; Cearreta, A.; Townend, I.; Manca, E.

    2014-04-01

    The Rouse profile has been traditionally used to represent the vertical distribution of suspended sand in a marine benthic boundary layer. Yet it is one of the biggest unknowns in estuarine morphodynamics, largely due to uncertainties of the ratio of the sediment fall velocity to bed friction on which the Rouse exponent (R=ws/?ku*) is based. A field campaign was carried out at three different locations in the Oka estuary, northern Spain, in order to examine these uncertainties. Each location differed in grain size and flow condition thus offering a wide range of settings. The first survey was inside the estuary (wave sheltered, flood tide dominated and relatively broad estuary section), the second was at the distal ebb delta (ebb tide dominated and narrow estuary section), and the third was over the wave exposed proximal ebb delta (wave/flood tidal current combined flows and open sea). The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the Rouse (1937) theory for the distribution of sand in suspension throughout a turbulent benthic boundary layer. A modified version of a Helley-Smith sampler was used to trap sand and measure the vertical distribution of sand in the water column. As well, a 1200 ADCP was used to measure flow velocity and backscatter together with an ADV (turbulence). The sand traps were found to have a sampling efficiency of 44%. The grain size at all stations was finer near the surface and coarser near the bed. The sand transport inside the estuary (Station 1) is inwards dominant. By contrast, the sand concentration during the ebb tide was ten times higher than during the flood tide at Station 2 and even higher at Station 3, which suggests that the sand transport over the ebb delta is seawards. The average Rouse parameters for Stations 1, 2, and 3 are 0.48±0.035, 0.78±0.23, and 0.46±0.06 respectively, which correspond to a coefficient of proportionality of the movability number, (?) of 4 (Van Rijn, 1993). These differ from previous findings of Villatoro et al. (2010) and Amos et al. (2010b).

  2. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  3. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  4. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph N. Cannon; David E. De Lucia; William M. Jackson; James H. Porter

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom

  5. Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

    2014-11-01

    With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

  6. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  7. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  8. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment - Duration: 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  9. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports,...

  10. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports,...

  11. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports,...

  12. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports,...

  13. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports,...

  14. Influence of the bank vegetation on the river bed variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruei Ke, Bo; Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, You-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    In the natural rivers, woody vegetation commonly grows along the riverbank. When flood flows run through the woody vegetation zones, the stream processes are markedly affected. This study experimentally discusses the characteristics of flow fields and the changes of river bedform while water flows through woody vegetation zones. The experiments were produced in a flume with 20m long, 1m wide, and a fixed slope of 0.001. The woody vegetation was set in 10 square centimeters at one side of the flume. Experimental vegetation was simulated by the steel columns due to the stem of emergent woody vegetation near bed is rigid. The experimental flow was steady and flow velocity was adopted to near the critical flow for the initiation of sediment motion. Uniform sand with a median size of 0.88 mm was used as the bed sediment. The three dimensional flow fields of time-averaged velocity distributions and turbulent characteristics were measured by an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter(ADV). The bed morphology of equilibrium scour condition was measured by a Laser Distance Meter. The interactions between water flows and river bed with vegetation ware investigated by observing the scour and deposition processes around the vegetation zone. In addition, the flow fields at flat bed and equilibrium scour conditions are measured separately. Furthermore, the influence of vegetation density on the flow and bedform was investigated by using the present experiment. When the flows passed through the vegetation zones, the approaching flow was retarded by the vegetation zone along the vegetation-bank side and accelerated in the main channel. The flow velocities also reduced downstream of the vegetation zones and the water depths dropped significantly in the streamwise direction. It was observed that the levels of the sediment deposition decreased at downstream of the vegetation zones as the vegetation density increased. Near the vegetation zone, the size of the scour hole increased as the vegetation density increased.

  15. Solute dilution under imbibition and drainage conditions in a heterogeneous structure: Modeling of a sand tank experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Ippisch, O.; Flühler, H.

    2008-09-01

    This study aims at modeling the transport of a conservative tracer in two dimensions, as experimentally observed in a strongly heterogeneous medium under conditions of variable water saturation during drainage and imbibition. Solute transport experiments were conducted in a sand tank containing an artificial packing of three quartz sands of different particle sizes. The packing was characterized by the presence of numerous homogeneous layers (0.5 × 5 × 5 cm) inclined at 45° and randomly distributed in a tank. Six different stationary flow conditions were sequentially established during imbibition and drainage. When a stationary flow regime was reached, several solute pulses were applied at different positions at the upper surface of the sand structure. The transport regime was studied by monitoring the tracer plumes injected as point-like pulses at the surface, as they travelled through the sand bedding. A textural map was generated from a digital image of the sand bedding. The Richards equation was solved with the experimental boundary conditions assuming homogeneity of the individual sand layers. The hydraulic properties of the three quartz sands were deduced from multistep-outflow column experiments [Ursino N, Gimmi T. Combined effect of heterogeneity, anisotropy and saturation on steady state flow and transport: structure recognition and numerical simulation. Water Resour Res 2004;40. doi:10.1029/2003WR002180]. The convection-dispersion equation was solved on the resulting flow fields for solute pulses of given solute mass applied onto the top boundary at the same positions as in the experiment. The simulated and observed solute concentration distributions were then compared. In agreement with the experimental observations, the simulations reproduced the existence of preferential pathways in those stationary flow fields at low saturation degrees. The values of the vertical and horizontal macroscopic dispersivities obtained from the simulations are smaller than experimentally observed, especially at low flow rates. The simulated solute concentration distributions show a realistic degree of solute dilution quantified as reactor ratio.

  16. Biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures in a single-pass packed-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Lackey; T. J. Phelps; P. R. Bienkowski; D. C. White

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic chlorinated compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are major contaminants of\\u000a ground water. A single-pass packed-bed bioreactor was utilized to study the biodegradation of organic waste mixtures consisting\\u000a of PCE, TCE, and other short-chain chlorinated organics. The bioreactor consisted of two 1960-mL glass columns joined in a\\u000a series. One column was packed with sand containing a microbial

  17. A branching process model for sand avalanches

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Pelayo, R.; Salazar, I.; Schieve, W.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-07-01

    An analytically solvable model for sand avalanches of noninteracting grains of sand, based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, is presented. For a single avalanche, distributions of lifetimes, sizes of overflows and avalanches, and correlation functions are calculated. Some of these are exponentials, some are power laws. Spatially homogeneous distributions of avalanches are also studied. Computer simulations of avalanches of interacting grains of sand are compared to the solutions to the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. It is found that within the range of parameters explored in the simulation, the approximation of noninteracting grains of sand is a good one. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Roller micrometer analysis of grain size and shape sorting within sand laminae from lacustrine barrier islands

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, J.A.; Braun, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    The dynamics of sand lamination deposition were investigated for two barrier islands in Lake Erie: Cedar Point Spit, Ohio, and Presque Isle, Pennsylvania. A new measurement technique, roller micrometer analysis, was used to describe the grain size and shape distributions of samples. This technique mechanically sizes grains by both the intermediate (I) and smallest (S) principal dimensions and thus divides a sample into fractions containing grains with common I and S dimensions and tabularity (S/I) ratio. Portions of the two barrier islands are subject to overwashing by wind-driven lake waters. During such events foreshore laminae are eroded and the sand is redeposited in washover fan topset and foreset laminae. At other times, normal wave activity reworks the washover fan deposits into foreshore laminae. In the transport of sand across the barrier islands from the lake margin (foreshore laminae) through the interior (fan topset laminae) and to the lagoon margin (fan foreset laminae), the following trends are observed: mean grain size increases, grain size sorting become poorer, grain size skewness becomes coarser, and, for grains of the same size, the proportion of more tabular grains decreases. These trends indicate, in a lagoonward direction, progressive winnowing from the bed load of the finer and more tabular grains and increased intermixing of the remaining coarser bed load grains. Roller micrometer analysis is an important new tool for sedimentologists. It provides traditional grain-size distribution data along with the distribution of grain tabularity. Together the two distributions are sensitive indicators of winnowing and selective deposition.

  19. Investigating Sand on the Coast of Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komar, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes factors affecting sand composition and distribution along coastlines. Uses variations in sand types along the Oregon coast to illustrate the influences of sand grain density, wave action, and headlands on sand movements. Describes the seasonal movement of sand across beaches. (DLH)

  20. Sand veins and wedges in cold aeolian environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian B. Murton; Peter Worsley; Jan Gozdzik

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentary structures formed by the progressive primary infilling of thermal contraction cracks with sand are termed primary sand veins and sand wedges. In addition to simple vein- or wedge-shapes irregularities can be caused by sand veins branching from their sides and toes. Primary sand wedges form widely in sandy polar deserts, locally in sandy areas of tundra and probably in

  1. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  2. 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: thermal storage system test 1040. Part A. Bed conditioning procedure. Part B. Controls test procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cady

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the thermal storage unit bed conditioning procedure is to heat the thermal storage media (rock, sand, and oil) in the unit to 250°F to 300°F in order to remove all water in the bed and enable oil circulation at higher flows and temperatures to remove contamination and sediment from the oil. The general objectives of the 1040B

  3. Generalized thickness of the surficial deposits above the confining bed overlying the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Spechler, R.M.; Buono, Anthony

    1979-01-01

    This map report presents the thickness of the surficial deposits overlying the upper confining bed of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The surficial deposits range in thickness from less than 25 feet in the western part of the district to greater than 250 feet in the eastern part. The surficial deposits include sand, clayey sand, shell, and shelly marl that occur in the Holocene sand, Pleistocene marine terrace sand, and unconsolidated parts of the Fort Thompson Formation, Caloosahatchee Marl, Alachua Formation, and Bone Valley Formation. Lithologic logs and information from quarries were used in conjunction with an unpublished map prepared during an earlier investigation to compile this map at 1:250,000 scale. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Particle pressures in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Hu, X.; Jin, C.; Potapov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This is an experimental project to make detailed measurements of the particle pressures generated in fluidized beds. The focus lies in two principle areas: (1) the particle pressure distribution around single bubbles rising in a two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed and (2) the particle pressures measured in liquid-fluidized beds. This first year has largely been to constructing the experiments The design of the particle pressure probe has been improved and tested. A two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed has been constructed in order to measure the particle pressure generated around injected bubbles. The probe is also being adapted to work in a liquid fluidized bed. Finally, a two-dimensional liquid fluidized bed is also under construction. Preliminary measurements show that the majority of the particle pressures are generated in the wake of a bubble. However, the particle pressures generated in the liquid bed appear to be extremely small. Finally, while not directly associated with the particle pressure studies, some NERSC supercomputer time was granted alongside this project. This is being used to make large scale computer simulation of the flow of granular materials in hoppers.

  5. Salt diffusion in interstitial waters and halite removal from sediments: Examples from the Red Sea and Illinois basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnu Ranganathan

    1991-01-01

    Large thicknesses of bedded halite can be removed in subsiding sedimentary basins by vertical diffusion of dissolved salt in interstitial waters over geologic time scales. Calculations show that at least 10 m to 40 m of halite may have dissolved and diffused through the Red Sea sediments overlying the salt beds, since cessation of salt deposition approximately 5.3 million years

  6. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Mastellone, Maria Laura [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2010-07-01

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning. PMID:20172708

  8. Deccan Bole Beds: Mineral magnetism, interpretation and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P.; Sangode, S. J.; Gudadhe, S. S.; Meshram, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Deccan volcanism is one of the most celebrated continental flood volcanism and has been widely studied for its time constrains, duration and K-T mass extinction. Bole beds in Deccan volcanism delineates the hiatus in successive lava flows and are spectator of the extensive volcanism. Bole beds (composed of clays and volcanic ashes) are considered as the weathering products of the older neighboring lava flows and are trapped by younger lava flow. Field occurrences shows common red color for bole beds but occurs in a wide range from brown to green colors. Different color bole beds of DVP have been studied for their Field characteristics, Magnetic susceptibility (MS), Anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and Temperature-susceptibility (k-t) variations. A unique combination of high magnetic susceptibility (?lf), frequency dependent susceptibility (?fd %) and remanence coercivities [B0(CR)] in the red boles mark the significant presence of the finer/SP antiferromagnetic fraction explained here as oxidative baking product of the weathered basaltic sediment enriched in clay. The ultrafine hematite producing red coloration is characteristically of re-deposited pigmentary nature. The high reversibility k-t relation amongst red boles further substantiates their pre-heated nature up to ~ 700 degree Celsius and no significant addition/alteration of iron oxides after re-deposition. The [B0(CR)] for brown boles fall in the range of hard ferrimagnets (40 to 50 mT) and that for the green boles typically show softer or multi-domain (MD) nature (majority of <15mT with rare in the range of 30 to 40 mT). The presence of harder ferrimagnets [single-domain (SD) magnetites] in the brown boles proposes the authigenic (lacustrine) conditions in support of field characters. The green boles representing detrital ferrimagnets (larger/soft MD particles) is in accordance with their field occurrences of infilling, infiltration or detrital nature of deposition. The present study conducted over a variety of field occurrences within the Deccan Volcanic Province infer predominance of detrital processes governed by laterally migrating shallow channels and surface water run-off due to precipitation. Infiltration into fragmentary tops of the basalt bedrocks with baked/unbaked (red/brown bole) sediments; and the infilling into vugs and interstices is characteristics of green boles representing the less oxidative preservations. This resulted into a variety of depositional environments from ephemeral stream to floodplain ponding condtions. The study does not favour any significant pedogenesis or paleo-lateratization process representing a significant interval of non-deposition as proposed by previous work.

  9. Gravel-Bed Rivers V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, John M.

    Gravel-bed rivers attract an interesting cross-section of physical and biological scientists. The study of gravel-bed rivers creates a common currency for interdisciplinary exchange among fluvial geomorphologists, civil engineers, hydrologists, lotic biologists, and riparian ecologists. Gravel-bed rivers are also hotbeds for many current social and environmental issues: critical habitat for endangered salmonids; potential depositional zones for toxic byproducts of mining, industry, and agriculture; potential locations for exceeding Environmental Protection Agency standards for stream temperature and sediment load; and sources of destructive flooding for communities that encroach upon natural floodways.

  10. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A development plan for a proposed avionics test bed facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements is presented. A distributed data processing facility that utilizes the current laboratory resources for the test bed development is outlined. Future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are defined. A background analysis of the specific hardware system for the preliminary baseline avionics test bed system is included.

  11. Bed load transport above a bimodal sediment bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Eric; Houssais, Morgane

    2013-04-01

    Despite several decades of investigations, accounting for the effect of the wide range of grain sizes composing the bed of rivers on bedload transport remains a challenging problem. We investigate this problem by studying experimentally the influence of grain size distribution on bedload transport in the simple configuration of a bimodal sediment bed composed of a mixture of 2 populations of quartz grains of sizes D1 = 0.7 ± 0.1mm and D2 = 2.2 ± 0.4mm, respectively. The experiments are carried out in a tilted rectangular flume inside which the sediment bed is sheared by a steady and spatially uniform turbulent flow. Using a high-speed video imaging system, we focus on the measurement of the average particle velocity and the surface density of moving particles, defined as the number of moving particles per unit surface of the bed. These two quantities are measured separately for each population of grains as a function of the dimensionless shear stress (or Shields number) and the fraction of the bed surface covered with small grains. We show that the average velocity and the surface density of moving particles obey the same equations as those reported by Lajeunesse [2010] for a bed of homogeneous grain size. Once in motion, the grains follow therefore similar laws whether the bed is made of uniform sediment or of a bimodal mixture. This suggests that the erosion-deposition model established by Lajeunesse [2010] for a bed of uniform sediment can be generalized to the case of a bimodal one. The only difference evidenced by our experiments concerns the critical Shields number for incipient sediment motion. Above a uniform sediment bed, the latter depends on the particle Reynolds number through the Shields curve [Shields, 1936]. In the case of a bimodal bed, our experiments show that the critical Shields numbers of both populations of grains decrease linearly with the fraction of the bed surface covered with small grains. We propose a simple model to account for this observation.

  12. Sedimentary processes associated with sand and boulder deposits formed by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami at Sabusawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Ikema, Satoko; Miyagi, Toyohiko

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on the sedimentary processes of sand and boulder deposition at Sabusawa Island, Japan as a result of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Boulders were composed of tuffaceous rocks and sourced from an earthquake-triggered slope failure as well as concrete fragments of seawall. They were scattered over the ground surface and did not form boulder ridges, although there was some local imbrication. The boulders were deposited on top of a sand layer indicating that the latter, possibly deposited from bed load, covered the ground surface first. This sand layer probably reduced friction allowing boulders to be transported more easily than might be expected across a hard ground with a high bottom friction. Sand deposits showed landward thinning and fining features, while the boulders showed a landward coarsening (tuffaceous boulders) or a landward fining (concrete boulders), indicating that large clasts were not necessarily scattered randomly but rather might have a clast size gradient with distance inland. These features are explained by the local topographic setting that constrained the directions of incoming and returning tsunami flows. Some clasts at the inland extent of the boulder field were covered by an upward fining sand layer. This feature suggests that the boulders were deposited prior to the suspended sands, with the latter subsequently laid down before the water level dropped below the top of the boulders. Such modern investigations of the sedimentary features of various sizes of grains and clasts immediately after a tsunami provide invaluable data for the reconstruction of inundation processes.

  13. Sun glitter imaging analysis of submarine sand waves in HJ-1A/B satellite CCD images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaguo; He, Xiekai; Yang, Kang; Fu, Bin; Guan, Weibing

    2014-11-01

    Submarine sand waves are a widespread bed-form in tidal environment. Submarine sand waves induce current convergence and divergence that affect sea surface roughness thus become visible in sun glitter images. These sun glitter images have been employed for mapping sand wave topography. However, there are lots of effect factors in sun glitter imaging of the submarine sand waves, such as the imaging geometry and dynamic environment condition. In this paper, several sun glitter images from HJ-1A/B in the Taiwan Banks are selected. These satellite sun glitter images are used to discuss sun glitter imaging characteristics in different sensor parameters and dynamic environment condition. To interpret the imaging characteristics, calculating the sun glitter radiance and analyzing its spatial characteristics of the sand wave in different images is the best way. In this study, a simulated model based on sun glitter radiation transmission is adopted to certify the imaging analysis in further. Some results are drawn based on the study. Firstly, the sun glitter radiation is mainly determined by sensor view angle. Second, the current is another key factor for the sun glitter. The opposite current direction will cause exchanging of bright stripes and dark stripes. Third, brightness reversal would happen at the critical angle. Therefore, when using sun glitter image to obtain depth inversion, one is advised to take advantage of image properties of sand waves and to pay attention to key dynamic environment condition and brightness reversal.

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND930731 s UC706

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    SANDIA REPORT SAND93­0731 s UC­706 Unlimited Release Printed March 1993 Spaceborne SAR Study: LDRD, VA 22161 NTIS price codes Printed copy A06 Microfiche copy AO1 #12;SAND93-0731 Unlimited Release ................................................. 4.2 Power and Weight

  15. Radium Removal Using Sorption to Filter Sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Valentine; Timothy S. Mulholland; Roger C. Splinter

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of a novel sand filtration process that exploits the natural capacity of filter sand to sorb radium through the use of a periodic dilute acid rinse to maintain its sorptive capacity. Batch studies were conducted to determine distribution coefficients so that performance estimates could be made. Laboratory pilot studies using a partially softened groundwater showed

  16. Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve

    E-print Network

    inventory program, the National Park Service (NPS) contracted the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHPGreat Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve 2003 Vascular Plant Inventory Susan Spackman) in 2001-2004 to conduct a field inventory of vascular plants of Great Sand Dunes National Monument

  17. Sand Tray Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Kay; Ritter, Kelli B.; Willingham, Elizabeth U.

    2003-01-01

    Sand tray group counseling with adolescents is an activity-based intervention designed to help participants address specific intrapersonal concerns, learn important skills of socialization, and develop a caring community. The main focus of the group is building small worlds with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and having an…

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17460

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17460 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter Effects@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2014-17460 Unlimited

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17401

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-17401 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter (WEC://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2014-17401 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Wave Energy Converter

  20. SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0304

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0304 Unlimited Release Printed January 2012 A Retrospective of VAWT://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4- 0#online #12;-3- SAND2012-0304 Unlimited Release Printed January 2012 A Retrospective of VAWT

  1. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596

    E-print Network

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596 Unlimited Release Printed September 2004 Sensors for Environmental@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2004-4596 Unlimited

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336

    E-print Network

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336 Unlimited Release Printed Month/Year FY04 Field Evaluations of an In@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2005-0336 Unlimited

  3. SANDIA REPORT SAND 2012-4417

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND 2012-4417 Unlimited Release Printed June 2012 Site Environmental Report for 2011@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm #12;3 SAND 2012-4417 Unlimited Release Printed June 2012

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16800

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-16800 Unlimited Release Printed August 2014 A Comparison of Platform Options://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2014-16800 Unlimited Release Printed August 2014 A Comparison of Platform

  5. Explorations with the Sand and Water Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents sand and water activities for young children as examples of sensory explorations, science activities, and comforting play. Includes information on health and safety precautions, adaptations for children with physical disabilities, the use of other materials, and sand and water toys made from one-liter plastic bottles. (KB)

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND 2013-3735

    E-print Network

    SANDIA REPORT SAND 2013-3735 Unlimited Release Printed June 2013 Site Environmental Report for 2012@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND 2013-3735 Unlimited

  7. Characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Bunger

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of a Utah tar sand bitumen has been made using methods developed for high boiling petroleum fractions. The characterization includes information about the major compound types which can be compared with similar data for other tar sand bitumens and, more importantly, can be correlated with data from petroleum samples for which refining characteristics are known. Examination of

  8. Colonization patterns in Sand Martins Riparia riparia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Jones

    1987-01-01

    Settlement patterns of Sand Martins at a sand quarry in central Scotland are described. Older birds returned to the colony before first-year individuals, and thus had the widest choice of subcolony in which to nest. A model of subcolony settlement was developed which assumed that individuals nested in subcolonies where their reproductive success was maximized. The colonization patterns observed fitted

  9. Dinural patterns of blowing sand and dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex interaction between the sun, the atmosphere, and the sand surface. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the surface la...

  10. Introduction to Exploring Sand and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    What happens when children pour water through a funnel? They begin to understand science and math concepts such as flow, force, gravity, and volume. What happens when children mold sand to create a tunnel? They develop skills in areas such as problem solving and predicting. They also gain knowledge about absorption and the properties of sand and…

  11. RADIUM REMOVAL USING SORPTION TO FILTER SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the use of a novel sand filtration process that exploits the natural capacity of filter sand to sorb radium through the use of a periodic dilute acid rinse to maintain its sorptive capacity. Batch studies were conducted to determine distribution coefficients s...

  12. 16th President Timothy D. Sands

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    and conference proceedings and has been granted 17 patents in electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices, and thermoelectric refrigeration. Sands is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers children, each of whom has attended Purdue University. Installation of President Timothy D. Sands - 2 - #12

  13. White Sands National Monument: Education Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service website contains the following reference sections: Where Does All the Sand Come From?, Animals of the Desert, How Do Sand Dunes Move?, and Plants of the Dune Field. There are recommended reading lists for students from preschool to high school interested in pursuing these topics further.

  14. Update on federal tight sands incentive policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buch

    1980-01-01

    Recognizing the great potential of increased domestic tight sands production in reducing imports of foreign energy, several branches of the federal government have initiated policies to encourage development of this resource. However, these policies have been slow in formulation, and some are potentially in conflict with each other. Two characteristics of tight sands gas have led to it being singled

  15. UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project University of Minnesota

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project University of Minnesota Public Comment Forum and Open ­ Steven Lott, Co-project manager, UMore Park Sand and Gravel Resources Project 6:40 The UMore Park Sand

  16. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  17. Influence of the sediment supply texture on morphological adjustments in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Boix, Carles; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2014-11-01

    The role played by the texture of the sediment supply on channel bed adjustments in gravel-bed rivers is poorly understood. To address this issue, an experimental campaign has been designed. Flume experiments lasting 96 h in a 9 m long, 0.60 m wide have been performed with different sand-gravel mixtures as feed textures. The response of the surface texture has been found to be highly dependent on the grain size distribution of the feed. When the feed texture included gravel, the finest fractions of the sediment supply infiltrate beneath the surface. Conversely, sand remains on the surface when the feed texture lacks gravel. This different textural response becomes obscured when water discharge increases. Further, the sediment transport rate approaches the feed rate differently depending on the content of gravel in the feed texture. When a small proportion of gravel is part of the feed texture, bed load transport rate asymptotically approaches the feed rate. However, when a significant fraction of gravel is part of the feed grain size distribution, bed load transport rate approaches the feed rate by following an oscillatory path. These findings have been verified in terms of a one-dimensional numerical model. This modeling reveals that the higher the differences in mobility among the grain sizes contained in the feed texture, the more evident is the nonasymptotic transient trend toward equilibrium.

  18. Ecological release in White Sands lizards.

    PubMed

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-12-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  19. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    PubMed Central

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  20. Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bridges, N T; Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Leprince, S; Lucas, A; Mattson, S

    2012-05-17

    Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar. PMID:22596156