Science.gov

Sample records for redox multi-wall carbon

  1. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Growth in Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Arenas, Daniel J; Kohno, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    We report chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) inside another MWCNTs from a cementite (Fe3C) catalyst nanoparticles. The CNTs have bi or tri-layered core(s)-sheath structure with various crystallinity. The sheath grows first at a lower temperature, and then the catalyst nanoparticle works again to grow the core(s) at a higher temperature in the tip or root growth mode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation provides a clear piece of evidence of reverse-inward growth. PMID:26353735

  2. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Rance, G A; Miners, S A; Herreros Lucas, C; Smith, E F; Fay, M W; Zoberbier, T; Giménez-López, M C; Kaiser, U; Brown, P D; Khlobystov, A N

    2016-04-29

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon-carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes. PMID:26987452

  3. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Torre, A.; Rance, G. A.; Miners, S. A.; Herreros Lucas, C.; Smith, E. F.; Fay, M. W.; Zoberbier, T.; Giménez-López, M. C.; Kaiser, U.; Brown, P. D.; Khlobystov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon-carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10155 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10155 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-177) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10663 - Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Functionalized multi-walled carbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10663 Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a... generically as functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-12-44) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10663 - Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Functionalized multi-walled carbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10663 Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a... generically as functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-12-44) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10183 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10183 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-199) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10155 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10155 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-177) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10155 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10155 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-177) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10183 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10183 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-199) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10183 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10183 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-199) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10671 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10671 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substances... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMNs P-09-198 and P-09-199) are subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10155 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10155 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-177) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10183 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10183 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical substance... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-08-199) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. Macrodispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for conductive films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duckjong; Zhu, Lijing; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Chang-Soo; Baik, Seunghyun

    2012-04-01

    Understanding of the effect of the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersion process on physical properties of MWCNT film is crucial in process optimization of MWCNT film-based products. In the present work, the electrical conduction property of MWCNT films according to various conditions in MWCNT dispersion is investigated. Spectroscopic analysis of dispersed MWCNTs show that the electrical resistance of the MWCNT conductive film is affected by an increase in the electrical contacts between adjacent CNTs due to CNT debundling and physical damage caused by ultrasonic processing. Based on the two conflicting parameters, dispersion guidelines for highly conductive MWCNT film are presented. PMID:22849134

  16. Modeling Composites of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prashant; Goyal, Meenakshi; Kumar, Navin

    2013-10-01

    High strain rate experiments performed on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, polycarbonate composites (MWCNT-PC) have exhibited enhanced impact resistance under a dynamic strain rate of nearly 2500/s with composition of only 0.5 to 2.0% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in pure polycarbonate (PC). Similarly, hardness and elastic modulus under static loads resulted in a significant increase, depending upon the composition of MWCNTs in PC. The present work aims to analyze these results by correlating the data to fit expressions in generalizing the behavior of MWCNTs composition for MWCNT-PC composites under both static and impact loads. As a result, we found that an optimum composition of 2.1 weight % of MWCNTs exhibits maximum stress resistance within elastic range under strain rates of nearly 2500/s for MWCNT-PC composites. The composition of MWCNTs plays a crucial role in maximizing modification of static and dynamic impact-based mechanical properties of polycarbonates. Further, a simple model based on Lennard-Jones 6-12 atom-atom based potential is formulated and used to compute preliminary estimates of static properties of pure as well as composite PC with the aim to modify this in subsequent approaches.

  17. Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Tumor Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Shi, Jinjin; Hao, Yongwei; Zhang, Panpan; Zhao, Yalin; Meng, Dehui; Li, Dong; Chang, Junbiao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2015-09-01

    Current diagnostic techniques do not reliably detect cancer at early stages, and traditional chemotherapy lacks specificity and causes systemic toxicity. To address these issues, multifunctional nanomaterials are becoming more widely studied as a means of cancer detection, therapy, and monitoring. Here, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were conjugated onto the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), which were then modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve their solubility and biocompatibility. Finally, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) siRNA was loaded on the MWNT surface by electrostatic interaction to obtain a multifunctional delivery system (MWNT-Fe3O4-PEI-PEG/siRNA). This delivery system efficiently delivered siRNA, allowed targeting of certain sites by magnetic fields, facilitated photothermal heating by near infrared irradiation, and enabled magnetic resonance imaging, thereby indicating great potential for cancer theranostic applications. PMID:26485934

  18. Freestanding Aligned Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, João Vitor Silva; Corat, Evaldo José; May, Paul William; Cardoso, Lays Dias Ribeiro; Lelis, Pedro Almeida; Zanin, Hudson

    2016-08-01

    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for supercapacitor devices. Freestanding vertically-aligned MWCNTs and MWCNT powder were grown concomitantly in a one-step chemical vapour deposition process. Samples were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies and Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. At similar film thicknesses and surface areas, the freestanding MWCNT electrodes showed higher electrochemical capacitance and gravimetric specific energy and power than the randomly-packed nanoparticle-based electrodes. This suggests that more ordered electrode film architectures facilitate faster electron and ion transport during the charge-discharge processes. Energy storage and supply or supercapacitor devices made from these materials could bridge the gap between rechargeable batteries and conventional high-power electrostatic capacitors.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10274 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-09-188).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to undergo further processing except for mechanical processing. (2) The significant new uses are: (i... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10274 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-09-188). (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10275 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-09-0417).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that is not intended to undergo further processing, except for mechanical processing. (2) The... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10275 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-09-0417). (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10703 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... into an article as defined at 40 CFR 721.3(c). (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10703 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a) Chemical...

  2. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eugene; Lee, Jaegeun; Jung, Seung-Ho; Cho, Seungho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Kun-Hong; Song, Kyong-Hwa; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Han, Do Suck

    2012-04-01

    A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min-1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20-30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  3. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  4. Glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide photoanode for light energy storage in vanadium photoelectrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peimanifard, Zahra; Rashid-Nadimi, Sahar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is utilizing the artificial photosynthesis, which is an attractive and challenging theme in the photoelectrocatalytic water splitting, to charge the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). In this work multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide hybrid is employed as a photoanode material to oxidize VO2+ to VO2+ for charging the positive vanadium redox flow battery's half-cell. Characterization studies are also described using the scanning electron microscopic-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and UV-Visible methods. The phtoelectrochemical performance is characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) is achieved for both two and three-electrode configurations. The glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide yields high maximum ABPE of 2.6% and 2.12% in three and two-electrode setups, respectively. These results provide a useful guideline in designing photoelectrochemical cells for charging the vanadium redox flow batteries by sunlight as a low cost, free and abundant energy source, which does not rely on an external power input.

  5. Surface studies of hydroxylated multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Robert; Cassity, Kelby; Andrews, Rodney; Meier, Mark; Osbeck, Susan; Andreu, Aurik; Johnston, Colin; Crossley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    CVD grown MWCNTs, of typical diameter 5 to 50 nm and with approximately 15-20 concentric graphene layers in the multi-walls, have been surface functionalised using the Fenton hydroxylation reaction. HRTEM reveals little physical difference between the treated and untreated materials; images from both exhibit similar multi-wall structure and contain evidence for some low-level disruption of the very outermost layers. Raman spectra from the two types of nanotubes are almost identical displaying the disorder (D) peaks at approximately 1350 cm{sup -1} and graphite (G) peaks at approximately 1580 cm{sup -1}, characteristic of graphene-based carbon materials, in approximately equal intensity ratios. Equilibrium adsorption data for nitrogen at 77 K leads to BET surface areas of 60.4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for the untreated and 71.8 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for the hydroxylated samples; the increase in area being due to separation of the tube-bundles during functionalization. This is accompanied by a decrease in measured porosity, mostly at high relative pressures of nitrogen, i.e. where larger (meso 2-5 nm and macro >5 nm) pores are being filled, which is consistent with an attendant loss of inter-tube capillarity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that hydroxylation increases the nanotube surface oxygen level from 4.3 at.% to 22.3 at.%; chemical shift data indicate that approximately 75% of that oxygen is present as hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Water vapour adsorption by the hydroxylated surfaces leads to Type II isotherms which are characteristic of relatively high numbers of hydrogen bonding interactions compared to the untreated materials which exhibit Type III curves. This difference in polar surface energy is confirmed by calorimetric enthalpies of immersion in water which are -54 mJ m{sup -2} for the untreated and -192 mJ m{sup -2} for the hydroxylated materials. The treated materials therefore have significantly increased water wettability/dispersivity and a greater

  6. Mobility of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Liu, X.; Petersen, E.; Huang, Q.; Anderson, L.

    2007-12-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are the subject of intense research and are expected to gain widespread usage in a broad variety of commercial products. However concerns have been raised regarding their potential environmental and health risks. The mobility of MWCNTs in porous media is examined in this study through one dimensional flow-through column experiments under conditions representative of subsurface and drinking water treatment systems. The goal of this work was to determine dominant MWCNT removal mechanisms and factors that control MWCNT transport. Results demonstrate that pore water velocity strongly influenced MWCNT transport, a result that stands in contrast to traditional colloid filtration theory, which suggests a relatively minor effect of flow velocity in comparison to Brownian diffusion. Experiments conducted at different ionic strengths indicate that both particle deposition and straining are important MWCNT removal mechanisms from the aqueous phase. Given these findings, traditional colloid filtration theory may not be appropriate for the prediction of MWCNT mobility in porous media. This may be due to the large aspect ratio of the MWCNTs and the importance of straining in MWCNT removal.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-based RF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwi, Taha A.; Al-Rizzo, Hussain M.; Rucker, Daniel G.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Li, Zhongrui; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel application that utilizes conductive patches composed of purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in a sodium cholate composite thin film to create microstrip antennas operating in the microwave frequency regime is proposed. The MWCNTs are suspended in an adhesive solvent to form a conductive ink that is printed on flexible polymer substrates. The DC conductivity of the printed patches was measured by the four probe technique and the complex relative permittivity was measured by an Agilent E5071B probe. The commercial software package, CST Microwave Studio (MWS), was used to simulate the proposed antennas based on the measured constitutive parameters. An excellent agreement of less than 0.2% difference in resonant frequency is shown. Simulated and measured results were also compared against identical microstrip antennas that utilize copper conducting patches. The proposed MWCNT-based antennas demonstrate a 5.6% to 2.2% increase in bandwidth, with respect to their corresponding copper-based prototypes, without significant degradation in gain and/or far-field radiation patterns.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, C. M. S.; Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    The pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized by the ultrasonication process. The oxidized MWCNTs were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform -Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques. The XRD analysis confirms that the oxidized MWCNTs exist in a hexagonal structure and the sharp XRD peak corresponds to the (002) Bragg's reflection plane, which indicates that the MWCNTs have higher crystalline nature. The UV-Vis analysis confirms that the MWCNTs functionalized with the carboxylic acid. The red shift was observed corresponds to the D band in the Raman spectrum, which reveals that the reduced disordered graphitic structure of oxidized MWCNTs. The strong Raman peak was observed at 2563 cm-1 corresponds to the overtone of the D band, which is the characteristic vibrational mode of oxidized MWCNTs. The carboxylic acid functionalization of MWCNTs enhances the dispersibility, which paves the way for potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery.

  9. Biological effects of agglomerated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Wang, Lin; Chen, Ni; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials play crucial roles in determining their biological effects. Agglomeration of nanomaterials in various systems is a common phenomenon, however, how agglomeration affects the biological consequence of nanomaterials has not been well investigated because of its complexity. Herein, we prepared variable sized agglomerates of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) by using Ca(2+) and studied their cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. We found the altered property of O-MWCNTs agglomerates could be controlled and adjusted by the amount of Ca(2+). Agglomeration remarkably facilitated the cellular uptake of O-MWCNTs at the initial contact stage, due to the easy contact of agglomerates with cells. But agglomeration did not induce evident cytotoxicity when the concentration of O-MWCNTs was less than 150μg/mL. That was assayed by cell proliferation, membrane integrity, apoptosis and ROS generation. This study suggests us that the biological behaviors of nanomaterials could be altered by their states of agglomeration. PMID:26930035

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: sampling criteria and aerosol characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Stone, Samuel; Cumpston, Jared L.; Friend, Sherri; Porter, Dale W.; Castranova, Vincent; Frazer, David G.

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to develop protocols for sampling and characterizing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) aerosols in workplaces or during inhalation studies. Manufactured dry powder containing MWCNT’s, combined with soot and metal catalysts, form complex morphologies and diverse shapes. The aerosols, examined in this study, were produced using an acoustical generator. Representative samples were collected from an exposure chamber using filters and a cascade impactor for microscopic and gravimetric analyses. Results from filters showed that a density of 0.008–0.10 particles per µm2 filter surface provided adequate samples for particle counting and sizing. Microscopic counting indicated that MWCNT’s, resuspended at a concentration of 10 mg/m3, contained 2.7 × 104 particles/cm3. Each particle structure contained an average of 18 nanotubes, resulting in a total of 4.9 × 105 nanotubes/cm3. In addition, fibrous particles within the aerosol had a count median length of 3.04 µm and a width of 100.3 nm, while the isometric particles had a count median diameter of 0.90 µm. A combination of impactor and microscopic measurements established that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the mixture was 1.5 µm. It was also determined that the mean effective density of well-defined isometric particles was between 0.71 and 0.88 g/cm3, and the mean shape factor of individual nanotubes was between 1.94 and 2.71. The information obtained from this study can be used for designing animal inhalation exposure studies and adopted as guidance for sampling and characterizing MWCNT aerosols in workplaces. The measurement scheme should be relevant for any carbon nanotube aerosol. PMID:23033994

  11. Properties and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsierkezos, Nikos G.; Ritter, Uwe; Nugraha Thaha, Yudi; Krischok, Stefan; Himmerlich, Marcel; Downing, Clive

    2015-10-01

    Boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized upon decomposition of ethyl alcohol and boric acid via chemical vapor deposition. The boron-doped nanotubes were treated with hydrochloric acid and were characterized by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemistry of ferrocyanide/ferricyanide on boron-doped nanotubes was studied in temperature range of 283.15-303.15 K. The findings exhibit an improvement of films' current response and kinetics of electron transfer with the rise in temperature. The kinetics for electron transfer enhances and the redox process occurs slightly more spontaneously upon acid treatment.

  12. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an aldol reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronopoulos, D. D.; Kokotos, C. G.; Karousis, N.; Kokotos, G.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-01-01

    The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was evaluated for the first time, showing to proceed almost quantitatively in aqueous media. Furthermore, several amino-modified MWCNTs were prepared and examined in the particular aldol reaction. These new hybrid materials exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity in water, contrasting with the pristine MWCNTs as well as the parent organic molecule, which failed to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Furthermore, the modified MWCNTs proved to catalyze the aldol reaction even after three repetitive cycles. Overall, a green approach for the aldol reaction is presented, where water can be employed as the solvent and modified MWCNTs can be used as catalysts, which can be successfully recovered and reused, while their catalytic activity is retained.The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction

  13. The hepatotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zongfei; Zhang, Danying; Li, Ling; Shen, Xizhong; Deng, Xiaoyong; Dong, Ling; Wu, Minhong; Liu, Yuanfang

    2009-11-01

    The hepatotoxicity of two types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), acid-oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs) and Tween-80-dispersed MWCNTs (T-MWCNTs), were investigated with Kunming mice exposed to 10 and 60 mg kg-1 by intravenous injection for 15 and 60 d. Compared with the PBS group, the body-weight gain of the mice decreased and the level of total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase increased in the MWCNT-exposed group with a significant dose-effect relationship, while tumor necrosis factor alpha level did not show significant statistical change within 60 d. Spotty necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal region, hepatocyte mitochondria swelling and lysis were observed with a significant dose-effect relationship in the MWCNT groups. Liver damage of the T-MWCNT group was more severe than that of the O-MWCNT group according to the Roenigk classification system. Furthermore, T-MWCNTs induce slight liver oxidative damage in mice at 15 d, which was recovered at 60 d. Part of the gene expressions of mouse liver in the MWCNT groups changed compared to the PBS group, including GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), cholesterol biosynthesis, metabolism by cytochrome P450, natural-killer-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, TNF- α, NF-κB signaling pathway, etc. In the P450 pathway, the gene expressions of Gsta2 (down-regulated), Cyp2B19 (up-regulated) and Cyp2C50 (down-regulated) had significant changes in the MWCNT groups. These results show that a high dose of T-MWCNTs can induce hepatic toxicity in mice while O-MWCNTs seem to have less toxicity.

  14. Exchange of Surfactant by Natural Organic Matter on the Surfaces of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing production and applications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have elicited concerns regarding their release and potential adverse effects in the environment. To form stable aqueous MWCNTs suspensions, surfactants are often employed to facilitate dispersion...

  15. Direct Oxidation of Tryptophan on Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Electrode and its Application to Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Shoda, Yoshio; Tani, Yuji; Yamada, Yohei; Motonaka, Junko

    Direct oxidation of tryptophan on multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode was examined. Surface poisoning, which was suppression of oxidative current caused from adsorption of oxidized compounds of amino acids through multiple redox scan, was observed on carbon material electrodes (multi-wall carbon nano tube(CNT), carbon powder(CP), Ketjen Black (KB) and glassy carbon(GC). It was found that CNT showed a highly inhibitory effect on the surface poisoning and high current value in the direct oxidation of tryptophan because of a π-π interaction between CNT and indole ring of tryptophan results from orbital mixing. This CNT modified GC electrode was applied to an anode in a fuel cell used with amino acids as fuel. As a result, the maximum of the power density showed 0.36 mW cm-2 at 2.5 mA cm-2 of the current density and 140 mV of the cell voltage.

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with rectangular or square cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kanako; Kohno, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with rectangular or square cross-section are formed. The nanotubes are about 50-200 nm in width, and their walls are around 5-30 nm thick. It is very likely that the rectangular cross-section is shaped simultaneously when nanotubes are formed from catalyst Fe nanoparticles during chemical vapor deposition process, and the shape is stabilized by the bonding between adjoining graphene layers in the multi-walled structure.

  17. Glucose biosensor based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes and screen printed carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wen-Jun; Li, Yu; Chen, Yu-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Hu, Gui-Quan

    2005-09-15

    This paper describes a disposable electrochemical biosensor for glucose monitoring. The sensor was based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized with glucose oxidase and upon screen printed carbon electrode. The effect of MWCNTs on the response of amperometric glucose oxidase electrode for glucose was examined. Results obtained, of interest for basic and applied biochemistry, represent a first step in construction of a MWCNT-enzyme electrode biosensor with potentialities for a successful application in the biosensor area. PMID:16076441

  18. Fabrication and characterization of the composites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Yeh, Shun-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes with superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties have received intensive attention in recent years. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were infused into a liquid epoxy, and the solution was sonicated for three hours to separate the aggregation of the MWCNTs and achieve good dispersion. The trapped air was removed from the mixture using a high vacuum. To investigate the effect of matrix stiffness on the mechanical properties of the MWCNT nanocomposites, the mixture ratio between the epoxy and hardener was varied. Two different contents (1% wt. and 2% wt.) of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes were added into the epoxy matrix. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the Young's modulus, yielding stress and tensile strength of the nanocomposites. The natural frequency and damping ratio of the nanocomposites were evaluated using free vibration tests. Experimental results show that the Young's modulus and natural frequency of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites increase with increase of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. While the damping ratio of the nanocomposites decreases with increase of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The reinforcement role of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes is less significant in a hard matrix when compares with a soft matrix. PMID:23421186

  19. The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on soil microbial community functional and structural diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are increasing; however, their impact on the environment is still not well understood. A semi-arid soil was treated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at four different concentrations (10-10000 mgMWCNTs kg-1soil), and incubat...

  20. Evaluation of Fibrogenic Potential of Industrial Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Acute Aspiration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.; Kisin, E. R.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Fatkhutdinova, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Local inflammatory response in the lungs and fibrogenic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in an acute aspiration experiment in mice. The doses were chosen based on the concentration of nanotubes in the air at a workplace of the company-producer. ELISA, flow cytometry, enhanced darkfield microscopy, and histological examination showed that multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced local inflammation, oxidative stress, and connective tissue growth (fibrosis). Serum levels of TGF-β1 and osteopontin proteins can serve as potential exposure biomarkers. PMID:25778660

  1. Numerical simulation of polarization beam splitter with triangular lattice of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingxing; Yun, Maojin; Wang, Mei; Liu, Chao; Li, Kai; Qin, Xiheng; Kong, Weijin; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-12-01

    A kind of polarization beam splitter with triangular lattice of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays is designed and simulated. In the employed structure transverse-electric (TE) light is confined in the line defect with photonic band gap effect, while transverse-magnetic (TM) light is guided through it with extremely low diffraction. The performance of the designed polarization beam splitter is evaluated by utilizing optical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, finite element modeling of wave propagation and transmission through periodic arrays. Simulation results indicate that the designed polarization beam splitter has low loss and less cross talk, and thereby may have practical applications in the integrated optical field.

  2. Mechanical buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The effects of slenderness ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian-Ming; Hwang, Chi-Chuang; Kuo, Qu-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Che

    2008-03-01

    Buckling strengths, in terms of compressive strain, of single-, double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated to study the effects of slenderness ratio ( SR) via the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the Tersoff potential. Under constant ratio of slenderness, the CNTs with small SR behave like a continuum shell object. For large SR's, multi-walled CNTs exhibit the characteristics of the Euler columns. In addition, smaller nanotubes possess higher buckling-resistance. The buckling strength of multi-walled nanotubes is controlled by the size of their outermost shell.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10276 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-39).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., metal, glass, or ceramic form that is not intended to undergo further processing except for mechanical processing. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the workplace. Requirements as specified in... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10279 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-246).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-246). 721.10279 Section 721.10279 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  5. Limited transport of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in two natural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Column experiments were conducted in undisturbed and in repacked soil columns at water contents close to saturation (85–96%) to investigate the transport and retention of functionalized 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in two natural soils. Additionally, a field lysimeter experiment...

  6. Planar gas chromatography column on aluminum plate with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, I. A.; Platonov, V. I.; Pavelyev, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The high selectivity of the adsorption layer for low-boiling alkanes is shown, the separation factor (α) couple iso-butane / butane is 1.9 at a column temperature of 50 °C.The paper presents sorption and selective properties of planar gas chromatography column on aluminum plate with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the stationary phase.

  7. 75 FR 44198 - Proposed Significant New Use Rule for Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... public comment period established in the Federal Register of February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5546) (FRL-8796-7... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Proposed Significant New Use Rule for Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes... multi-walled carbon nanotubes (P-08-199). In order to address public comments, EPA is adding...

  8. Effect of pulsed ion irradiation on the electronic structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of pulsed ion irradiation and vacuum annealing on the ratio of sp 2- and sp 3-hybridized orbitals of carbon atoms in the layers of oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been studied by analyzing the photoemission spectra of the C1 s core level and the valence band of carbon, which were obtained using the equipment of the BESSY II Russian-German beamline of synchrotron radiation and a Riber analytical system. It has been shown that the ion irradiation leads to a significant decrease in the fraction of atoms with the sp 3 hybridization of electrons. On the contrary, the annealing reduces the fraction of the sp 3-component in the spectra of carbon. Typical features of the valence band of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the annealed and irradiated states have been established.

  9. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10277 - Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not intended to undergo further processing except for mechanical processing. (2) The significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Single-walled and multi-walled carbon... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10277 Single-walled and multi-walled...

  11. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  12. Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Metal-encapsulated Multi-walled Carbon Nanobeads

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A novel, cost-effective, easy and single-step process for the synthesis of large quantities of magnetic metal-encapsulated multi-walled carbon nanobeads (MWNB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) using catalytic chemical vapour deposition of methane over Mischmetal-based AB3alloy hydride catalyst is presented. The growth mechanism of metal-encapsulated MWNB and MWNT has been discussed based on the catalytically controlled root-growth mode. These carbon nanostructures have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties of metal-filled nanobeads have been studied using PAR vibrating sample magnetometer up to a magnetic field of 10 kOe, and the results have been compared with those of metal-filled MWNT.

  14. Deformation and Failure of a Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Yarn Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Jefferson, Gail D.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.

    2008-01-01

    Forests of multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be twisted and manipulated into continuous fibers or yarns that exhibit many of the characteristics of traditional textiles. Macro-scale analysis and test may provide strength and stiffness predictions for a composite composed of a polymer matrix and low-volume fraction yarns. However, due to the nano-scale of the carbon nanotubes, it is desirable to use atomistic calculations to consider tube-tube interactions and the influence of simulated twist on the effective friction coefficient. This paper reports laboratory test data on the mechanical response of a multi-walled, carbon nanotube yarn/polymer composite from both dynamic and quasi-static tensile tests. Macroscale and nano-scale analysis methods are explored and used to define some of the key structure-property relationships. The measured influence of hot-wet aging on the tensile properties is also reported.

  15. The surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zongshuang; Qiu, Li; Yang, Yongzhen; Chen, Yongkang; Liu, Xuguang

    2015-10-01

    The effects of surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the morphology, dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) (MWCNT/PEEK) composites have been investigated. MWCNTs were treated with mixed acids to obtain acid-functionalized MWCNTs. Then the acid-functionalized MWCNTs were modified with ethanolamine (named e-MWCNTs). The MWCNT/PEEK composites were prepared by a solution-blending method. A more homogeneous distribution of e-MWCNTs within the composites was found with scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated a clear increase in the storage modulus of e-MWCNT/PEEK composites because of the improved interfacial adhesion strength between e-MWCNTs and PEEK. Furthermore, the presence of e-MWCNTs caused an enhancement in the glass transition temperature of the composites. Wear tests have shown that the friction coefficient of e-MWCNT/PEEK composites decreased significantly during the test after the running-in period. This suggests that there is an obvious improvement in tribological properties of e-MWCNT/PEEK composites. Overall, the e-MWCNT/PEEK composites have exhibited improved properties and are promising for their applications in industry.

  16. Covalent conjugation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with proteins.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changqing; Qi, Suijian; Zhang, Dawei; Yang, Mengsu

    2010-01-01

    Linkage of proteins to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is fundamentally important for applications of CNTs in medicinal and biological fields, as well as in biosensor or chemically modulated nanoelectronic devices. In this contribution, we provide a detailed protocol for the synthesis and characterization of covalent CNT-protein adducts. Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with proteins has been achieved by the initial carboxylation of MWCNTs followed by amidation with the desired proteins. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements validated the presence of a covalent linkage between MWCNTs and proteins. The visualization of proteins on the surface of MWCNTs was furthermore achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The protein-conjugated nanocomposites can also be assembled into multidimensional addressable heterostructures through highly specific biomolecular recognition system (e.g., antibody-antigen). PMID:20422377

  17. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  18. Synthesis of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/TiO2 Composite and Its Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongying; Qu, Caifeng; Zhang, Tingting; Zhu, Liwei; Ma, Wen

    2016-03-01

    TiO2 particles coated Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/TiO2 composite) were prepared via a sol-gel method using Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and tetrabutyl titanate as raw materials. The phase constitutes and microstructures of the prepared composite were analyzed by XRD and TEM, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were investigated under simulated ultra-violet light and visible-light irradiation for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution, respectively. The experimental results indicated that TiO2 calcined at temperatures of 400-600 degrees C in the MWCNT/TiO2 composite was mainly composed of nanometric anatase. The composite exhibited enhanced absorption properties in the visible-light region compared to pure TiO2, which was attributed to the enhanced light electron-hole separation by adding MWCNTs. PMID:27455683

  19. Multi-wall carbon nanotube@zeolite imidazolate framework composite from a nanoscale zinc oxide precursor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Yanfeng; Guo, Bingkun; Qiao, Zhenan; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Chen, Jihua; Binder, Andrew J.; Tian, Chengcheng; Dai, Sheng

    2014-07-24

    Nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotube@zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MWNT@ZIF) was prepared through a nanotube-facilitated growth based on a nanosized ZnO precursor. The electrically conductive nanocomposite displays a capacity of 380 mAh/g at 0.1 °C in Li–sulfur battery, transforming electrically inactive ZIF into the active one for battery applications.

  20. Structural ordering of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) caused by gamma (γ)-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Silambarasan, D. Vasu, V.; Iyakutti, K.; Asokan, K.

    2015-06-24

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were irradiated by Gamma (γ)-rays in air with absorbed doses of 25 and 50 kGy. As a result of γ-ray irradiation, the inter-wall distance of MWCNTs was decreased and their graphitic order was improved. The reduction in inter-wall distance and structural ordering was improved with the increasing dosage of irradiation. Experimental evidences are provided by powder XRD and micro-Raman analyses.

  1. Mapping functional groups on oxidised multi-walled carbon nanotubes at the nanometre scale.

    PubMed

    Goode, A E; Hine, N D M; Chen, S; Bergin, S D; Shaffer, M S P; Ryan, M P; Haynes, P D; Porter, A E; McComb, D W

    2014-06-28

    Despite voluminous research on the acid oxidation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), there is a distinct lack of experimental results showing distributions of functional groups at the nanometre length scale. Here, functional peaks have been mapped across individual multi-walled CNTs with low-dose, monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Density functional theory simulations show that the EELS features are consistent with oxygenated functional groups, most likely carboxyl moieties. PMID:24827593

  2. Ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kozulin, Alexander A. Vorozhtsov, Sergey A. Kulkov, Sergey S.; Kulkov, Sergey N.; Teipel, U.

    2015-10-27

    Comprehensive investigations of aluminum nanopowders, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes subjected to ultrasonic deagglomeration in a liquid medium were performed, using microstructural, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses, and specific surface area measurements. The regime of ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a liquid medium is described, during which the division of large agglomerates and creation of homogeneous distribution of mixtures components in the volume takes place. It was determined that ultrasonic treatment influences the morphology and crystalline structure of investigated mixtures, contributes to the appearance of X-ray amorphous phase, decreases the specific surface area of the aluminum nanopowder from 13 to 12 m{sup 2}/g, and increases the pore volume and average size from 0.04 to 0.06 cm{sup 3}/g and from 12 to 19 nm, respectively. The size of coherently-diffracting domain was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis is close to that estimated from the specific surface area and corresponds to average crystallites size in the materials under study.

  3. Processing route to disentangle multi-walled carbon nanotube towards ceramic composite.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, M; Vallés, C; Maser, W K; Benito, A M; Martinez, M T; Miranzo, P; Osendi, M I

    2009-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were highly aggregated into ropes after their synthesis by chemical vapour deposition and, therefore, two different methods for disentangling the bundles of nanotubes were studied. One method compared the use of mild and vigorous mechanical treatments in ethanol and the other one employed dispersants in aqueous media. For comparison purposes and according to their different exfoliating behaviour, sodium dodecyl sulphate and gum arabic were selected as dispersants. The results evidenced that mechanical sonication was insufficient for disentangling the ropes, whereas, the combined action of mild sonication in an ultrasonic bath with the addition of gum arabic to an aqueous suspension containing nanotubes improved the exfoliating performance. Stable suspensions of unbundled multi-walled carbon nanotubes were obtained adding only 0.05 wt% of gum arabic with a dispersant/MWNTs concentration ratio of 0.25. These values corresponded to a reduction in the dispersant concentration between 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to those commonly employed. In addition, a processing route for manufacturing dense and homogenous silicon nitride composites using spark plasma sintering with 1.8 vol% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes almost free of organics was developed without nanotubes degradation and aggregation. PMID:19908510

  4. Ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozulin, Alexander A.; Vorozhtsov, Sergey A.; Kulkov, Sergey S.; Teipel, U.; Kulkov, Sergey N.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive investigations of aluminum nanopowders, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes subjected to ultrasonic deagglomeration in a liquid medium were performed, using microstructural, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses, and specific surface area measurements. The regime of ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a liquid medium is described, during which the division of large agglomerates and creation of homogeneous distribution of mixtures components in the volume takes place. It was determined that ultrasonic treatment influences the morphology and crystalline structure of investigated mixtures, contributes to the appearance of X-ray amorphous phase, decreases the specific surface area of the aluminum nanopowder from 13 to 12 m2/g, and increases the pore volume and average size from 0.04 to 0.06 cm3/g and from 12 to 19 nm, respectively. The size of coherently-diffracting domain was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis is close to that estimated from the specific surface area and corresponds to average crystallites size in the materials under study.

  5. Effects of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes compared to pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes on human small airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mihalchik, Amy L.; Ding, Weiqiang; Porter, Dale W.; McLoughlin, Colleen; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Sisler, Jennifer D.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N.; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Terrones, Mauricio; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Endo, Morinobu; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ND-MWCNTs) are modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with enhanced electrical properties that are used in a variety of applications, including fuel cells and sensors; however, the mode of toxic action of ND-MWCNT has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we compared the interaction of ND-MWCNT or pristine MWCNT-7 with human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and evaluated their subsequent bioactive effects. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction suggested the presence of N-containing defects in the lattice of the nanotube. The ND-MWCNTs were determined to be 93.3% carbon, 3.8% oxygen, and 2.9% nitrogen. A dose–response cell proliferation assay showed that low doses of ND-MWCNT (1.2 mg/ml) or MWCNT-7 (0.1 mg/ml) increased cellular proliferation, while the highest dose of 120 mg/ml of either material decreased proliferation. ND-MWCNT and MWCNT-7 appeared to interact with SAEC at 6 h and were internalized by 24 h. ROS were elevated at 6 and 24 h in ND-MWCNT exposed cells, but only at 6 h in MWCNT-7 exposed cells. Significant alterations to the cell cycle were observed in SAEC exposed to either 1.2 mg/ml of ND-MWCNT or MWCNT-7 in a time and material-dependent manner, possibly suggesting potential damage or alterations to cell cycle machinery. Our results indicate that ND-MWCNT induce effects in SAEC over a time and dose-related manner which differ from MWCNT-7. Therefore, the physicochemical characteristics of the materials appear to alter their biological effects. PMID:25797581

  6. Binding energy and mechanical stability of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotube serpentines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhua; Lu, Lixin; Rabczuk, Timon

    2014-05-28

    Recently, Geblinger et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 195 (2008)] and Machado et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 105502 (2013)] reported the experimental and molecular dynamics realization of S-like shaped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the so-called CNT serpentines. We reported here results from continuum modeling of the binding energy γ between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates as well as the mechanical stability of the CNT serpentine formation. The critical length for the mechanical stability and adhesion of different CNT serpentines are determined in dependence of EiIi, d, and γ, where EiIi and d are the CNT bending stiffness and distance of the CNT translation period. Our continuum model is validated by comparing its solution to full-atom molecular dynamics calculations. The derived analytical solutions are of great importance for understanding the interaction mechanism between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates. PMID:24880308

  7. Photoresponse from noble metal nanoparticles-multi walled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scarselli, M.; Camilli, L.; Castrucci, P.; De Crescenzi, M.; Matthes, L.; Pulci, O.; Gatto, E.; Venanzi, M.

    2012-12-10

    In this Letter, we investigated the photo-response of multi wall carbon nanotube-based composites obtained from in situ thermal evaporation of noble metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) on the nanotube films. The metal deposition process produced discrete nanoparticles on the nanotube outer walls. The nanoparticle-carbon nanotube films were characterized by photo-electrochemical measurements in a standard three electrode cell. The photocurrent from the decorated carbon nanotubes remarkably increased with respect to that of bare multiwall tubes. With the aid of first-principle calculations, these results are discussed in terms of metal nanoparticle-nanotube interactions and electronic charge transfer at the interface.

  8. Electrochemical biosensing of galactose based on carbon materials: graphene versus multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dalkıran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kılıç, Esma

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two enzyme electrodes based on graphene (GR), Co3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan (CS) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Co3O4 nanoparticles, and CS, were fabricated as novel biosensing platforms for galactose determination, and their performances were compared. Galactose oxidase (GaOx) was immobilized onto the electrode surfaces by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Optimum working conditions of the biosensors were investigated and the analytical performance of the biosensors was compared with respect to detection limit, linearity, repeatability, and stability. The MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor provided about 1.6-fold higher sensitivity than its graphene counterpart. Moreover, the linear working range and detection limit of the MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor was superior to the graphene-modified biosensor. The successful application of the purposed biosensors for galactose biosensing in human serum samples was also investigated. PMID:27074783

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  10. Covalently linked deoxyribonucleic acid with multi-walled carbon nanotubes: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Yi, Changqing; Chi-Hung, Tzang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Yang, Mengsu

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, a multi-step protocol for covalently linking functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides is provided. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the initially formed amine-terminated MWCNTs, to which DNA is covalently anchored. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation of the DNA-MWCNT conjugates reveals that the chemical functionalization occurs at both the ends and sidewalls of the nanotubes. The described methodology represents an important step toward the realization of DNA-guided self-assembly for carbon nanotubes. PMID:20422378

  11. Raman, EELS and XPS studies of maghemite decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Stolojan, Vlad; Silva, S Ravi P; Wu, Cheng Wei

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide particles with the diameter being 5-10 nm were attached onto the sidewalls of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the thermal decomposition of cyclopentadieny iron (II) dicarbonyl dimmer. The red shift of G-mode from 1579 cm(-1) to 1571 cm(-1) in the Raman profile of the decorated MWCNTs is indicative of the attachment of nanoparticles. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveals that the attached nanoparticles are composed of a maghemite phase. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the maghemite particles are covered with amorphous carbon materials and form a core-shell structure. PMID:24374884

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous phytic acid for enhancing biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Miao, Yun; Ye, Pingping; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2014-04-01

    The poor dispersion of carbon based nanomaterials without strong acid pretreatment in aqueous solution is a fundamental problem, limiting its applications in biology-related fields. A good dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water was realized by 50 wt.% phytic acid (PA) solution. As an application case, the PA-MWCNTs dispersion in aqueous solution was used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its direct electrochemistry was realized. The constructed biosensor has a sound limit of detection, wide linear range, and high affinity for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as being free from interference of co-existing electro-active species.

  13. Chemical modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a tetrazine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Hugh; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Perova, Tatiana S.

    2007-02-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been reacted with 3,6-diaminotetrazine under heating. This process involves series of interactions between tetrazines and carbon nanotubes including π-π interactions, cycloaddition (Diels-Alder) and cross-linking reactions. These interactions resulted in coating of the MWNTs and in the formation of Y-junctions between nanotubes. Long heating (48 h) of MWNTs with the terazine resulted in a partial destruction of nanotubes due to their excessive functionalisation. The new nanocomposites have been studied by TEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Multi walled carbon nanotubes as sorbent for removal of crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess high surface active site to volume ratio as well as controlled pore size distribution that make them high profile material with an exceptional sorption capability and high sorption efficiency compared to conventional adsorbents. In the present paper, multi walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and were further used for the removal of dye crystal violet. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were used for characterization. The systematic assessments of the pH and effect of adsorbent on different concentrations of dye with respect to contact time were examined. Langmuir and Temkin models were used to describe the isotherm studies. PMID:25924370

  15. A comparative study of EMI shielding properties of carbon nanofiber and multi-walled carbon nanotube filled polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Gupta, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2005-06-01

    Electromagnetic interference shielding properties of carbon nanofiber- and multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of composites was frequency independent, and increased with the increase of carbon nanofiber or nanotube loading. At the same filler loading, multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites exhibited higher shielding effectiveness compared to those filled with carbon nanofibers. In particular, carbon nanotubes were more effective than nanofibers in providing high EMI shielding at low filler loadings. The experimental data showed that the shielding effectiveness of the composite containing 7 wt% carbon nanotubes could reach more than 26 dB, implying that such a composite can be used as a potential electromagnetic interference shielding material. The dominant shielding mechanism of carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites was also discussed. PMID:16060155

  16. Growth of long and aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes on carbon and metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Delmas, M; Pinault, M; Patel, S; Porterat, D; Reynaud, C; Mayne-L'Hermite, M

    2012-03-16

    Well aligned, long and dense multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be grown on both carbon fibres and any metal substrates compatible with the CNT synthesis temperature. The injection-CVD process developed involves two stages, including fibre pretreatment by depositing a SiO(2)-based sub-layer from an organometallic precursor followed by CNT growth from toluene/ferrocene precursor mixture. Carbon substrates, as well as metals, can easily be treated with this process, which takes place in the same reactor and does not need any handling in between the two stages. The aligned CNT carpets obtained are similar to the ones grown on reference quartz substrates. The CNT growth rate is fairly high (ca. 30 μm min(-1)) and it is possible to control CNT length by varying the CNT synthesis duration. The thickness of the SiO(2)-based sub-layer can be varied and is shown to have an influence on the CNT growth. This layer is assumed to play a diffusion barrier layer role between the substrate and the iron based catalyst nanoparticles producing CNT. The CNT anchorage to the carbon fibres has been checked and good overall adhesion proved, which is in favour of a good transfer of electrical charge and heat between the nanotubes and fibre. PMID:22362164

  17. Direct evaluation of ballistic phonon transport in a multi-walled carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takata, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-17

    Phonon confinement and in situ thermal conductance measurements in an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are reported. Focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation was used to successively shorten a 4.8 μm long MWNT, eventually yielding a 0.3 μm long MWNT. After the first FIB irradiation, a 41% reduction in conductance was achieved, compared with that of the pristine MWNT. This was because the contributions from phonons with long free paths were excluded by scattering at FIB-induced defects. Phonon transport in linked multiple-length nanotubes was also investigated.

  18. Thermal properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-graphite nanosheets/epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, G. Venkata; Padya, Balaji; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.; Jain, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite nanosheets (GNS) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites are synthesized by solution mixing process. Various surface active groups on filler materials are analyzed and their effect on dispersion, interfacial bonding was correlated to the thermal conductivity and dimensional stability of the nanocomposites. Thermal conductivity of MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 34% when compared to GNS/epoxy nanocomposites at room temperature. Improved dimensional stability was also observed in the case of MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites. Poor thermal properties of GNS/epoxy nanocomposites are due to formation of GNS agglomerates in the nanocomposites.

  19. New synthesis and physical property of low resistivity boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, S.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, S.; Tsuda, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takano, Y.

    2008-09-01

    A novel growth technique of boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was developed. Our new technique uses a methanol solution of boric acid as a source material. Resistivity of the boron-doped MWNTs was successfully reduced independently of chirality by our technique. Temperature dependence of resistivity in each individual boron-doped MWNT was measured by using small-sized four-point contacts, which were fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography technique. Conduction carriers were introduced into the MWNT effectively by boron-doping.

  20. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  1. Fabrication of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-aluminum matrix composite by powder metallurgy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunakov, N. A.; Kozlov, D. V.; Golovanov, V. N.; Klimov, E. S.; Grebchuk, E. E.; Efimov, M. S.; Kostishko, B. B.

    We report on fabrication of an aluminum matrix composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) produced by MOCVD method and functionalized via acid treatment by a H2SO4/HNO3 mixture. Specimens were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the aluminum powder with different amounts of functionalized MWCNTs (FMWCNTs) in the range of 0.1-1 wt.%. We studied the effect of FMWCNTs amount on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites. It is shown that functionalization allows homogeneous dispersing of the MWCNTs in Al powder. The maximal increase in micro-hardness and tensile strength is registered at 0.1 wt.%.

  2. Flexible infrared detectors based on p-n junctions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenlong; Gao, Min; Yan, Zhuocheng; Pan, Taisong; Liao, Feiyi; Lin, Yuan

    2016-05-14

    Different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, are used to fabricate infrared (IR) detectors on flexible substrates based on CNT p-n junctions. It is found that this kind of detector is sensitive to infrared signals with a power density as low as 90 μW mm(-2) even at room temperature. Besides, unlike other devices, the detector with this unique structure can be bent for 100 cycles without any damage and its functionality does not degenerate once it recovers to the initial state. The results give a good reference for developing efficient, low-cost, and flexible IR detectors. PMID:27101973

  3. Zinc Oxide-Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor Application.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Najlaa D; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Salah, Numan; Khayyat, Suzan A; Khan, Zishan H

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites based sensors with different ZnO concentrations were fabricated to improve carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing properties in comparison to the sensors based on bare MWCNTs. To study the structure, morphology and elemental composition of the resultant products, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out. It has been observed that as the concentration of ZnO is increased more and more ZnO nanoparticles in the form of nodes get attached to MWCNTs resulting the reduction in average diameter of MWCNTs. The typical response of ZnO/MWCNTs composites based gas sensors for different CO concentrations (40, 100, 140 and 200 ppm) was studied by using very advanced sensing setup attached to I-V measurement system. Different sensing parameters such as: resistive response, sensitivity and response time were estimated at room temperature for all the fabricated sensors. The results indicated that the sensor based on nanocomposite which has 30 mg ZnO dispersed on 20 mg MWCNTs showing highest sensitivity and fastest response. All the sensors showed response times ranging from 8 to 23 seconds. The sensing mechanism behind the sensors based on ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposites for CO gas at room temperature is also discussed in the present report. PMID:27398472

  4. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of citral

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Yuechao; Yang Dong; Qin Feng; Hu Jianhua; Wang Changchun; Xu Hualong

    2009-08-15

    The nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with nickel nanoparticles were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). Due to the strong interaction between Ni{sup 2+} and -COOH, PAA-g-MWNTs became an excellent supporting material for Ni nanoparticles. The morphology and distribution of Ni nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs were greatly influenced by the reduction temperatures, the experimental results also showed that the distribution of Ni nanoparticles was greatly improved while the MWNTs were modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The hydrogenation activity and selectivity of MWNTs decorated with Ni nanoparticles (Ni-MWNTs) for alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde (citral) were also studied, and the experimental results showed that the citronellal, an important raw material for flavoring and perfumery industries, is the favorable product with a percentage as high as 86.9%, which is 7 times higher than that of catalyst by Ni-supported active carbon (Ni-AC). - Abstract: Nickel nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) nanocomposites were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). These nanocomposites possessed excellent catalytic activity and selectivity for hydrogenation of citral.

  5. Controlled Patterning and Growth of Single Wall and Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for producing a selected pattern or array of at least one of a single wall nanotube and/or a multi-wall nanotube containing primarily carbon. A substrate is coated with a first layer (optional) of a first selected metal (e.g., Al and/or Ir) and with a second layer of a catalyst (e.g., Fe, Co, Ni and/or Mo), having selected first and second layer thicknesses provided by ion sputtering, arc discharge, laser ablation, evaporation or CVD. The first layer and/or the second layer may be formed in a desired non-uniform pattern, using a mask with suitable aperture(s), to promote growth of carbon nanotubes in a corresponding pattern. A selected heated feed gas (primarily CH4 or C2Hn with n=2 and/or 4) is passed over the coated substrate and forms primarily single wall nanotubes or multiple wall nanotubes, depending upon the selected feed gas and its temperature. Nanofibers, as well as single wall and multi-wall nanotubes, are produced using plasma-aided growth from the second (catalyst) layer. An overcoating of a selected metal or alloy can be deposited, over the second layer, to provide a coating for the carbon nanotubes grown in this manner.

  6. Distinct electrical effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in two composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leizhi; Wang, Hua; Datta, Timir; Yin, Ming; Tian, Xingyou

    2014-11-01

    The temperature dependent conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube film (MWNT) is reported and the different electrical properties of nanotubes in two composites are compared. Due to the disordered structures, our carbon nanotube film displays variable range hopping behavior. While the geometric distributions of carbon nanotubes in the conducting polyaniline (PANI) and insulating polyamide (PA66) are similar, charge carriers transport distinctly. The conductive PANI, following one-dimensional variable range hopping, dominates the electrical properties of MWNT/PANI composites. The effect of MWNTs becomes prominent only at low temperature range. However, the contact junctions composed by adjacent carbon nanotubes, instead of nanotubes themselves or the polymer matrix, determine the electrical properties of MWNT/PA66 composites, showing the fluctuation induced tunneling characteristic.

  7. Schottky Diodes Based on Polyaniline/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajibadali, A.; Nejad, M. Baghaei; Farzi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites (PANI/MWCNT), with various concentration of multi-walled carbon nanotube, were synthesized. Several Schottky diodes were fabricated, where PANI or PANI/MWCNT composites, aluminum, and gold were used as semiconductor, Schottky contact, and ohmic contact, respectively. Then current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated diodes were measured at room temperature and within the bias range of -5 to +5 V. The measurements were repeated three times for each sample to verify repeatability of experiment. The obtained results show that by increasing the MWCNT concentration, the current intensity increases. Furthermore, I-V characteristics of pure polyaniline Schottky diode follows the thermionic emission mechanism while the I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes based on PANI/MWCNT composites show two distinct power law regions. At lower voltages, the mechanism follows Ohm's Law, whereas at higher voltages, the mechanism is compatible with space charge limited conduction emission mechanism. The parameters of Schottky diodes were determined, and it was observed that critical voltage decreased when the concentration of MWCNT in the composite increased.

  8. Flexible infrared detectors based on p-n junctions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenlong; Gao, Min; Yan, Zhuocheng; Pan, Taisong; Liao, Feiyi; Lin, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, are used to fabricate infrared (IR) detectors on flexible substrates based on CNT p-n junctions. It is found that this kind of detector is sensitive to infrared signals with a power density as low as 90 μW mm-2 even at room temperature. Besides, unlike other devices, the detector with this unique structure can be bent for 100 cycles without any damage and its functionality does not degenerate once it recovers to the initial state. The results give a good reference for developing efficient, low-cost, and flexible IR detectors.Different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, are used to fabricate infrared (IR) detectors on flexible substrates based on CNT p-n junctions. It is found that this kind of detector is sensitive to infrared signals with a power density as low as 90 μW mm-2 even at room temperature. Besides, unlike other devices, the detector with this unique structure can be bent for 100 cycles without any damage and its functionality does not degenerate once it recovers to the initial state. The results give a good reference for developing efficient, low-cost, and flexible IR detectors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08791k

  9. Controllable purification, cutting and unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with a microwave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelalak, R.; Baniadam, M.; Maghrebi, M.

    2013-06-01

    A rapid microwave-assisted method was developed for the purification, cutting and unzipping of arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using a mixture of KMnO4 and H2SO4. To harness the extent of treatment, MWCNT products were fully characterized at different reaction times by UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The results show that the carbon nanoparticles and the amorphous carbon which coated the MWCNTs were removed after about 10 minutes. The excessive oxidation of MWCNTs then leads to cutting and unzipping of graphitic walls. Moreover, while the catalyst residues outside the MWCNTs were rapidly extracted up to 10 minutes, the removal of catalyst residues inside the MWCNTs did not begin before 20 minutes. This method can be considered as an efficient route for the purification, cutting and unzipping of MWCNTs due to its fast and controllable procedure.

  10. Visible and near-infrared radiative properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Flicker, J D; Lee, B J; Ready, W J; Zhang, Z M

    2009-05-27

    This work investigates the reflection and scattering from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, fabricated on silicon substrate using thermally enhanced chemical vapor deposition with both tip-growth and base-growth mechanisms. The directional-hemispherical reflectance in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths was measured with an integrating sphere. The polarization-dependent bidirectional reflectance distribution function was characterized with a laser scatterometer at the wavelength of 635 nm. The effective medium theory was used to elucidate the mechanism of high absorptance (greater than 0.97 in the spectral region from 400 to 1800 nm) of the multi-walled carbon nanotube samples. It is observed that scattering by impurities on the top of the nanotubes, by the nanotube tips, and by defects and misalignment can significantly increase the reflectance and introduce retroreflection. This study may facilitate application of carbon nanotubes in pyroelectric detectors as well as thermophotovoltaic emitters and absorbers. PMID:19423943

  11. Tunneling phenomena in aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets: conductivity and Raman correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Corro, E.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Taravillo, M.; Baonza, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    We performed simultaneous Raman spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements on self-standing aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes sheets at varying inter-tube distances. A sapphire anvil cell is used here to modulate the inter-tube distance and promote the subsequent electronic tunneling phenomena. We observe a singular correlation between the intensity of the so called defect bands of carbon materials and their conductivity. This indicates that the conditions of the resonant processes that originate these bands are modified by the tunneling phenomena. Such an issue has never been reported before and has potential technological applications. Additionally, the provided AFM images evidence the debundling of the carbon nanotubes that had been described to occur after small compression.

  12. Binding energy and mechanical stability of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotube serpentines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Junhua E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de; Lu, Lixin; Rabczuk, Timon E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de

    2014-05-28

    Recently, Geblinger et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 195 (2008)] and Machado et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 105502 (2013)] reported the experimental and molecular dynamics realization of S-like shaped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the so-called CNT serpentines. We reported here results from continuum modeling of the binding energy γ between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates as well as the mechanical stability of the CNT serpentine formation. The critical length for the mechanical stability and adhesion of different CNT serpentines are determined in dependence of E{sub i}I{sub i}, d, and γ, where E{sub i}I{sub i} and d are the CNT bending stiffness and distance of the CNT translation period. Our continuum model is validated by comparing its solution to full-atom molecular dynamics calculations. The derived analytical solutions are of great importance for understanding the interaction mechanism between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates.

  13. Unzipped Nanotube Sheet Films Converted from Spun Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by O2 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Jangr, Hoon-Sik; Jeon, Sang Koo; Shim, Dae Seob; Lee, Nam Hee; Nahm, Seung Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale graphene or carbon nanotube (CNT) films are good candidates for transparent flexible electrodes, and the strong interest in graphene and CNT films has motivated the scalable production of a good-conductivity and an optically transmitting film. Unzipping techniques for converting CNTs to graphene are especially worthy of notice. Here, we performed nanotube unzipping of the spun multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to produce networked graphene nanoribbon (GNR) sheet films using an 02 plasma etching method, after which we produced the spun MWCNT film by continually pulling MWCNTs down from the vertical well aligned MWCNTs on the substrate. The electrical resistance was slightly decreased and the optical transmittance was significantly increased when the spun MWCNT films were etched for 20 min by O2 plasma of 100 mA. Plasma etching for the optimized time, which does not change the thickness of the spun MWCNT films, improved the electrical resistance and the optical transmittance. PMID:26726645

  14. Magnetic studies of multi-walled carbon nanotube mats: Ultra-high temperature ferromagnetism or superconductivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeli, Pieder; Zhao, Guo-Meng

    2008-03-01

    We report magnetic measurements up to 1200 K on multi-walled carbon nanotube mats using a Quantum Design vibrating sample magnetometer. Extensive magnetic data consistently show two ferrromagnetic-like transitions at about 1000 K and 1275 K, respectively. The lower transition at about 1000 K is associated with an Fe impurity and its saturation magnetization is in quantitative agreement with the Fe concentration measured from an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. On the other hand, the saturation magnetization for the higher transition phase corresponds to about 0.6% Co impurity concentration, which is about four orders of magnitude larger than that measured from the mass spectrometer. We show that this transition at about 1275 K is not consistent with ferromagnetism of any carbon-based phases or magnetic impurities but with the paramagnetic Meissner effect due to the existence of π Josephson junctions in a granular superconductor.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) Reinforced Sintered Magnesium Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Rajmohan, T.; Palanikumar, K.; Bharath Ganesh Kumar, B.

    2016-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic nano particles (less than 100 nm), termed as metal matrix nano composites (MMNCs), can overcome those disadvantages associated with the conventional MMCs. MMCs containing carbon nanotubes are being developed and projected for diverse applications in various fields of engineering like automotive, avionic, electronic and bio-medical sectors. The present investigation deals with the synthesis and characterization of hybrid magnesium matrix reinforced with various different wt% (0-0.45) of multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and micro SiC particles prepared through powder metallurgy route. Microstructure and mechanical properties such as micro hardness and density of the composites were examined. Microstructure of MMNCs have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for better observation of dispersion of reinforcement. The results indicated that the increase in wt% of MWCNT improves the mechanical properties of the composite.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon carbide ceramics reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, A.; Bortnikova, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kornev, V.; Lurie, S.; Solyaev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    A microstructure, a composition and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon of nanotube-reinforced silicon carbide ceramics were examined. The amount of carbon nanotubes was up to 1% wt. Samples was prepared by spark plasma sintering. It has been found that the optimal sintering temperature is 2000°C with an exposure duration of 5 minutes and a pressure of 50 MPa. The effect of the CNT mass fraction on the Young modulus of silicon carbide ceramics composites was investigated for different temperatures and processing conditions of samples using ultrasonic techniques. It has been established that Young's modulus of ceramics decreases due to addition of CNT. Elastic properties of the composites cross section were characterized using nano-indentation. It has been revealed that the stiffness of the ceramics intergranular phase decreases due to addition of CNT.

  17. Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging of Water Filled Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, Francisco; Rand, Danielle; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Evaporation and condensation of water on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces was monitored as a function of both temperature and time using x-ray Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI). SFHI is an imaging method that produces an absorption and scatter image from a single exposure, with increased sensitivity to variations in electron density relative to more common place x-ray imaging techniques. Different features seen in the temporal scatter intensity profiles recorded during evaporation and condensation revealed the existence of an absorption-desorption hysteresis. Effects on the previously mentioned phenomena due to chemical functionalization of the carbon nanotube surfaces were also observed. Functionalization increased the interaction potential between the MWCNT walls and water molecules, altering the evaporation event time scale and increasing the temperature at which condensation could take place. The observed temperature dependent changes in evaporation time scales coincide with the boiling point for confined water predicted by the Kelvin equation.

  18. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of tin oxide nanoparticles coated on multi-walled carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ning; Xu, Jiaoxing; Guan, Lunhui

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on carbon nanotubes. {yields} MWNT@SnO{sub 2} showed excellent photocatalytic activity. {yields} The quenched PL proved the existence of electron transfer between SnO{sub 2} and MWNT. -- Abstract: A nanocomposite of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT@SnO{sub 2}) was synthesized and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption measurements, photoluminescence. The results show that the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a narrow size of 4 nm are uniformly deposited on MWNT. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite was studied using methyl orange as a model organic pollutant. MWNT@SnO{sub 2} exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity than that of commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25). The promotion is mainly contributed from electron transfer between SnO{sub 2} and MWNT.

  19. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization by Radical Addition Using Hydroxymethylene Groups.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Rubén; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Vélez-López, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic methodology and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) function- alized with hydroxymethylene groups are reported. The MWCNTs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique using toluene as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Hydroxymethylation of MWCNTs was carried out by methanol using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) at different quantities (300 to 900 mg); the optimum BPO quantity was 300 mg. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The presence of the hydroxymethylene group on the MWCNTs surface was demonstrated by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, TGA, EDS, TEM and Mass Spectrometry. The func- tionalized MWCNTs were not damaged by this methodology. PMID:27398563

  20. Analysis of Effluent Gases During the CCVD Growth of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, T. C.; Biris, A. S.; Miller, D. W.; Biris, A. R.; Lupu, D.; Trigwell, S.; Rahman, Z. U.

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic chemical vapor deposition was used to grow multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a Fe:Co:CaCO3 catalyst from acetylene. The influent and effluent gases were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry at different time intervals during the nanotubes growth process in order to better understand and optimize the overall reaction. A large number of byproducts were identified and it was found that the number and the level for some of the carbon byproducts significantly increased over time. The CaCO3 catalytic support thermally decomposed into CaO and CO2 resulting in a mixture of two catalysts for growing the nanotubes, which were found to have outer diameters belonging to two main groups 8 to 35 nm and 40 to 60 nm, respectively.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Iodine-doped Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zainal, N. F. A.; Kudin, T. I. Tunku; Azira, A.; Ahmed, A. Z.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2008-05-20

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and were intercalated with iodine at several different temperatures. Iodine doping was achieved by immersing the nanotubes in molten iodine. The sample produced was characterized by means of infrared IR as a point to the presence of covalent C-I bonds in the sample with retention of the sp{sup 2}-hybridizated carbon atoms. For all samples doped at different temperatures, the C-I bonding happen to occur based on IR spectra which was indicated by peaks around 600-650 cm{sup -1}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization was used to study on the crystallinity of the undoped and iodine-doped MWCNTs. It was shown that, iodine-doping of the MWCNTs gives significant changes in the XRD spectra compared to the undoped MWCNTs. With various doping temperature, the XRD spectra shows the different crystallinity.

  2. Reinforcement of CVD grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes by high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumeeva, K. V.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Ischenko, A. V.; Smajda, R.; Spina, M.; Forró, L.; Magrez, A.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the increase of the Young's modulus (E) of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) upon high temperature heat treatment. The post heat-treatment at 2200-2800°C in a controlled atmosphere results in a considerable improvement of the microstructure, chemical stability and electro-physical properties of the nanotubes. The Young's modulus of MWNTs of different diameters was measured by the deflection of a single tube suspended across the hole of silicon nitride membrane and loaded by an atomic force microscope tip. Contrary to previous reports, a strong increase of E was feasible due to the improved growth conditions of pristine carbon nanotubes and to the improved heat treatment conditions. However, the elastic modulus of CVD grown MWNTs still shows strong diameter dependence resulting from the remaining structural inhomogeneities in large diameter nanotubes.

  3. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  4. An evaluation of the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on soil microbial community structure and functional diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) triggers the need for an assessment of their effects on organisms in the environment. Soil microbial communities play a significant role in soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling. This study evaluated the impacts of multi-walled carbon nan...

  5. Nanocomposites of nitrile (NBR) rubber with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warasitthinon, Nuthathai

    Nanotechnology offers the promise of creating new materials with enhanced performance. There are different kinds of fillers used in rubber nanocomposites, such as carbon black, silica, carbon fibers, and organoclays. Carbon nanotube reinforced elastomers have potential for improved rubber properties in aggressive environments. The first chapter is an introduction to the literature. The second chapter investigated the incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into rubber matrix for potential use in high temperature applications. The vulcanization kinetics of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes was investigated. The vulcanized NBR rubber with different loading percentages of MWCNTs was also compared to NBR reinforced with carbon black N330. The optimum curing time at 170°C (T90) was found to decrease with increasing content of MWCNTs. Increased filler loading of both carbon black and MWCNTs gave higher modulus and strength. The MWCNTs filled materials gave better retention of modulus and tensile strength at high temperatures, but lower strength as compared to the carbon black filled samples. In the third chapter, carbon black (CB, 50phr) content in nitrile rubber (NBR) nanocomposites was partially replaced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). NBR/CB/CNTs nanocomposites with varying ratio of CB/CNTs (50/0 phr to 40/10 phr) were formulated via the melt-mixing method using an internal mixer. The reinforcing effect of single filler (CB) and mixture of fillers (CB and CNTs) on the properties of NBR nanocomposites was investigated. The cure kinetics and bound rubber content were analyzed using rheometry and solvent swelling method. In addition, mechanical behavior at both room temperature and high temperature (350°F/ 121°C) were examined. The scorch time and curing time values showed that there was no significant effect on the curing behavior of NBR nanocomposites after the partial replacement of CB with

  6. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  7. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  8. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes assessed by selected plant species in the seedling stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Parvin; Ikhtiari, Refi; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Abundant experimental data have shown that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are toxic to plants, but the potential impacts of exposure remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible phytotoxicity of MWNTs at 0, 20, 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/L with red spinach, lettuce, rice, cucumber, chili, lady's finger, and soybean based on root and shoot growth, cell death, and electrolyte leakage at the seedling stage. After 15 days of hydroponic culture, the root and shoot lengths of red spinach, lettuce, and cucumber were significantly reduced following exposure to 1000 mg/L and 2000 mg/L MWNTs. Similar toxic effects occurred regarding cell death and electrolyte leakage. Red spinach and lettuce were most sensitive to MWNTs, followed by rice and cucumber. Very little or no toxic effects were observed for chili, lady's finger, and soybean.

  9. Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez del Pino, Ángel Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard; György, Enikö; Ballesteros, Belén

    2014-03-07

    Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

  10. The functionalization and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Pauzi; Zulkepli, Siti Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Functionalization is the process of introducing chemical functional groups on the surface of the material. In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) was functionalized by oxidation treatment using concentrated nitric acid. The functionalized and pristine MWCNTs were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns exhibit the graphitic properties for all samples. Besides, the XRD results also demonstrate that the percent of crystallinity of MWCNTs increases as the duration of acid treatment increases. The percent of crystallinity increases from 66% to 80% when the pristine MWCNT treated for 12 hours with additional 12 hours reflux process with nitric acid. The IR spectrum for the 12 hours-treated MWCNTs shows the formation of carboxyl functional group. Additional 12 hours reflux process with nitric acid on the 12 hours-treated MWCNTs have shown the loss of existing carboxyl group and only hydroxyl group formed.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of porous multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline core/shell nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Davis, Marauo; Qiu, Jingjing; Hope-Weeks, Louisa; Wang, Shiren

    2012-09-28

    Porous polyaniline (PANI)-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) core/shell nanohybrids were fabricated through in situ polymerization and subsequently assembled into macroscopic composites. N(2) adsorption/desorption analysis indicated that the volume of nanopores increased significantly, which could make a significant contribution to phonon scattering. Thermal annealing was also carried out to improve the Seebeck coefficient of the as-produced nanocomposites. The optimal sample showed electrical conductivity of 14.1 S cm(-1), a Seebeck coefficient of 79.8 μV K(-1) and thermal conductivity of 0.27 W mK(-1), resulting in a highest figure of merit (ZT) of 0.01 at a very low loading of MWNTs (<1 wt%). These results will provide a potential direction to enhance thermoelectric performance of organic materials and also facilitate the application of organic materials in thermal energy harvesting or cooling. PMID:22947620

  12. Thermoelectric properties of porous multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline core/shell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Davis, Marauo; Qiu, Jingjing; Hope-Weeks, Louisa; Wang, Shiren

    2012-09-01

    Porous polyaniline (PANI)-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) core/shell nanohybrids were fabricated through in situ polymerization and subsequently assembled into macroscopic composites. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis indicated that the volume of nanopores increased significantly, which could make a significant contribution to phonon scattering. Thermal annealing was also carried out to improve the Seebeck coefficient of the as-produced nanocomposites. The optimal sample showed electrical conductivity of 14.1 S cm-1, a Seebeck coefficient of 79.8 μV K-1 and thermal conductivity of 0.27 W mK-1, resulting in a highest figure of merit (ZT) of 0.01 at a very low loading of MWNTs (<1 wt%). These results will provide a potential direction to enhance thermoelectric performance of organic materials and also facilitate the application of organic materials in thermal energy harvesting or cooling.

  13. The functionalization and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Mohd Pauzi; Zulkepli, Siti Aminah

    2015-09-25

    Functionalization is the process of introducing chemical functional groups on the surface of the material. In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) was functionalized by oxidation treatment using concentrated nitric acid. The functionalized and pristine MWCNTs were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns exhibit the graphitic properties for all samples. Besides, the XRD results also demonstrate that the percent of crystallinity of MWCNTs increases as the duration of acid treatment increases. The percent of crystallinity increases from 66% to 80% when the pristine MWCNT treated for 12 hours with additional 12 hours reflux process with nitric acid. The IR spectrum for the 12 hours-treated MWCNTs shows the formation of carboxyl functional group. Additional 12 hours reflux process with nitric acid on the 12 hours-treated MWCNTs have shown the loss of existing carboxyl group and only hydroxyl group formed.

  14. Mechanical characterization and morphology of polylactic acid /liquid natural rubber filled with multi walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Adilah Mat; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the polymer nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles was incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer were prepared via melt blending method. The effect of MWCNTs loading on the tensile and impact properties of nanocomposites was investigated. The result has shown that the sample with 3.5 wt % of MWCNTs exhibited higher tensile strength, Young's modulus and impact strength. The elongation at break decreased with increasing percentage of MWCNTs. The SEM micrographs confirmed the effect of good dispersion of MWCNTs and their interfacial bonding in PLA/LNR composites. The improved dispersion of MWCNTs can be obtained due to altered interparticle interactions, MWCNTs-MWCNTs and MWCNTs-matrix networks are well combined to generate the synergistic effect of the system as shown by SEM micrographs which is improved the properties significantly.

  15. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health. PMID:23000350

  16. Rheological and electrical properties of polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites prepared by latex technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myung Hwan; Lee, Seong Jae

    2012-06-01

    The nanocomposites of monodisperse polystyrene (PS) particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared by latex technology to provide good dispersion of nanotubes in polymer matrix. Two kinds of monodisperse PS particles were synthesized either by emulsion polymerization or by dispersion polymerization. The MWNTs were dispersed in deionized water and mixed with the PS particles, and then PS/MWNT nanocomposites were prepared by freeze-drying and subsequent compression molding. Rheological and electrical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated. Pronounced effect of MWNT incorporation was observed, resulting in larger modulus at lower frequencies when compared to neat PS. The nanocomposite prepared under ultrasonication showed the optimum results providing good dispersion of MWNTs and high electrical conductivity. The effect of PS particle size on electrical conductivity was found to be dependent on the MWNT content incorporated.

  17. Optical properties of fluorescent zigzag graphene quantum dots derived from multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Li, Fushan Wu, Chaoxing; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-02-10

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which are edge-bound nanometer-size graphene pieces, have fascinating electronic and optical properties due to their quantum confinement and edge effect. In this paper, GQDs were synthesized by using acid treatment and chemical exfoliation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The structure of the GQDs was investigated by transmission electron microscope. The GQDs have a uniform size distribution, zigzag edge structure and two-dimensional morphology. The results indicated that the GQDs have bright blue emission upon UV excitation. The highly fluorescent GQDs exhibited high water solubility and good stability. It is shown that the acid treatment of MWCNTs leads to the formation of the functional group in zigzag sites, which results in the pH-dependent fluorescence of the GQDs.

  18. Multi walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and their physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hong, M K; Ko, S W; Park, J H; Choi, H J; Kim, J H

    2011-06-01

    In order to examine the influence of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on physical properties of its biodegradable polymer nanocomposite, biodegradable poly(buthylene succinate) (PBS), which was synthesized from diols and dicarboxylic acids, and MWNT nanocomposites were prepared via a melt-mixing method using a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder. Microstructure of the PBS/MWNT nanocomposites and MWNT were investigated via both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Their rheological properties were also characterized via rotation and oscillation tests using a rotational rheometer with parallel-plate geometry. It was found that shear viscosity, storage modulus and loss modulus of the nanocomposites examined by a rotational rheometer increased with the MWNT content. Especially their sharp increase for MWNT content of ca. 2.0 wt% was observed, indicating its percolation threshold from the rheological viewpoint which was higher than its electrical percolation threshold (1.0 wt%). PMID:21770188

  19. Facile synthesis of stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokarian, Zahra; Rasuli, Reza; Abedini, Yousefali

    2016-04-01

    A facile approach to fabricate a stable superhydrophobic composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotubes and silicone rubber has been reported. Contact angle of de-ionized water droplets on the prepared surface was measured with the value of near 159°; while water droplets easily rolled off and bounced on it. Surface free energy of the superhydrophobic coating was examined by three methods about 26 mJ/m2. The prepared film shows good stability under high stress conditions such as ultraviolet exposure, heating, pencil hardness test, attacking with different pH value and ionic-strength solutions. In addition, remarkable stability of the coating was observed after soaking in condensed hydrochloric acid, 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution, boiling water and tape test.

  20. Rheological and mechanical study of regenerated cellulose/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Wang, Shuxia; Liu, Hui; Wu, Jimin; Huang, Min; Ma, Wenjing; Huang, Chaobo

    2016-09-30

    Regenerated cellulose (RC)-based composites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by a facile casting method. The morphology and microstructure of the fabricated composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetric analysis were conducted to investigate the effect of MWCNTs on the thermal behaviors of the RC. The results showed that the introduction of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability of the RC. Moreover, the effect of the dispersion state of MWCNTs in microcrystalline cellulose/ZnCl2 solutions with varying MWCNT loadings was studied by rheological tests. The mechanical properties of composite films were remarkably improved compared to those of pure RC film. Specifically, the composite film containing 3 wt% of MWCNTs exhibits a 123% enhancement in tensile strength and a 163% enhancement in the Young's modulus compared with the pure RC film. PMID:27574002

  1. Gold nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2012-11-01

    A novel counter electrode material for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of nanostructured Au particles decorated on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) is demonstrated for the first time. MWNTs synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique are purified and functionalized by treating with concentrated acids. Au nanoparticles are decorated on f-MWNTs by a rapid and facile microwave assisted polyol reduction method. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The DSSC fabricated with Au/f-MWNTs based counter electrode shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (eta) of 4.9% under AM 1.5G simulated solar radiation. In comparison, the reference DSSCs fabricated with f-MWNTs and Pt counter electrodes show eta of 2.1% and 4.5%. This high performance of Au/f-MWNTs counter electrode is investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies. PMID:23421212

  2. Growth of small diameter multi-walled carbon nanotubes by arc discharge process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T. Chaudhary, K.; J., Ali; P. Yupapin, P.

    2014-03-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown by arc discharge method in a controlled methane environment. The arc discharge is produced between two graphite electrodes at the ambient pressures of 100 torr, 300 torr, and 500 torr. Arc plasma parameters such as temperature and density are estimated to investigate the influences of the ambient pressure and the contributions of the ambient pressure to the growth and the structure of the nanotubes. The plasma temperature and density are observed to increase with the increase in the methane ambient pressure. The samples of MWCNT synthesized at different ambient pressures are analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. An increase in the growth of MWCNT and a decrease in the inner tube diameter are observed with the increase in the methane ambient pressure.

  3. Radial Corrugations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Driven by Inter-Wall Nonbonding Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We perform large-scale quasi-continuum simulations to determine the stable cross-sectional configurations of free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We show that at an inter-wall spacing larger than the equilibrium distance set by the inter-wall van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the initial circular cross-sections of the MWCNTs are transformed into symmetric polygonal shapes or asymmetric water-drop-like shapes. Our simulations also show that removing several innermost walls causes even more drastic cross-sectional polygonization of the MWCNTs. The predicted cross-sectional configurations agree with prior experimental observations. We attribute the radial corrugations to the compressive stresses induced by the excessive inter-wall vdW energy release of the MWCNTs. The stable cross-sectional configurations provide fundamental guidance to the design of single MWCNT-based devices and shed lights on the mechanical control of electrical properties.

  4. Morphology adjustments of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yanping; Chen, Jimin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, nanoscale welding quality and morphology changes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated by changing laser wavelengths and the irradiation time. Lasers with 1064 nm and 355 nm are used in our experiments. The 1064 nm laser can lead to nanowelding with good quality, while the 355 nm laser changes the curvature. The experiments demonstrate that the morphology, structures and the welding quality can be adjusted by changing laser wavelengths. In this letter, the dynamic process of nanostructures changing is studied by changing the irradiation time. The experimental results show that the morphology and structures can be controlled by adjusting the irradiation time. The detailed dynamic process of nanostructures changing confirms the formation mechanism of nano-welding and the thermal effects during the process.

  5. Altered excitability of cultured chromaffin cells following exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gavello, Daniela; Vandael, David H F; Cesa, Roberta; Premoselli, Federica; Marcantoni, Andrea; Cesano, Federico; Scarano, Domenica; Fubini, Bice; Carbone, Emilio; Fenoglio, Ivana; Carabelli, Valentina

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the electrophysiological properties of cultured mouse chromaffin cells, a model of spontaneously firing cells. The exposure of chromaffin cells to MWCNTs at increasing concentrations (30-263 μg/ml) for 24 h reduced, in a dose-dependent way, both the cell membrane input resistance and the number of spontaneously active cells (from 80-52%). Active cells that survived from the toxic effects of MWCNTs exhibited more positive resting potentials, higher firing frequencies and unaltered voltage-gated Ca(2+), Na(+) and K+ current amplitudes. MWCNTs slowed down the inactivation kinetics of Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels. These electrophysiological effects were accompanied by MWCNTs internalization, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, indicating that most of the toxic effects derive from a dose-dependent MWCNTs-cell interaction that damages the spontaneous cell activity. PMID:21322767

  6. Preparation, purification and characterization of high purity multi-wall carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed; Helal, Magdy; El-Okr, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2014-11-11

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was optimized in order to prepare multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Preparation of MWCNTs was achieved by the help of ferrocene as a catalyst with continuous flow of xylene. Morphology and structure of as grown and purified MWCNTs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra for the as grown MWCNTs confirm that the deposits are carbonaceous materials. XRD pattern of purified sample indicates that the Fe peaks at 44.6 and 50.9 have been decreased. This confirms that purification process is effectively reducing Fe component. Further qualitative information on the purification process are indicated and confirmed by the thermal analysis measurements. Finally, FTIR studies have been performed for the identification of the functional group attached on the surface of the MWCNTs. Collecting these results revealed that the optimized CVD is suitable for the production of MWCNTs. PMID:24892539

  7. Preparation, purification and characterization of high purity multi-wall carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, Mohamed; Helal, Magdy; El-Okr, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2014-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was optimized in order to prepare multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Preparation of MWCNTs was achieved by the help of ferrocene as a catalyst with continuous flow of xylene. Morphology and structure of as grown and purified MWCNTs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra for the as grown MWCNTs confirm that the deposits are carbonaceous materials. XRD pattern of purified sample indicates that the Fe peaks at 44.6 and 50.9 have been decreased. This confirms that purification process is effectively reducing Fe component. Further qualitative information on the purification process are indicated and confirmed by the thermal analysis measurements. Finally, FTIR studies have been performed for the identification of the functional group attached on the surface of the MWCNTs. Collecting these results revealed that the optimized CVD is suitable for the production of MWCNTs.

  8. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  9. Adsorption of methyl green dye onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ni nanoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Farghali, Ahmed Ali; El Rouby, Waleed; Khedr, Mohamed; Mohassab-Ahmed, Mohassab Y.

    2013-06-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the capability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and NiFe2O4-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NiFe2O4-CNTs) toward waste water treatment relevant to organic dyes. CNTs were prepared via chemical vapor deposition method. NiFe2O4-CNTs were prepared by in-situ chemical precipitation of metal hydroxides followed by hydrothermal processing. The samples were characterized using XRD and TEM. The adsorption efficiency of CNTs and NiFe2O4-CNTs of methyl green dye at various temperatures was examined. The adsorbed amount increased with the CNTs and NiFe2O4-CNTs dosage. The linear correlation coefficients and standard deviations of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined. It was found that Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental results well in both adsorption cases n of methyl green onto CNTs and NiFe2O4-CNTs. Kinetics analyses were conducted using pseudo first-order, second-order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics was controlled by a pseudo second-order model for adsorption of methyl green onto CNTs and best controlled by pseudo first-order in case of NiFe2O4-CNTs. Changes in the free energy of adsorption (Δ G°), enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (Δ S°), and the activation energy ( E a) were determined. The Δ H°, Δ G° and E a values indicated that the adsorption of methyl green onto MWCNTs and NiFe2O4-MWCNTs was physisorption.

  10. Cellular uptake mechanisms of functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes by 3D electron tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Nerl, Hannah; Müller, Karin H.; Ali-Boucetta, Hanene; Li, Shouping; Haynes, Peter D.; Jinschek, Joerg R.; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. Despite numerous studies, the pathways by which carbon nanotubes enter cells and their subsequent intracellular trafficking and distribution remain poorly determined. Here, we use 3-D electron tomography techniques that offer optimum enhancement of contrast between carbon nanotubes and the plasma membrane to investigate the mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake of shortened, functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-NH3+). Both human lung epithelial (A549) cells, that are almost incapable of phagocytosis and primary macrophages, capable of extremely efficient phagocytosis, were used. We observed that MWNT-NH3+ were internalised in both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells by any one of three mechanisms: (a) individually via membrane wrapping; (b) individually by direct membrane translocation; and (c) in clusters within vesicular compartments. At early time points following intracellular translocation, we noticed accumulation of nanotube material within various intracellular compartments, while a long-term (14-day) study using primary human macrophages revealed that MWNT-NH3+ were able to escape vesicular (phagosome) entrapment by translocating directly into the cytoplasm.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. Despite numerous studies, the pathways by which carbon nanotubes enter cells and their subsequent intracellular trafficking and distribution remain poorly determined. Here, we use 3-D electron tomography techniques that offer optimum enhancement of contrast between carbon nanotubes and the plasma membrane to investigate the mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake of shortened, functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-NH3+). Both human lung epithelial (A549) cells, that are almost incapable of phagocytosis and primary macrophages, capable of extremely efficient phagocytosis, were used. We observed

  11. Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films: Single- versus Multi-walled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanju; Wang, Yunyu

    2005-03-01

    Vertically aligned high density small diameter carbon nanotube films were deposited by microwave CVD technique. The iron catalyst was prepared by E-beam evaporation on thermally grown silicon dioxide n-type Si(100) substrates. Experiments show that by continuous reduction in the thickness of Fe (˜ 3-5), smaller diameter carbon nanotube can be achieved. Scanning electron and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the diameter of carbon nanotubes ranged ˜ 1 - 5 nm and the films are comprised of both the single- and double-wall carbon nanotubes. Visible Raman spectroscopy was used to further verify the diameter of nanotubes. A thick iron film (80 nm) was also used to grow nanotubes for comparison. The results show that the catalyst islands become greater than hundred nanometers with increasing thickness and induce multi-wall and bamboo-like microstructures. While for thinner layer of iron films smaller sizes of catalyst particles/droplets produce hollow concentric tubes without bamboo structure and with less number of walls (single-wall and double-wall carbon nanotubes). The base growth was the most appropriate model to describe the growth mechanism for our films. The electron field emission properties such as field electron emission microscopy (FEEM) in conjunction with the temperature dependence (T-FEEM) were measured to investigate the emission site density and their intensity variation. These findings in terms of the role of adsorption will be briefly discussed.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrode material for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Thepsuparungsikul, N; Phonthamachai, N; Ng, H Y

    2012-01-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel and innovative technology that could allow direct harvesting of energy from wastewater through microbial activity with simultaneous oxidation of organic matter in wastewater. Among all MFC parts, electrode materials play a crucial role in electricity generation. A variety of electrode materials have been used, including plain graphite, carbon paper and carbon cloth. However, these electrode materials generated only limited electricity or power. Recently, many research studies have been conducted on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of their unique physical and chemical properties that include high conductivity, high surface area, corrosion resistance, and electrochemical stability. These properties make them extremely attractive for fabricating electrodes and catalyst supports. In this study, CNT-based electrodes had been developed to improve MFC performance in terms of electricity generation and treatment efficiency. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl groups have been employed to fabricate electrodes for single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. The quality of the prepared MWCNTs-based electrodes was evaluated by morphology, electrical conductivity and specific surface area using a field emission scanning electron microscope, four-probe method and Brunauer-Emmerr-Teller method, respectively. The performance of MFCs equipped with MWCNT-based electrodes was evaluated by chemical analysis and electrical monitoring and calculation. In addition, the performance of these MFCs, using MWCNTs as electrodes, was compared against that using commercial carbon cloth. PMID:22437017

  13. Solubilisation of multi walled carbon nanotubes by alpha-pyrene functionalised PMMA and their liquid crystalline self-organisation.

    PubMed

    Meuer, Stefan; Braun, Lydia; Zentel, Rudolf

    2008-07-21

    alpha-Pyrene functionalised poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains were synthesised by RAFT polymerisation and found to be highly efficient to solubilise and disentangle multi walled carbon nanotubes that can now self-organise as liquid crystalline phases in PMMA and PEG 400 matrices. PMID:18594730

  14. 40 CFR 721.10266 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-08-733 and P-08-734).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... matrix (does not include slurries) that is not intended to undergo further processing, except for mechanical processing. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the workplace. Requirements as... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-walled carbon nanotubes...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10277 - Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-10-40... nanotubes (generic) (P-10-40). 721.10277 Section 721.10277 Protection of Environment...

  16. Transport and retention of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in saturated porous media: Effects of input concentration and grain size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of input concentration (Co) and sand grain size on the transport and retention of low concentrations (1, 0.01, and 0.005 mg L/1) of functionalized 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) under repulsive electrostat...

  17. ZnO Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Methane Sensing at Single Parts Per Million Concentration Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) based ZnO functionalization of surface pre-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for highly sensitive methane chemoresistive sensors. The temperature optimization of the ALD process leads to enhanced ZnO nanopart...

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-based carbon/carbon composites with three-dimensional network structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuguang; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Rufan; Li, Peng; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei

    2013-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based carbon/carbon composites were fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration of pyrolytic carbon into pre-compressed MWCNT blocks. The pyrolytic carbon was deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs and filled the gaps between the MWCNTs, which improved the connection between the MWCNTs and formed a three-dimensional network structure. The mechanical and electrical properties were improved significantly. The values of the maximum compressed deformation, maximum breaking strength, Young's modulus and energy absorption are measured as 10.9%, 148.6 MPa, 1588.6 MPa and 13.8 kJ kg-1, respectively. The conductivity reached about 204.4 S cm-1, more than 10 times larger than that of pre-compressed MWCNT blocks. After annealing at 1800 °C in vacuum, the graphitization improved remarkably. The pyrolytic carbon deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs was rearranged along the walls, and resulted in an increase of the number of walls of the MWCNTs.Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based carbon/carbon composites were fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration of pyrolytic carbon into pre-compressed MWCNT blocks. The pyrolytic carbon was deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs and filled the gaps between the MWCNTs, which improved the connection between the MWCNTs and formed a three-dimensional network structure. The mechanical and electrical properties were improved significantly. The values of the maximum compressed deformation, maximum breaking strength, Young's modulus and energy absorption are measured as 10.9%, 148.6 MPa, 1588.6 MPa and 13.8 kJ kg-1, respectively. The conductivity reached about 204.4 S cm-1, more than 10 times larger than that of pre-compressed MWCNT blocks. After annealing at 1800 °C in vacuum, the graphitization improved remarkably. The pyrolytic carbon deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs was rearranged along the walls, and resulted in an increase of the number of walls of the MWCNTs. Electronic supplementary

  19. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: processing and mechanical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2002-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of considerable attention because of their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. These properties observed at the nanoscale have motivated researchers to utilize carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in composite materials. In this research, a micro-scale twin-screw extruder was used to achieve dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a polystyrene matrix. Highly aligned nanocomposite films were produced by extruding the polymer melt through a rectangular die and drawing the film prior to cooling. Randomly oriented nanocomposites were produced by achieving dispersion first with the twin-screw extruder followed by pressing a film using a hydraulic press. The tensile behaviour of the aligned and random nanocomposite films with 5 wt.{%} loading of nanotubes were characterized. Addition of nanotubes increased the tensile modulus, yield strength and ultimate strengths of the polymer films, and the improvement in elastic modulus with the aligned nanotube composite is five times greater than the improvement for the randomly oriented composite.

  20. Characterization of ion-irradiation-induced defects in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Nikitin, Timur; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Sun, Litao; Banhart, Florian; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Keinonen, Juhani

    2011-07-01

    We study the effects of Ar+, He+ and C+ ion irradiation on multi-walled carbon nanotubes at room and elevated temperatures with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the TEM data, we introduce a universal damage scale for the visual analysis and characterization of irradiated nanotubes. We show for the first time that the amount of irradiation-induced damage in nanotubes is larger than the value predicted for bulk materials using the simple binary collision approximation, which may be associated with higher defect production due to electronic stopping in these nanoscale systems. The Raman spectra of the irradiated samples are in qualitative agreement with the TEM data and indicate the presence of irradiation-induced defects. However, it is difficult to obtain quantitative information on defect concentration due to non-uniform distribution of defects in the nanotube films and in part due to the presence of other carbon nanosystems in the samples, such as graphitic crystallites and carbon onions.

  1. Using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for oilfield produced water treatment with environmentally acceptable endpoints.

    PubMed

    Zaib, Qammer; Aina, Oluwajinmi Daniel; Ahmad, Farrukh

    2014-08-01

    In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were employed to remove benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from low and high salinity water pre-equilibrated with crude oil. The treatment endpoint of crude oil-contaminated water is often controlled by BTEX compounds owing to their higher aqueous solubility and human-health toxicity compared to other hydrocarbons. The MWNT sorbent was extensively characterized and the depletion of the organic sorbate from the produced water was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses. The equilibrium sorptive removal of BTEX followed the order: ethylbenzene/o-xylene > m-xylene > toluene > benzene in the presence of other competing organics in produced water. Sorption mechanisms were explored through the application of a variety of kinetics and equilibrium models. Pseudo 2(nd) order kinetics and Freundlich equilibrium models were the best at describing BTEX removal from produced water. Hydrophobic interactions between the MWNTs and BTEX, as well as the physical characteristics of the sorbate molecules, were regarded as primary factors responsible for regulating competitive adsorption. Salinity played a critical role in limiting sorptive removal, with BTEX and total organic carbon (TOC) removal falling by 27% and 25%, respectively, upon the introduction of saline conditions. Results suggest that MWNTs are effective in removing risk-driving BTEX compounds from low-salinity oilfield produced water. PMID:24975808

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes affect drug transport across cell membrane in rat astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Schluesener, Hermann J.

    2010-03-01

    The impact of carbon nanotubes on the cell membrane is an aspect of particular importance and interest in the study of carbon nanotubes' interactions with living systems. One of the many functions of the cell membrane is to execute substance transport into and out of the cell. We investigated the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the transport of several compounds across in the cell membrane of rat astrocytes using flow cytometry. These compounds are fluorescein diacetate, carboxyfluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, which are prosubstrate/substrates of multidrug transporter proteins. Results showed that MWCNTs significantly inhibited cellular uptake of doxorubicin but not the other drugs and the mode of loading made a significant difference in doxorubicin uptake. Retention of fluorescein, carboxyfluorescein and rhodamine 123 was remarkably higher in MWCNT-exposed cells after an efflux period. A kinetics study also demonstrated slower efflux of intracellular fluorescein and rhodamine 123. Data presented in this paper suggest that MWCNTs could affect drug transport across cell membranes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Novinrooz, Abdul; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs' diameter.

  4. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh Z.; Novinrooz, Abdul J.; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs’ diameter.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Srivastava, Deepak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics to investigate the properties of a multi-walled carbon nanotube based gear. Previous work computationally suggested that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. The gears were formed from nanotubes with teeth added via a benzyne reaction known to occur with C60. A modified, parallelized version of Brenner's potential was used to model interatomic forces within each molecule. A Leonard-Jones 6-12 potential was used for forces between molecules. The gear in this study was based on the smallest multi-walled nanotube supported by some experimental evidence. Each gear was a (52,0) nanotube surrounding a (37,10) nanotube with approximate 20.4 and 16,8 A radii respectively. These sizes were chosen to be consistent with inter-tube spacing observed by and were slightly larger than graphite inter-layer spacings. The benzyne teeth were attached via 2+4 cycloaddition to exterior of the (52,0) tube. 2+4 bonds were used rather than the 2+2 bonds observed by Hoke since 2+4 bonds are preferred by naphthalene and quantum calculations by Jaffe suggest that 2+4 bonds are preferred on carbon nanotubes of sufficient diameter. One gear was 'powered' by forcing the atoms near the end of the outside buckytube to rotate to simulate a motor. A second gear was allowed to rotate by keeping the atoms near the end of its outside buckytube on a cylinder. The ends of both gears were constrained to stay in an approximately constant position relative to each other, simulating a casing, to insure that the gear teeth meshed. The stiff meshing aromatic gear teeth transferred angular momentum from the powered gear to the driven gear. The simulation was performed in a vacuum and with a software thermostat. Preliminary results suggest that the powered gear had trouble turning the driven gear without slip. The larger radius and greater mass of these gears relative to the (14,0) gears previously studied requires a

  6. A comparison of LLDPE-based nanocomposites containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Alexandros; Docoslis, Aristides; Kontopoulou, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Composites of linear-low density polyethylene (LLDPE) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and thermally reduced graphene (TRGO) were produced by melt compounding. The composites were compatibilized by grafting aromatic pyridine groups onto the LLDPE backbone. The aromatic moieties established non-covalent π-π interactions with the carbon nanostructures, thus allowing for efficient dispersion, without compromizing their electrical properties. By using identical matrices, it was possible to investigate the effects of filler geometry on the electrical, mechanical and rheological properties of the composites. The 1-D nature and smaller surface area of the MWCNT facilitated their dispersion within the polymer matrix, whereas the graphene agglomerates appeared to breakup through an erosion mechanism. The resulting mixture of aggregates and individual graphene platelets favored lower electrical and rheological percolation thresholds. However the maximum electrical conductivity achieved in the TRGO/LLDPE was lower by about an order of magnitude compared to the MWCNT/LLDPE composites, probably due to residual oxygen in the graphene's structure. TRGO based composites presented higher moduli at the same filler loadings, while elongations at break were comparable. All composites exhibited time-dependent rheological properties, indicative of their tendency to aggregate. A more pronounced increase in viscoelastic properties was noted in the composites containing TRGO, presumably due to the higher surface area of the graphene platelets, and the presence of larger aggregates.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase immobilization on polyacrylamide/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite nanofibrous membrane.

    PubMed

    Amini, Navid; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Kalaee, Mohammad Reza; Hormozi, Saeed; Niknam, Kaveh; Firouzian, Nasrin

    2013-05-01

    In this work, polyacrylamide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) solution is electrospun to nanocomposite nanofibrous membranes for acetylcholinesterase enzyme immobilization. A new method for enzyme immobilization is proposed, and the results of analysis show successful covalent bonding of enzymes on electrospun membrane surface besides their non-covalent entrapment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical and thermal investigations of nanofibrous membrane approve successful cross-linking and enzyme immobilization. The enzyme relative activity and kinetic on both pure and nanocomposite membranes is investigated, and the results show proper performance of designed membrane to even improve the enzyme activity followed by immobilization compared to free enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanofibrous web of 3D structure with a low shrinkage and hydrogel structure followed by enzyme immobilization and cross-linking. Moreover, the important role of functionalized carbon nanotubes on final nanofibrous membrane functionality as a media for enzyme immobilization is investigated. The results show that MWCNT could act effectively for enzyme immobilization improvement via both physical (enhanced fibers' morphology and conductivity) and chemical (enzyme entrapment) methods. PMID:23475318

  8. Effects of Functionalized and Raw Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Soil Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M.; Singh, Dharmesh; Kim, Hyoki; Lee, Sujin; Lee, Junghoon; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in industry, but their environmental impacts on soil microbial communities are poorly known. In this paper, we compare the effect of both raw and acid treated or functionalized (fCNTs) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on soil bacterial communities, applying different concentrations of MWCNTs (0 µg/g, 50 µg/g, 500 µg/g and 5000 µg/g) to a soil microcosm system. Soil DNA was extracted at 0, 2 and 8 weeks and the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified and sequenced using paired-end Illumina bar-coded sequencing. The results show that bacterial diversity was not affected by either type of MWCNT. However, overall soil bacterial community composition, as illustrated by NMDS, was affected only by fMWCNT at high concentrations. This effect, detectable at 2 weeks, remained equally strong by 8 weeks. In the case of fMWCNTs, overall changes in relative abundance of the dominant phyla were also found. The stronger effect of fMWCNTs could be explained by their intrinsically acidic nature, as the soil pH was lower at higher concentrations of fMWCNTs. Overall, this study suggests that fMWCNTs may at least temporarily alter microbial community composition on the timescale of at least weeks to months. It appears, by contrast, that raw MWCNTs do not affect soil microbial community composition. PMID:25825905

  9. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of citral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuechao; Yang, Dong; Qin, Feng; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Changchun; Xu, Hualong

    2009-08-01

    The nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with nickel nanoparticles were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA- g-MWNTs). Due to the strong interaction between Ni 2+ and -COOH, PAA- g-MWNTs became an excellent supporting material for Ni nanoparticles. The morphology and distribution of Ni nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs were greatly influenced by the reduction temperatures, the experimental results also showed that the distribution of Ni nanoparticles was greatly improved while the MWNTs were modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The hydrogenation activity and selectivity of MWNTs decorated with Ni nanoparticles (Ni-MWNTs) for α, β-unsaturated aldehyde (citral) were also studied, and the experimental results showed that the citronellal, an important raw material for flavoring and perfumery industries, is the favorable product with a percentage as high as 86.9%, which is 7 times higher than that of catalyst by Ni-supported active carbon (Ni-AC).

  10. Characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites by scanning spreading resistance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Souier, Tewfik; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2012-10-12

    Nanocomposites of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a polymer matrix yield a unique combination of thermal and electrical properties and mechanical strength. These properties are intimately related to the composite nanostructure and to the growth and processing conditions. The alignment of the tubes, the filling fraction and the contact junction between the nanotubes are key parameters controlling the composite electrical conductivity. For this purpose, a full description of the composite nanostructure is required. Among the non-destructive scanning probe techniques, scanning spreading resistance microscopy is found to be a powerful technique in identifying the carbon nanotubes with true nanometer resolution, thus competing with SEM and TEM imaging. Additionally, the technique provides valuable information about the electrical conduction mechanism within the composite structure. Indeed, by using a controlled contact force and an appropriate model of conduction at the nanoscale, the tip-CNT contact resistance, the CNT intrinsic resistance and the CNT-epoxy-CNT resistance junction are evaluated. This latter is found to be the factor controlling the overall electrical conductivity of the composite. PMID:22995850

  11. Dependence of the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Ran, Tiecheng; Li, Yuguo; Guo, Jinxue; Li, Wenxin

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the growth of the unicellular protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. Contrary to the findings from most other investigations, our experiment indicated that MWNTs stimulated growth of the cells cultured in proteose peptone yeast extract medium (PPY). Atomic force microscopy images and thermogravimetric analysis showed the spontaneous formation of peptone-MWNT conjugates in the medium by noncovalent binding. Uptake of large amounts of the conjugates by Tetrahymena pyriformis was responsible for growth stimulation, evidenced by images with fluorescently labelled peptone. After the PPY medium was replaced by a filtrated pond water medium (FPW), however, inhibition of the growth of cells exposed to MWNTs occurred. Measurements of the level of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity demonstrated further that MWNTs might be either toxic or nontoxic, depending on the medium used to cultivate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The biological effects of the interaction of MWNTs with some composites in culture media would be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of the toxicity of carbon nanotubes to living systems.

  12. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, p<0.0001), as might be expected. Positive correlations were observed between gallic acid equivalent AOC of wine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively). PMID:26593508

  13. Non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Baby, Tessy Theres; Ramaprabhu, S

    2011-06-01

    The present work describes the development of novel ZnO dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) based non-enzymatic glucose biosensor with 1 M NaOH solution as the supporting electrolyte. For a comparison, the same material has been used for the fabrication of enzymatic biosensor and studied its electrochemical activity with phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. MWNT have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor decomposition (CCVD) and a simple sol-gel method was used for decorating crystalline ZnO nanoparticles on MWNT. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to study and optimize the electrochemical performance of the resulting enzymatic and non-enzymatic ZnO/MWNT biosensors. The non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC electrode shows linearity in the range 700 nM to 31 mM with the detection limit of 500 nM. Similarly enzymatic biosensor fabricated using Nafion/GOD/ZnO/MWNT on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows a linearity from 1 microM to 22 mM. This excellent performance of non enzymatic Nafion/ZnO/MWNT/GC is due to high surface area, good electron transfer rate of ZnO/MWNT and the high electrochemical catalytic activity of ZnO in NaOH solution. PMID:21770093

  14. Cation exchange resin nanocomposites based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Mahmoud; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Awad Allah, Ahmed Elsayed; Alblehy, AbdElhamid

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of great interest due to their potential applications in different fields such as water treatment and desalination. The increasing exploitation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into many industrial processes has raised considerable concerns for environmental applications. The interactions of soluble salt with MWNCTs influence in the total salt content in saline water. In this work, we synthesized two cation exchange resins nano composites from polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer (PSDVB) and pristine MWNCTs. The prepared compounds were characterized using infra red spectroscopy, thermal stability, X-ray diffraction, and electro scan microscope. Also, the ion capacities of prepared cation exchange resins were determined by titration. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the thermal stability of prepared nanocomposites in the presence of MWNCTs increased up to 617 °C. The X-ray of PSDVB and its sulfonated form exhibits amorphous pattern texture structure, whereas the nano composite exhibits amorphous structure with indication peak at 20° and 26° for the PSDVB and MWCNTs, respectively. The ion-exchange capacity increased from 225.6 meq/100 g to 466 mg/100 g for sulfonated PSDVB and sulfonated PSDVB MWNCTs-pristine, respectively.

  15. Spatial frequency heterodyne imaging of aqueous phase transitions inside multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Schunk, F M; Rand, D; Rose-Petruck, C

    2015-12-14

    The evaporation and condensation of water on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces was studied as a function of temperature and time using X-ray spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI). SFHI is an imaging modality that produces an absorption and scatter image in a single exposure, and has increased sensitivity to variations in electron density relative to more common place X-ray imaging techniques. Differing features exhibited in the temporal scatter intensity profiles recorded during evaporation and condensation revealed the existence of an absorption-desorption hysteresis. Effects on the aforementioned phenomena due to chemical functionalization of the carbon nanotube surfaces were also monitored. The increased interaction potential between the functionalized MWCNT walls and water molecules altered the evaporation event time scale and increased the temperature at which condensation could take place. Theoretical calculations were used to correlate the shape of the observed scatter profiles during condensation to changes in the MWCNT cross section geometry and configuration of the contained water volume. Changes in evaporation time scales with temperature coincided with the boiling point for confined water predicted by the Kelvin equation, indicating that a thermodynamic description of mesoscopic confined water is permissible in some instances. PMID:26549826

  16. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Induce Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity And Apoptosis In Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knighten, Brionna; Tchounwou, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Multi walled carbon nanotubes [MWCNT's] have won enormous popularity in nanotechnology. Due to their unusual one dimensional, hollow nanostructure and unique physicochemical properties they are highly desirable for use within the commercial, environmental and medical sectors. Despite their wide application, there is a lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. While nanotechnology looms large with commercial promise and potential benefit, an equally large issue is the evaluation of potential effects on humans and other biological systems. Our research is focused on cellular response to purified MWCNT in normal human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDF). Three doses (40, 200, 400 μg/ml) of MWCNT and control (tween-80 + 0.9% saline) were used in this study. Following exposure to MWCNT, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis assays were performed using standard protocols. Our results demonstrated a dose-dependent toxicity with MWCNT. It was found to be toxic and induced massive loss of cell viability through DNA damage and programmed cell-death of all doses compared to control. Our results demonstrate that carbon nanotubes indeed can be very toxic at sufficiently high concentrations and that careful monitoring of toxicity studies is essential for risk assessment. PMID:20521388

  17. Interrelationship between single- and multi-wall carbon nanotube growth rates for CVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard F; Pannala, Sreekanth; Wells, Jack C; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B

    2007-01-01

    Recent time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Fe and Fe/Mo catalysts have identified a maximum growth rate and temperature corresponding to the onset of small-diameter, single-wall CNT (SWNT) formation. A simple model described here emphasizes the essential role of the SWNTs in the growth process of CNTs. Remarkably, it shows that the growth rate (i.e. the time derivative of the length) of a multi-walled CNT (MWNT) is the same as that of a SWNT at the carbon flux and diffusion coefficient corresponding to a given temperature. Moreover, below ~700C, the temperature above which SWNT growth is observed for a 6 sccm C2H2 flow rate, the number of walls as a function of temperature is uniquely determined by the interplay of the incident flux of atomic C and diffusion rates consistent with bulk diffusion. Even partial melting of the catalytic particle is unnecessary to explain the experimental results on growth rate and number of walls. Above 700C, where severe catalyst poisoning ordinarily begins, the growth rate without poisoning is consistent with recent results of Hata and co-workers for "supergrowth".

  18. Magnetoresistive polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with negative permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongbo; Guo, Jiang; He, Qingliang; Jiang, Yuan; Huang, Yudong; Haldolaarachige, Neel; Luo, Zhiping; Young, David P.; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-12-01

    Contrary to the observed positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in as-received multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), pure polyaniline (PANI) synthesized with Cr(vi) as oxidant and MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant, a room temperature negative GMR of around -2% was reported in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant. Different from a frequency switch of permittivity from negative to positive in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with APS as oxidant, unique negative permittivity was observed in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant within the measured frequency range from 20 to 2 × 106 Hz. The obtained unique negative permittivity was explained by the plasma frequency from the Drude model, at which the permittivity changes from negative to positive and the material changes from a metamaterial to an ordinary dielectric medium. The observed positive and negative GMR behaviors in these disordered systems as verified by the temperature dependent resistivity exploration were well explained through a wave-function shrinkage model and orbital magnetoconductivity theory by calculating the changed localization length (a0).Contrary to the observed positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in as-received multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), pure polyaniline (PANI) synthesized with Cr(vi) as oxidant and MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant, a room temperature negative GMR of around -2% was reported in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant. Different from a frequency switch of permittivity from negative to positive in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with APS as oxidant, unique negative permittivity was observed in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant within the measured frequency range from 20 to 2 × 106 Hz. The obtained unique negative permittivity was explained by the plasma frequency from the Drude model, at which the permittivity changes from negative to positive and the material

  19. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-graphene-polyaniline multiphase nanocomposite with superior electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Tejendra K.; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2013-12-01

    The multiphase approach was adapted to enhance the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites. The natural graphite flakes (NGF) incorporated modified PANI was used for the development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based nanocomposites. In PANINGF-MWCNTs composites, multilayer graphene was synthesized in situ by ball milling. The resultant PANINGF-MWCNTs nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. It was revealed from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation that in situ derived multilayer graphene acts as a bridge between PANI and MWCNTs, and plays a significant role for improving the properties of multiphase nanocomposites. It was observed that EMI-SE increases with increasing the MWCNTs content from 1 to 10 wt% in the multiphase nanocomposites. The maximum value of total EMI-SE was -98 dB of nanocomposite with 10 wt% of MWCNTs content. The high value of EMI-SE is dominated by the absorption phenomenon which is due to the collective effect of increase in space charge polarization and decrease in carrier mobility. The decrease in carrier mobility has a positive effect on the shore hardness value due to the strong interaction between the reinforcing constituent in multiphase nanocomposites. As a consequence, shore hardness increases from 56 to 91 at 10 wt% of MWCNTs.The multiphase approach was adapted to enhance the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites. The natural graphite flakes (NGF) incorporated modified PANI was used for the development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based nanocomposites. In PANINGF-MWCNTs composites, multilayer graphene was synthesized in situ by ball milling. The resultant PANINGF-MWCNTs nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. It was revealed from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation that in situ derived multilayer

  20. Nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose using well-distributed nickel nanoparticles on straight multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nie, Huagui; Yao, Zhen; Zhou, Xuemei; Yang, Zhi; Huang, Shaoming

    2011-12-15

    A nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor device was fabricated for glucose detection based on nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs)/straight multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SMWNTs) nanohybrids, which were synthesized through in situ precipitation procedure. SMWNTs can be easily dispersed in solution after mild sonication pretreatment, which facilitates the precursor of NiNPs binding to their surface and results in the homogeneous distribution of NiNPs on the surface of SMWNTs. The morphology and component of the nanohybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to evaluate the catalytic activity of the NiNPs/SMWNTs nanohybrids modified electrode towards glucose. It was found that the nanohybrids modified electrode showed remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution compared to that of the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE), the NiNPs and the SMWNTs modified electrode, attributing to the synergistic effect of SMWNTs and Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) redox couple. Under the optimal detection conditions, the as-prepared sensors exhibited linear behavior in the concentration range from 1 μM to 1 mM for the quantification of glucose with a limit of detection of 500 nM (3σ). Moreover, the NiNPs/SMWNTs modified electrode was also relatively insensitive to commonly interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), galactose (GA), and xylose (XY). The robust selectivities, sensitivities, and stabilities determined experimentally indicated the great potential of NiNPs/SMWNTs nanohybrids for construction of a variety of electrochemical sensors. PMID:21955756

  1. Biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes paste electrode modified with laccase for pirimicarb pesticide quantification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago M B F; Fátima Barroso, M; Morais, Simone; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N; Oliveira, Maria B P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-03-15

    This study focused on the development of a sensitive enzymatic biosensor for the determination of pirimicarb pesticide based on the immobilization of laccase on composite carbon paste electrodes. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified by dispersion of laccase (3%, w/w) within the optimum composite matrix (60:40%, w/w, MWCNTs and paraffin binder) showed the best performance, with excellent electron transfer kinetic and catalytic effects related to the redox process of the substrate 4-aminophenol. No metal or anti-interference membrane was added. Based on the inhibition of laccase activity, pirimicarb can be determined in the range 9.90 × 10(-7) to 1.15 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) using 4-aminophenol as substrate at the optimum pH of 5.0, with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations lower than 5%). The limit of detection obtained was 1.8 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (0.04 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight vegetable basis). The high activity and catalytic properties of the laccase-based biosensor are retained during ca. one month. The optimized electroanalytical protocol coupled to the QuEChERS methodology were applied to tomato and lettuce samples spiked at three levels; recoveries ranging from 91.0 ± 0.1% to 101.0 ± 0.3% were attained. No significant effects in the pirimicarb electroanalysis were observed by the presence of pro-vitamin A, vitamins B1 and C, and glucose in the vegetable extracts. The proposed biosensor-based pesticide residue methodology fulfills all requisites to be used in implementation of food safety programs. PMID:23598106

  2. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. Methods In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Results No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. Conclusions The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in

  3. Temperature-Compensated Force/Pressure Sensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Nghia Trong; Kanoun, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose a multi-walled carbon nanotube epoxy composite sensor for force and pressure sensing in the range of 50 N–2 kN. A manufacturing procedure, including material preparation and deposition techniques, is proposed. The electrode dimensions and the layer thickness were optimized by the finite element method. Temperature compensation is realized by four nanocomposites elements, where only two elements are exposed to the measurand. In order to investigate the influence of the filler contents, samples with different compositions were prepared and investigated. Additionally, the specimens are characterized by cyclical and stepped force/pressure loads or at defined temperatures. The results show that the choice of the filler content should meet a compromise between sensitivity, temperature influence and noise behavior. At constant temperature, a force of at least 50 N can be resolved. The measurement error due to the temperature influence is 150 N in a temperature range of −20°C−50°C. PMID:25985160

  4. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes stabilized by chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Phuoc, Tran X.; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, viscosity, and stability of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) stabilized by cationic chitosan were studied. Chitosan with weight fraction of 0.1%, 0.2 wt%, and 0.5 wt% was used to disperse stably MWCNTs in water. The measured thermal conductivity showed an enhancement from 2.3% to 13% for nanofluids that contained from 0.5 wt% to 3 wt% MWCNTs (0.24 to 1.43 vol %). These values are significantly higher than those predicted using the Maxwell's theory. We also observed that the enhancements were independent of the base fluid viscosity. Thus, use of microconvection effect to explain the anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement should be reconsidered. MWCNTs can be used either to enhance or reduce the fluid base viscosity depending on the weight fractions. In the viscosity-reduction case, a reduction up to 20% was measured by this work. In the viscosity-enhancement case, the fluid behaved as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid. By assuming that MWCNT nanofluids behave as a generalized second grade fluid where the viscosity coefficient depends upon the rate of deformation, a theoretical model has been developed. The model was found to describe the fluid behavior very well.

  5. One-step grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes with Ni filling and decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baro, Mahananda; Pal, Arup R.

    2015-06-01

    A single step approach for the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with Ni nanowires (Ni-MWCNTs) and decorated with Ni nanoparticles has been illustrated. The MWCNTs are grown by a PECVD-sputtering hybrid process at the low temperature of 450 °C having an average diameter of 55   ±   6 nm and length of 1.35   ±   0.08 µm. Thin Ni films of the thickness 10 nm have been used, which act as a catalyst as well as a source material for the filling of MWCNTs with Ni nanowires, whereas sputtering of Ni is the source of decorated Ni particles. This process facilitates the growth of aligned MWCNTs filled with Ni nanowires and also decorated with Ni nanoparticles on the walls. Magnetic properties of the Ni filled and decorated MWCNTs are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic hysteresis loops of Ni containing MWCNTs show ferromagnetic behavior. These Ni-MWCNTs shows coercivity of 135 Oe, which is significantly greater than that of the bulk Ni at room temperature. The magnetic property measurement reveals that the coercivity of the as grown MWCNTs is dependent on the size and content of Ni. Thus, a novel method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of ferromagnetic Ni-MWCNT which has potential applications in various fields.

  6. Magneto-conductivity and magnetically-controlled nonlinear optical transmittance in multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-Merino, J A; Martínez-González, C L; San Miguel, C R Torres; Trejo-Valdez, M; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H; Torres-Torres, C

    2016-08-22

    The impact of vectorial magnetic field effects on electrical conductivity and nonlinear optical transmittance exhibited by multi-wall carbon nanotubes was studied. The samples were synthetized by an aerosol pyrolysis processing route in a thin film form. Optical signals in a two-wave mixing configuration allowed us to identify two orthogonal directions of propagation for a magnetic field travelling through the nanomaterials studied. A selective modification in optical absorption was considered to be induced by magnetic perturbations in the sample. Standard optical Kerr gate measurements were carried out for exploring the third order nonlinear optical behavior of the film. A capacitive effect influenced by optical and magnetic excitations was distinguished to be characteristic of the sample. Magneto-quantum conductivity sensitive to the direction of an external magnetic field interacting with the tubes was analyzed. Magnetically-induced changes in electronic band parameters seem to be the main responsible for the optical and electrical modulation observed in the nanostructures. Immediate applications for developing magneto-optical and magneto-electrical functions can be contemplated. PMID:27557232

  7. Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways of Macrophages by Surface-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuanqin; Zhang, Honggang; Wang, Yange; Chen, Min; Ye, Shefang; Hou, Zhenqing; Ren, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often involve improving their hydrophilicity and dispersion in biological media by modifying them through noncovalent or covalent functionalization. However, the potential adverse effects of surface-functionalized CNTs have not been well characterized. In this study, we functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) via carboxylation, to produce MWCNTs-COOH, and via poly (ethylene glycol) linking, to produce MWCNTs-PEG. We used these functionalized MWCNTs to study the effect of surface functionalization on MWCNTs-induced toxicity to macrophages, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Our results revealed that MWCNTs-PEG were less cytotoxic and were associated with less apoptotic cell death of macrophages than MWCNTs-COOH. Additionally, MWCNTs-PEG induced less generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving less activation of NADPH oxidase compared with MWCNTs-COOH, as evidenced by membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox in macrophages. The less cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of MWCNTs-PEG compared with MWCNTs-COOH resulted from the lower cellular uptake of MWCNTs-PEG, which resulted in less activation of oxidative stress-responsive pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. These results demonstrate that surface functionalization of CNTs may alter ROS-mediated cytotoxic and apoptotic response by modulating apoptotic signaling pathways. Our study thus provides new insights into the molecular basis for the surface properties affecting CNTs toxicity. PMID:23755279

  8. Effects of transferrin conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in lung cancer delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul Pratap; Sharma, Gunjan; Sonali; Singh, Sanjay; Patne, Shashikant C U; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Koch, Biplob; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) which were covalently conjugated with transferrin by carbodiimide chemistry and loaded with docetaxel as a model drug for effective treatment of lung cancer in comparison with the commercial docetaxel injection (Docel™). d-Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used as amphiphilic surfactant to improve the aqueous dispersity and biocompatibility of MWCNT. Human lung cancer cells (A549 cells) were employed as an in-vitro model to access cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded MWCNT. The cellular uptake results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT showed higher efficiency in comparison with free C6. The IC50 values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more efficient than Docel™ after 24h treatment with the A549 cells. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that cancerous cells appeared significantly (P<0.05) in the sub-G1 phase for transferrin conjugated MWCNT in comparison with Docel™. Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™. PMID:27287127

  9. Spectroscopic studies on sidewall carboxylic acid functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with valine.

    PubMed

    Deborah, M; Jawahar, A; Mathavan, T; Dhas, M Kumara; Benial, A Milton Franklin

    2015-03-15

    The valine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were prepared and characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (002) intensity was observed for valine functionalized MWCNTs compared with oxidized MWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. UV-Vis study shows the formation of valine functionalized MWCNTs. FT-IR study confirms the presence of functional groups of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The ESR line shape analysis indicates that the observed EPR line shape is a Gaussian line shape. The g-values indicate that the systems are isotropic in nature. The morphology study was carried out for oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs by using SEM. The EDX spectra revealed that the high purity of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen because, functionalization of CNTs with amino acids makes them soluble and biocompatible. Thus, they have potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery. PMID:25554963

  10. A potassium sensor based on non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Blondeau, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    Non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a pyrene based benzo-18-crown-6 ether 1 leads to nanostructure assemblies that play both the role of an ion-to-electron transducer and a selective recognition element in solid-contact ion-selective-electrodes (SC-ISEs). The high loading capacity (36 wt%) as well as the suitable dispersion character of the MWCNT hybrid in the ion-selective membrane (ISM) confirmed the benefit of this approach over the covalent one. The sensor has been applied successfully to the detection of potassium. Nernstian response (56.9 ± 0.9 mV per decade) was obtained (10(-5) and 10(-2) M K(+)) and the selectivity pattern was not altered by the immobilization of the ionophore on the MWCNTs. Leakage of the ionophore from the polymeric matrix is therefore avoided while the sensor construction was simplified and the analytical performances were maintained. PMID:23515323

  11. Adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solutions onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Ma, Jie; Han, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different oxygen contents were investigated for the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solutions. As the surface oxygen content of the MWCNTs increased, the maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption coefficient of TC increased to the largest values and then decreased. The relation can be attributed to the interplay between the nanotubes' dispersibility and the water cluster formation upon TC adsorption. The overall adsorption kinetics of TC onto CNTs-3.2%O might be dependent on both intra-particle diffusion and boundary layer diffusion. The maximum adsorption capacity of TC on CNTs-3.2%O was achieved in the pH range of 3.3–8.0 due to formation of water clusters or H-bonds. Furthermore, the presence of Cu2+ could significantly enhanced TC adsorption at pH of 5.0. However, the solution ionic strength did not exhibit remarkable effect on TC adsorption. In addition, when pH is beyond the range (3.3–8.0), the electrostatic interactions caused the decrease of TC adsorption capacity. Our results indicate that surface properties and aqueous solution chemistry play important roles in TC adsorption on MWCNTs. PMID:24937315

  12. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications.

  13. Effect of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-02-15

    In this study, the hydrogen storage behaviors of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated through the surface modification of MWNTs by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at various ratios. The presence of acceptor-functional groups on the p-type MWNT surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurement of the zeta-potential determined the surface charge transfer and dispersion of the p-type MWMTs, and the hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results obtained, it was found that acceptor-functional groups were introduced onto the MWNT surfaces, and the dispersion of MWNTs could be improved depending on the acid-mixed treatment conditions. The hydrogen storage was increased by acid-mixed treatments of up to 0.36 wt% in the p-type MWNTs, compared with 0.18 wt% in the As-received MWNTs. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacities were greatly influenced by the acceptor-functional groups of p-type MWNT surfaces, resulting in increased electron acceptor–donor interaction at the interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen storage behaviors of the p-type MWNTs with the acid-mixed treatments are described. Display Omitted Display Omitted.

  14. Facile preparation and electrochemical characterization of cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Junwei; Yan, Xingbin; Xue, Qunji

    A series of cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube (Co 3O 4/MWCNT) composites are successfully synthesized by a facile chemical co-precipitation method followed by a simple thermal treatment process. The morphology and structure of as-obtained composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N 2-adsorption/desorption measurements, and the electrochemical properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For all Co 3O 4/MWCNT composites, MWCNTs are well dispersed in the loosely packed Co 3O 4 nanoparticles. Among them, the Co 3O 4-5%MWCNT composite exhibits the highest specific surface area of 137 m 2 g -1 and a mesoporous structure with a narrow distribution of pore size from 2 to 10 nm. Because of the synergistic effects coming from Co 3O 4 nanoparticles and MWCNTs, the electrochemical performances of pure Co 3O 4 material are significantly improved after adding MWCNTs. The Co 3O 4-5%MWCNT composite shows the largest specific capacitance of 418 F g -1 at a current density of 0.625 A g -1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, this composite exhibits good cycling stability and lifetime. Therefore, based on the above investigation, such Co 3O 4/MWCNT composite could be a potential candidate for supercapacitors.

  15. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  16. Adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solutions onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Ma, Jie; Han, Sheng

    2014-06-01

    Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different oxygen contents were investigated for the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solutions. As the surface oxygen content of the MWCNTs increased, the maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption coefficient of TC increased to the largest values and then decreased. The relation can be attributed to the interplay between the nanotubes' dispersibility and the water cluster formation upon TC adsorption. The overall adsorption kinetics of TC onto CNTs-3.2%O might be dependent on both intra-particle diffusion and boundary layer diffusion. The maximum adsorption capacity of TC on CNTs-3.2%O was achieved in the pH range of 3.3-8.0 due to formation of water clusters or H-bonds. Furthermore, the presence of Cu2+ could significantly enhanced TC adsorption at pH of 5.0. However, the solution ionic strength did not exhibit remarkable effect on TC adsorption. In addition, when pH is beyond the range (3.3-8.0), the electrostatic interactions caused the decrease of TC adsorption capacity. Our results indicate that surface properties and aqueous solution chemistry play important roles in TC adsorption on MWCNTs.

  17. Fluorescence Spectrometry of the Interaction of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Catalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.; Cai, H.; Li, J.; Miao, J.; Fu, D.; Yang, Q.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with catalase is investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results of the fluorescence experiments suggest that MWCNTs quench the intrinsic fluorescence of catalase via a static quenching mechanism. The circular dichroism spectral results reveal the unfolding of catalase with a significant decrease in the α-helix content in the presence of MWCNTs, which indicates that the conformation of catalase is changed in the binding process, thereby remarkably decreasing its activity. The binding constants and the number of binding sites of the MWCNT to the catalase are calculated at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, such as the changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS), are calculated using thermodynamic equations. The fact that all negative values of ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS are obtained suggests that the interaction of the MWCNTs with catalase is spontaneous, and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions play an important role in the binding process.

  18. Transport and remobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in porous media during dynamic saturation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important technologies in this century and it is evoking a new industrial revolution. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important engineered nanoparticles with unique and beneficial properties. As a result, CNT has been used in a wide range of commercial products including electronics, optical devices and drug delivery leading to their disposal in the natural environment. Literature studies have investigated the mobility of CNTs in saturated porous media under differing physical and chemical conditions. However CNT transport in temporarily changing porous media water content has not been investigated thus far (a common scenario with rainfall/infiltration events in the vadose zone). This study investigated the mobilization of multi-walled CNTs (MCNTs) in repeated wetting and drying cycles with varying flow rates and ionic strength of the inflow solution. Imbibition-drainage-imbibition cycle experiments suggest that MCNTs mobilization increased with increase in flow rates. MCNTs mobilization occurred only with first imbibition events at low ionic strengths however less mobilization happened for higher ionic strength inflow solution in the first imbibition cycle and additional MCNTs were found in the outflow solution in second imbibition cycle, using low ionic strength solution. This observation was likely due to the attachment force between MCNTs and sand surface. Most of the MCNT mobilization occurred during liquid-gas interface movement with less chance of MCNTs to jump the energy barrier at higher ionic strength solution. As a result, less detachment of MCNTs occurred from the sand surface during drainage.

  19. Strengthening behavior of chopped multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.E.; Bae, D.H.

    2013-09-15

    Strengthening behavior of the aluminum composites reinforced with chopped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or aluminum carbide formed during annealing at 500 °C has been investigated. The composites were fabricated by hot-rolling the powders which were ball-milled under various conditions. During the early annealing process, aluminum atoms can cluster inside the tube due to the diffusional flow of aluminum atoms into the tube, providing an increase of the strength of the composite. Further annealing induces the formation of the aluminum carbide phase, leading to an overall drop in the strength of the composites. While the strength of the composites can be evaluated according to the rule of mixture, a particle spacing effect can be additionally imparted on the strength of the composites reinforced with the chopped MWCNTs or the corresponding carbides since the reinforcing agents are smaller than the submicron matrix grains. - Highlights: • Strengthening behavior of chopped CNT reinforced Al-based composites is investigated. • Chopped CNTs have influenced the strength and microstructures of the composites. • Chopped CNTs are created under Ar- 3% H2 atmosphere during mechanical milling. • Strength can be evaluated by the rule of the mixture and a particle spacing effect.

  20. Damaging Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Pregnant Mice with Different Pregnancy Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Bi, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Peng; Li, Zhan; Wu, Wangsuo

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism by which nanoparticles cross the placental barrier was studied by using isotopic tracers. The abortion rates and other related data were counted and analysed in pregnant mice with different pregnancy times. Results showed that oxidised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) crossed the placental barrier and entered the foetus body. The abortion rates in the pregnant mice depended on pregnancy times. The abortion rates in the first-time, second-time and fourth-time pregnant mice were 70%, 40% and 50%, respectively. The maternal body weight gain was inhibited until gestational ages of 13, 10 and 11 d. oMWCNTs decreased the serum progesterone level and increased the serum oestradiol level in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, this effect decreased with gestational age. The histology and vascular endothelial growth factor/reactive oxygen species content in the placenta showed that oMWCNTs narrowed the blood vessel and decreased the number of blood vessels in the placenta.

  1. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Summary The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  2. Optimized network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Gohier, A; Chancolon, J; Chenevier, P; Porterat, D; Mayne-L'Hermite, M; Reynaud, C

    2011-03-11

    This work reports the design of a resistive gas sensor based on 2D mats of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. The sensor sensitivity was optimized using chlorine as analyte by tuning both CNT network morphology and CNT electronic properties. Optimized devices, operating at room temperature, have been calibrated over a large range of concentration and are shown to be sensitive down to 27 ppb of chlorine. The as-grown MWCNT response is compared with responses of 2000 °C annealed CNTs, as well as of nitrogen-doped CNTs and CNTs functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI). Under chlorine exposure, the resistance decrease of as-grown and annealed CNTs is attributed to charge transfer from chlorine to CNTs and demonstrates their p-type semiconductor behaviour. XPS analysis of CNTs exposed to chlorine shows the presence of chloride species that confirms electron charge transfer from chlorine to CNTs. By contrast, the resistance of nitrogen-doped and PEI functionalized CNTs exposed to chlorine increases, in agreement with their n-type semiconductor nature. The best response is obtained using annealed CNTs and is attributed to their higher degree of crystallinity. PMID:21289407

  3. Proteomics-based safety evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the biological responses to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Human monoblastic leukemia cells (U937) were exposed to As-grown MWCNTs and MWCNTs that were thermally treated at 1800 deg. C (HTT1800) and 2800 deg. C (HTT2800). Cell proliferation was highly inhibited by As-grown but not HTT2800. However, both As-grown and HTT1800, which include some impurities, were cytotoxic. Proteomics analysis of MWCNT-exposed cells revealed 37 protein spots on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels that significantly changed (p < 0.05) after exposure to HTT1800 with a little iron and 20 spots that changed after exposure to HTT2800. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified 45 proteins that included heat shock protein beta-1, neutral alpha-glucosidase AB, and DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2. These altered proteins play roles in metabolism, biosynthesis, response to stress, and cell differentiation. Although HTT2800 did not inhibit cell proliferation or cause cytotoxicity in vitro, some proteins related to the response to stress were changed. Moreover, DJ-1 protein, which is a biomarker of Parkinson's disease and is related to cancer, was identified after exposure to both MWCNTs. These results show that the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs depends on their impurities, such as iron, while MWCNTs themselves cause some biological responses directly and/or indirectly in vitro. Our proteomics-based approach for detecting biological responses to nanomaterials is a promising new method for detailed safety evaluations.

  4. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Youngmin; Hwang, Jangsun; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Yoon; Hwang, Mintai P; Choi, Jonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various nanoscale materials, including silver (Ag) nanoparticles, have been actively studied for their capacity to effectively prevent bacterial growth. A critical challenge is to enhance the antibacterial properties of nanomaterials while maintaining their biocompatibility. The conjugation of multiple nanomaterials with different dimensions, such as spherical nanoparticles and high-aspect-ratio nanotubes, may increase the target-specific antibacterial capacity of the consequent nanostructure while retaining an optimal biocompatibility. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were treated with a mixture of acids and decorated with Ag nanoparticles via a chemical reduction of Ag cations by ethanol solution. The synthesized Ag-MWCNT complexes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The antibacterial function of Ag-MWCNTs was evaluated against Methylobacterium spp. and Sphingomonas spp. In addition, the biocompatibility of Ag-MWCNTs was evaluated using both mouse liver hepatocytes (AML 12) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, we determined the minimum amount of Ag-MWCNTs required for a biocompatible yet effective antibacterial treatment modality. We report that 30 μg/mL of Ag-MWCNTs confers antibacterial functionality while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity toward both human and animal cells. The results reported herein would be beneficial for researchers interested in the efficient preparation of hybrid nanostructures and in determining the minimum amount of Ag-MWCNTs necessary to effectively hinder the growth of bacteria. PMID:25336943

  5. Photothermal ablation of bone metastasis of breast cancer using PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Liu, Yi; Ma, Xueming; Hu, Shaoyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Qian; Ye, Wenbin; Zhu, Siyuan; Yang, Dehong; Qu, Dongbin; Jiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates therapeutic efficacy of photothermal therapy (PTT) in an orthotropic xenograft model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. The near-infrared (NIR) irradiation on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) resulted in a rapid heat generation which increased with the MWNTs concentration up to 100 μg/ml. MWNTs alone exhibited no toxicity, but inclusion of MWNTs dramatically decreased cell viability when combined with laser irradiation. Thermographic observation revealed that treatment with 10 μg MWNTs followed by NIR laser irradiation resulted in a rapid increase in temperature up to 73.4±11.98 °C in an intraosseous model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. In addition, MWNTs plus NIR laser irradiation caused a remarkably greater suppression of tumor growth compared with treatment with either MWNTs injection or NIR irradiation alone, significantly reducing the amount of tumor-induced bone destruction. All these demonstrate the efficacy of PTT with MWNTs for bone metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:26122018

  6. Facile synthesis and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijian; Fang, Yu; Long, Lingliang; Song, Yinglin; Yu, Wang; Zhao, Wei; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G; Zhang, Chi

    2013-10-11

    Two multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based nanohybrids, MWCNT-ZnTPP and MWCNT-TPP (TPP=5-[4-{2-(4-formylphenoxy)- ethyloxy}phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, ZnTPP=5-[4-{(4-formylphenyl)ethynyl}phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphinatozinc(II)), were prepared directly from pristine MWCNTs through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. Covalent attachment of the porphyrins to the surfaces of the MWCNTs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet/visible absorption, fluorescence, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Attachment of the porphyrin moieties to the surface of the MWCNTs significantly improves the solubility and ease of processing of these MWCNT-porphyrin composite materials. Z-scan studies reveal that these MWCNT-porphyrin nanohybrids exhibit enhanced nonlinear optical properties under both nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at λ=532 nm in comparison with free MWCNTs and the free porphyrin chromophores, whereas superior optical limiting performance was displayed by MWCNT-porphyrin composite materials rather than MWCNTs/ZnTPP and MWCNTs/TPP blends, which is consistent with a remarkable accumulation effect as a result of the covalent linkage between the porphyrin and the MWCNTs. PMID:24038312

  7. Interfacial interaction in a composite based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and amorphous tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesov, S. N.; Bolotov, V. V.; Korusenko, P. M.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Vilkov, O. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The specific features of changes in the electronic structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) due to the interaction with an amorphous tin oxide in the SnO x /MWCNT composite formed by magnetron sputtering have been investigated using X-ray spectroscopy. It has been shown that the formation of chemical bonds responsible for significant changes in the local and electronic structures of the outer layers of MWCNTs occurs at the boundaries of the "amorphous oxide/MWCNT" contacts. The vacuum annealing of the composite leads to the disturbance of the chemical interaction at interfaces of the composite and to a partial recovery of the local structure of the outer layers of MWCNTs. A decrease in the amount of oxygen in the tin oxide under vacuum annealing conditions causes an increase in the number of unpaired Sn 5 s electrons, which, in turn, enhances the charge transfer through the interfaces in the composite and leads to a splitting of the π*-subsystem of the outer layers of MWCNTs.

  8. Chelerythrine and Fe3O4 Loaded Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Targeted Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangli; Liang, Yongbo; Zhao, Feijun; Zhao, Xiongjie; Chen, Zhencheng

    2016-06-01

    The work focused on manufacturing improved drug loaded multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles that can overcome the relative non-specificity and potential side-effects of some chemotherapeutic drugs to healthy tissues. A new drug delivery system, Chelerythrine (CHE) and Fe3O4 loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4/MWNTs-CHE nanocomposites) that can target hepatocytes when treating malignant tumors, was prepared through a simple adsorption method. The formulation and structure of the Fe3O4/MWNTs-CHE nanocomposites were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferation effect from the prepared nanocomposites were in vitro tested on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 and normal liver LO2 cell lines. The results showed the saturated magnetization of Fe3O4/MWNTs-CHE nanocomposites could reach to 45.4O3 emu/g, and the in vitro CHE release behavior exhibited a biphasic release pattern. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity studies revealed that the Fe3O4/MWNTs-CHE nanocomposites showed an efficient inhibition rate to HepG2 cell line and exhibited a lower cytotoxicity to LO2 cell line in comparison to the native CHE. Therefore, the multifunctional Fe3O4/MWNTs-CHE nanocomposites should be a useful and promising candidate for treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:27319224

  9. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hoon-Sik; Jeon, Sang Koo; Ryu, Kwon-Sang; Nahm, Seung Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT) filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC) and vaccinia virus (VV) were filtered using the MWCNT web filters and were evaporated and removed by applying direct current (DC) voltage to both sides of the MWCNT webs, excluding electrochemical or electrochlorination. The filtering and removal of BoT/E-LC and VV were performed after seven layers of the MWCNT sheets were coated onto a silicon oxide porous plate. The electrical resistance of the webs in the seven layer sheet was 293 Ω. The temperature of MWCNTs webs was linearly increased to ˜300 °C at 210 V of DC voltage. This temperature was enough to remove BoT/E-LC and VV. From the SEM and XPS results, we confirmed that BoT/E-LC and VV on the MWCNT webs were almost removed by applying a DC voltage and that some element (N, Na, Cl, etc.) as residues on the MWCNT webs remained.

  10. Electrochemical properties of myoglobin deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube/ciprofloxacin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Ashok; Wang, Sea-Fue; Chang, Yu-Tsern; Lu, His-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Ting

    2011-02-01

    We report the direct electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of myoglobin (MB) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube/ciprofloxacin (MWCNT/CF) film-modified electrode. A highly homogeneous MWCNT thin-film was prepared on an electrode surface using ciprofloxacin (CF) as a dispersing agent. MB was then electrochemically deposited onto the MWCNT/CF-modified electrode. The MB/MWCNT/CF film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). UV-vis spectra confirmed that MB retained its original state on the MWCNT/CF film. Direct electrochemical properties of MB on the MWCNT/CF film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The formal potential and electron transfer rate constant were evaluated in pH 7.2 buffer solution as -0.327V and 300s(-1), respectively. In addition, the MB/MWCNT/CF-modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic properties for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The MB/MWCNT/CF-modified electrode was used for the detection of H(2)O(2) at concentrations from 1×10(-6)M to 7×10(-4)M in pH 7.2 buffer solution. Overall, the MB/MWCNT/CF-modified electrode was very stable and has potential for development as a H(2)O(2) sensor. PMID:21115278

  11. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin; Claussen, Jonathan C.; McLamore, Eric S.; Haque, Aeraj ul; Jaroch, David; Diggs, Alfred R.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Rickus, Jenna L.; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 µA mM - 1 cm - 2), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 µM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H2O2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  12. Spectroscopic studies on sidewall carboxylic acid functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deborah, M.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-03-01

    The valine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were prepared and characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (0 0 2) intensity was observed for valine functionalized MWCNTs compared with oxidized MWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. UV-Vis study shows the formation of valine functionalized MWCNTs. FT-IR study confirms the presence of functional groups of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The ESR line shape analysis indicates that the observed EPR line shape is a Gaussian line shape. The g-values indicate that the systems are isotropic in nature. The morphology study was carried out for oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs by using SEM. The EDX spectra revealed that the high purity of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen because, functionalization of CNTs with amino acids makes them soluble and biocompatible. Thus, they have potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a zirconia/multi-walled carbon nanotube mesoporous composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Jianfei; Xia, Yanzhi; Lu, Caiyu; Shi, Guoyu; Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Fuqiang; Li, Yanhui; Xia, Linhua; Tang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    A zirconia/multi-walled carbon nanotube (ZrO2/MWCNT) mesoporous composite was fabricated via a simple method using a hydrothermal process with the aid of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize the as-made samples. The cubic ZrO2 nanocrystallites were observed to overlay the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in the formation of a novel mesoporous-nanotube composite. On the basis of a TEM analysis of the products from controlled experiment, the role of the acid-treated MWCNTs and CTAB was proposed to explain the formation of the mesoporous-nanotube structure. The as-made composite possessed novel properties, such as a high surface area (312 m(2)·g(-1)) and a bimodal mesoporous structure (3.18 nm and 12.4 nm). It was concluded that this composite has important application value due to its one-dimensional hollow structure, excellent electric conductivity and large surface area. PMID:23910298

  14. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doped Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Hydrogen Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wongchoosuk, Chatchawal; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have fabricated hydrogen gas sensors based on undoped and 1 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-doped tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films by means of the powder mixing and electron beam (E-beam) evaporation technique. Hydrogen sensing properties of the thin films have been investigated at different operating temperatures and gas concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 50,000 ppm. The results indicate that the MWCNT-doped WO3 thin film exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen. Thus, MWCNT doping based on E-beam co-evaporation was shown to be an effective means of preparing hydrogen gas sensors with enhanced sensing and reduced operating temperatures. Creation of nanochannels and formation of p-n heterojunctions were proposed as the sensing mechanism underlying the enhanced hydrogen sensitivity of this hybridized gas sensor. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on a MWCNT-doped WO3 hydrogen sensor prepared by the E-beam method. PMID:22163623

  15. Structural and magnetic characterization of batch-fabricated nickel encapsulated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, M A; Shou, K; Pané, S; Pellicer, E; Sort, J; Sivaraman, K M; Baró, M D; Nelson, B J

    2011-07-01

    We report on the growth and fabrication of Ni-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) with an average diameter of 115 nm and variable length of 400 nm-1 µm. The Ni-MWNTs were grown using template-assisted electrodeposition and low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) techniques. Anodized alumina oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated on Si using a current controlled process. This was followed by the electrodeposition of Ni nanowires (NWs) using galvanostatic pulsed current (PC) electrodeposition. Ni NWs served as the catalyst to grow Ni-MWNTs in an atmosphere of H2/C2H2 at a temperature of 700 °C. Time dependent depositions were carried out to understand the diffusion and growth mechanism of Ni-MWNTs. Characterization was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed that the Ni nanowires possess a fcc structure. To understand the effects of the electrodeposition parameters, and also the effects of the high temperatures encountered during MWNT growth on the magnetic properties of the Ni-MWNTs, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements were performed. The template-based fabrication method is repeatable, efficient, enables batch fabrication and provides good control on the dimensions of the Ni-MWNTs. PMID:21606563

  16. Dispersion characteristics and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Sébastien; Labzour, Asmae; Sinha-Ray, Suprakas; El Mabrouk, Khalil; Bousmina, Mosto

    2007-07-01

    The preparation, characterization, and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites are described. Nanocomposites have been prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer. Both unmodified and surface modified MWCNTs have been used for the nanocomposites preparation. Using both unmodified and modified MWCNTs, the effect of surface modification in nanocomposites is investigated by focusing on three major aspects: dispersion characteristics, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity measurements. Dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix is examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy that revealed a homogeneous distribution-dispersion of MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix for both unmodified and modified MWCNTs. Thermomechanical behavior is studied by dynamic mechanical analyzer and results showed a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties of PMMA in conjunction to an increase in the elastic behavior. The tensile properties of neat PMMA moderately improved after nanocomposites preparation with both modified and unmodified MWCNTs, however, electrical conductivity of neat PMMA significantly improved after nanocomposites preparation with 2 wt% unmodified MWCNTs. For example, the through plane conductivity increased from 3.6 x 10(-12) S x cm(-1) for neat PMMA to 3.6 x 10(-9) S x cm(-1) for nanocomposite. The various property measurements have been conducted and results have shown that, in overall, surface modifications have very little or no effect on final properties of neat PMMA. PMID:17663251

  17. Dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) matrix.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Vaudreuil, Sébastien; Maazouz, Abderrahim; Bousmina, Mosto

    2006-07-01

    This communication describes the preparation, characterization and properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposite. Nanocomposite was prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer and the amount of MWCNTs loading was 3 wt%. State of dispersion-distribution of the MWCNTs in the PBS matrix was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations that revealed homogeneous distribution of stacked MWCNTs in PBS matrix. The investigation of the thermomechanical behavior was performed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Results demonstrated substantial enhancement in the mechanical properties of PBS, for example, at room temperature, storage flexural modulus increased from 0.64 GPa for pure PBS to 1.2 GPa for the nanocomposite, an increase of about 88% in the value of the elastic modulus. The tensile modulus and thermal stability of PBS were moderately improved after nanocomposite preparation with 3 wt% of MWCNTs, while electrical conductivity of neat PBS dramatically increased after nanocomposite formation. For example, the in plane conductivity increased from 5.8 x 10(-9) S/cm for neat PBS to 4.4 x 10(-3) for nanocomposite, an increase of 10(6) fold in value of the electrical conductivity. PMID:17025148

  18. Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Lithium Nanopipettes and SPM Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonathan; Bharath, Satyaveda; Cullen, William; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2014-03-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) - terminated SPM cantilever, was utilized to perform nanolithography and surface diffusion measurements on a thin film of vapor-deposited lithium atop a silicon (111) substrate under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In these investigations the MWCNT tip was shown to act as both a lithium nanopipette and a probe for non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) measurements. With the application of appropriate bias conditions, the MWCNT could site-selectively extract (expel) nano-scale amounts of lithium from (to) the sample surface. Depressions, mounds, and spikes were generated on the surface in this way and were azimuthally symmetric about the selected point of pipetting. Following lithium transfer to/from the substrate, the MWCNT pipette-induced features were sequentially imaged with NC-AFM using the MWCNT as the probe. Vacancy pits of ca. 300 nm diameter and 1.5 nm depth were observed to decay on a timescale of hours at room temperature, through diffusion-limited decay processes. A continuum model was utilized to simulate the island decay rates, and the lithium surface diffusion coefficient of D =7.5 (+/-1.3)*10-15 cm2/s was extracted. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  19. Inkjet printing of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite thin film for interconnection.

    PubMed

    Lok, Boon Keng; Ng, You Min; Liang, Yen Nan; Hu, Xiao

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) ink was selectively patterned by inkjet printing on substrates to form conductive traces and electrodes for interconnection application. MWCNT was firstly functionalized using concentrated acid and dispersed in deionized water to form a colloidal solution. Various concentrations of MWCNT were formulated to test the stability of the solution. The printability of the MWCNT ink was examined against printing temperature, ink concentration and ink droplet pitch. Rheological properties of the ink were determined by rheometer and sessile drop method. The electrical conductivity of the MWCNT pattern was measured against multiple printing of MWCNT on the same pattern (up to 10 layers). While single layer printing pattern exhibited highest resistance, the CNT entangled together and formed a random network with more printed layers has higher conductivity. The electrical properties of the printed film was compared to a composite ink of CNT and conducting polymer (CNT ink was mixed with conductive polymer solution, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface structure and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the printed film under different conditions. PMID:21128484

  20. Multifunctional properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes/cyanate-ester nanocomposites and CFRPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltopoulos, A.; Fiamegkou, E.; Vavouliotis, A.; Karapappas, P.; Athanasopoulos, N.; Fotiou, I.; Kostopoulos, V.; Maagt, P. D.; Rohr, T.

    2009-07-01

    The incorporation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes at weight fractions of 0.5% wt. and 1% wt. in a PRIMASET cyanate ester system (PT-30) was examined. The thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of the developed nanopolymers were investigated and were compared with the neat matrix properties. A preparation method was developed for the incorporation of the fillers in the resin system. The phenomenon of re-agglomeration of nanotubes took place in the first stages of curing schedule but nevertheless according to the SEM images a good dispersion was generally achieved. DSC, DMA, TGA and thermal conductivity tests were performed for the thermal characterization. For the electrical characterization, AC and DC measurements took place. No significant change in the glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal conductivity and mass loss values was observed in comparison with the neat resin systems. However, in both cases the improvement of electrical conductivity was about nine orders of magnitude, indicating that percolation had been achieved. The elastic modulus in bending was examined and a slight increase was observed in direct comparison with the neat resin. Finally, the developed doped nanopolymer was used as matrix for the CFRPs manufacturing. A full manufacturing protocol was developed in order to overcome the challenging issues concerning the cyanate esters' handling and manufacturing processes. Moreover AC and DC measurements were performed along with thermal conductivity measurements and TMA. The produced modified composites were tested for short beam strength.

  1. Nanogenerators consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using flexoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Yang, Sun A.; Bu, Sang Don; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; Choi, Moonkang; Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Min Ku

    2016-07-01

    We report the first attempt to prepare a flexoelectric nanogenerator consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwCNT). Direct-grown piezoelectrics on mwCNTs are formed by a stirring and heating method using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)-mwCNT precursor solution. We studied the unit cell mismatch and strain distribution of epitaxial PZT nanoparticles, and found that lattice strain is relaxed along the growth direction. A PZT-mwCNT nanogenerator was found to produce a peak output voltage of 8.6 V and an output current of 47 nA when a force of 20 N is applied. Direct-grown piezoelectric nanogenerators generate a higher voltage and current than simple mixtures of PZT and CNTs resulting from the stronger connection between PZT crystals and mwCNTs and an enhanced flexoelectric effect caused by the strain gradient. These experiments represent a significant step toward the application of nanogenerators using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials.

  2. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Claussen, Jonathan C; McLamore, Eric S; ul Haque, Aeraj; Jaroch, David; Diggs, Alfred R; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Rickus, Jenna L; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2011-09-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 µA mM(-1) cm(-2)), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 µM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H(2)O(2) response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications. PMID:21828892

  3. Nanogenerators consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using flexoelectric effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Yang, Sun A.; Bu, Sang Don; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; Choi, Moonkang; Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Min Ku

    2016-01-01

    We report the first attempt to prepare a flexoelectric nanogenerator consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwCNT). Direct-grown piezoelectrics on mwCNTs are formed by a stirring and heating method using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)-mwCNT precursor solution. We studied the unit cell mismatch and strain distribution of epitaxial PZT nanoparticles, and found that lattice strain is relaxed along the growth direction. A PZT-mwCNT nanogenerator was found to produce a peak output voltage of 8.6 V and an output current of 47 nA when a force of 20 N is applied. Direct-grown piezoelectric nanogenerators generate a higher voltage and current than simple mixtures of PZT and CNTs resulting from the stronger connection between PZT crystals and mwCNTs and an enhanced flexoelectric effect caused by the strain gradient. These experiments represent a significant step toward the application of nanogenerators using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials. PMID:27406631

  4. Pressureless sintering and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube composite.

    PubMed

    Abden, M J; Afroze, J D; Alam, M S; Bahadur, N M

    2016-10-01

    This work aims to study the optimum sintering conditions of hydroxyapatite/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (HA/f-MWCNT) composite with improved mechanical properties for bone implant applications using a pressureless sintering technique. The carboxyl functional group (COOH) introduced by the acid treatment on the MWCNT surface by which HA molecules are grafted onto the surface of functionalized MWCNT with strong interfacial bonding. The composite exhibits a lower hemolytic rate of 1.27%. The flexible nature of f-MWCNT makes them bend and attached to the HA grains, indicates that f-MWCNT bear significant stress by sharing a portion of the load and it leads to improve their mechanical properties. The maximum Vickers hardness of 3.6GPa is obtained for the HA/f-MWCNT composite sintered at 1100°C, whereas the highest compressive strength of 481.7MPa and fracture toughness of 2.38MPa.m(1/2) achieved after sintering at 1150°C. This study demonstrated that HA/f-MWCNT composite create suitable structures by vacuum pressureless sintering technique to satisfy the mechanical requirements for bone tissues. PMID:27287138

  5. Magnetoresistive polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with negative permittivity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbo; Guo, Jiang; He, Qingliang; Jiang, Yuan; Huang, Yudong; Haldolaarachige, Neel; Luo, Zhiping; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to the observed positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in as-received multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), pure polyaniline (PANI) synthesized with Cr(vi) as oxidant and MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant, a room temperature negative GMR of around -2% was reported in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant. Different from a frequency switch of permittivity from negative to positive in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with APS as oxidant, unique negative permittivity was observed in MWNTs/PANI nanocomposites with Cr(vi) as oxidant within the measured frequency range from 20 to 2 × 10(6) Hz. The obtained unique negative permittivity was explained by the plasma frequency from the Drude model, at which the permittivity changes from negative to positive and the material changes from a metamaterial to an ordinary dielectric medium. The observed positive and negative GMR behaviors in these disordered systems as verified by the temperature dependent resistivity exploration were well explained through a wave-function shrinkage model and orbital magnetoconductivity theory by calculating the changed localization length (a0). PMID:24226933

  6. Hydrophilic modification of neural microelectrode arrays based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Chuang, Shih-Chang; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Yung-Chan; Lee, Yu-Tao; Chen, Hsin; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Yen-Chung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2010-12-01

    To decrease the impedance of microelectrode arrays, for neuroscience applications we have fabricated and tested MEA based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. With decreasing physical size of a microelectrode, its impedance increases and charge-transfer capability decreases. To decrease the impedance, the effective surface area of the electrode must generally be increased. We explored the effect of plasma treatment on the surface wettability of MWCNT. With a steam-plasma treatment the surface of MWCNT becomes converted from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic; this hydrophilic property is attributed to -OH bonding on the surface of MWCNT. We reported the synthesis at 400 °C of MWCNT on nickel-titanium multilayered metal catalysts by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Applying plasma with a power less than 25 W for 10 s improved the electrochemical and biological properties, and circumvented the limitation of the surface reverting to a hydrophobic condition; a hydrophilic state is maintained for at least one month. The MEA was used to record neural signals of a lateral giant cell from an American crayfish. The response amplitude of the action potential was about 275 µV with 1 ms period; the recorded data had a ratio of signal to noise up to 40.12 dB. The improved performance of the electrode makes feasible the separation of neural signals and the recognition of their distinct shapes. With further development the rapid treatment will be useful for long-term recording applications.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced gene expression in vitro: concordance with in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N.; Dong, Chunlin; Zhao, Xiangyi; Dymacek, Julian; Porter, Dale W.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a current interest in reducing the in vivo toxicity testing of nanomaterials in animals by increasing toxicity testing using in vitro cellular assays; however, toxicological results are seldom concordant between in vivo and in vitro models. This study compared global multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced gene expression from human lung epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells in monoculture and coculture with gene expression from mouse lungs exposed to MWCNT. Using a cutoff of 10% false discovery rate and 1.5 fold change, we determined that there were more concordant genes (gene expression both up- or downregulated in vivo and in vitro) expressed in both cell types in coculture than in monoculture. When reduced to only those genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis, known outcomes of in vivo MWCNT exposure, there were more disease-related concordant genes expressed in coculture than monoculture. Additionally, different cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to MWCNT dependent upon culturing conditions. As coculture gene expression better correlated with in vivo gene expression, we suggest that cellular cocultures may offer enhanced in vitro models for nanoparticle risk assessment and the reduction of in vivo toxicological testing. PMID:25511174

  8. Growth of Ag nanoparticles using plasma-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chun-Hao; Chen, Chuh-Yung

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for preparing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grafted with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA)-silver complex (CNTs-HEMA-Ag complex) through plasma-induced grafting polymerization. The characteristics of the MWNTs after being grafted with HEMA polymer are monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The chelating groups in the HEMA polymer grafted on the surface of the CNTs-HEMA are the coordination sites for chelating silver ions, and are further used as nanotemplates for the growing of Ag nanoparticles (quantum dots). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the particle size of Ag nanoparticles on the CNT surfaces increases with the Ag+ chelating concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature. Moreover, the crystalline phase of Ag nanoparticles is identified by using x-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of the MWNTs after chemical modification through plasma treatment; it demonstrates that the growing amount of the Ag nanoparticles on the nanotubes increases with the Ag+ chelating concentration due to the blocking effect of the Ag particles forming on the MWNTs.

  9. Development of functionalized multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based alginate hydrogels for enabling biomimetic technologies.

    PubMed

    Joddar, Binata; Garcia, Eduardo; Casas, Atzimba; Stewart, Calvin M

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a hydrogel commonly used for cell culture by ionically crosslinking in the presence of divalent Ca(2+) ions. However these alginate gels are mechanically unstable, not permitting their use as scaffolds to engineer robust biological bone, breast, cardiac or tumor tissues. This issue can be addressed via encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) serving as a reinforcing phase while being dispersed in a continuous phase of alginate. We hypothesized that adding functionalized MWCNT to alginate, would yield composite gels with distinctively different mechanical, physical and biological characteristics in comparison to alginate alone. Resultant MWCNT-alginate gels were porous, and showed significantly less degradation after 14 days compared to alginate alone. In vitro cell-studies showed enhanced HeLa cell adhesion and proliferation on the MWCNT-alginate compared to alginate. The extent of cell proliferation was greater when cultured atop 1 and 3 mg/ml MWCNT-alginate; although all MWCNT-alginates lead to enhanced cell cluster formation compared to alginate alone. Among all the MWCNT-alginates, the 1 mg/ml gels showed significantly greater stiffness compared to all other cases. These results provide an important basis for the development of the MWCNT-alginates as novel substrates for cell culture applications, cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:27578567

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-graphene-polyaniline multiphase nanocomposite with superior electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tejendra K; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Mathur, Rakesh B; Dhakate, Sanjay R

    2014-01-21

    The multiphase approach was adapted to enhance the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites. The natural graphite flakes (NGF) incorporated modified PANI was used for the development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based nanocomposites. In PANINGF-MWCNTs composites, multilayer graphene was synthesized in situ by ball milling. The resultant PANINGF-MWCNTs nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. It was revealed from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation that in situ derived multilayer graphene acts as a bridge between PANI and MWCNTs, and plays a significant role for improving the properties of multiphase nanocomposites. It was observed that EMI-SE increases with increasing the MWCNTs content from 1 to 10 wt% in the multiphase nanocomposites. The maximum value of total EMI-SE was -98 dB of nanocomposite with 10 wt% of MWCNTs content. The high value of EMI-SE is dominated by the absorption phenomenon which is due to the collective effect of increase in space charge polarization and decrease in carrier mobility. The decrease in carrier mobility has a positive effect on the shore hardness value due to the strong interaction between the reinforcing constituent in multiphase nanocomposites. As a consequence, shore hardness increases from 56 to 91 at 10 wt% of MWCNTs. PMID:24264356

  11. The effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on electromagnetic interference shielding of ceramic composites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sui-Lin; Liang, Ji

    2008-06-25

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) (MWCNTs-3Y-TZP) composite was prepared by spark plasma sintering. The complex permittivities of the composite have been measured in the Ku-band range (12.4-18 GHz) and it is found that both the real and imaginary permittivities of the composite increase with the increasing content of MWCNTs. The effect of the content of MWCNTs on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite has been evaluated, and it is found that the EMI SE of the composite increases with the increasing content of MWCNTs. An EMI SE value as high as 25-30 dB has been achieved in the Ku-band range for the composite with 9 wt% content of MWCNTs, indicating that the MWCNTs-3Y-TZP composite can be used as an effective EMI shielding material. PMID:21828667

  12. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized on zirconia/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ruping; Deng, Minqiang; Cui, Sanguan; Chen, Hong; Qiu, Jianding

    2010-12-15

    Zirconia/multi-walled carbon nanotube (ZrO{sub 2}/MWCNT) nanocomposite was prepared by hydrothermal treatment of MWCNTs in ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O aqueous solution. The morphology and structure of the synthesized ZrO{sub 2}/MWCNT nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the sidewall of MWCNTs. Myoglobin (Mb), as a model protein to investigate the nanocomposite, was immobilized on ZrO{sub 2}/MWCNT nanocomposite. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements showed that the nanocomposite could retain the bioactivity of the immobilized Mb to a large extent. The Mb immobilized in the composite showed excellent direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The linear response range of the biosensor to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was from 1.0 to 116.0 {mu}M with the limit of detection of 0.53 {mu}M (S/N = 3). The ZrO{sub 2}/MWCNT nanocomposite provided a good biocompatible matrix for protein immobilization and biosensors preparation.

  13. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material.

    PubMed

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications. PMID:26732277

  14. The decoration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel oxide nanoparticles using chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahebian, S.; Zebarjad, S. M.; Vahdati Khaki, J.; Lazzeri, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles have been fabricated using wet method and deposited on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). To do so, functional groups were introduced on the surface of MWCNTs by treating with concentrated nitric acid. Nickel oxide nanoparticles were formed on the surface of functionalized MWCNTs by incipient wetness impregnation of nickel nitrate, and the resultant product was calcinated in air atmosphere. Characteristics of the NiO/MWCNT were examined by various techniques, for example, Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isothermal as well as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The FTIR spectra showed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups existed on the surface of MWNTs after modification by concentrated nitric acid. The pattern of XRD indicated that MWNTs and nickel oxide nanoparticles coexisted in the NiO/MWCNT sample. The TEM images revealed that the NiO nanoparticles were distributed on the surface of the MWNTs, with the size ranging from 5 to 60 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that NiO content decorated on MWCNTs was 80 and 15 wt%. The results of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) data showed that the slight increment in the specific surface areas and porosities in the presence of the NiO nanoparticles on the surface of CNT.

  15. Nanogenerators consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using flexoelectric effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Yang, Sun A; Bu, Sang Don; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; Choi, Moonkang; Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Min Ku

    2016-01-01

    We report the first attempt to prepare a flexoelectric nanogenerator consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwCNT). Direct-grown piezoelectrics on mwCNTs are formed by a stirring and heating method using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)-mwCNT precursor solution. We studied the unit cell mismatch and strain distribution of epitaxial PZT nanoparticles, and found that lattice strain is relaxed along the growth direction. A PZT-mwCNT nanogenerator was found to produce a peak output voltage of 8.6 V and an output current of 47 nA when a force of 20 N is applied. Direct-grown piezoelectric nanogenerators generate a higher voltage and current than simple mixtures of PZT and CNTs resulting from the stronger connection between PZT crystals and mwCNTs and an enhanced flexoelectric effect caused by the strain gradient. These experiments represent a significant step toward the application of nanogenerators using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials. PMID:27406631

  16. Neuroprotective effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shenghao; Bao, Yinghui; Lin, Yong; Pan, Yaohua; Fan, Yiling; Wan, Jieqing; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord affect a large percentage of the world’s population. However, there are currently no effective treatments for these central nervous system (CNS) injuries. In our study, we evaluated the neuroprotective role of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) carrying brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF), nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) in spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results showed that transfection into rat cortical neurons with BDNF-DNA significantly elevated the expression of BDNF both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, transfection with NgR-siRNA and RhoA-siRNA resulted in an obvious down-regulation of NgR and RhoA in neuron cells and in injured spinal cords. In addition, the functionalized MWCNTs carrying BDNF-DNA, NgR-siRNA and RhoA-siRNA exhibited remarkable therapeutic effects on injured spinal cord. Taken together, our study demonstrates that functionalized MWCNTs have a potential therapeutic application on repair and regeneration of the CNS. PMID:26884846

  17. Acute pulmonary dose–responses to inhaled multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Dale W.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Chen, Bean T.; McKinney, Walter; Mercer, Robert R.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Battelli, Lori; Wu, Nianqiang; Sriram, Krishnan; Leonard, Stephen; Andrew, Michael; Willard, Patsy; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Endo, Morinobu; Tsukada, Takayuki; Munekane, Fuminori; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo pulmonary toxicity of inhaled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Mice-inhaled aerosolized MWCNT (10 mg/m3, 5 h/day) for 2, 4, 8 or 12 days. MWCNT lung burden was linearly related to exposure duration. MWCNT-induced pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining whole lung lavage (WLL) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Lung cytotoxicity was assessed by WLL fluid LDH activities. WLL fluid albumin concentrations were determined as a marker of alveolar air–blood barrier integrity. These parameters significantly increased in MWCNT-exposed mice versus controls and were dose-dependent. Histopathologic alterations identified in the lung included (1) bronciolocentric inflammation, (2) bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, (3) fibrosis, (4) vascular changes and (5) rare pleural penetration. MWCNT translocated to the lymph node where the deep paracortex was expanded after 8 or 12 days. Acute inhalation of MWCNT induced dose-dependent pulmonary inflammation and damage with rapid development of pulmonary fibrosis, and also demonstrated that MWCNT can reach the pleura after inhalation exposure. PMID:22881873

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures. PMID:21851604

  19. Comprehensive spectroscopic studies on the interaction of biomolecules with surfactant detached multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the interaction of ten diverse biomolecules with surfactant detached Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) using multiple spectroscopic methods. Declining fluorescence intensity of biomolecules in combination with the hyperchromic effect in UV-Visible spectra confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation. Quenching mechanism remains static and non-fluorescent. 3D spectral data of biomolecules suggested the possibilities of disturbances to the aromatic microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues arising out of CNTs interaction. Amide band Shifts corresponding to the secondary structure of biomolecules were observed in the of FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. In addition, there exists an increased Raman intensity of tryptophan residues of biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs. Hence, the binding of the aromatic structures of CNTs with the aromatic amino acid residues, in a particular, tryptophan was evidenced. Far UV Circular spectra have showed the loss of alpha-helical contents in biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs. Near UV CD spectra confirmed the alterations in the tryptophan positions of the peptide backbone. Hence, our results have demonstrated that the interaction of biomolecules with OH-MWCNTs would involve binding cum structural changes and alteration to their aromatic micro-environment. PMID:25707749

  20. Binding studies of hydroxylated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to hemoglobin, gamma globulin and transferrin.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Kandiyil, Shirona Thazae; Sivakumar, Amaravathy; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Biocompatibility of nanoparticles depends on their binding behavior with biomolecules. Herein, we have reported the interaction of three different biological macromolecules such as hemoglobin, gamma globulin and transferrin with hydroxyl group functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs). Multiple spectroscopic methods were utilized to identify the binding cum structural changes in biomolecules upon their interaction. Hyperchromic effect observed in the UV-visible spectra, and the quenching behavior from fluorescence emission evidences the existence of bio-nanotube complex formation. Synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of biomolecules, in correspondence with Trp and Tyr residues showed the possible disturbance towards their aromatic micro-environment. Changes observed in the FTIR and FT-Raman amide bands, and amino acid residue position of biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs showed the possible effect towards their secondary structure. Further studies with CD spectroscopy indicated the loss of alpha-helical structures quantitatively. The study remains significant in evaluating the biosafety profile of functionalized MWCNTs for their in vivo biomedical applications. PMID:26432959

  1. Asbestos and multi-walled carbon nanotubes generate distinct oxidative responses in inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Satomi; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Ito, Daiki; Asakawa, Atsushi; Nagai, Hirotaka; Tajima, Masafumi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is considered a social burden by causing mesothelioma. Despite the use of synthetic materials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are similar in dimension to asbestos and produce mesothelioma in animals. The role of inflammatory cells in mesothelial carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the differences in inflammatory cell responses following exposure to these fibrous materials using a luminometer and L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rat peripheral blood or RAW264.7 cells were used to assess the effects on neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Crocidolite and amosite induced significant ROS generation by neutrophils with a peak at 10 min, whereas that of chrysotile was ~25% of the crocidolite/amosite response. MWCNTs with different diameters (~15, 50, 115 and 145 nm) and different carcinogenicity did not induce significant ROS in peripheral blood. However, the MWCNTs induced a comparable amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells to that following asbestos treatment. The peaks for MWCNTs (0.5–1.5 h) were observed earlier than those for asbestos (1–5 h). Apocynin and superoxide dismutase significantly inhibited ROS generation for each fiber, suggesting an involvement of NADPH oxidase and superoxide. Thus, asbestos and MWCNTs induce different oxidative responses in inflammatory cells, indicating the importance of mesothelial cell evaluation for carcinogenesis. PMID:25759516

  2. Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the cognitive abilities of Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sayapina, Nina V.; Sergievich, Alexander A.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Lisitskaya, Irina G.; Khoroshikh, Pavel P.; Batalova, Tatyana A.; Tsarouhas, Kostas; Spandidos, Demetrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Fenga, Concettina; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the neurobehavioral effects of carbon nanomaterials, particularly those of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), have concentrated on cognitive effects, but data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of MWCNTs on a number of higher nervous system functions of Wistar rats. For a period of 10 days, two experimental groups were fed with MWCNTs of different diameters (MWCNT-1 group, 8–10 nm; MWCNT-2 group, 18–20 nm) once a day at a dosage of 500 mg/kg. In the open-field test, reductions of integral indications of researching activity were observed for the two MWCNT-treated groups, with a parallel significant (P<0.01) increase in stress levels for these groups compared with the untreated control group. In the elevated plus-maze test, integral indices of researching activity in the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups reduced by day 10 by 51 and 62%, respectively, while rat stress levels remained relatively unchanged. In the universal problem solving box test, reductions in motivation and energy indices of researching activity were observed in the two experimental groups. Searching activity in the MWCNT-1 group by day 3 was reduced by 50% (P<0.01) and in the MWCNT-2 group the relevant reduction reached 11.2%. By day 10, the reduction compared with controls, was 64% (P<0.01) and 58% (P<0.01) for the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups, respectively. In conclusion, a series of specific tests demonstrated that MWCNT-treated rats experienced a significant reduction of some of their cognitive abilities, a disturbing and worrying finding, taking into consideration the continuing and accelerating use of carbon nanotubes in medicine and science. PMID:27588053

  3. Magnesia tuned multi-walled carbon nanotubes–reinforced alumina nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Islam, Mohammad; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Xu, Fang; Shah, Syed Ismat; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-01-15

    Magnesia tuned alumina ceramic nanocomposites, reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, were condensed using pressureless and hot-press sintering processes. Densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposites were meticulously investigated. Electron microscopy studies revealed the homogenous carbon nanotube dispersion within the alumina matrix and confirmed the retention of carbon nanotubes' distinctive tubular morphology and nanoscale features during the extreme mixing/sintering processes. Pressureless sintered nanocomposites showed meagre mechanical responses due to the poorly-integrated microstructures with a slight improvement upon magnesia addition. Conversely, both the magnesia addition and application of hot-press sintering technique resulted in the nanocomposite formation with near-theoretical densities (~ 99%), well-integrated microstructures and superior mechanical properties. Hot-press sintered nanocomposites incorporating 300 and 600 ppm magnesia exhibited an increase in hardness (10 and 11%), flexural strength (5 and 10%) and fracture toughness (15 and 20%) with respect to similar magnesia-free samples. Compared to monolithic alumina, a decent rise in fracture toughness (37%), flexural strength (22%) and hardness (20%) was observed in the hot-press sintered nanocomposites tuned with merely 600 ppm magnesia. Mechanically superior hot-press sintered magnesia tailored nanocomposites are attractive for several load-bearing structural applications. - Highlights: • MgO tailored Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–2 wt.% CNT nanocomposites are presented. • The role of MgO and sintering on nanocomposite structures and properties was studied. • Well-dispersed CNTs maintained their morphology/structure after harsh sintering. • Hot-pressing and MgO led nanocomposites to higher properties/unified structures. • MgO tuned composites showed higher toughness (37%) and strength (22%) than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  4. Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ran Maofei; Sun Wenjing; Liu Yan; Chu Wei; Jiang Chengfa

    2013-01-15

    A simple and novel method, water-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis process. The functionalized MWCNTs were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TGA, NH{sub 3}-TPD, SEM and HR-TEM. It was found that new defects are introduced and the amount of acidic groups is increased on the MWCNT surface during the water-assisted CVD process. The amount of C-OH and C-O group on the MWCNT surface is found to be increased from 21.1% to 42% with water vapor assistance. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to study the chemical behavior of water vapor molecule on the catalyst particle surface of Ni(1 1 1) cluster. Based on the experimental and DFT simulation results, a mechanism for functionalization of MWCNTs by water-assisted CVD is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Water is adsorbed and activated on Ni surface, then dissociated into OH and O species, followed by part of OH and O species desorbed from the surface. Finally, the desorbed OH and O species oxidize the unsaturated carbon atoms of carbon nanotubes, form defects and oxygen-containing groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNTs were functionalized by water-assisted CVD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defects and weak-medium acidic sites were created on the MWCNT sidewalls. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen-containing groups in functionalized MWCNT were increased from 21.1% to 42%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism for the influence of water vapor on MWCNTs was proposed.

  5. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin

    2015-03-15

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO{sub 2} were investigated using CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO{sub 2}/85% N{sub 2}). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO{sub 2} adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO{sub 2} capture was attributed to the affinity between CO{sub 2} and the amine groups. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication and CO{sub 2} adsorption process of the S-MWCNTs impregnated with PEI. - Highlights: • Silica coated-MWCNT impregnated with PEI was synthesized. • Amine groups of PEI gave CO{sub 2} affinity sites on MWCNT surfaces. • The S-MWCNT/PEI(50) exhibited the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity.

  6. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Eelco; Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2016-04-01

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis and handling of MWCNTs in a commercial production facility and to link these exposure levels to specific activities. Personal full-shift filter-based samples were collected, during commercial production and handling of MWCNTs, R&D activities, and office work. The concentrations of MWCNT were evaluated on the basis of EC concentrations. Associations were studied between observed MWCNT exposure levels and location and activities. SEM analyses showed MWCNTs, present as agglomerates ranging between 200nm and 100 µm. Exposure levels of MWCNTs observed in the production area during the full scale synthesis of MWCNTs (N = 23) were comparable to levels observed during further handling of MWCNTs (N = 19): (GM (95% lower confidence limit-95% upper confidence limit)) 41 μg m(-3) (20-88) versus 43 μg m(-3) (22-86), respectively. In the R&D area (N = 11) and the office (N = 5), exposure levels of MWCNTs were significantly (P < 0.05) lower: 5 μg m(-3) (2-11) and 7 μg m(-3) (2-28), respectively. Bagging, maintenance of the reactor, and powder conditioning were associated with higher exposure levels in the production area, whereas increased exposure levels in the R&D area were related to handling of MWCNTs powder. PMID:26613611

  7. Improved dispersion method of multi-wall carbon nanotube for inhalation toxicity studies of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Taquahashi, Yuhji; Ogawa, Yukio; Takagi, Atsuya; Tsuji, Masaki; Morita, Koichi; Kanno, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) product Mitsui MWNT-7 is a mixture of dispersed single fibers and their agglomerates/aggregates. In rodents, installation of such mixture induces inflammatory lesions triggered predominantly by the aggregates/agglomerates at the level of terminal bronchiole of the lungs. In human, however, pulmonary toxicity induced by dispersed single fibers that reached the lung alveoli is most important to assess. Therefore, a method to generate aerosol predominantly consisting of dispersed single fibers without changing their length and width is needed for inhalation studies. Here, we report a method (designated as Taquann method) to effectively remove the aggregate/agglomerates and enrich the well-dispersed singler fibers in dry state without dispersant and without changing the length and width distribution of the single fibers. This method is base on two major concept; liquid-phase fine filtration and critical point drying to avoid re-aggregation by surface tension. MWNT-7 was suspended in Tert-butyl alcohol, freeze-and-thawed, filtered by a vibrating 25 µm mesh Metallic Sieve, snap-frozen by liquid nitrogen, and vacuum-sublimated (an alternative method to carbon dioxide critical point drying). A newly designed direct injection system generated well-dispersed aerosol in an inhalation chamber. The lung of mice exposed to the aerosol contained single fibers with a length distribution similar to the original and the Taquann-treated sample. Taquann method utilizes inexpensive materials and equipments mostly found in common biological laboratories, and prepares dry powder ready to make well-dispersed aerosol. This method and the chamber with direct injection system would facilitate the inhalation toxicity studies more relevant to human exposure. PMID:23824017

  8. Anomalous thermal hysteresis in the high-field magnetic moments of magnetic nanoparticles embedded in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guo-Meng; Wang, Jun; Ren, Yang; Beeli, Pieder

    2012-02-01

    We report high-temperature (300-1120 K) magnetic properties of Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded in multi-walled carbon nanotubes. We unambiguously show that the magnetic moments of Fe and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are seemingly enhanced by a factor of about 3 compared with what they would be expected to have for free (unembedded) magnetic nanoparticles. What is more intriguing is that the enhanced moments were completely lost when the sample was heated up to 1120 K and the lost moments at 1120 K were completely recovered through several thermal cycles below 1020 K. The anomalous thermal hysteresis of the high-field magnetic moments is unlikely to be explained by existing physical models except for the high-field paramagnetic Meissner effect due to the existence of ultrahigh temperature superconductivity in the multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  9. Behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the porosity and microstructure of cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2011-01-01

    The porosity and microstructure of a Portland cement-multi-walled carbon nanotube composite were investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), up to 1 wt.% of cement, synthesized by infusion chemical vapor deposition, and Portland cement type I (PC) were used to produce pastes with a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize Portland cement-CNTs systems. MIP analysis of the results indicates that total porosity of the mixes with CNTs was found to decrease with increasing CNTs content. Moreover, an important effect of additional CNTs was a reduction in the number of mesopores, while SEM technique showed dispersion of CNTs between the hydration phases of Portland cement pastes.

  10. Electrochemical Detection of p-Aminophenol by Flexible Devices Based on Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Electrochemically Modified Nafion

    PubMed Central

    Scandurra, Graziella; Antonella, Arena; Ciofi, Carmine; Saitta, Gaetano; Lanza, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    A conducting composite prepared by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a host matrix consisting of Nafion, electrochemically doped with copper, has been prepared, characterized and used to modify one of the gold electrodes of simply designed electrochemical cells having copier grade transparency sheets as substrates. Electrical measurements performed in deionized water show that the Au/Nafion/Au-MWCNTs–Nafion:Cu cells can be successfully used in order to detect the presence of p-aminophenol (PAP) in water, without the need for any supporting electrolyte. The intensity of the redox peaks arising when PAP is added to deionized water is found to be linearly related to the analyte in the range from 0.2 to 1.6 μM, with a detection limit of 90 nM and a sensitivity of 7 μA·(μM−1)·cm−2. PMID:24854357

  11. Extracellular HMGB1 regulates multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Forrest; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin is often used to activate NF-κB in vitro when assessing NLRP3 inflammasome activation by various exogenous particles including nanoparticles. However, the endogenous source of this signal 1 is unknown. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is known to play a critical role in acute lung injury, however the potential contribution of the alarmin HMGB1 to NLRP3 Inflammasome activation has not been determined in response to nanoparticles in vivo. In this study, the ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to cause release of HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo, as well as the potential of HMGB1 to function as signal 1 in vitro and in vivo, was determined. HMGB1 activity in vivo was assessed by administration of HMGB1 neutralization antibodies following MWCNT exposure. Caspase-1−/− mice were utilized to elucidate the dependence of HMGB1 secretion on NLRP3 inflammasome activity. MWCNT exposure increased extracellular HMGB1 levels in primary alveolar macrophages from C57Bl/6 mice and C10 mouse epithelial cell culture supernatants, and in C57Bl/6 mouse lung lavage fluid. MWCNT-induced HMGB1 secretion was dependent upon caspase-1. HMGB1 increased MWCNT-induced IL-1β release from macrophages in vitro, and neutralization of extracellular HMGB1 reduced MWCNT-induced IL-1β secretion in vivo. HMGB1 neutralization was accompanied with overall decreased inflammation. In summary, this study suggests extracellular HMGB1 participates in NLRP3 inflammasome activity and regulates IL-1β associated sterile inflammation induced by MWCNT. PMID:24983895

  12. IL-33 Modulates Chronic Airway Resistance Changes Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojia; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Brown, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Instillation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in C57BL/6 mice results in decrements of pulmonary function specifically characterized by increases in airway resistance. In this study, we examined possible mechanisms responsible for these alterations following MWCNT exposure, including the roles of IL-33 and chronic inflammation. Materials and Methods To elucidate the role of IL-33, we assessed lung histology and pulmonary function in C57BL/6 and IL-33−/− mice 30 days following MWCNT instillation. In addition, the impact of MWCNT instillation on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed by methacholine challenges of C57BL/6 and IL-33−/− mice. To further understand the mechanisms by which MWCNTs may increase airway constriction, C57BL/6 mice were treated with aerosolized albuterol or injected with multiple doses of methylprednisolone via intra-peritoneal injections prior to the assessment of MWCNT-induced changes in pulmonary function. Results Total cell count, macrophages, and neutrophils were increased in the lavage fluid of C57BL/6 mice, but not in IL-33−/− mice, following MWCNT exposure. C57BL/6 mice displayed increased inflammation and fibrosis located proximal to the airways which was absent in IL-33−/− mice. Aerosolized methacholine increased parameters of airway resistance (R and Rn) in a dose-dependent manner in all groups, with MWCNT-instilled C57BL/6 mice responding more robustly compared to controls, while no differences were found in IL-33−/− mice due to MWCNT exposure. Treatment with methylprednisolone reduced both the MWCNT-induced histopathological changes and increases in R and Rn in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that IL-33 and chronic inflammation in general are critical in the pulmonary toxicity induced by MWCNT resulting in modified pulmonary function. PMID:24502429

  13. Biodistribution of co-exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qi; Zhan, Li; Juanjuan, Bi; Jing, Wang; Jianjun, Wang; Taoli, Sun; Yi'an, Guo; Wangsuo, Wu

    2012-08-01

    In this work, technetium-99 (99mTc) was used as the radiolabeling isotope to study the biodistribution of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) and/or nanodiamonds (NDs) in mice after intravenous administration. The histological impact of non-radiolabeled oMWCNTs or NDs was investigated in comparison to the co-exposure groups. 99mTc-labeled nanomaterials had high stability in vivo and fast clearance from blood . After a single injection of oMWCNTs, the highest distribution was found in the lungs, with lower uptake in the liver/spleen. As for NDs injected alone, high distribution in the liver, spleen, and lungs was observed right after. However, uptake in the lungs was decreased obviously after 24 h, while high accumulation in the liver or spleen continued. After co-injection of oMWCNTs and NDs, oMWCNTs significantly affected the distribution pattern of NDs in vivo. Meanwhile, the increasing dose of oMWCNTs decreased the hepatic and splenic accumulation of NDs and gradually increased lung retention. On the contrary, the NDs had no significant effects on the distribution of oMWCNTs in mice. Histological photographs showed that oMWCNTs were mainly captured by lung macrophages, and NDs were located in the bronchi and alveoli after co-administration. oMWCNTs and NDs had different modes of micro-cells. In conclusion, the behavior and fate of NDs in mice depended strongly on oMWCNTs, but NDs had a small influence on the biodistribution and excretion pattern of oMWCNTs.

  14. Distribution and persistence of pleural penetrations by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are new manufactured nanomaterials with a wide spectrum of commercial applications. The durability and fiber-like dimensions (mean length 3.9 μm long × 49 nm diameter) of MWCNT suggest that these fibers may migrate to and have toxicity within the pleural region. To address whether the pleura received a significant and persistent exposure, C57BL/6J mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg MWCNT or vehicle and the distribution of MWCNT penetrations determined at 1, 7, 28 and 56 days after exposure. Following lung fixation and sectioning, morphometric methods were used to determine the distribution of MWCNT and the number of MWCNT fiber penetrations of three barriers: alveolar epithelium (alveolar penetrations), the alveolar epithelium immediately adjacent to the pleura (subpleural tissue), and visceral pleural surface (intrapleural space). Results At 1 day 18%, 81.6% and 0.6% of the MWCNT lung burden was in the airway, the alveolar, and the subpleural regions, respectively. There was an initial, high density of penetrations into the subpleural tissue and the intrapleural space one day following aspiration which appeared to decrease due to clearance by alveolar macrophages and/or lymphatics by day 7. However, the density of penetrations increased to steady state levels in the subpleural tissue and intrapleural from day 28 - 56. At day 56 approximately 1 in every 400 fiber penetrations was in either the subpleural tissue or intrapleural space. Numerous penetrations into macrophages in the alveolar airspaces throughout the lungs were demonstrated at all times but are not included in the counts presented. Conclusions The results document that MWCNT penetrations of alveolar macrophages, the alveolar wall, and visceral pleura are both frequent and sustained. In addition, the findings demonstrate the need to investigate the chronic toxicity of MWCNT at these sites. PMID:20920331

  15. Investigation of gelatin/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite films as packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Dadfar, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Dadfar, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ahmadi, Farhad; Niakosari, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin composite films were prepared from gelatin solutions (10% w/v) containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% w/w gelatin) as nanofiller. The water solubility, water swelling, water uptake, water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical, and antibacterial properties of the films were examined. Water solubility, water swelling, water uptake, and WVP for gelatin films were 45 ± 1%, 821 ± 42%, 45 ± 1.1%, and 0.4 ± 0.022 g mm/m2 kPa h, respectively. Incorporation of MWCNT caused a significant decrease in water solubility, water swelling, water uptake, and WVP. Gelatin/MWCNT films containing 1–1.5% MWCNT showed the lowest water vapor transmission. Tensile strength, elongation at break, and Young's modulus for gelatin films were 13.4 ± 1.2 MPa, 95 ± 5%, and 45.4 ± 7 MPa, respectively. Incorporation of MWCNT caused a significant increase in tensile strength and decrease in the elongation at break. The largest mechanical strength was found at 1.5% MWCNT. All gelatin/MWCNT films showed significant antibacterial activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our results suggest that the gelatin/MWCNT composites films could be used as a very attractive alternative to traditional materials for different biomedical and food applications. PMID:24804066

  16. Influence of the pore size in multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2012-10-15

    Activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNTs) were prepared using a chemical activation method to obtain well-developed pore structures for use as hydrogen storage materials. The microstructure and crystallinity of the A-MWCNTs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The textural properties of the A-MWCNTs were investigated by nitrogen gas sorption analysis at 77 K. The hydrogen storage capacity of the A-MWCNTs was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. The results showed that the specific surface area of the MWCNTs increased from 327 to 495 m{sup 2}/g as the activation temperature was increased. The highest hydrogen storage capacity was observed in the A-MWCNTs sample activated at 900 Degree-Sign C (0.54 wt%). This was attributed to it having the narrowest microporosity, which is a factor closely related to the hydrogen storage capacity. This shows that the hydrogen storage behaviors depend on the pore volume. Although a high pore volume is desirable for hydrogen storage, it is also severely affected if the pore size in the A-MWCNTs for the hydrogen molecules is suitable for creating the activation process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-800 and AT-900 samples were prepared by a chemical activation method at activation temperature of 800 and 900 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-900 sample has the narrowest peak in comparison with the AT-800 sample, resulting from the overlap of the two peaks (Peak I and Peak II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This overlapping effect is due to the newly created micropores or shrinkages of pores in Peak II. So, these determining characteristics are essential for designing materials that are suitable for molecular hydrogen storage.

  17. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a murine allergic airway inflammation model

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Hirano, Seishiro; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-15

    The development of nanotechnology has increased the risk of exposure to types of particles other than combustion-derived particles in the environment, namely, industrial nanomaterials. On the other hand, patients with bronchial asthma are sensitive to inhaled substances including particulate matters. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to a type of nano-sized carbon nanotube (multi-walled nanotubes: MWCNT) on allergic airway inflammation in vivo and their cellular mechanisms in vitro. In vivo, ICR mice were divided into 4 experimental groups. Vehicle, MWCNT (50 {mu}g/animal), ovalbumin (OVA), and OVA + MWCNT were repeatedly administered intratracheally. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, lung histology, levels of cytokines related to allergic inflammation in lung homogenates/BAL fluids (BALFs), and serum immunoglobulin levels were studied. Also, we evaluated the impact of MWCNT (0.1-1 {mu}g/ml) on the phenotype and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. MWCNT aggravated allergen-induced airway inflammation characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells in the lung, and an increase in the number of goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. MWCNT with allergen amplified lung protein levels of Th cytokines and chemokines compared with allergen alone. MWCNT exhibited adjuvant activity for allergen-specific IgG{sub 1} and IgE. MWCNT significantly increased allergen (OVA)-specific syngeneic T-cell proliferation, particularly at a lower concentration in vitro. Taken together, MWCNT can exacerbate murine allergic airway inflammation, at least partly, via the promotion of a Th-dominant milieu. In addition, the exacerbation may be partly through the inappropriate activation of antigen-presenting cells including DC.

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Knudsen, Kristina B; Skaug, Vidar; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Thomsen, Birthe L; Clausen, Per Axel; Atluri, Rambabu; Berthing, Trine; Bengtson, Stefan; Wolff, Henrik; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2016-11-01

    Lung deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces pulmonary toxicity. Commercial MWCNT vary greatly in physicochemical properties and consequently in biological effects. To identify determinants of MWCNT-induced toxicity, we analyzed the effects of pulmonary exposure to 10 commercial MWCNT (supplied in three groups of different dimensions, with one pristine and two/three surface modified in each group). We characterized morphology, chemical composition, surface area and functionalization levels. MWCNT were deposited in lungs of female C57BL/6J mice by intratracheal instillation of 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg/mouse. Pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and genotoxicity were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Histopathology of the lungs was performed on day 28 and 92. All MWCNT induced similar histological changes. Lymphocytic aggregates were detected for all MWCNT on day 28 and 92. Using adjusted, multiple regression analyses, inflammation and genotoxicity were related to dose, time and physicochemical properties. The specific surface area (BET) was identified as a positive predictor of pulmonary inflammation on all post-exposure days. In addition, length significantly predicted pulmonary inflammation, whereas surface oxidation (-OH and -COOH) was predictor of lowered inflammation on day 28. BET surface area, and therefore diameter, significantly predicted genotoxicity in BAL fluid cells and lung tissue such that lower BET surface area or correspondingly larger diameter was associated with increased genotoxicity. This study provides information on possible toxicity-driving physicochemical properties of MWCNT. The results may contribute to safe-by-design manufacturing of MWCNT, thereby minimizing adverse effects. PMID:27323647

  19. Predicting pulmonary fibrosis in humans after exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monita; Nikota, Jake; Halappanavar, Sabina; Castranova, Vincent; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clippinger, Amy J

    2016-07-01

    The increased production and use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a diverse array of consumer, medical, and industrial applications have raised concerns about potential human exposure to these materials in the workplace and ambient environments. Inhalation is a primary route of exposure to MWCNTs, and the existing data indicate that they are potentially hazardous to human health. While a 90-day rodent inhalation test (e.g., OECD Test No. 413: subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study or EPA Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.3465 90-day inhalation toxicity) is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics for MWCNTs (and other CNTs) if they are to be commercially produced (Godwin et al. in ACS Nano 9:3409-3417, 2015), this test is time and cost-intensive and subject to scientific and ethical concerns. As a result, there has been much interest in transitioning away from studies on animals and moving toward human-based in vitro and in silico models. However, given the multiple mechanisms of toxicity associated with subchronic exposure to inhaled MWCNTs, a battery of non-animal tests will likely be needed to evaluate the key endpoints assessed by the 90-day rodent study. Pulmonary fibrosis is an important adverse outcome related to inhalation exposure to MWCNTs and one that the non-animal approach should be able to assess. This review summarizes the state-of-the-science regarding in vivo and in vitro toxicological methods for predicting MWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27215431

  20. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of straight versus tangled multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Julia; Siivola, Kirsi M; Nymark, Penny; Lindberg, Hanna; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Koivisto, Antti J; Moreno, Carlos; Vanhala, Esa; Wolff, Henrik; Kling, Kirsten I; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Some multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induce mesothelioma in rodents, straight MWCNTs showing a more pronounced effect than tangled MWCNTs. As primary and secondary genotoxicity may play a role in MWCNT carcinogenesis, we used a battery of assays for DNA damage and micronuclei to compare the genotoxicity of straight (MWCNT-S) and tangled MWCNTs (MWCNT-T) in vitro (primary genotoxicity) and in vivo (primary or secondary genotoxicity). C57Bl/6 mice showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks, as measured by the comet assay, in lung cells 24 h after a single pharyngeal aspiration of MWCNT-S (1-200 μg/mouse). An increase was also observed for DNA strand breaks in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and for micronucleated alveolar type II cells in mice exposed to aerosolized MWCNT-S (8.2-10.8 mg/m(3)) for 4 d, 4 h/d. No systemic genotoxic effects, assessed by the γ-H2AX assay in blood mononuclear leukocytes or by micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) in bone marrow or blood, were observed for MWCNT-S by either exposure technique. MWCNT-T showed a dose-related decrease in DNA damage in BAL and lung cells of mice after a single pharyngeal aspiration (1-200 μg/mouse) and in MNPCEs after inhalation exposure (17.5 mg/m(3)). In vitro in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, MWCNT-S induced DNA strand breaks at low doses (5 and 10 μg/cm(2)), while MWCNT-T increased strand breakage only at 200 μg/cm(2). Neither of the MWCNTs was able to induce micronuclei in vitro. Our findings suggest that both primary and secondary mechanisms may be involved in the genotoxicity of straight MWCNTs. PMID:26674712

  1. Biodistribution of co-exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, technetium-99 (99mTc) was used as the radiolabeling isotope to study the biodistribution of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) and/or nanodiamonds (NDs) in mice after intravenous administration. The histological impact of non-radiolabeled oMWCNTs or NDs was investigated in comparison to the co-exposure groups. 99mTc-labeled nanomaterials had high stability in vivo and fast clearance from blood. After a single injection of oMWCNTs, the highest distribution was found in the lungs, with lower uptake in the liver/spleen. As for NDs injected alone, high distribution in the liver, spleen, and lungs was observed right after. However, uptake in the lungs was decreased obviously after 24 h, while high accumulation in the liver or spleen continued. After co-injection of oMWCNTs and NDs, oMWCNTs significantly affected the distribution pattern of NDs in vivo. Meanwhile, the increasing dose of oMWCNTs decreased the hepatic and splenic accumulation of NDs and gradually increased lung retention. On the contrary, the NDs had no significant effects on the distribution of oMWCNTs in mice. Histological photographs showed that oMWCNTs were mainly captured by lung macrophages, and NDs were located in the bronchi and alveoli after co-administration. oMWCNTs and NDs had different modes of micro-cells. In conclusion, the behavior and fate of NDs in mice depended strongly on oMWCNTs, but NDs had a small influence on the biodistribution and excretion pattern of oMWCNTs. PMID:22913534

  2. Quasi-QSAR for mutagenic potential of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P

    2015-04-01

    Available on the Internet, the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral) has been used to build up quasi-quantitative structure-activity relationships (quasi-QSAR) for prediction of mutagenic potential of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). In contrast with the previous models built up by CORAL which were based on representation of the molecular structure by simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) the quasi-QSARs based on the representation of conditions (not on the molecular structure) such as concentration, presence (absence) S9 mix, the using (or without the using) of preincubation were encoded by so-called quasi-SMILES. The statistical characteristics of these models (quasi-QSARs) for three random splits into the visible training set and test set and invisible validation set are the following: (i) split 1: n=13, r(2)=0.8037, q(2)=0.7260, s=0.033, F=45 (training set); n=5, r(2)=0.9102, s=0.071 (test set); n=6, r(2)=0.7627, s=0.044 (validation set); (ii) split 2: n=13, r(2)=0.6446, q(2)=0.4733, s=0.045, F=20 (training set); n=5, r(2)=0.6785, s=0.054 (test set); n=6, r(2)=0.9593, s=0.032 (validation set); and (iii) n=14, r(2)=0.8087, q(2)=0.6975, s=0.026, F=51 (training set); n=5, r(2)=0.9453, s=0.074 (test set); n=5, r(2)=0.8951, s=0.052 (validation set). PMID:25465947

  3. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Trifiro, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid) act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches. Methods Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin) were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm) was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining. Results TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls. Conclusion A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam

  4. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes injure the plasma membrane of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro Kanno, Sanae; Furuyama, Akiko

    2008-10-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging nanotechnology materials which are likely to be mass-produced in the near future. However, prior to mass-production, certain health-related concerns should first be addressed. For example, when inhaled, the thin-fibrous shape and the biopersistent characteristics of CNTs may cause pulmonary diseases, in a manner similar to asbestos. In the present study, mouse macrophages (J774.1) were exposed to highly-purified multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, 67 nm) or to UICC crocidolite in order to evaluate the toxicity of these nano-size fibers. The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs was found to be higher than that of crocidolite. The toxic effect of MWCNTs was not affected by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor. cDNA microarray analyses suggested that the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs could not be explained satisfactorily by either an increase or decrease of gene expression, although mRNA levels of some cytokines were slightly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, MWCNTs did not significantly activate either MAP kinases such as ERK, JNK and p38, nor common apoptosis pathways such as caspase 3 and PARP. Electron microscopic studies indicated that MWCNTs associate with the plasma membrane of macrophages and disrupt the integrity of the membrane. Several proteins were found to adsorb onto MWCNTs when MWCNT-exposed macrophages were gently lysed. One of these proteins was macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells associated with MWCNTs more rapidly than mock-transfected cells. These results indicate that MWCNTs probably trigger cytotoxic effects in phagocytotic cells by reacting with MARCO on the plasma membrane and rupturing the plasma membrane.

  6. Mechanism of Methylene Blue adsorption on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube particles.

    PubMed

    Manilo, Maryna; Lebovka, Nikolai; Barany, Sandor

    2016-04-01

    The kinetics of adsorption and parameters of equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube (NT) particles in aqueous suspensions were determined. The laponite platelets were used in order to facilitate disaggregation of NTs in aqueous suspensions and enhance the adsorption capacity of hybrid particles for MB. Experiments were performed at room temperature (298K), and the laponite/NT ratio (Xl) was varied in the range of 0-0.5. For elucidation of the mechanism of MB adsorption on hybrid particles, the electrical conductivity of the system as well as the electrokinetic potential of laponite-NT hybrid particles were measured. Three different stages in the kinetics of adsorption of MB on the surface of NTs or hybrid laponite-NT particles were discovered to be a fast initial stage I (adsorption time t=0-10min), a slower intermediate stage II (up to t=120min) and a long-lasting final stage III (up to t=24hr). The presence of these stages was explained accounting for different types of interactions between MB and adsorbent particles, as well as for the changes in the structure of aggregates of NT particles and the long-range processes of restructuring of laponite platelets on the surface of NTs. The analysis of experimental data on specific surface area versus the value of Xl evidenced in favor of the model with linear contacts between rigid laponite platelets and NTs. It was also concluded that electrostatic interactions control the first stage of adsorption at low MB concentrations. PMID:27090704

  7. [Adsorption Behaviors of Lead on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Hydroxyapatite Composites].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-li; Li, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube-hydroxyapatite composites (MWCNT-HAP) were employed as the sorbent to study the sorption characteristic of Pb (II) using batch experiments. Effects of dosage of adsorbent, pH, ionic strength, contact time, initial concentration of lead and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that the removal of lead to MWCNT-HAP composites was strongly dependent on dosage of adsorbent, pH, temperature, and independent of ionic strength. The maximum adsorption capacity of lead was about 716. 13 mg.g-1 at 20°C, with a solid/liquid ratio of 0.08 g.L-1, pH0 = 5.5 and an initial concentration of 100 mg.L-1. The adsorption of Pb(II) on MWCNT-HAP composites was a fast process and could reach the equilibrium within 60 minutes. Ninety percent of the maximum adsorption capacity could be reached in 30 minutes. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic model reasonably well. The kinetic sorption of Pb(II) on MWCNT-HAP was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative free energy calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of Pb(II) on MWCNT-HAP composites was a spontaneous process, and high temperature favored the adsorption process. The higher correlation coefficient values (R2 = 0. 999 8 - 1. 000 0) of Langmuir isotherm model at different temperatures suggested that Langmuir model could be used to simulate the sorption of Pb(II) on MWCNT-HAP. The adsorption mechanism mainly involves surface complexation between the lead ions and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups of the MWCNT-HAP, dissolution of HAP and precipitation of pyromorphite [Pb10 (PO4)6 (OH) 2], ion exchange reaction between Pb2+ and Ca2+ of hydroxyapatite. PMID:26489325

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Packed Electrospun PAN-Based Carbon Fibers Incorporated with Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qi; Lu, Chunyuan; Tulugan, Kelimu; Jin, Chunzi; Yoon, Soo Jong; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2016-02-01

    Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and diamond are renowned as superlative material due to their relatively high thermal conductivity and hardness while comparing with any bulk materials. In this research, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution incorporated with MWCNTs at an alteration of mass fractions (0 wt%, 0.6 wt%, 1 wt%, 2 wt%) were fabricated via electrospinning under optimized parameters. Dried composite nanofibers were stabilized and carbonized, after which water base polytrafluorethylene (PTFE) mixed with nano diamond powder solution was spin coated on them. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray scattering and Laserflash thermal conductivity were used to characterize the composite nanofiber sheets. The result shows that the thermal conductivity increased to 4.825 W/m K from 2.061 W/mK. The improvement of thermal conductivities is suggesting the incorporation of MWCNTs. PMID:27433684

  9. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L) and the role of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2012-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanomaterial with wide potential applications; however the adverse effects of CNTs following environmental exposure have recently received significant attention. Herein, we explore the systemic toxicity and potential influence of 0-1000 mg L(-1) the multi-walled CNTs on red spinach. The multi-walled CNTs exposed plants exhibited growth inhibition and cell death after 15 days of hydroponic culture. The multi-walled CNTs had adverse effects on root and leaf morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy detected the multi-walled CNTs in leaves. Biomarkers of nanoparticle toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell damage in the red spinach were greatly increased 15 days post-exposure to the multi-walled CNTs. These effects were reversed when the multi-walled CNTs were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AsA), suggesting a role of ROS in the multi-walled CNT-induced toxicity and that the primary mechanism of the multi-walled CNTs' toxicity is oxidative stress. PMID:23146354

  10. Simultaneous determination of seven pesticides in waters using multi-walled carbon nanotube SPE and NACE.

    PubMed

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-11-01

    In this work, NACE with UV detection is combined with SPE using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as stationary phase to determine a group of seven pesticides (pirimicarb, pyrifenox, penconazol, carbendazim, cyromazine, pyrimethanil and cyprodinil) in mineral water samples using ametryn as internal standard. The optimized BGE, consisting of a mixture of MeOH and ACN (1:2 v/v) with 90 mM SDS and 20.5 mM HClO(4), was satisfactory to get a good resolution of the seven compounds in less than 13 min. On-line preconcentration was carried out by electrokinetic injection of the sample dissolved in 78:22 v/v MeOH/ACN, 1.11 mM HClO(4). Repeatability was studied for the same day (n=4), for nine different days (n=36) and for four different capillaries. RSD values were appropriate in all cases, i.e. in the range 4.3-9.4% between different capillaries. MWCNT of 10-15 nm od, 2-6 nm id and 0.1-10 mum length were used as SPE materials for the preconcentration of these pesticides from water samples. SPE parameters influencing the enrichment were optimized and the most favorable conditions were as follows: the amount of stationary phase, eluent, sample pH and sample volume were 40 mg MWCNT, 10 mL ACN and 10 mL dichloromethane containing 5% v/v formic acid, pH 8.0, and 750 mL, respectively. Mean recovery values ranged between 53 and 94% for Milli-Q water and between 47 and 93% for mineral waters (RSD values were in the range 2-16%). The method allowed the determination of these pesticides at concentrations below the maximum residue limits established by the European Union legislation (LOD in the range 27-58 ng/L). When the cost, amount and type of the carbon nanotubes used in this work are compared with those carbon nanotubes previously used in the literature it is clear that the proposed materials can be used as economical stationary phases, even cheaper than conventional SPE cartridges. PMID:18956435